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TOURISM Guidebook

FOR LOCAL GOVERMENT UNITS


Copyright 2014

By Department of Tourism
Department of the Interior and Local Government Getting started...
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Development Academy of the Philippines
Do you think your city, municipality, or province has potential for tourism
development that you want to harness?
This knowledge product is produced through the collaboration among the Department
of Tourism (DOT), Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Is tourism a thriving industry in your locality and you want to take better
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) with the funding support advantage of it?
provided by the Government of Canada thru the Local Governance Support Program for
Local Economic Development (LGSP-LED) project and the United Nations Development
Do you currently observe undesirable impacts of tourism in your area that
Programme (UNDP) thru the Biodiversity Partnership Project (BPP) and the Center for
Governance of the Devepopment Academy of the Philippines (DAP). you want to manage or control?

Please direct your subscription and inquiries to the:


Then this Tourism Guidebook is for you.
Office of Tourism Planning, Research and Information Management
Department of Tourism
5th Floor, 351 DOT Building, Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City
459-5200 loc 506
mysay@tourism.gov.ph
www.tourism.gov.ph

ISBN 978-971-91303-9-0

This Guidebook is owned jointly by the DOT, DILG, DENR and DAP, with each party having
royalty free non-exclusive and irrevocable license to use, publish, copy, reproduce or
distribute the work for government or public purposes.
Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment

Acknowledgment
Development Academy of the Philippines

Project Management Team


The development of this Tourism Guidebook would not have been possible without the initiative and Magdalena L. Mendoza Senior Vice President for Programs
collaboration of the Department of Tourism, Department of the Interior and Local Government, and Imelda C. Caluen Managing Director, Center for Governance
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, with vital funding support provided by the Lilibeth L. Coronado Project Supervising Fellow
Government of Canada thru the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development Kim Dyan A. Calderon Project Manager
(LGSP-LED) project and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) thru the Biodiversity Eugen R. Bunao Deputy Project Manager
Partnership Project (BPP). Ashley May Alison M. Monsanto Project Staff

This project owes its completion to the following members of the Technical Working Group (TWG) Writers
for the Development of Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units and to the consultants and Julie Catherine D. Paran, PhD.
project staff from the Development Academy of the Philippines. Donna Paz T. Reyes, PhD.
Rodrigo P. Millares, Jr.
Kim Dyan A. Calderon
Lilibeth L. Coronado
Department of Tourism
Peer Reviewer
Tourism Development Planning Architect Maria Lisa V. Santos
Rolando Caizal- Assistant Secretary
Copy Editor
Office of Tourism Planning, Research and Information Management Jeremaiah M. Opiniano
Milagros Say Officer-in-Charge
Warner M. Andrada- Chief, Planning and Product Development Division Graphics and Lay-out Artist
Leni I. Pajarillo- Project Officer, Planning and Product Development Division Rodolfo R. Dela Cruz

Department of the Interior and Local Government Donors


Bureau of Local Government Development Government of Canada through the Local Governance Support Program for Local
Anna Liza F. Bonagua, Career Service Executive Eligible (CSEE) - Director Economic Development (LGSP-LED)
Dennis D. Villaseor - Assistant Director
Francis E. Gentoral Field Director
Maria Matilde Go - Division Chief, Local Fiscal Resource Development Division
Ramon A. Alampay, PhD. Program Manager
Luzviminda L. Fortaleza - Local Government Operations Officer V
Sylvia Bagadion-Engracia - Gender Equality Adviser
Veronica Paula C. Manzon - Specialist, Business Friendly and Competitive LGUs

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) through the Biodiversity Partnership


Project (BPP)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Jose M. Regunay - Project Manager
Biodiversity Management Bureau Joy Reyes-Eugenio - Project Officer
Theresa Mundita S. Lim - Director
Meriden E. Maranan - OIC-Chief, Nature Recreation and Extension Division
Rochelle Cervantes Ecosytems Management Specialist II
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acknowledgment
Special thanks are given to the Local Chief Executives, Local Planning and Development
Officers, and the Local Tourism Officers and representatives of the following LGUs who
participated in the focus group discussions and pilot-testing activity for this project:
AIP Annual Investment Plan
Provincial Government of Batangas ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
City Government of Lipa BLGD Bureau of Local Government Development
Municipal Government of San Nicolas BMB Biodiversity Management Bureau
Municipal Government Lobo BOT Build-Operate-Transfer
Municipal Government of Nasugbu BP Business Plan
Municipal Government of Mabini BPP Biodiversity Partnership Project
CDP Comprehensive Development Plan
Provincial Government of Bohol CDs Cluster Destinations
City Government of Tagbilaran CENRO Community Environment and Natural Resources Office
Municipal Government of Panglao CESO Career Service Executive Officer
Municipal Government of Catigbian CIDA Canadian International Cooperation Agency
Municipal Government of Tubigon CLUP Comprehensive Land Use Plan
Municipal Government of Pilar CPDO City Planning and Development Office
Municipal Government of Maribojoc DA Department of Agriculture
Municipal Government of Danao DAO Department Administrative Order
Municipal Government of Dauis DAP Development Academy of the Philippines
DAR Department of Agrarian Reform
Provincial Government of Davao del Norte DBM Department of Budget and Management
City Government of the Island Garden City of Samal DDF Destination Development Framework
Municipal Government of New Corella DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources
DFA Department of Foreign Affairs
Provincial Government of Compostela Valley DILG Department of Interior and Local Government
Municipal Government of Mabini DILG Department of the Interior and Local Government
Municipal Government of Nabunturan DOF Department of Finance
DOT Department of Tourism
Provincial Government of Negros Occidental DOT-ROs Department of Tourism-Regional Offices
City Government of Bacolod City DRRCCA Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation
City Government of Bago DRRM Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
City Government of Talisay DRRMC Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council
City Government of Sagay EDP Economic Development Plan
City Government of Sipalay EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
City Government of Silay ELA Executive Legislative Agenda
City Government of San Carlos EO Executive Order
City Government of Victorias ETC European Travel Commission
City Government of Kabankalan GAD Gender and Development
Municipal Government of Pulupandan GAM Goal Achievement Matrix
Municipal Government of Don Salvador Benedicto GIS Geographic Information System
Municipal Government of Calatrava GREAT Women Gender Responsive Actions for the Transformation of Women
Municipal Government of Murcia HLURB Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
JMC Joint Memorandum Circular
KSA Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes
LAC Limits of Acceptable Change
LCCAP Local Climate Change Action Plan
LCE Local Chief Executive
LDC Local Development Council
LDIP Local Development Investment Plan
LDRRMP Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan
LGC Local Government Code
LGOO Local Government Operations Officer
LGSP-LED Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic Development
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations


LGU Local Government Unit TDP Tourism Development Plan
LPC Local Planning Committee TEZs Tourism Enterprise Zones
LPDO Local Planning and Development Officer TIEZA Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority
LTO Local Tourism Officer TOWS Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses and Strengths
M&E Monitoring and Evaluation TPC Tourism Planning Committee
MC Memorandum Circular TS Tourism Site
MCW Magna Carta of Women TSMLGU Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units
MGB Mines and Geosciences Bureau TWG Technical Working Group
MICE Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions UNDP United Nations Development Programme
MPDO Municipal Planning and Development Office UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organization
MRF Materials Recovery Facility USAID United States Agency for International Development
NAIA Ninoy Aquino International Airport USP Unique Selling Point
NEDA National Economic Development Authority WTO World Tourism Organization
NGA National Government Agency WTTC World Travel and Tourism Council
NGO Non-Government Organization
NIPAS National Integrated Protected Area System
NPAAAD Network of Protected Agricultural and Agri-Industrial Development Areas
NTA National Tourism Act
NTCC National Tourism Coordination Council
NTDP National Tourism Development Plan
NTPCMU National Tourism Program Coordination and Management Unit
OA Objective Analysis
OIC Officer-in-Charge
P/C/MPDC Provincial/City/Municipal Planning Development Coordinator
P/C/MPDO Provincial/City/Municipal Planning and Development Office
PA Problem Analysis
PADI Professional Association of Diving Instructors
PAMB Protected Area Management Board
PASU Protected Area Superintendent
PD Presidential Decree
PDP Philippine Development Plan
PDPFP Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan
PENRO Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office
PhD Doctor of Philosophy
PHILGBC Philippine Green Building Council
PIDWWO Pamilacan Island Dolphin and Whale Watching Organization
PIUs Project Implementation Units
PNTDP Philippine National Tourism Development Plan
PO Peoples Organization
PPAs Programs, Projects and Activities
PPDO Provincial Planning and Development Office
PPP Public Private Partnership
PTO Provincial Tourism Office
RA Republic Act
RTCCs Regional Tourism Coordination Committees
RTPMUs Regional Tourism Project and Management Units
SB Sanggunian Bayan
SCDs Strategic Cluster Destinations
SDA Strategic Destination Areas
SOCA State of the City Address
SOMA State of the Municipality Address
SOPA State of the Province Address
SP Sanggunian Panlalawigan/Sanggunian Panlungsod
STMP Sustainable Tourism Management Plan
SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
TBP Tourism Promotions Board
TDA Tourism Development Areas
TDC Tourism Development Cluster
Strategic Destination Areas (SDAs) are a group of priority TDAs that are adjacent to each
Introduction
Introduction

Introduction
other and are within their respective clusters. The criteria used to identify the SDAs were: critical
mass of attractions, facilities and services in the area; capacity of environment to sustain tourism
development; capability of direct accessibility from key source markets; diversity of product offer
in a way that can be promoted to different niche markets, thereby facilitating product/branding;
Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual
area geographically large enough to allow different forms of tourist development to co-exist, for
environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not
example including particular areas for nature tourism only, other areas for more intensive use;
related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
1

and, capable of being promoted as stand alone destination in the market place. 4

Tourism development and promotion are among the functions of Local Government Units (LGUs) as
mandated by the Local Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160). As local governments shifted to more
participatory forms of development governance, they were also encouraged to enjoin other Tourism contributes to the overall development of the LGU. Thus, in formulating the Local Tourism
stakeholders in local tourism development and promotion. Development Plan, LGUs need to ensure its alignment with other local plans like the Provincial
Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP), Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) and
The National Tourism Act of 2009 (RA 9593) encourages LGUs to ensure they prepare and implement Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP). Alignment of the Local Tourism Development Plan and LGU
a tourism development plan, enforce standards and collect statistical data for tourism purposes. Business Plan is important to ensure that development of vital tourism-related investments or business
Local tourism development plans should integrate zoning, land use, infrastructure development, the opportunities are considered.
national system of standards for tourism enterprises, heritage and environmental protection
imperatives in a manner that encourages sustainable tourism development. The plans should also Further, ensuring the linkages of the Local Tourism Development Plan with the PDPFP, CDP, and CLUP
take into account gender considerations as well as disaster risk reduction and climate change helps mainstream two major development concerns like Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change
adaptation principles.
2 Adaptation (DRR/CCA), which significantly impact tourism development.

Beyond this, the Tourism Act emphasizes that Tourism development is a shared responsibility of both
the national and local governments. Thus, the DOT, DILG and LGUs shall integrate and coordinate
local and national plans for tourism development. The role of TPB and the TIEZA is also vital in that
they are mandated to promote and assist LGUs which successfully adopt and implement their
tourism development plans.
3

LGUs, particularly those identified as priority Tourism Destination Areas, also need to understand the
following key tourism planning concepts which served as basis for the Destination Development
Framework used in the the National Tourism Development Plan (NTDP) 2011-2016:

Tourism Sites (TSs) are the specific places which tourists come to see and experience. A
TS may be an existing natural attraction (volcano); an area of natural scenic beauty (national
park); or man-made attraction (heritage structure, beach/golf resort). It can also be a site or
area for potential development or enhancement for tourism such as a green field site for a
new resort, or a coastal area, which could be designated as a marine park.

Tourism Development Clusters (TDCs) are identified and delineated using the following
criteria: existence of a sufficient number and range of tourism sites with capacity to meet long
term development possibilities; topographical features; contiguousness of land masses;
geographical size large enough to contain extensive range of potential tourism products/
experiences; location of gateway centers and cities; location of significant brand/unique
features and/or world class attraction; robust, sustainable environmental base; and, access
transport linkages/connectivity.

Tourism Development Areas (TDAs) consist of at least one, but more usually several
tourism sites. A TDA can either have considerable existing tourism activity or have the
potential for significant tourism development. By virtue of a combination of attractions,
facilities and amenities which meet tourists interests and needs, TDAs provide the
operational focus for the development of tourism within the various TDCs. Although TDAs are
not limited by geographical size, their boundaries correspond to administrative units
barangay, municipality or province, depending on size.

Photos by George Tapan


4) Preparing for Tourism Development Plan Implementation helps you in prioritizing and

Using the Tourism Guidebook


Using the Tourism Guidebook
Using the Tourism Guidebook ranking prioritized tourism projects for implementation. It also provides tools and
examples on capacity development to enhance success of plan implementation.

5) Financing the Tourism Development Plan guides you to outsource funds from public
This Tourism Guidebook has been developed as one of the support mechanisms to enhance the and private sectors to finance the ranked tourism project and show the importance of
capability of LGUs to monitor and administer tourism activities, and enforce tourism laws, rules and writing an effective tourism project proposal.
regulations in their respective jurisdiction. 5
6) Monitoring and Evaluating the Tourism Development Plan presents a simplified
The Provincial, City and Municipal Tourism Officers can benefit a lot from this Guidebook given discussion of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and recommends simple tools on
their responsibilities in the local tourism development. Local Tourism Officers play a central role doing M&E.
not only in tourism promotion but also in the preparation, implementation, and updating of local
tourism development plans, as well as enforcement of tourism laws, rules and regulations.6 Being 7) Managing the Impacts of Tourism helps you identify and analyze the positive and
the coordinator for all these activities, the Tourism Officer should be able to have good grasp of the negative impacts of tourism and teaches you how to manage the impacts by enhancing
fundamental concepts and process of tourism development. the positive and minimizing the negative impacts.

The Provincial, City and Municipal Planning and Development Officers can also use the Guidebook to 8) Developing Tourism Products and Marketing the LGU Destination aids you in
properly integrate tourism development into the larger context of the land use and comprehensive understanding how tourism products are developed and promoted to attract visitors.
development of their respective LGUs. They should also work closely with the tourism officers to It will also orient you on tourism marketing and promotions techniques.
ensure that planning standards are considered and other development concerns are addressed in
the implementation of tourism programs and projects. 9) Institutionalizing Tourism Standards assists you in understanding existing national and
international tourism standards and encourage you to develop your own local standards
Tourism development in the localities is not the sole function of the LGU as it requires concerted based on local situation.
effort of the whole community and active engagement of different stakeholders. Thus, this
Guidebook may be used by stakeholders (who may also be members of the Tourism Council) so 10) Organizing a Local Tourism Office helps you understand the legal framework in
that they can fully participate in each phase of local tourism development from planning, organizing a local tourism office as it also suggests possible roles and functions of a local
implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Tourism Officer.

This Tourism Guidebook is divided into two major parts: 11) Relevant Laws, Policies and Tourism-related Literature presents relevant laws, policies
and tourism-related literature. It also presents web links on tourism-related laws and
The guide in Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan (TDP) contains policies as well as on development planning, the environment, gender and other issues.
simplified discussions of concepts, methods, step-by-step processes and worksheets, including
examples to aid users in developing elements of the TDP.

Supplemental Readings which can help you understand the different tourism concepts and
tourism planning processes better. The supplemental readings can be used separately,
depending on the needs of your LGU and the specific level of tourism development in the
destination. They may also be used in combination with other readings. The eleven
supplemental readings are as follows:

1) Profiling the Local Tourism Industry helps you prepare an inventory of tourism resources
and assets; assess the tourism situation in your area; list down potential safety, security
risks and natural hazards; and prepare a profile of tourists and visitors in your locality.

2) Linking the Local Tourism Development Plan with the Local Mandated Plans outlines
how the TDP would be placed in the context of your CDP (Comprehensive Development
Plan) and CLUP (Comprehensive Land Use Plan), at the municipal/city level or the PDPFP
Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan) at the provincial level.

3) Adopting the Local Tourism Development Plan walks you through the steps on
mobilizing support and commitment towards plan institutionalization and provides
tools and tips to facilitate adoption and institutionalization of the TDP.

1
United Nations World Tourism Organization. 2007. Understanding Tourism: Basic Glossary, Retrieved from media.unwto.org/en/content/understanding-tourism-
basic-glossary on November 7, 2013.
2
RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism GA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, SECTION 37.
Local Tourism Development Planning.
overnance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, SECTION 37.
Local Tourism Development Planning.
3
RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, Section 35. Coordination
between National and Local Governments.
4
DOT and JBIC, 2007. Sustainable Tourism Management Plan for the Central Philippines. Final Report.
5
RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, Section 41. Local Government
Capabilities Enhancement.
6
RA 9593, Chapter II. Tourism Governance, Subchapter 11-E. Shared Responsibilities Of National And Local Governments, Section 42. Tourism Officers.
Formulating the Local
Tourism Development Plan
Tabl e of Contents

Who should be involved in tourism planning? 1 Annex A: Work Plan Worksheet 33


What are the steps in tourism planning? 4 Annex B: Site/Attraction Evaluation Worksheet 34
Where are you at present? 5
Site Evaluation
Annex C: Site Prioritization Worksheets 36
Problem Identification Annex D: Site Prioritization Evaluation
Problem Analysis Summary Worksheet 43
What do you want to achieve? 13 Annex E: Site Prioritization Ranking Worksheet 44
Goals and Objectives Annex F: Problem Identification Worksheet 45
What paths do you take? 21 Annex G: Tourism Goals, Targets And Success
Strategies Indicators Worksheet 46
Types of Tourism Strategies
Tourism Circuits Annex H: Worksheet 7: Swot Analysis Worksheet 47
Developing Destination Themes Annex I: Scenario-Planning Worksheet 48
What tools can be used in strategy formulation?
Annex J: Tourism Circuit/Cluster Worksheet 49
What actions need to be done? 26
What are programs, projects and activities? Annex K: Project Identification Worksheet 50
What tools can be used for project identification? Annex L: Worksheet For Program, Projects
Identifying Programs and Projects within a Circuit And Activities Identification Within Circuits 51
How will you measure progress? 28 Annex M: Monitoring And Evaluation
Why is packaging your plan Important? 29 Strategy Worksheet 52
References 30-31 Annex N: Tourism Plan Implementation
Monitoring Worksheet 53
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan
This Main Section of the Tourism Guidebook:
List of Examples
1. Presents a step-by-step guide to formulating a Tourism Development Plan for
Example 1: Executive Order Creating the Local Tourism Planning Committee local destinations;
Example 2: Work Plan 2. Showcases examples to aid users in developing elements of the TDP; and
Example 3: Site/Attraction Evaluation of Chocolate Hills 3. Provides templates, tools and tips to simplify and facilitate plan formulation.
Example 4: Site Prioritization Scores Per Category
Example 5: Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary
Example 6: Site Prioritization Ranking
Example 7: Problem Identification Matrix
Example 8: Problem Tree Analysis: Destruction of Primary Tourism Resources
Example 9: Link Between Goals and Objectives
Example 10: Scenario Building of the Pamilacan Island Dolphin and Whale Watching Organization
Who should be involved in
Example 11: Scenario Planning for PIDWWO
Example 12: Tourism Goals, Targets and Success Indicators
Tourism Planning?
Example 13: Sector Goals, Objectives, Targets and Success Indicators
Example 14: Objectives Analysis: Primary Tourism Resource (Coral Reefs) Protected. While the LGUs have primary responsibility for tourism in their jurisdictions, the tourism industry
Example 15: Translating Problems into Objectives benefits if planning becomes a multi-sectoral collaboration, involving various stakeholders in the
Example 16: Sebay Central Resort Price-based Strategy locality. Ideally, a Tourism Planning Committee (TPC) should be created under the Local Development
Example 17: Turtle Surf Camp Differentiation Strategy Council (LDC), the LGUs mandated planning body, to ensure that the plan is adopted. The local
Example 18: Davao City Hybrid Strategy legislative body or the Sanggunian, should also be represented early on in the planning process to
Example 19: The Province of Bohol Focus Strategy help secure the plans approval. The LGU has to ensure that women are well represented in the team.
The Tourism Council, in particular plays a crucial role in shaping local tourism and should be part of
Example 20: The Bohol Countryside Tour
the committee. Box 1 defines the important role of the tourism council in the sectors development.
Example 21: HIPADA Eco-cultural Circuit, Province of Surigao del Norte
Example 22: SWOT Analysis as a Tool for Strategy Formulation
Example 23: Relationship of Goals and Objectives It is suggested that the committee be composed of the
Examples 24: Identification of Tourism PPAs following officials and representatives:
Examples 25: Identifying PPAs Within Circuits

Box 1
Local Tourism Councils
Examples 26: M&E Strategy Local Chief Executive
In 1995, DILG issued Memorandum Circular (MC) Tourism Council (private sector representative)
No. 95-162, encouraging Local Chief Executives (LCEs) Tourism Officer
List of Tables to organize Tourism Councils in their jurisdictions, Local planning and development coordinator (LPDC)
composed of government and private sector
Table 1: Guide Questions to Tourism Planning Sangunnian Chairperson for tourism development
representatives to:
Local agriculturist (if the LGU plans on venturing into
Table 2: Steps in Conducting Site Evaluation
formulate programs and recommendations to farm tourism)
Table 3: Steps in Problem Analysis Peoples Organization working in tourism areas
Table 4: Steps in Objectives Analysis develop local tourism facilities and attractions
Womens organization involved in tourism
Table 5: Steps in Developing Tourism Clusters/Circuits tapping local resources and funds;
Non-government organization (NGO) working
assist in the regulation and supervision of
in tourism
tourism-oriented establishments thereby ensuring Barangay Captains of barangays with tourism
List of Boxes wholesome and clean tourism activities; attractions
Box 1: Local Tourism Council assist in monitoring the implementation of the LGC Academe
Box 2: Scenario Building Options on the matter of licensing of tourism establishments Department of Tourism Regional Office (DoT-RO)
Box 3: Components of a Tourism Cluster/ Circuit in the locality to ascertain safe and enjoyable stay of Department of the Interior and Local Government
Box 4: Recommended Contents of the Tourismm Development Plan travelers; and Local Government Operations Officer (DILG LGOO)
strictly enforce sanitary standards in public restrooms Local Department of Environment and Natural
frequented by public utility vehicles and tourist Resources (DENR)
List of Figures transport services, i.e. gasoline stations, restaurants Philippine National Police (PNP)
along main highways and bus stops.
Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council
Figure 1: Problem Analysis: An Example (DRRMC)
Figure 2: Link between Goals and Objectives Transport sector
Figure 3: Tourists Entertained by PIDWWO from 2003-2010 All DILG Regional Directors (RD) are also tasked to
Protected Area Superintendent (PASU), when there
disseminate this MC to LGUs and provide the needed
Figure 4: Sample Objectives Analysis technical support on the matter if requested. is a NIPAS area located within the locality
Figure 5: HIPADA Eco-Cultural Circuit, Province of Surigao del Norte Other sectoral representatives and LGU offices
deemed important in tourism planning

1
The Local Planning and Development Office (LPDO) can serve as the secretariat of the Tourism Planning
Committee. To create the needed push and help ensure that the plan is developed within schedule, it is
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


highly recommended that an Executive Order (EO) creating the committee be issued by the LCE
(see sample below.)
Preparing the work plan
Example 1: Executive Order Creating the Tourism Planning Committee Once the Tourism Planning Committee has been created, the next step is to develop a work plan to
determine in detail the specific activities, responsibilities, resource requirements and duration of the
Republic of the Philippines activities. The duration for planning varies depending on the resources and requirements of the LGU. It
Office of the Governor/Mayor may take between three to six months.
Province/City/Municipality of _____________
Executive Order No. ____ A sample work plan is shown below. A pull-out worksheet is found in Annex A.
Creating the Tourism Planning Committee

WHEREAS, local governments are mandated by the Local Government Code of 1991 otherwise known as R.A.
7160 to develop and promote tourism and the general welfare in their respective jurisdictions; Example 2: Work Plan
WHEREAS, DILG Memorandum Circular (MC) No. 95-162, encouraged Local Chief Executives (LCEs) to organize Expected Output/ Persons Resource Timeframe/
Tourism Councils in their jurisdictions, composed of government and private sector representatives to Activities
Milestones Responsible Requirements Duration
formulate programs and recommendations to develop local tourism facilities and attractions tapping local
resources and funds; 1. Conduct tourism
Venue
training/workshop
Training/workshop LPDC Meals March 3 - 5
NOW, THEREFORE, I (Name of Governor/Mayor), Governor/Mayor of the Province/City/Municipality of__________, for planning
Accommodations
by powers vested in me by law, do hereby order the creation of the Tourism Planning Committee. committee

I. Functions of the committee Tourism Officer/


2. Data gathering Baseline data March 6 - 31
Planning Officer
1. Prepare a work plan for the preparation of the tourism plan
2. Formulate the tourism plan
3. Consult with residents and other stakeholders of tourism areas Transportation
3. Site/Attraction
Meals
Evaluation and Ranked list of attractions Site evaluation team March 6 - 31
II. Composition of the Committee. The Committee shall be headed by the Venue for prioritization
Prioritization
Governor/ Mayor who shall serve as the chairperson. session
The members are the following:
Problem Analysis
Representatives from Government: 3. Situation Analysis Team leaders of groups April 1 - 11
Objectives Analysis
Member Office
Venue
(Name) 4. Planning Workshop Draft elements of the plan Tourism Officer Meals April 23 - 25
Accommodations

5. Finalization of
Representatives from Tourism Council: Goals, objectives and
Goals, objectives Team leaders of groups Meals May 2 - 15
strategies
Member Office and strategies
(Name)
6. Identification of
programs, projects, PPAs Team leaders of groups Meals May 16 - 30
and activities (PPAs)
Representatives from Civil Society:
Member Office
7. Prioritization of PPAs Prioritized PPAs LPDC Meals June 2 - 3
(Name)

8. Packaging of the tourism Packaged tourism


Tourism Officer with LPDC June 4 -13
development plan development plan
III. Roles of the Committee.
The Chairperson shall have the principal responsibility for directing and overseeing the development
of the tourism plan, according to schedule. The chairperson is responsible for chairing major tourism
planning sessions, and shall designate a representative in sessions that he/she will not be present.
The Committee shall actively participate in all activities identified in the work plan. The team shall
develop realistic goals, appropriate strategies and identify programs, projects and activities that best
contribute to the attainment of the tourism goals and objectives of the locality.

IV. Funding. The budgetary requirements for the conduct of activities and delivery of outputs shall be
sourced from __________________________.
V. Effectivity. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately.

(Signature)
(Name)

3
Governor/Mayor
What are the steps in Tourism Where are you at present?
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Planning? Analyzing the tourism situation follows from the inventory of tourism resources and assets undertaken
by the Planning Committee. Tourism planning requires an analysis of the present situation to determine
the desired future of tourism in a destination.
There is no universal planning formula and process for tourism planning, and stakeholders need to think
outside the box and respond to the needs and issues of individual destinations. In tourism, creativity and Planning must deal with all components of supply and ensure that these work in sync to provide a
innovation are key ingredients for success. Experimentation may also help in coming up with new strategies pleasing and memorable experience to travelers (Gunn, 1979). Gathering and analyzing past and
that actually work. A rich diversity of different approaches to tourism planning and policy may be found present information need to be undertaken for evidence-based tourism planning.
within one country (Davidson and Maitland, 1997). Planning at the local level stresses specific, practical
actions and is more detailed than their national counterparts (Davidson and Maitland, 1997). Moreover,
there are no overarching solutions (Dredge and Jenkins, 2007) that can apply to all destinations.

Site Evaluation
Destinations apply to a variety of spatial scales a country, region, local, to an individual attraction or site
(Davidson and Maitland, 1997, Dredge and Jenkins, 2007). In this Guidebook, we define the destination Determining areas that have the greatest potential for tourism is critical for tourism planning. Evaluation
as either a province or a city/municipality. It is highly beneficial to plan, promote and market the whole is the act of conducting on-site investigation of criteria items using appropriate methodologies such as
province as a destination than for individual municipalities/cities to sell their areas individually. A direct observation, mapping, oral interviews, questionnaires, focus group discussions, and workshops
destination needs to have a critical mass of tourism development offering a rich variety of diverse (Sugaya, 2013).
attractions and services to meet the needs of several market segments (Gunn, 1984). Planning for individual
attractions, no matter how well done, falls short if it is not related to the planning of the whole destination. The Tourism Planning Committee should go through the process of evaluating and ranking sites to
The final tourism product is the totality of the tourist experience (Ibid), so that it is important to plan the determine their potential and readiness for tourism. The Committee can also benefit from the expertise
province as a destination. of people who have experience in site evaluation. Whenever possible, the Committee can invite experts
to join on-site evaluation. The output of the process is a ranked list of sites for development.

Follow the step-by-step guide below in conducting the site evaluation. You may find the pull-out
The participation of local or host communities that will be affected by tourism development is
worksheets of the Attraction/Site Evaluation, Site Prioritization Scores Per Category, Site Prioritization
important early on in the planning process as it drums up support for the industry and minimizes
resistance for any future project in the area. Evaluation Summary and Site Prioritization Ranking in Annexes B, C, D and E respectively.

The suggested steps to developing your tourism plan are: Table2: Steps in Conducting Site Evaluation
Analyze the situation
Formulate goals and objectives STEP ACTIVITY OUTPUT
Develop strategies
Identify and prioritize actions (can be programs, projects and activities) As a team, conduct on-site investigation and individually accomplish
the site/attraction evaluation worksheet found in Annex B, for all sites Site/attraction evaluation sheet
Develop a monitoring and evaluation strategy Step 1
identified. Example 3 shows a partially accomplished Site/Attraction
Evaluation Worksheet.

As the Tourism Planning Committee goes through the different stages of tourism development plan
formulation process, it is essential to be guided by the following questions. After all the sites are evaluated and given scores, the team proceeds to
accomplish the Site Prioritization Worksheet. Example 4 shows partially
accomplished worksheet. This is done for all categories. A complete set of the
worksheets is found in Annex C. The categories include Uniqueness and Natural Site Prioritization Scores
Step 2
Table1: Guide Questions to Tourism Planning Beauty (Annex C.1), Historical/Cultural Value (Annex C.2), Accessibility (Annex Per Category
C.3), Availability of Basic Utilities (Annex C.4), Availability of On-Site Facilities
Steps Guide Questions (Annex C.5), Ownership of Property (Annex C.6), Quality of Sorroundings (Annex
C.7).
Analyze the situation What is the tourism situation in your locality at the present time?
Formulate goals and objectives What do you want to achieve for tourism in your locality in the future?
When do you want to achieve this?
The team then proceeds to fill out Site Prioritization Evaluation
What paths do you take? How do you get from the present tourism Summary Worksheet available in Annex D and creates a ranked list of sites for
Develop Strategies situation to the future state you desire? Step 3 Ranked list of sites
enhancement and/or development - which can be accomplished using The Site
Prioritization Ranking Worksheet found in Annex E.
Identify programs, projects and activities What will you do to implement your strategies?

Develop a monitoring and evaluation strategy How do you measure progress?

4 5
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Example 3: Site/Attraction Evaluation of Chocolate Hills Criteria 6. Ownership of Property

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Characteristics Yes No
Province/City/Municipality Municipality of Carmen, Province of Bohol
____________________________________________ Local government owned 5 1
Site/Attraction Chocolate Hills
____________________________________________ Privately owned/managed/leased 1 5
Under CARP or CARPable 1 5
Site Classification Existing
____________________________________________ Ancestral domain/land claimants 1 5
(Existing/Emerging/Potential)

Travel Time (From Tagbilaran Approximately 1 hour


____________________________________________ Criteria 7. Quality of Surroundings
to Chocolate Hills)
Characteristics Yes No
Instructions: If the site possesses the given characteristics to the highest degree, this is given Landfill/ dumpsite 1 5
a value of 5, while site possessing least/none of the characteristics is given a value of 1. Mining Site 1 5
Informal settlements 1 5
Beatiful vista/ view 5 1
Criteria 1. Uniqueness and Natural Beauty Presence of support services 1 5
Characteristics Least Most (Surroundings refer to areas which are within 5 kilometers radius from the site)
Unique attraction one of a kind (natural/man-made/cultural) 1 2 3 4 5 Source: Adapted from Site/Attraction Evaluation Sheet.
Beauty how it appeals to all senses? (nice to see, hear, feel, smell, taste) 1 2 3 4 5
Natural/Undisturbed 1 2 3 4 5 Example 4. Site Prioritization Scores Per Category
Recognized tourist attraction by DOT 1 2 3 4 5
UNIQUENESS AND NATURAL BEAUTY
Criteria 2. Historical/Cultural Value
Uniqueness Natural/ Recognized by
Characteristics Least Most Site/Attraction Location Beauty Total Score
Attraction Undisturbed DOT
Built Heritage (50 years or above) 1 2 3 4 5
Festivals 1 2 3 4 5
Chocolate Hills Carmen 5 5 3 5 18
Culinary experience 1 2 3 4 5
Museum 1 2 3 4 5
Site 2
Criteria 3. Accessibility
Characteristics Least Most Site 3
Accessible all year (please specify vehicle type: all kinds of vehicle) 1 2 3 4 5
Regular/Commercial transport service available 1 2 3 4 5
Site 4
Characteristics Least Most
Distance from service center 1 2 3 4 5
Site 5
Distance from town center 1 2 3 4 5

(The maximum acceptable travel time from the service center is two hours; while from the town center is thirty minutes.)

Criteria 4. Availability of Basic Utilities


Characteristics Least Most
Clean water supply 1 2 3 4 5
Sufficient power supply 1 2 3 4 5
Communications (i.e. internet, telephone) 1 2 3 4 5
Drainage/sewerage system 1 2 3 4 5
Solid waste management system

Criteria 5. Availability of Onsite Facilities


Characteristics Least Most
Clean and safe restrooms for women and men 1 2 3 4 5
Good accommodation facilities 1 2 3 4 5
Clean and quality food service 1 2 3 4 5
Other activity facilities (picnic huts, pools, sports facilities, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
Directional and information signage 1 2 3 4 5

6 7
Example 5: Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary
Problem Identification
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Uniqueness/ Historical/ Availability Availability
Site/ Ownership Quality of Total
Natural Cultural Accessibility of Basic of Onsite
Attraction of Property Surroundings Score
Beauty Value Utilities Facilities Surfacing critical issues and problems affecting tourism in your destinations is an important activity that
should be given attention in planning. The activity takes off from the inventory of tourism resources
Chocolate undertaken in Supplemental Reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry. Alternatively, problem
18
Hills
identification can also be done once you have prioritized a circuit for development.

Site 1 You may find the pull-out worksheet in Annex F.

You may also refer to Example 7 to guide you in filling out the worksheet.
Site 2

Site 3 Example 7: Problem Identification Matrix

Site/ Attraction/
Site 4 Component Problems/Issues
Circuit

Site 5 Pamilacan Island Activities Activity is limited to dolphin and whale watching.

Environment
Natural
Solid waste is not managed; Improper waste
Social
disposal
Economic

There are no regular transport services to the site


which makes travel to the area very expensive;
Transportation (to and from site)
Transport is incorporated with the dolphin and
whale watching tour.

Electricity in the island is present only six hours a


Other infrastructure
day

Accommodations Basic accommodation facilities

There are no restaurants/food establishments in


Other facilities and services
Example 6. Site Prioritization Ranking the island

Site/Attraction Total Points Ranking The community-based organization managing the


Institutional dolphin and whale watching tour has dwindling
Chocolate Hills 98 1 membership

Site 1 Note: The problems/issues identified are for instructional purposes only, and may not necessarily reflect the real situation of the site.
Site 2

Site 3

Site 4

Site 5

8 9
Problem Analysis What do you want to achieve?
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Problem Analysis (PA) is a tool that can be used to break down a problem into small, detailed
parts to understand it better. The PA aids in identifying the causes and effects of problematic It is difficult to accomplish anything without a plan. A necessary step in planning is to identify goals
situations and its output can be used in pinpointing goals, objectives, programs, project and and objectives for tourism. Simply put, goals and objectives are statements of what you want to
activities. The step-by-step guide to doing PA is found below. achieve in the future or your desired results for developing tourism. Identify only a few goals (2-3 may
be sufficient, although you can develop more if you have to), refer to them often and use them to
guide you in succeeding steps so as not to get sidetracked with strategies and programs that do not
contribute to their achievement.
Table 3: Steps in Problem Analysis
The most obvious tourism goals are economic in character. However, your goals must go beyond
Define the problem in the way of tourism development. As a guide, you can ask the question: What negative increasing tourist arrivals and profit making. Balancing economic, social, and environmental goals are
Step 1
thing do you see happening? Problems should be expressed and formulated as negative conditions.
important in tourism planning. Setting goals to conserve, protect and rehabilitate the natural
Collect data pertaining to the problem.
What proof do you have that the problem exists? environment is especially important since most tourism is highly dependent on the state of the natural
Step 2 How long has the problem existed? resource of an area.
What is the impact of the problem?

Identify the causes of the problem.


During this stage, identify as many causes as possible until you get to the root cause of the problem. Position
Step 3 the causes below the problem. As a guide, you can ask the question:
Why does the problem exist? 3Ps Approach to Tourism
Planning should adopt the 3Ps approach - Tourism for People, Planet and Profit
Step 4 Identify the effects of the problem and position them above the problem.

Step 5 Establish the cause-effect relationship among the problems identified.

Step 6
Review the diagram as a whole. Verify the cause and effect relationship and go through and examine the
soundness and completeness of the problem tree. Goals and Objectives
Source: Adapted from MindTools.com, 2013; Pabalan, Paran and Caluen, 2004.
Goals and objectives are intimately interrelated that the attainment of objectives will lead to the
achievement of a goal (LGSPA, 2009). This relationship is shown in Example 9.

In tourism planning - you have to be clear about the results you want to achieve. Both goals and
Example 8: Problem Tree Analysis - Destruction of Primary Tourism Resources objectives are results of implementing strategies and actions. As a guide, the team can ask the
question why are we doing these strategies or actions? Goals tell us what we want to achieve in the
long term (i.e. nine years and above), while objectives tell us what we want to achieve in the short
to medium term (i.e. three to six years). Clarifying tourism goals and objectives helps the Tourism
Effect
Decreasing tourist Planning Commitee focus on a set of interventions that best contribute to their realization.
arrivals

Example 9: Link between Goals and Objectives


Destruction of primary tourism
Problem

resource (coral reefs)


What do we Goal:
want to Increased tourist
achieve in arrivals
Destructive Poor fishing the long
Careless boating, Algal bloom
snorkeling and diving Fishing practice term?
(Muro-ami)
Cause

What do we
want to Objective 1: Objective 2: Objective 3:

Pollution from Pollution from


achieve in
the short to
Improved access
to tourism
+ Improved quality
of tourism
+ Improved
tourist facilities
liquid waste solid waste medium attractions products and services
term?
Scenario Building
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Goals and objectives are logically linked to the issues and concerns affecting tourism in a destination.
Tools that can be used to ensure the linkage are the problem analysis and objectives analysis (see Table 3
and Table 4). There are two ways of looking at how the future may evolve for tourism
Scenario Building

Box 2
One may choose to construct: in your areas, namely 1) forecasting; and 2) scenario planning.
Tourism goals should not divert but rather contribute to the sustainable development of the locality. Forecasting shows where you are headed if you stay on the current
Tourism, although part of the economic sector, must cover the three sectors, namely: economic, social and exploratory scenarios with
a few different futures to course. It tries to predict the future by extrapolating from the present
environment. Tourism should make a major contribution to improving living conditions of communities and assuming that existing trends will continue. In tourism however, it
highlight the different
within or near attractions. In identifying goals and objectives, the well-being of host communities need relationships between factors is more beneficial to visualize scenarios of the future. Scenario planning
to be taken into account. under different logics, or allows understanding of your environment and what it means through
normative scenarios, often with alternative views of the future. Scenarios identify significant events,
only one desired future. This is main actors and their motivations, and convey how the world functions.
Success Indicators sometimes done as a consensus
- building exercise. However, if
They are based upon possibilities that are grounded in current
knowledge and experience. These provide the basis for action (Yeoman,
consensus becomes difficult, it Pearce and Moriarty, n.d.).
Success indicators (SI) measure the extent of achievement of desired results. They are needed for both may be beneficial to start with
goals and objectives. They measure performance qualitatively or quantitatively. There is a need to develop an undesired future since it
measures that matter those which provide and deepen stakeholders understanding of success and is often easier for everyone to It may be challenging to grapple with multiple plausible futures, which
progress in the implementation of the plan. As a guide, the question that needs to be answered is: what agree upon what they do not is why it is recommended that only three to five scenarios are done in a
information will provide stakeholders with a good understanding of the performance in tourism? want (Slocum, 2005). single workshop (Slocum, 2005).

One has to consider the ease of gathering data in identifying success indicators. Indicators need to be
simple and easy to measure. If the data requirements for a particular indicator are difficult to obtain or not Scenarios are defined as narrative descriptions of potential futures that focus attention on
cost effective to gather, a proxy indicator that can perform the same function can be chosen. In Example 12 relationships between events and decision points (Slocum, 2005). Scenario building helps establish the
for instance, one can opt to use the indicator for E1 instead of E3. effects of strategies and interventions (i.e. programs, projects, activities, and policies) and
consequences of current trends.
Scenario construction is useful in situations where the past or present is unlikely to be a guide for the
Targets future, specifically when:

A target is an explicit and definitive statement of a result (goal or objective) you want to achieve. It answers the problem is complex and many factors need to be considered
the question: what do you want to achieve concretely and when will it be achieved?
there is a high probability of significant change
the dominant trends may not be favorable and thus must be analyzed

Baseline Data the time-horizon is relatively long (Slocum, 2005).

Baseline data show the situation to be addressed by the tourism development plan prior to the planning
period. For tourist markets, it is advisable to establish historical data for at least three to five years. Historical Building scenarios should be well-informed so that realistic futures can be developed. In identifying
data answer the question: Where have you been? The data is useful in planning ahead. Supplemental trends, it is important to base your assessment on evidence rather than supposition. Ensure that trends
Reading 1 - Profiling the Tourism Industry presents a more detailed discussion on baseline data. Baseline data are built on sound foundations (Mindtools, 2014).
need to be gathered from the onset they serve as the starting point for scenario building and can also later
be used in evaluation studies, and are useful for measuring the performance of the tourism industry, as a
whole.

13
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Example 10 : Scenario Building of the Pamilacan Island Dolphin and To aid you in coming up with coherent tourism goals, targets, and success indicators, fill out the
Whale Watching Organization worksheets found in Annex G.

Example 12 shows targets and success indicators per tourism goal. Example 13 on the other hand
A community-based approach to ecotourism was introduced in Pamilacan Island in 1997 to provide fishers with an
illustrates more examples of goals, objectives, targets and success indicators.
alternative livelihood after whaling and poaching was banned in 1992. The whale and dolphin tour was
initiated in 1998, a year after the Pamilacan Island Dolphin and Whale Watching Organization (PIDWWO) was
formed. It has been considered as best practice in sustainable tourism management (Heah, 2006), and has also been
recognized both locally and internationally. The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) acknowledged Pamilacans Example 12 : Tourism Goals, Targets and Success Indicators
Dolphin Watch as finalist in the 2006 Tourism for Tomorrow Awards at the 6th Global Travel and
Tourism Summit for the Conservation Award Category. Tourism for Tomorrow Awards recognizes and promotes best Tourism Goals Targets Success Indicators
practices in tourism development all over the world. In 2001, the number of tourists engaged in whale watching was Economic
260 (Baclayon MPDC, 2001). Tourist arrivals in the island slowly increased from 2003 to 2006, with PIDWWO, being
the sole provider of the dolphin and watch tour. While tourism arrivals in the island have been 50% increase from 2012 baseline Number of tourists (male and
E1 Increased tourist arrivals
increasing, PIDWWO tour sales have decreased in 2007 and 2008, recovering slightly from 2009 and 2010 (Paran, by 2022 female)
2013). 50% increase from 2012 baseline Average income of host
E2 Increased income to host communities
by 2022 communities
E3 Increased tourist expenditures
Increased tourism employment in host Number of people employed in
E4 50% increase from baseline by 2022
barangay tourism (male and female)
Figure 3: Tourists Entertained by PIDWWO from 2003-2010
Social

50% increase in access to electricity


Improved well-being of island Number of households with
S1 of island host community from 2012
host communities access to electricity in the island
baseline by 2022
Average household income of host
S2 Increased income of host community 50% from baseline by 2022
community
Environmental/Ecological

Significant cultural heritage sites At least two significant cultural Number of cultural heritage sites
En1
conserved heritage sites protected by legislation

Natural condition of biodiversity No physical damage or alterations No physical damage or alterations


En2 maintained/protected to particular biodiversity from 2012 to particular biodiversity observed/
mangrove/seagrass/seaweed cover baseline recorded

Hectarage increased by 10% from


En3 Forest cover increased Number of hectares of forest cover
baseline

No physical damage or alterations Physical damage or alterations to


En4 Coral reefs protected to particular biodiversity from 2012 particular biodiversity observed/
baseline recorded
Example 11: Scenario - Planning for PIDWWO
Situation Scenario Goal Strategies Natural condition of biodiversity No physical damage or alterations Physical damage or alterations to
En5 maintained/protected to particular biodiversity from 2012 particular biodiversity observed/
mangrove/seagrass/seaweed cover baseline recorded
Tourist arrivals in the island has been Intensifying competition Increased number of tourists Diversify ecotourism
increasing but PIDWWO has been from private sector in entertained by PIDWWO by products to be offered by Number of tour packages
losing out to competitors from Bohol Bohol Mainland 100% from its 2010 level by PIDWWO Increased awareness on biodiversity At least 20% of tour packages in
En6 incorporating environmental
mainland and Panglao 2016 conservation by visitors/tourists the LGU
education and nature interpretation
Social media and the Invest in marketing through
PIDWWO product has been mainly internet is becoming an social media and the
whale and dolphin watching increasingly important internet
marketing medium for
Barangay government has accredited tourism
members of the Pamilacan
community as snorkeling guides
of marine sanctuary

Marketing of PIDWWO is limited to


word of mouth while competitors
have website
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Example 13: Sector Goals, Objectives, Targets and Success Indicators
What tools can be used for goal and
Result Sector Goals Targets Success Indicators
objective setting?
Economic

Increased income of host Average household income of


The Objective Analysis (OA) is a handy and versatile tool that can be used for goal and objective
Goal 50% increase from baseline by 2022 setting. A well examined problem can provide a good starting point to identifying goals and
community host community
objectives. Likewise, the analysis can be used as basis for identifying programs, projects and activities
Improved tourism skills of host 50% of host community trained in Number of trained community that contribute to the achievement of desired results.
Objective
community tourism members (male and female)
Both the PA and OA are highly participatory instruments that allow the planning team to scrutinize and
discuss issues and concerns affecting tourism in their localities. Stakeholders collectively probe deeper
Increased number of 100% increase in the number of Number of new tourism business
tourism-related businesses tourism businesses owned by permits issued by LGU into what ails tourism in their areas using a problem tree and objective tree. Well-articulated problem
owned by community community members statements are important starting points to identifying actions that are appropriate to their situations.
The step-by-step guide to objectives analysis is shown below.
Environment

Significant cultural heritage sites At least two significant cultural Number of significant cultural
Goal
conserved heritage sites heritage sites protected by
legislation
Table 4: Steps in Objectives Analysis

Cultural heritage sites adapted At least three sites adapted to modern Number of cultural heritage sites Step-by-Step Guide to Objectives Analysis
Objective
to modern use use adapted to modern use

Social

Taking off from the problem analysis, convert the negative statements/conditions into positive.
Step 1
Improved well-being of island host 50% increase in access to electricity Number of households with access Form a structure showing the means-ends relationships in the form of an objectives tree.
Goal
communities of island host community from 2012 to electricity in the island
baseline by 2022
Step 2 From the positive conditions, identify goals, objectives, programs, projects, activities and policies.

Increased access to sanitary toilet Number of households with septic


Objective 1 100% access
facilities in host island communities tanks
Step 3 Review the diagram as a whole and verify its validity and completeness. Revise the statements as necessary.

Source: Adapted from Pabalan, Paran and Caluen, 2004.


At least 50% of host community Number of trained community
Improved tourism skills of host
Objective 2 trained in tourism are employed by members employed due to skills
community
the industry training (male and female)
Example 14: Objectives Analysis - Primary Tourism Resource (coral reefs) Protected
What paths do you take?
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Strategies

Goal
Increased tourist arrivals

Strategies are means to achieve goals and are undertaken to gain competitive advantage over rivals
(Tribe, 2005). Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long term: which achieves
Primary tourism resource

Objectives
advantage for the organization through the configuration of resources within a changing environment,
(coral reefs) protected
to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholders expectations (Johnson and Scholes, 2001: 10 in
Tribe, 2005)

Development of Development of The tourism products to be offered by a destination can be underpinned by a strategy (Dredge and
ordinance banning diving, snorkeling, and
destructive and poor
Jenkins, 2007). A well researched and realistic tourism strategy can be a very effective tool to the ad-
boating protocol
fishing practice vantage of residents, their environment, and the tourism industry in general (Davidson and Maitland,
1997). An effective strategy can result in the attainment of objectives such as increased number of
tourists at a destination or improved well-being of host communities.
Development of
ordinance establishing a Solid Waste There are a number of steps in the development of strategy. These are (Tribe, 2005):

PPALs
septage management Management Program
system Generation of strategic options;
Evaluation of strategic options; and
Development of Selection of strategy.
ordinance establishing Liquid Waste
a solid waste Management Program
management system A number of key strategic options can be generated from strategic analysis. This can be done by
selling a product that is:

cheaper than the competition;


Example 15: Translating Problems into Objectives better than the competition;

Problem Analysis Objectives Analysis cheaper and better product (Tribe, 2005).
Negative Statements Positive Statements
Components Components

Effect Decrease in tourist arrivals Goal Increased tourist arrivals Choosing a particular strategy should be done in an objective manner. This can be done by using a
set of criteria, such as feasibility, suitability and acceptability (Tribe, 2005).
Destruction of primary tourism Primary tourism resource (coral reefs)
Problem Objective
resource (coral reefs) protected

Careless boating, snorkeling and Programs, Projects, Activities Development of diving,


Causes The attraction of a destination arises from a mix of resources and services. Without such a mix, a place
diving and Policies snorkeling and boating protocol
will not work as a destination. The mix varies from one place to another, and this variation gives each
Algal bloom
destination its individual character its different total tourism product.

Liquid waste management (Davidson and Maitland, 1997)


program
Pollution from liquid waste Development of ordinance
establishing a septage
management system

Solid waste management program


Development of ordinance
Pollution from solid waste
establishing a solid waste
management program

Development of ordinance
Destructive fishing banning destructive and poor
fishing practice

Poor fishing practice (muro-ami)

Note: Matrix form of the PA and OA example (see Example 8 and Example 14).

18
Types of Tourism Strategies
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Hybrid Strategy
One can opt to adopt a hybrid strategy by providing value-added and high quality products at low
Price-based Strategy prices. However, this is hard to achieve since doing so adds to costs resulting to price increase. This
type of strategy can only be feasible if one can achieve economies of scale where the average costs
A price-based strategy tries to find competitive advantage by offering the lowest prices in the industry fall in line with a growth in output (Tribe, 2005).
(Tribe, 2005). One way to achieve this is to reduce costs by offering a basic, standardized, mass-produced,
no frills product with inessential aspects stripped out of the value chain (Tribe, 2005: 127).
Example 18: Davao City Hybrid Strategy
Example 16: Sebay Surf Central Resort Price-based Strategy The collaborative efforts between the Davao LGU, the malls of the city, and the Department of Tourism Region XI
to offer the lowest retail prices in a city-wide sale is a good example of a hybrid strategy. The endeavor is geared
towards establishing the City as a unique, fun and preferred shopping and dining destination in the country and
The Sebay Surf Central Resort tries to gain competitive advantage by offering the lowest prices for a surfing
improving the image of Davao as a thriving destination for business and investment. Dubbed as The Big Davao
tour package in La Union. The table below shows the budget prices for a package of one-hour surfing lesson
Fun Sale!, the City takes a big tourism leap as it plays host to the first ever four-week long shopping frenzy in
with instructor, surf board rental, and 3 days/2 nights standard air conditioned room accommodation with
the Philippines with its major malls offering fantastic deals like unique activities, freebies, awards, parties and
breakfast.
discounts as high as 80%. The event marks the start of the festivities to celebrate the inauguration day of the City.

La Union Resorts and Packaged Rates

Number of Persons

No. of Persons 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Focus Strategy
San Juan Surf Resort 3740 3474 3520 3370 3065 3119 3724 3421 3508
The LGU can make use of a focus strategy and customize products and services for a particular
Sebay Surf Central Resort 3400 2720 3200 2816 2400 2743 3150 2800 3024 market segment rather than to the whole market. A focus strategy may take the form of cost
Little Surfmaid Resort 3740 3173 3520 3200 2800 3086 3525 3173 3360 focus or differentiation focus (Tribe, 2005).

Kahuna Beach Resort 7120 6521 6675 6338 5705 6005 6397 6265 6475

Note: Rates are quoted per person based on the number/group of persons indicated. Rates are in Philippine Pesos.
Example 19: The Province of Bohol Focus Strategy
Source: e-philippines.com.ph, 2009-2014.
The Province of Bohol has opted to develop its locality as an ecotourism destination. Community-based
ecotourism organizations in the province have established their market niche and have developed ecotours such
as dolphin and whale-watching in Pamilacan Island in the Municipality of Baclayon, the Cambuhat River and
Village Tour in Buenavista, the Candijay Mangrove Adventure Tour, in Rajah Sikatuna, and a variety of adventure
Differentiation Strategy tours in Rajah Sikatuna National Park.

Getting ahead in the tourism sector entails creativity and inventiveness. A differentiation strategy can
be employed to offer something that stands out a better quality or unique product. This can be done
through a number of ways which includes, among others investing in design, innovation, attention to
quality, and advertising (Tribe, 2005). The Cluster Strategy
Consumer perception is important in tourism. As a guide, one can ask: Does the tourism product or Cost is one of the factors which affect the choice for a holiday destination. More important than cost,
service offer improved quality or value added over the competition? (Tribe, 2010) however is value for money. Tourists want to go home feeling that the price they paid was fair for the
quality or standard of the goods or services they purchased, or for how good or unique an experience
was (British Tourist Authority, 2003).
Example 17: Turtle Surf Camp Differentiation Strategy
Clustering increases the economic viability of attractions, and offers the tourist value-for-money
The development of destination themes which feature the unique tourism resources of the locality is a good exam-
destinations.
ple of a differentiation strategy. The Turtle Surf Camp in Siargao which offers accommodation, surf lessons and
surfari trips to all individuals, couples or groups shows innovation and creativity making the package stand out.
Compatible attractions can be clustered by physical feature or by tour. A good example of clustering
The all-inclusive vacation package which provides hassle free stay provides value added over other competitors
attractions by tour is the Bohol Countryside Tour.
offering the components separately.

Similarly, province-wide themes showcasing the unique features of the locality and offering them as a packaged a destination with high tourism potential is certain to bring together, within a cohesive geo-spatial framework,
tour product can make a good strategy. an ample range and variety of complementary tourism assets. The precise range of facilities, services and attractions
within easy access of one another, will depend on the place.
-Doswell, 1997

21
Example 20: The Bohol Countryside Tour
Developing Destination Themes
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Entrepreneurs of Bohol have succeeded in coming up with a tour package by clustering compatible attractions.
Since its test run, it has become a favorite of tourists visiting Bohol. Several businesses now offerred the tour with Destination or holiday themes can be powerful in promoting tourist destinations. Themes can be varied
some variations but with major attractions being included in the package. The day tour spans several and the possibilities are endless. There are countryside themes (i.e. Countryside Tour of Bohol);
municipalities in the province and the package includes entrance fees, land transfers, tour guide, river cruise, heritage (i.e., Vigan Heritage Tour; Walk This Way Intramuros Tour); cuisine themes (i.e. Binondo Food
and lunch during the river cruise. Pick-up and drop-off points are pre-arranged but usually are from Tagbilaran Trip); wildlife (i.e., Dolphin and Whale Watching in Pamilacan, Bohol); religious themes (i.e. Ilocandia
seaport, airport, or major hotels. The following is a sample itinerary: Church Tour), aquatic theme (i.e., Calaguas Beach Escapades and Bagasbas Surfing).
Blood Compact Site (Tagbilaran City) Cultural attraction which showcases the spot where the Spaniards and
the Filipinos fostered friendly relations through the ritual of blood compact.

Baclayon Church (Baclayon) Considered as one of the oldest stone church in the Philippines with a museum
Table 5: Steps in Developing Tourism Clusters/Circuits
that contains religious relics dating back to the early 16th century.

Loay Backyard Industry (Loay) - Local craftsmen are seen forging bolos and other metal crafts; and making Steps Activities
traditional roofing materials out of nipa palm leaves.
Identify the major sites/attractions in the province/city/municipality. Location of major sites/attractions
Clarin Ancestral House (Loay) - Declared by the National Historical Institute as a heritage site, the well preserved Step 1 determines tourism development. Use the tourism resource/attraction map developed in Supplemental
home contains collections of the Clarin Family. Reading 1- Profiling the Local Tourism Industry.

Tarsier (Loboc) Sightings of the smallest monkey in the world along the Loboc River. Identify secondary sites/attractions. Secondary sites/attractions (e.g. cultural) may or may not be developed
depending on resources, potential and other objectives set in the plan.
Man Made Forest (Bilar) A linkage corridor showcasing a Mahogany Forest. Step 2 These attractions are of the type that can be located elsewhere
Usual approach is to develop secondary attractions near a major attraction so that the area is of greater
Chocolate Hills (Carmen) A major attraction in the province, the attraction has 1,268 haycock hills which turn overall importance to the tourists
brown during dry season.
Create possible circuits, based on the location of your sites. In developing circuits, make sure to consider how
Loboc-Loay River Cruise (Loboc) Lunch is served while cruising the river, with locals providing local music. The Step 3
sites are related in terms of geography, access and travel time. Identify the entry/exit points.
river is flanked with nipa palm plantation with the occasional wild ducks.
Step 4 Identify circuit themes.

Identify the following:


Moreover, clustered attractions are more efficiently serviced with infrastructure of water, waste disposal, Enroute facilities such as restaurants, restrooms, etc.
police, fire protection, and power (Gunn, 1979). Step 5 Transport infrastructure and services
Service center which provides accommodations, and other needs of the tourist
The linkage between attraction-services is important. Attractions need support by travel services. Park plans, Make sure your circuit components are complete.
for example, are incomplete if the non-attraction needs of travelers are ignored. Food service,
lodging, and supplementary services (i.e., purchases of medicines and souvenir items) must be within Step 6 Identify possible activities for every site/attraction.
reasonable time and distance reach of travelers. A number of attractions (i.e., protected areas) need to be
planned for day-tour only, with majority of services available in nearby communities where they can be Step 7 Identify those which can be developed in 0-3 years, 4-6 years, and 7- 9 or more years.
serviced more efficiently. This results in gain for local businesses. More remote attraction features, however,
may require minimum services within the attraction, such as food service, toilets, and visitor centers (Gunn, Step 8 Create a summary report of your circuits using the Tourism Circuit/Cluster Worksheet in Annex J.
1979).

Tourism Circuits Components of a Tourism


Box 3

Cluster/Circuit Example 21 presents an eco-cultural-tourism circuit. The circuit components include the entry/
exit points, attractions, service centers and transport infrastructure and services.
A popular version of the cluster strategy is the tourism circuit. The cluster/circuit comprises
the following key components:
Attractions within the circuit should not be separated by long
distances. A visitor should be motivated to visit all the places within the Set of compatible attractions
circuit. Enroute facilities such as
restaurants, restrooms, etc.
Tourist circuits are used as a strategy to increase the total number of Transport infrastructure
visits to all the destinations within the circuit as well as provide tourists and services
with a more rewarding experience and value for money by providing a Service center which
mix of attractions and activities in a destination. provides accommodations,
and other needs of the
Develop principal packages based on distinctive elements of the tourist
destination, and the market which you want to attract (e.g., adult,
family or short-stay market as against long- stay market).

23
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Example 21: HIPADA Eco-Cultural Circuit, Province of Surigao del Norte
What tools can be used in strategy
formulation?
The SWOT or TOWS Analysis has become a very popular tool for tourism in recent years. It has been used
extensively by various tourism organizations. SWOT is an acronym that stands for Strengths, Weaknesses,
Opportunities and Threats.

Developing strategies using the SWOT entails research, creativity and experimentation on the part of the
Tourism Planning Committee. Strategies are place specific and depend on the distinctive situation of the
locality. Strategies that work for some areas may not happen as expected for your locality. Also,
strategies that have not worked in the past should be withdrawn. An example of a SWOT analysis is
shown in Example 22 while an example of the relationship between goals, objectives and strategies is
presented in Example 23.
The SWOT Analysis Worksheet for you to accomplish is found in Annex H.

Example 22: SWOT Analysis as a Tool for Strategy Formulation

Internal STRENGTHS (S) WEAKNESSES (W)


Environment
- Presence of national park with - High poverty incidence of
high biodiversity communities in small islands
- Presence of unique cultural - Absence of electricity in small
assets; islands
External - Presence of small islands - Very limited fresh water in
Environment surrounded by white sand small islands
beaches, with high marine
biodiversity
- Excellent coral cover

OPPORTUNITIES (O) S-O Strategies W-O Strategies

- Ecotourists on the rise Develop new tourism products Development of


worldwide with eco-cultural theme community-based ecotourism
packages for small islands

THREATS (T) S-T Strategies W-T Strategies

- Neighboring province sells Develop eco-cultural tourism


Source: Surigao del Norte Sustainable Tourism Plan, 2006 - 2015 dolphin watch ecotour at a very circuits that include small islands
low price. as part of the tour package
- Similar island resources with
neighboring province (corals)

25
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Example 23: Relationship of Goals and Strategies Example 24: Identification of Tourism PPAs
Sector Goal Sector Objectives Strategy Goal Objectives Strategy Programs/Projects/Activities
Tourism planning for host
Increased income of host island Improved tourism skills of host island Develop community-based ecotourism
Increased income Develop community-based barangay
communities community packages for small islands Improved tourism skills of host
of host island ecotourism packages for Product development workshop
island community
communities small islands Tour guiding seminar
Increased number of tourism-related Pilot testing of product
businesses owned by host island
community Increased number of
tourism-related businesses Homestay program
owned by host island Microcredit program
community

What actions need to be done?


Identifying Programs and Projects
Planning helps stakeholders focus the use of limited resources on priority actions (programs, projects
and activities) that can best contribute to desired results. within a Circuit
If the LGU opts to adopt the circuit strategy and have identified and prioritized a circuit, identifying

What are programs, projects and activities? programs and projects can revolve around development within the cluster. The aim would be to provide
all infrastructure facilities and other requirements necessary to make it ready for tourists.

Programs, projects and activities (PPAs) are means towards the achievement of results (Goals and If the LGU has identified several circuits for development, it is more prudent for the LGU to develop them
Objectives). A project is defined as an undertaking that involves the use of resources (e.g., human in stages. Tag circuits can be developed in the short (0-3 years), medium (4-6 years) and long term (7-9
resources, money), addresses a well-defined purpose, undertaken within a specific timeframe, with a years). The timetable for development can be included as criteria for choosing priorities.
start and an end. A program on the other hand is defined as a package of interrelated projects.
You may find the pull-out Worksheet for Programs, Projects and Activities Identification within Circuits in
Programs and projects are classified as soft or hard. Developing successful tourism destinations Annex L.
combines soft (e.g. marketing and promotions) and hard programs (e.g. infrastructure) in a creative
manner. All program and projects however need to be linked with all other components in a smooth You may also refer to Example 25 to guide you in filling out the worksheets.
manner, with each development contributing to the overall attractiveness of the destination.

Tourism programs and projects can be simple or complex. A one-off training project to improve the
capacity of the tourism planning team is an example of a simple project. The project becomes more Example 25: Identifying PPAs within Circuits
complicated when one undertakes a capacity building program which includes various components
Timeframe for
such as a series of training activities, to setting up the tourism office. Name of Circuit Issues and Concerns Development Programs and Projects
(in Years)

Loay Backyard Industry (Loay)

What tools can be used for project Local craftsmen are producing

identification? Bohol Countryside


low-quality products (i.e. bolos
and other metal crafts).
Products produced by the 0-3
Product development workshop
Skills training
Training on Basic Tourism and Tourists
Tour
craftsmen are limited and Receiving
lacked variety.
The Problem and Objectives Analyses are practical tools that can be used in identifying PPAs. With Craftsmen are not used to
proper analysis of social, economic, and environmental issues and concerns facing the local receiving tourists (seeming
tourism industry, and a little creativity, the Tourism Planning Committee can identify PPAs that can uncouth behavior)
address them.
Notes:
The project identification matrix can help you align your programs, projects and activities with the 1. See the complete Bohol Countryside Tour in Example 20.
goals, objectives and strategies of your tourism plan. An example of this is provided in Example 24.

The Project Identification Worksheet for you to accomplish is found in Annex K.

27
Why is packaging your plan
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Programs, projects, and activities identified to address tourism impacts in Supplemental Reading 4
Preparing for Plan Implementation, need to be included in the long list for prioritization. Equally
important is to incorporate the list of legislation in the legislative agenda of the Sanggunian. important?
Packaging puts a face and identity into your tourism plan. It affects the marketing of your plan to
potential donors who can help in providing funding requirements for the programs, projects and

How will you measure progress? activities that need to be implemented. It also helps in mobilizing support from the various
stakeholders that are critical in fulfilling the requirements of the plan.

Naming your plan is also an important concern in packaging. A name describes and provides an identity
But it is not enough that the plan is formulated. How would you know if the local TDP was able to achieve to your plan document. For example, the Province of Surigao del Norte named its document Surigao
its goals and objectives? It is thus important that a monitoring and evaluation mechanism must be put in del Norte Sustainable Tourism Plan, demonstrating the principle that guided the planning team in
place. developing the plan.

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is a management tool that informs all tourism stakeholders about the Another important concern is the contents of the tourism plan. More often than not, local government
efficiency and effectiveness of strategies, programs, projects and activities that have been implemented in units put too many information in the document, which can make it thick and confusing. The rule is to
the destination. Evaluation results can be useful in replicating successes and correcting mistakes, and can make the document as concise as possible. Below are the recommended contents of the tourism plan:
also serve as an accountability and learning tool for local government units.

The development of an M&E strategy should not be an afterthought, but should be undertaken as an Recommended Contents of the Tourism Development Plan

Box 4
integral part of the planning phase. The M&E mechanism serves as the perfect ending for your local TDP,
Tourism Council Resolution endorsing the Tourism Development Plan
which starts with goals and proceeds up to programs, projects and activities. See Example 26 below as well Sanggunian Resolution/Ordinance adopting the Tourism Development Plan
as worksheets found in Annex M (Monitoring & Evaluation Strategy Worksheet) and Annex N (Tourism Plan Location Map
Implementation Worksheet). Meanwhile, Supplemental Reading 6 - Monitoring and Evaluating the Tourism Introduction
Development Plan further explains M&E.
1. Tourism Profile
a. Existing tourism attractions, products and activities
b. Existing tourism markets
c. Accommodations
Example 26: M&E Strategy d. Other tourist facilities and services
Data Source i. Tour and travel operation
Goals & Success Targets per Collection ii. Restaurants and other food establishments
to Assess Frequency Responsibility
Objectives Indicator Indicator Methods iii. Shops
Performance
iv. Banks
Increased number Number of 100% increase in Business Permit Document Every three Local Planning and v. Tourist information offices
of tourism-related business permits number of tourism and Licensing review years Development Office vi. Personal services (e.g. barber shops)
businesses owned issued by LGU related businesses Office and Tourism Office vii. Health facilities
by host with owners from owned by
e. Transportation (transportation access into the area and internal
community host community community
transportation system)
f. Other infrastructure
i. Power and electricity
ii. Telecommunications
iii. Water
iv. Sewage and waste disposal facilities
v. Drainage
g. Natural and socio-economic environment
h. Institutional
2. Goals, Objectives and Targets
a. Strategic issues and challenges affecting local tourism
b. Tourism goals, objectives and targets
i. Economic (i.e. growth scenarios)
ii. Social
iii. Environmental
3. Strategic Directions/Strategies and Programs, Projects and Activities
4. Implementation Plan for Priority Programs, Projects and Activities
5. Priority Capacity Development Needs
6. Monitoring and Evaluation

29
References References
Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


British Tourist Authority. Why Does Value Matter? 2003. Site Attraction Evaluation Sheet.
http://www.visitbritain.org/britaintourismindustry/tourismaffairs/value/
Site Prioritization Scores Per Category.
Davidson, Robert and Robert Maitland. Tourism Destinations. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1997.
Slocum, Nikki. Participatory Methods Toolkit: A practitioners manual. Edited by Stef Steyaert and
Doswell, Roger. Tourism: How effective management makes the difference. Herve Lisoir. King Baudouin Foundation and the Flemish Institute for Science and Technology
Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997. Assessment, 2005.

Dredge, Dianne and John Jenkins. Tourism Planning and Policy. Milton: Sugaya, Bill. THL Tourism Site Assessment Tool. Tibetan and Himalaya Library.
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd, 2007. https://collab.itc.virginia.edu/wiki/toolbox/Thl%20Tourism%20Site%20Assessment%20Tool.html. 2013.

Federation of Community Based Tourism Organizations. Tourism Circuits, 2013. Tribe, John. Unit 8: Strategic Directions and Methods. In Strategy for Tourism. Oxford: Goodfellow
http://www.fectokenya.org/circuits. Publishers, 2010. http://www.goodfellowpublishers.com/free_files/fileCh8v2.ppt2.ppt.

Goeldner, Charles and J.R. Brent Ritchie. Tourism: Principles, Practices and Philosophies. Tribe, John. Strategy for Tourism. In The Management of Tourism, edited by Lesley Pender
New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2009. and Richard Sharpley. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2005, 119-134.

Gunn, Clare A. Conclusions and Principles. In Tourism Planning. New York: Taylor and Francis, 1988. Yeoman, Ian, Doug Pearrce and John Moriarty. Future Maker or Future Taker: Scenarios for Tourism
in New Zealand. N.d. http://www.med.govt.nz/sectors-industries/tourism/pdf.
Gunn, Clare A. Getting Ready for Megatrends in Travel Attractions. Paper at the Travel America National
Conference and Showcase, Travel Industry Association, Dallas, September 13, 1984.

Gunn, Clare A. Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases. London: Taylor & Francis, 1979.

MindTools.com. (2013). Root Cause Analysis. [Online]. Available from:


http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_80.htm. [Accessed: December 10, 2013].

MindTools.com. (2014). Scenario Analysis: Exploring Different Futures. [Online].


Available from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_98.htm. [Accessed: April 19, 2014].

Pabalan, Concepcion, Julie Paran and Imelda Caluen. A Facilitators Guide: How to Formulate Executive
and Legislative Agenda, 2004. Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)

Paran, Julie. The Nexus between Ecotourism, Empowerment and Sustainable Development: A Case Study
of Pamilacan Island. (Doctoral dissertation). 2013

Pender, Lesley and Richard Sharpley. The Management of Tourism. London, SAGE Publications Ltd., 2005.

Rose, Edgar A. Philosophy and Purpose in Planning. In The Spirit and Purpose of Planning, edited by
Michael J. Bruton, 31-65. London: Hutchinson, 1984.

Ruhanen, Lisa. Strategic Planning for Local Tourism Destinations: An Analysis of Tourism Plans.
Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development. Routledge, 2004.

31
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the local tourism development plan

Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan


Annex A: Work Plan

Expected Output/ Persons Resource Timeframe/


Activities
Milestones Responsible Requirements Duration

Annexes
pull-out worksheets

33
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the local tourism development plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex B: Site/Attraction Evaluation

Province/City/Municipality ____________________________________________ Criteria 5. Availability of Onsite Facilities


Site/Attraction ____________________________________________ Characteristics Least Available
Site Classification ____________________________________________ Clean and safe restrooms for women and men 1 2 3 4 5
(Existing/Emerging/Potential) Good accommodation facilities 1 2 3 4 5

Travel Time to
____________________________________________ Clean and quality food service 1 2 3 4 5
Other activity facilities (picnic huts, pool, sports facilities, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5
to
____________________________________________ Directional and information signage 1 2 3 4 5

Instructions: If the site possesses the given characteristics to the highest degree, this is given a value of 5, while Criteria 6. Ownership of Property
site possessing least/none of the characteristics is given a value of 1.
Characteristics Yes No
Local government owned 5 1
Criteria 1. Uniqueness and Natural Beauty Privately owned/managed/leased 1 5
Under CARP or CARPable 1 5
Characteristics Least Most
With tenants/residents 1 5
Unique attraction one of a kind (natural/man-made/cultural) 1 2 3 4 5
Ancestral domain/land claimants 1 5
Beauty how it appeals to all senses? (nice to see, hear, feel, smell, taste) 1 2 3 4 5
Natural/Undisturbed 1 2 3 4 5
Criteria 7. Quality of Surroundings
Recognized tourist attraction by DOT 1 2 3 4 5
Characteristics Yes No
Landfill/dumpsite 1 and 5 1 5
Criteria 2. Historical/Cultural Value Mining site 1 5
Informal settlements 1 5
Characteristics Least Most
Beautiful vista/view 5 1
Built Heritage (50 years or above) 1 2 3 4 5
Presence of support services 5 1
Festivals 1 2 3 4 5
(Surroundings refer to areas which are within 5 kilometers radius from the site.)
Culinary experience 1 2 3 4 5
Museum 1 2 3 4 5 Source: Adapted from Site/Attraction Evaluation Sheet.

Criteria 3. Accessibility Characteristics Least Most


Characteristics Least Most Unique attraction one of a kind (natural/man-made/cultural) 1 2 3 4 5
Beauty how it appeals to all senses? (nice to see, hear, feel, smell, taste) 1 2 3 4 5
Accessible all year (please specify vehicle type: all kinds of vehicle) 1 2 3 4 5
Regular/Commercial transport service available 1 2 3 4 5
Natural/Undisturbed 1 2 3 4 5
Recognized tourist attraction by DOT 1 2 3 4 5

Characteristics Least Nearest


Distance from service center 1 2 3 4 5
Distance from town center 1 2 3 4 5

(The maximum acceptable travel time from the service center is two hours; while from the town center is thirty minutes.)

Criteria 4. Availability of Basic Utilities


Characteristics Least Available
Clean water supply 1 2 3 4 5
Sufficient power supply 1 2 3 4 5
Communications (i.e. internet, telephone) 1 2 3 4 5
Drainage/sewerage system 1 2 3 4 5
Solid waste management system

35
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex C: Site Prioritization

Annex C.1: UNIQUENESS AND NATURAL BEAUTY Annex C.2: HISTORICAL/CULTURAL VALUE

Built Heritage
Uniqueness Natural/ With Tourism Recognized Culinary
Site/Attraction Location Beauty Total Site/Attraction Location (50 years and Festivals Museum Total
Attraction Undisturbed Activity by DOT Experience
above)

37
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex C.3: ACCESSIBILITY Annex C.4: AVAILABILITY OF BASIC UTILITIES

Regular/ Com-
Communications Solid Waste
Type of Accessible all mercial Transpor- Distance from Distance from Type of Clean Water Drainage/ Sew- Total
Location Total Points Location Power (Internet, Management
Attraction year tation Services Service Center Town Center Attraction Supply erage System Points
telephone) System
Available

39
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex C.5: AVAILABILITY OF ON SITE FACILITIES Annex C.6: OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY

Privately Ancestral
Clean and Safe Good Clean and Other Directional & Local
Type of Total Type of Owned/ Under CARP With Tenants/ Domain/ Total
Location Restrooms for Accommodation Quality Food Activity Information Location Government
Attraction Points Attraction Managed/ or CARPable Residents Land Points
Women and Men Facilities Service Facilities Signage Owned
Leased Claimants

41
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex C.7: QUALITY OF SURROUNDINGS Annex D: Site Prioritization Evaluation Summary

Uniqueness/ Historical/ Availability Availability


Presence Site/ Ownership of Quality of Total
Type of Landfill/ Informal Beautiful Total Location Natural Cultural Accessibility of Basic of Onsite
Location Mining Site of Support Attraction Property Surroundings Score
Attraction Dumpsite Settlements vista/view Points Beauty Value Utilities Facilities
Service

43
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex E: Site Prioritization Ranking Annex F: Problem Identification

Site/Attraction Total Points Ranking


Site/ Attraction/ Circuit Component Problems/Issues

45
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex G: Tourism Goals, Targets and Success Indicators


Annex H: SWOT Analysis
Tourism Goals Targets Success Indicators
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
Economic

E1

E2

E3

E4
Opportunities Threats

Social

S1

S2

Environment/ Ecological

En1

En2

En3

En4

En5

En6

47
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex I: Workshop 8: Scenario-Planning Annex J: Tourism Circuit/Cluster

Name of the Circuit:


Situation Scenario Goal/ Objectives Strategies

Circuit Theme:

Duration:

Target Market:

Circuit Components/ Enroute Facilities Frequency and Type


Possible Activities Service Center
Tourist Attractions & Services of Transport Service

49
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex L: Program, Projects and Activities Identification within Circuits


Annex K: Project Identification

Goal Objectives Strategy Programs/Projects/Activities Timeframe for


Name of Circuit Issues and Concerns Programs and Projects
Development (in Years)

51
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex M: Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy Annex N: Tourism Plan Implementation

Data Source to
Goals & Success Targets per Collection Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment Report
Assess Frequency Responsibility
Objectives Indicator Indicator Methods Municipality of ________________
Performance

Programs, Outcome/
Beneficiary Coverage Project Actual
Projects, Output Target Accomplishment Remarks
Sector Area Cost (Php) Disbursement
Activities Indicators

53
with support from

This knowledge product is produced through the collaboration among the Department of Tourism (DOT), Department
of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) with the
funding support provided by the Government of Canada thru the Local Governance Support Program for Local Economic
Development (LGSP-LED) project and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) thru the Biodiversity
Partnership Project (BPP) and the Center for Governance of the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP)
Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading
1
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Ttourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


Accomplish the following forms and templates provided to complete the inventory of your LGUs
This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs: tourism resources and assets. You may find the pull-out worksheets for you to fill out at the Annexes.

Prepare an inventory of tourism resources and assets in the locality; Examples are provided to serve as guide.
Assess the situation of tourism in the area;
List down potential safety and security risks and natural hazards in the locality; and
If you are already using the DOT-JICA Tourism Statistics Manual for Local Government Units, you may
Prepare a profile of tourists and visitors in the locality.
already refer to the Inventory Data Sheet produced for your LGU.

The Philippines is a beautiful country endowed with rich, diverse natural, cultural and historical assets that
visitors and locals alike can enjoy. Our tourism industry is a testament that truly, its more fun in the Philippines! Box 1. Basic LGU Information
Every municipality or city has the potential to become a tourist destination and/or provide services for the
tourism industry within the province or region. Whether your Local Government Unit (LGU) is still starting
to develop local tourism or tourism is already a thriving local industry, it is important to make an inventory Name of LGU: _______________________________________________________
of your tourism resources and assets so that they can be optimized and sustained. The process of making a
profile of the local tourism industry also entails identifying tourism and related problems so that they can be Province:_______________________ Region:_________________________
solved and minimized.
Population:_____________________ Land Area:______________________
This section requires you to make a profile of tourism resources in your LGU that you can use in preparing
your Tourism Development Plan (TDP). The profile of the local tourism industry includes the following Number of barangays:____________ Ethnic groups:___________________
components (Inskeep, 1999):
Religions:______________________ ___________________
Transportation ______________________ ___________________
Tourist attraction and activities
Language/s spoken: ________________________________________________
Accommodation
Other tourist facilities and services
Major economic activities:___________________________________________

Institutional elements Local Government Officials


Other infrastructure
Mayor:_______________________________________

Vice Mayor:___________________________________

Sanggunian Bayan/Panlungsod/Panlalawigan Members:


Figure 1. Components of the Local Tourism Industry
____________________________ ____________________________

estic &
International Tourist Market G
roup ____________________________ ____________________________
Dom Tourist Attractions s
and Activities
____________________________ ____________________________
Transportation Accommodation
Natural and
Socioeconomic ____________________________ ____________________________
Other Environment Other Tourist
Infarastructure Facilities and
Services Tourism Officer:_________________________________________
Institutional
R es
iden Elements tie s Planning and Development
ts Use acili
of Tourist Attraction and F
Coordinator:____________________________________________________

Source: Inskeep, 1999

-1 -2
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


Profile of Tourism
Resources and Assets Plot the attractions listed in Example 1 in a Local Tourism Map and draw a possible tourism loop connecting
these attractions. You may use a base map available in your Local Planning and Development Office.
List down tourism attractions and activities in your locality like in Example 1 below. You may find the pull-out
Example of a Local Tourism Map is provided below.
worksheet for you to fill out in Annex B.

Example 1. Tourism Attractions and Activities


Example 1. Tourist attractions and activities Example 2. Local Tourism Map
Category Attraction Location Activities

Nature Tourism
Forests, rivers and lakes (inland waters), coastal
and marine areas, mountains, caves and other Paoay Lake Paoay Sight seeing
geologic formations, and wildlife (wild flora
and fauna)

Cultural Tourism
(Forts, cathedrals and churches,
gardens, street and town sites, St. Augustine Church
historical roads and paths, historic remains, in Paoay Church visitation;
Paoay
museums, art museums, zoo and botanical sight seeing
gardens, aquariums, other structures and St. Williams Cathedral
buildings, events and festivals, folk music and
dance, local culture)

Sun and Beach Tourism


Kapurpurawan Beach Burgos, Ilocos Norte Trekking
Beach, water activities, island hopping

Leisure and Entertainment Tourism


(Golf courses, tennis courts, cycling roads and
areas, hiking courses, camping grounds, nature
Fort Ilocandia Laoag City Casino
trails and paths, large scale parks, leisure-land,
theme parks, sports and resort complex, other
sports and recreational facilities)

Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and


Exhibitions (MICE) and Events Tourism
(Trainings, study tours, conferences,
for a, meetings)

Health, Wellness and Retirement


(Medical treatment, spa,
aesthetics, retirement villages)

Cruise and Nautical Tourism (Cruise)

Diving and Marine Sports Tourism


(Scuba diving, boating)

Courses offered by Mariano


Education Tourism Batac Campus Educational tour
Marcos State University

Categories of Tourism Attraction adapted from: DOT 2012, Tourism Development Planning Guidebook for Local Government Units

-3 -4
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism industry


The listing below will help you identify the businesses, services and facilities available for the use of tourists.
Information on contact details can also be made available to tourists.
Example 4: Accommodation profile
You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex D. Example is provided below.
Name of establishment Type # of Rooms Average rate Occupancy rate

Paradise Place Resort 18 P1,200 per person 70%


Example 3. Accommodation and other facilities*

Nature Establishment/ Facility Location Contact Details

General Luna, Siargao


Accommodation Travellers Pensionne House 0915-5648185
Island
Example 5: Transportation
Restaurants and General Luna, Siargao
Ocean 101 Bar and Restaurant 0919-8268537 Type Schedules Route Average fare
Dining Places Island

Kaimo Street, Surigao Jeepney Daily Surigao to Butuan 70.00


Transportation Sulpicio Lines (086) 231-7548
City
110.00 (Ordinary)
Transportation hubs Surigao Airport Surigao City (086) 826-3898 Surigao to Butuan
Bachelor Express 125.00 (with Aircondition)
Bus Daily
Shopping centers / markets Dapa Public Market Siargao Island 465.00 (Ordinary)
Surigao to Davao
484.00 (with Aircondition)
Banks Land Bank of the Philippines Surigao City (086) 231-7192 Surigao to Lanuza 160.00 (with Aircondition)
Van Daily
Health services Del Carmen District Hospital Siargao Island Surigao to Cantilan 130.00 (with Aircondition)
P. Reyes Street, Surigao Asian Spirit
Travel agencies/ tour operators Parola Travel and Tours (086) 926 1564 Daily
City Airplane Surigao to Manila 4,065.00 (one way)
P. Reyes Street, Surigao 10:00AM to 11:45AM
Souvenir shops Parola Souvenir Shop (086) 926 1564
City
Sulpicio Lines
Dive shops Palaka Dive Center Siargao Island, Surigao 0918-6262303 Boat Every Thursday Surigao to Manila 1, 750.00 (one way)
5:00PM to 6:00AM
Internet shops Dragonsden Internet Cafe Navalca, Surigao City (086) 2316045
Others
Surigao Del Norte Provincial
Libraries Surigao City (086) 826-1474
Library

Gasoline stations Shell Gasoline Station Borromeo, Surigao City (086) 826-6224

Places of worship Pentecostal Missionary Church San Juan, Surigao City 0918 724 3243

Others

Legend:
Accommodations: include hotels, pension houses, resorts, homestay, lodges, tourist inn, BnB, etc.
Restaurants and Dining places: include restaurants, fast food chains and traditional eating places
Transportation: includes air, water, and land transportation.
Transport Hubs: includes airport, sea ports, bus stations, hubs, and terminals
Banks and Money Changers: includes international, national and local banks and financial
intermediaries providing financial transaction services, such as ATM, foreign exchange, etc.
Health Services: includes hospital, health centers, doctors clinics, barangay health centers, dialysis
centers, midwives, manghihilot (traditional healers)

*Source of information: CLUP, LGU

1- 5 1- 6
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Ttourism Industry


Example 7. Labor Force
Institutional Elements Category Number of Employees

Knowing the players and stakeholders in the industry will help you in working with them and soliciting their
Male Female
active participation and involvement in the planning and implementation of tourism projects. It will also
facilitate enforcement of rules and regulations and promote standards because you deal with them as a
Accommodation 97 110
group rather than as individual companies.
Travel agency 40 75
You may find the pull-out worksheets for you to fill out in Annexes D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, M, N.

Transportation 213 137

Example 6. Accommodation and other facilities Others


Name of Organization Address and
Groups Role in Tourism
and Head Contact Details

Hotels, Resorts and Restaurants


Provide accommodation/billeting/ sleeping
Association
quarters for tourists
Food and Beverage (Association of
Provide food and drinks for tourists
restaurants, bars, etc.)

Transport Groups (Bus, airline and Provide transport services to tourists to and
TODA
public transport groups) from the destinations

Help promote and market the destinations and


Association of Travel and Tour
plan/package tours; and serve as initial points
agencies
of contact for tourists
Business Organizations Example 8. Total revenue contributions to LGU for the past 3 years
(Industry Associations, Help provide funds for tourism projects
Chambers of Commerce, etc.)
Category Total Revenue contributions (PhP)
Provide tour guiding services to visitors and
Tour Guides
get accreditation as local guides

Conduct capacity-building activities for Year 1:____ Year 2:______ Year 3:_____
Civil society/ civic action groups grassroots organizations and individuals who Rotary Club
want to engage in tourism-related livelihood
Accommodation
Serve as markets for adventure tours and Mountaineering clubs,
Outdoor clubs
venue to promote your tourism products Association of bikers
Transportation
Help in conservation of tourist destinations
Environmental NGOs Haribon Foundation
and assist in capacity-building of local groups
Restaurants
Provide services for special groups of tourist
Special interest groups PADI
e.g. scuba divers
Provide information on historical sites and Travel companies
Historical/cultural groups events and promote the destination to
historical and cultural enthusiasts
SAMAKABA with guide Meetings and events centers
Provide local guides and services for
Peoples Organizations groups and catering
their livelihood
services
Others
Help promote outdoor activities and may be
Youth groups YES, Rotaract
tapped as volunteers

Womens organizations/interest Help in safeguarding against human trafficking Womens association/


groups and exploitation of women and minors Gabriela local chapter

Conduct research and extension activities College or university with


on various aspects of tourism and provide tourism courses and/or
Academic institutions
graduates in tourism; and serve as hosts for NSTP activities supportive
educational tours of tourism

Provide contacts on places and activities of


Religious groups Couples for Christ
worship that tourists can attend

ABS-CBN, GMA, local media


Media Offices Provide media mileage for your destination
(print, radio and TV, etc.)

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Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


The LGU needs to provide the tourists and visitors with contact information that they can refer to in cases of The LGU needs to document the capacities of the local government staff in terms of trainings, study tours,
emergency. This information should be readily available in tourist accommodations and attraction sites so seminars and workshops on tourism and allied fields. These may either be conducted by your LGU, or
that the tourists can easily access them. availed by the tourism officer and/or LGU staff from other training providers in the last 5 years. This will give
you an idea on how prepared your staff and other partners are on various aspects of tourism.
You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill in Annex J.
You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out Annex K.

Example 9. Emergency Contacts* Example 10. Tourism Education*


Organized/
Office/ Agency Contact Person Address Phone Number Number of participants Participant groups
Title of training/ conducted by
Date, venue
study tours
Local Police Station Old Albay, Legazpi Male Female
(6)52) 820-2030
Womens and Childrens Desk City

Training on Ecotourism
Patrol 117

Provincial / City / Municipal Disaster


Albay Provincial (052) 480-3772 Training on Catering
Risk Reduction Management
Capitol (052) 742-0149
Council Office
Training on Managing
Government Hospital/ Health Ser- Homestays
vices
Brgy. 57 Coastal
Training on Protected
Albay Fire Department Road, Dap-dap, (052) 435-0502 Area Management
Legazpi City
(052) 481-2555 /
Provincial / City / Municipal Hall (052) 742-0123 First Aid Training

Office Protected Area Superinten- Basic Training on Disaster


dent (PASU) Risk Reduction and Cli-
Community Environment and Natu- mate Change Adaptation
ral Resources Office (CENRO)
Provincial Environment and Natural
Lakbay Aral
Resources Office (PENRO)

Tourism Office/ Tourist Information Albay Provincial (052) 418-0250,


Center (if available) Capitol 742-0241 Others

Others

*Source of information: LGU, Planning Office

*Source of Information: LGU

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What tourism projects have your LGU undertaken in the past 5 years? This will tell you if you have invested Safety and security are two of the main concerns for many tourists. To address these, incidence of crime
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


on improving tourism in your area and give you an indication on how to proceed. involving the local tourism industry in the past ten (10) years based on the police reports should be
identified and monitored. This will require coordination with the Local Police Office.
You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex L. Example is provided below.
You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex M.

Example 11. Tourism Projects in the past 5 years* Example12. Peace and Order and Incidence of Crime*
Implementing Sources of
Name of Project Duration Partners Amount Nature of incident Description
Agency Funds

Tourism Awareness Island Garden City of DOT


January 2012 P 250,000.00 Regular Funds Kidnapping of tourists
Orientation Samal Tourism Office Regional Office

Drowning of tourists

Petty theft involving local guides

Road accidents involving tourists

Prostitution/ sexual harassment

Use of prohibited drugs

Pedophiles caught

Masseurs got pregnant by tourist

Trafficking of women and children

Incidence of female tourists travelling alone

Others:

*Source of information: LGU, Tourism Office, Planning Office

*Source of information: Local Police Office

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Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


Using the multi-hazard map, plot the location of tourist attractions in the locality. This will provide an
This section will help you prepare for a Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan for tourists. You may
illustration of the vulnerability of the tourism areas to natural and hazard. This may also help you in plan-
get a multi-hazard map from the Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB) from the Department of Environment
ning for the development of tourism sites in the future.
and Natural Resources (DENR) and note the possible hazards in your tourism circuit and tourism sites.
Please see the following examples below.
Simply list the hazards identified in your LGU. Provide the location of the areas vulnerable to these hazards.
Then identify if a tourist attraction is located within these areas or around its vicinity. If possible, indicate the
number of population vulnerable to these hazards. Note that the population affected are not only limited to
Example 14. Sample Multi-hazard Maps*
those employed in the specific tourist attraction.

You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex N.

Example 13. Hazards matrix*

Tourist Attraction
Hazard Location No. of Population Affected
Location

1. Earthquake

2. Landslide

3. Tidal wave

4. Volcanic eruptions

5. Storm surge

6. Tsunami

7. Others

*Source of information: MGB-DENR, Office of Civil Defense NAMRIA, CLUP Source: Municipality of Rodriguez

*Local Multi-hazard maps are available at MGB-DENR, OCD

- 13 - 14
What is the status of roads, bridges and other facilities? Describe them in the table below. The data will
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


help you in planning, particularly in improving the facilities and filling the gaps of tourism infrastructure. Example 16. Infrastructure: Others*

You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex P.
Infrastructure Attraction Areas Covered/Location Status/condition

Fully operational;
manned by the staff of
Example 15. Infrastructure: Roads and Bridges * Picnic Grove, Tagaytay the Tourism Office; pro-
Visitor Information Center Taal Volcano
City vide leaflets or informa-
Roads and Bridges tion sheets about the
(Roads to and from tourist Attraction Areas Covered/Location Status/condition tourist destination
attrations) Sepate comfort
rooms for male
Concrete two-lane smooth roads and female; the
Sumaguing Cave in Sagada Barangay Ambasing from Barangay Ambasing to town Rest areas with separate Picnic Grove,
Taal Volcano cleanliness of the
proper comfort rooms Tagaytay City
Provincial Road facility is regularly
checked by the
Bumod-ok Falls in Sagada Barangay Fidelisan Some parts of the road to Barangay management
Fidelisan are one-lane
Needs renovation,
installment of
View Decks Peoples Park Tagaytay City
safety grills, and
maintainance

Signages

Communications

Electricity

Water utility

Others

*Source of information: CLUP


*Source of information: CLUP

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Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


Profile of Tourist/Visitors Example 17. Visitor Activity Survey

LGUs that are already into tourism should have basic information of their visitors. You should be able to
Please put a check mark ( ) on the specific box beside your answer. Additional
identify your tourist market and analyze their needs to be able to provide them with the best experience information may also be asked. Please provide answers accordingly.
possible during their stay in your locality.

LGUs that are ahead in tourism keep an inventory of tourism data and other resources that are useful in
planning for tourism development in your area. However, for LGUs that have yet to start tourism
Q1 Where do you reside?
development, there has to be a way to systematically know their current visitors. In this Province
Outside of this Province Name of Province:_____________________________
You may use the following guide questions to determine the basic characteristics of tourists who come to Foreign Country Name of the Country:___________________________
visit your LGU.

Q2 Are you going to stay overnight or one day trip in this province?

Table 1. Guide Questions for Collecting Tourist Information One-day visitor


Over-night visitor How many night(s): ______
1. Where do your visitors come from?

2. How far do they travel to reach your attractions?

3. What is their average age?


Q3 Which attractions and destinations did you visit or going to visit during
your stay in this municipality/ city/ province? Please check the attractions/
4. How many males? Females? destinations listed below.

5. Do they travel in groups, i.e., couples, families, small groups or friends or colleagues, etc? (List down all the attractions found in your municipality/city/province.)

Example:
6. How would you describe their income group and lifestyle?
Tourist Attractions
7. What are their interests?
Kapurpurawan Beach

8. How do they book your tourism products? Saud Beach, Pagudpud


Paoay Lake
9. Who/ What influences their decisions?
St. Agustine Church in Paoay
10. How did they hear about your tourist destination?
St. Williams Cathedral
11. What are their activities in visiting your locality?
Dragon Fruit Farm (agri-tourism)

Bangui Windmill

La Paz Sand Dunes


Gathering the answers to the questions above may be done through a survey. The following is a template
sample for a Visitor Activity Survey that you may use. Survey questionnaires may be distributed in points of Shopping Malls/Department Stores
entry/exit or in the tourism information centers. You may also coordinate with accommodation and other
tourist establishments to help you gather this information among their clients. Laoag Public Market
Food: Ilocos longganisa, Empanada, Bagnet
You may find the pull-out survey questionnaire worksheet for distribution in Annex R.
Pamulinawen Festival
Oftentimes, data on tourism may not be available in various offices. Thus, primary data such as a visitor Patapat Viaduct
survey may be conducted to obtain more information necessary for tourism planning. A sample of this
survey is found in the succeeding page. Fort Ilocandia Casino

***List may be regularly updated to include additional attractions

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Q4 Q7 How much did you spend or will spend for the whole trip? (Approximated
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


What are your activities during your stay in this municipality/ city/ province?
Please check the attractions/ destinations listed below. total of expenses including all expenditures of food and accommodation,
transportation, leisure, shopping, etc.)

less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00


Example:
PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00
Tourist Attractions PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00
Trekking

Q8
Swimming, snorkeling
Are you traveling by package tour?
Scuba Diving

Church visitation
Yes
Exposure visit to fruit processing No
Sight seeing
If "Yes"
Sand boarding How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province
Shopping for souvenirs excluding the cost of package tour?
Food tasting, dining
less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00
Participation in festival activities PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00
PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00
***List may be regularly updated to include additional activities
If "No"
How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province per person?
less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00
PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00
PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00
Q5 Are there any person(s) traveling with you?
Alone
Family
Q11 How did you hear about __________ (the municipality/city province or the
specific attraction)?
Friend(s)
Business Colleague(s) Family/ friend Others, please specify:____________________
Others Please specify:_____________ Advertisement
Brochure
Tourism Fair
Q6 How many persons are traveling with you?
Internet

1-2 persons Please write down your


3-5 persons Age: __________ Sex: Male Female
6-10 persons
10-above number of persons

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After floating the survey questionnaire, you may collate the results and summarize it using the following
References
Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry


template. You may find the pull-out summary worksheet for you to fill out at the Annex S.

Example 18. Summary of Tourists/ Visitors Calanog, L., Reyes, P. & Eugenio, V. (2011). Making Ecotourism Work. Manila,
Philippines: Japan International Cooperation Agency.
Sex Place of Residence
Attraction Year Number
Male Female Philippines Foreign Department of Tourism & Japan International Cooperation Agency (2012). Tourism
Statistics Manual for Local Government Units. Manila, Philippines: Authors.
Resident Non-resident

Paoay Lake
Department of Tourism (2011). National Tourism Development Plan 2011 2016.
St. Agustine Church Paoay

Paoay Ancestral Houses Inskeep, E. (1991). Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable

La Paz Sand Dunes Development Approach. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Paoay Golf Course

Paoay Public Market

Food: Ilocos Longganisa

Abel Loom Weavers

Guling-Guling Festival

Paoay Lake

St. Agustine Church Paoay

Paoay Ancestral Houses

La Paz Sand Dunes

Paoay Golf Course

Paoay Public Market

Sub-total

Point of entry

Laoag International Airport

Subtotal

Adapted from DOT 2012, Tourism statistics manual for local government units

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Supplemental reading 1
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Supplemental reading 1 Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex A. Basic LGU Information

Name of LGU: _______________________________________________________

Province:_______________________ Region:_________________________

Population:_____________________ Land Area:______________________

Number of barangays:____________ Ethnic groups:___________________


Religions:______________________ _________________________
______________________ ________________________

Language/s spoken: ________________________________________________

Annexes Major economic activities:___________________________________________

pull-out worksheets Local Government Officials


Mayor:_______________________________________

Vice Mayor:___________________________________

Sanggunian Bayan/Panglungsod/Panlalawigan Members:


____________________________ ____________________________
____________________________ ____________________________
____________________________ ____________________________
____________________________ ____________________________

Name of Tourism Officer:_________________________________________

Name of Planning and Development


Coordinator:____________________________________________________

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Supplemental reading 1 Supplemental reading 1
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex C: Tourism Map


Annex B. Tourist Attractions and Activities

Category Attraction Location Activities

Categories of Tourism Attraction adapted from: DOT 2012, Tourism development planning guidebook for local government units

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Annex D. Accommodation and Other Facilities Annex E: Accommodation


Number Average length
Name of establishment Average rate Occupancy rate
Nature Establishment/ Facility Location Contact Details of rooms of stay

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Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex F: Transportation Annex G. Total Revenue Contributions to LGUs for the past 3 years

Type Schedules Route Average Fare Category Total Revenue contributions (PhP)

Year 1:____ Year 2:______ Year 3:_____

The revenue contributions to LGU per category can be determined for business planning of tourism in the LGU.

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Supplemental reading 1 Supplemental reading 1
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex H. Labor Force Annex I. Tourism Stakeholders

Category Number of Employees Address and


Groups Role in Tourism Name of Organization and Head
Contact Details

Male Female

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Supplemental reading 1 Supplemental reading 1
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex J. Emergency Contacts Annex K. Tourism Education


Organized/
Office/ Agency Contact Person Address Phone Number Number of participants Phone Number Participant groups
Title of training/ conducted by
Date, venue
study tours
Male Female

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Annex L. Tourism Projects in the Past 5 Years Annex M. Peace and Order and Incidence of Crime

Implementing Sources of Nature of incident Description


Name of Project Duration Partners Amount
Agency Funds

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Supplemental reading 1 Supplemental reading 1
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Annex N. Hazards Based on Hazard Maps Annex O. Multihazard Map

Hazard Location Tourist Attraction

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Supplemental reading 1 Supplemental reading 1
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex P. Infrastructure: Roads and Bridges Annex Q. Infrastructure

Roads and Bridges Infrastructure Attraction Areas Covered/Location Status/condition


Attraction Areas Covered/Location Status/condition
(Roads to and from tourist attrations)

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Supplemental reading 1 Supplemental reading 1
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex R: Visitor Activity Survey

Please put a check mark ( ) on the specific box beside your answer. Additional
information may also be asked. Please provide answers accordingly.
Q4 What activities did you do during your stay in this municipality/ city/ province?
Please check the attractions/ destinations listed below.

Q1 Where is your residence?


(List down all the tourist activities that they can do in your municipality/city/province.)
In this Province
Outside of this Province Name of Province:_____________________________
Foreign Country Name of the Country:___________________________ Tourist Attractions

Q2 Are you going to stay overnight or one day trip in this province?

One-day visitor
Over-night visitor How many night(s): ______

Q3 Which attractions and destinations did you visit or going to visit during
your stay in this municipality/ city/ province? Please check the attractions/
destinations listed below.

(List down all the attractions found in your municipality/city/province.)

Tourist Attractions Q5 Are there any person(s) traveling with you?


Alone
Family
Friend(s)
Business Colleague(s)
Others Please specify:_____________

Q6 How many persons are traveling with you including yourself ?

1-2 persons
3-5 persons
6-10 persons
10-above number of persons

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Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Q7 How much did you spend or will spend for the whole trip? (Approximated
total of expenses including all expenditure of accommodation, transport,
Annex S. Summary of Tourists/ Visitors

meals, drinking, shopping, etc.) Sex Place of Residence


Attraction Year Number
less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00 Male Female Philippines Foreign
PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00 Resident Non-resident
PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

Q8 Are you traveling by package tour?

Yes
No

If "Yes"
How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province excluding
the cost of package tour?

less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00


PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00
PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

If "No"
How much did you spend or will spend in this municipality/ city/ province per person?
less than PhP 1,000 .00 PhP 7,000.00- P 9,999.00
PhP 1,000.00- P 3,999.00 more than PhP 10,000.00
PhP 4,000.00- P 6,999.00

Q11 How did you hear about __________ (the municipality/city province or the
specific attraction)?

Family/ friend Others, please specify:____________________


Advertisement
Brochure
Tourism Fair
Internet

Please write down your


Age: __________ Sex: Male Female

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Linking the Tourism Development Plan

2
with the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading
Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan with the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan with the Mandated Local Plans
This supplemental reading outlines how the Local Tourism Development
Plan (TDP) would be placed in the context of the Comprehensive
Situating the TDP within the CDP
Development Plan (CDP) and Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) of the
Local Government Units (LGUs). Specifically, this will help LGUs:
The tourism industry is a subsector of the economic sector. It is also a multi-sectoral industry which
Link the TDP with the LGUs mandated local plans. should have an interface with the sectoral goals of the CDP. This is necessary to make the TDP relevant
with the desired sectoral aspirations of the LGU.

Local Government Units (LGUs) are mandated by Republic Act 7160 or the Local Government Code of 1991
to prepare two sets of plans at the provincial level the Provincial Development and Physical Framework
Plan (PDPFP) is prepared while the CLUP and CDP are prepared at the City/Municipal level. Revisiting them Brief Description of Sectors

Box 2
for the purpose of land use and sectoral analysis is necessary before formulating the Tourism Development
Plan. Social Sector embodies the social characteristics of the LGU revealed through indicators, for instance on
health and nutrition, housing, education, social welfare and protection services.

Box 1
Brief Description of Local Plans
Through this, existing situations are re-examined to provide valuable PDPFP Economic Sector shows data on economic goods and services, such as food, manufactured products;
inputs in the preparation of the Tourism Development Plan. is the merged physical framework plan employment opportunities, etc., as results of the following subsectors: agriculture, commerce and
and development plan of the province trade, industry and tourism.
The local TDP can also provide important information in updating the containing its long term vision,
CDP, CLUP and PDPFP, especially in developing prospective tourism development goals, objectives/strategies Environment Sector demonstrates the environmental quality of the LGU with respect to its natural
resources and other physical attributes.
potentials that are not yet included or identified in the existing plans. and corresponding programs, projects
and activities (PPAs) as major inputs to Infrastructure Sector determines the capacity, adequacy, efficiency and condition of existing
Likewise, the Tourism Officer must know and understand the vision investment programming, budgeting and infrastructure facilities and utilities of the LGU to cater the needs and requirements of providing
implementation. services to the local population.
of the LGU enshrined in its CLUP and CDP to establish the link of the
Tourism Development Plan (TDP) with its future state. This linkage CLUP Institutional Sector discloses how the LGU performs in terms of managing its local affairs and
would then be strengthened by finding the relevance of the proposed describes the existing and future land resources. It shows how local governance is run by the current set of elected officials.
TDP goals with the existing goals of the CLUP and CDP. uses of the LGU.

CDP
is a multi-sectoral development plan
comprising the following sectors: social,
economic, infrastructure, environmental
and institutional sectors.
The linkage between TDP and the CDP can be established through the inter-relatedness of their goals.
For instance, the tourism goals in the main Guidebook (Formulating the Local Tourism Development Plan) are
related to:
increasing the income and employment of community people (Economic sector);
improving access to tourism skills development and utilities/facilities
(Social sector/Infrastructure sector);

Situating the TDP within the PDPFP and increasing biodiversity cover and wildlife sightings (Environment sector) are linked to
the CDP sectoral goals as displayed in Example 1.

To situate tourism in local development, refer to the CDP and follow the steps below.
The TDP has to link with the PDPFP as it is the physical and development plan in the provincial level.
Provinces which have existing tourism plans often develop tourism circuits 1 consisting of municipalities and STEP 1: Revisit the social, economic, environment, infrastructure and institutional sectors
cities within their political jurisdictions. in the CDP; and

It is an important first step to determine if the province has already developed a tourism circuit. Then, identify STEP 2: Choose the sectoral goals which are relevant to tourism development.
the municipalities/cities included in it. Their role in the circuit must be considered during the formulation of
the TDP.
Please note that not all the goals stated in the CDP are necessarily significant in tourism.

-1 -2
The following is an example of the relevant sectoral goals from the CDP. You may find the pull-out
Situating the Tourism Development
Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking theTourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans
worksheet for you to fill out in Annex A.

Example 1.Summary: Relevance of CDP Sectoral Goals to the Tourism Development Plan Plan within the CLUP
2
Sector Goals Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan
The CLUP describes the present physical conditions (at the time of formulation) and identifies existing
land uses in the LGU. These pieces of information are useful in tourism development planning. It also
1. Expanded healthcare services made accessible to all, 1. Providing health care program for tourists.
especially to the vulnerable and disadvantaged sectors. indicates areas that need to be conserved, preserved and those with physical constraints that may impede
Social Sector

2. Enhanced social welfare delivery 2. Promoting socially inclusive welfare services that can be any type of tourism development.
made available to tourists
3. Preserved cultural legacies These are illustrated in thematic maps found in CLUP which are
Thematic Map Information

Box 3
3. Preserving significant cultural heritage sites useful in giving particular information through a visual display or
4. Improved gender parity and equality illustration. In working with thematic maps, the Tourism Officer
4. Promoting equal employment opportunities for male Combined hazard map indicates areas
and female applicants in tourism establishments
can seek the assistance of the City / Municipal Planning and prone to landslides, flooding and erosion.
Development Coordinator who is already cognizant of the CLUP.
Soil map shows areas whose ground
1. Competitive agricultural development 1. Promoting agri-tourism where prime agricultural lands can conditions are not good for tourism
be productively developed for both agriculture and tourism
Please take note that a legend of the thematic map provides the
Economic Sector

infrastructure development.
2. Premier eco-tourism destination color scheme information which is being used. This is different
2. Developing circuits/clusters of tourism attractions/sites from the color code used in the zoning map whose standard General land use map exhibits built up
3. Balanced economic development is prescribed by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board areas, forest areas, etc.
3. Making tourism industry as an engine of growth that
4. Increased number of employment generating stimulates development of other industries 3
(HLURB). A zoning map color code is provided in Annex E and F
for your reference. Infrastructure map displays road networks;
establishments doing business in the municipality
electricity lines, etc.
4. Granting tourism investment incentive to attract businesses
Similarly, the zoning ordinance must be considered because it Institutional map points location of
legally enforces the existing land uses specified in the CLUP. It can schools, municipal and barangay halls,
1. Ecologically balanced ecosystem that promotes 1. Spearheading tourism activities that promote viable healthy
viable healthy living in harmony with nature living in harmony with nature also help establish the parameters of tourismrelated zones so cemetery, etc.
that they can be properly monitored.
Environment Sector

2. Sustainable forest, freshwater, mineral resources and 2. Initiating tourism development that promotes conservation Tourism map indicates existing and
other natural resources development of biodiversity and sustainable natural resources potential tourism sites.
development
3. Effective and efficient implementation of eco waste
management promoting clean environment and 3. Establishing proper disposal of liquid and solid wastes by
healthy community living tourism establishments The following steps will situate the tourism development plan within the CLUP:
4. Improved protection and safety from disaster risks 4. Locating tourism development away from hazardous and STEP 1: From the existing land use classification of the LGU, pick out those relevant
and natural hazards risky areas
to the tourism development.
1. Improved safety, mobility and less circuitous access
1. Providing feasible alternate roads and access routes
STEP 2: Find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex B.
routes leading to important locations and institutions
connecting tourism sites / clusters/circuits
Infrastructure Sector

2. Enhanced water quality for human consumption and


2. Providing safe water supply from available water Illustrate the location of attractions and sites in your city/municipality using the Tourism Map. It is also
sufficient water supply for agriculture and production important to take into account other thematic maps in the CLUP when you are planning for tourism
concessionaire or natural sources
3. Sustainable, stable and adequate power supply for the development. To proceed, follow the steps below:
3. Providing electricity to tourism sites and support
different socio-economic power requirements
establishments
STEP 1: Overlay the land use map found in the CLUP into the Tourism Map.
4. Maximized role of Information and Communication
and Technology (ICT) in developing a competitive
4. Making information and communication technology The example uses the Tourism Map of Rodriguez, Rizal.
accessible in tourism sites.
agri-industrial and eco tourism destination
STEP 2: Afterwards, overlay the following thematic maps:
1. Creating and institutionalizing the local tourism office a. Infrastructure Map; b. Multi-hazard map; and c. Other types of map.
1. Strengthened human resource development
Institutional Sector

2. Initiating means of generating funds to finance tourism


2. Enhanced fiscal administration development The process described above is called Sieve Mapping. To familiarize ypurself with this method, you
can refer to Annex D. You may also seek the help of the City / Municipal Planning and Development
3. Enhanced fiscal autonomy and improved tax 3. Making tax collection from tourism establishments efficient
administration system that would raise LGU revenues Coordinator who can provide technical assistance.
4. Implementing RA 9184 (Government Procurement
4. Transparent and accountable governance Reform Act of 2002) through the use of Philippine
Government Electronic Procurement System (PHILGEPS)
posting bidding of tourism projects

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Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking theTourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans
Example 2. Relevance of Existing Land Use Classification to the Tourism Example 3. Overlaid Tourism Map
Development Plan
Existing Land Use
Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan
Classification 4
Production forest / orchard, protection forest, watershed, NIPAS and Non NIPAS areas fall under this
classification.
1. Forestland
Restricted or regulated tourism development within forestland. National policies are administered by
DENR, specifically the Biodiversity Management Bureau, ENRO, etc.
CARPable Zone, SAFD Zone, etc.
2. Agricultural land
Restricted or regulated tourism development within agricultural land. National policies are administered
by DAR and DA.
Land uses for residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, roads and bridges, etc.
3. Built-up areas
Availability of tourism support services, infrastructure and utilities.
Mineral resources extraction activities and quarrying of sand and gravel.
4. Mining and
Quarrying Incompatible land use with tourism development. RA7942 or the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 serves as
the legal basis.
Tourism attractions/ sites, examples: zoo, parks, resorts, etc.

Land use dedicated to tourism development and activities. The following serve as legal bases:
5. Tourism Zone Executive Order 111, S. 1999, Establishing the Guidelines for Ecotourism Development in the Philippines
issued on 17 June 1999.
Republic Act 7916 (Philippine Economic Zone Authority Act 1994)
Republic Act 9593 (Tourism Act 2009)
Creeks, rivers, tributaries and other bodies of water found in the LGU.

Tourism development, establishment and activities that may contribute pollution and adverse impact to
water bodies should be mitigated. The following serve as legal bases:
6. Water
Presidential Decrees 600 and 979 (Marine pollution policies by National Pollution Control Commission)
Presidential Decree 1067 (Water Code)
Republic Act 9275 (Clean Water Act of 2004)

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Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans
The example below describes the characteristics of the tourism attractions/ sites in terms of their location in It is important for the LGU to map out the road networks connected to the tourist attractions/sites. This will
the land use, zoning and thematic maps. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex G. provide a picture of the accessibility of the attractions/sites to tourists and visitors.

The same Sieve Map should show the internal road networks and its classification leading to the
Example 4. Characteristics of Tourism Attractions/ Sites based on Thematic Maps,
tourism site/attraction.
Land Use, and Zones 5
An example is provided below. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out at the Annex H.

Thematic Maps
Attraction/Site from Zoning
Example 4. Road classification to attractions/site
Refer to HLURB Land Use
Tourism Map Combined Guidelines Classification
Infrastructure Map
hazard map for other types
of map Attraction/Site from
Location Road Classification
Tourism Map

Avilon Zoo Brgy San Isidro Pathway / track


Avilon Zoo

Noahs Park Brgy San Isidro Pathway / track

Noahs Park

Some information regarding the status of roads and access routes to the tourist attraction/
site may not be found on the Sieve Map. Thus, you should maximize Annexes P and Q in
Supplemental Reading 1 (Profiling the Local Tourism Industry) to gather such information.

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Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans

Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans
Notes References
1 Department of Environment and Natural Resources (2006). Community Enterprise
The National Tourism Development Plan, 2011-2016 also identifies the cluster destinations and Tourism
Development and Management Guidebook. Quezon City, Philippines: Author.
Development Areas (TDAs) in the regional, provincial, city and municipal levels.
2 ________________ (2008). DENR-Administrative Order (DAO) No. 2008: Revised
Goals of CDP 2011 2016 of San Clemente, Tarlac (with modifications)
Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of Republic Act No. 7586 (NIPAS Act of 1992.
3
The Guide on Business Planning for Local Government Units (LGUs) is a useful reference in creating the
Department for Communities and Local Government (2006). Good Practice Guide on
business plan of the LGU specifically dedicated for the development of the tourism industry.
Planning for Tourism. London, United Kingdom: Author.
4
CLUP should have a National Park as one of the land use classifications, apart from forestlands. As stipulated in Doswell, R. (1997). Tourism: How Effective Management Makes the Difference. Oxford, United
Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann
5
You may refer to Supplementary Reading 7 - Managing the Impacts of Tourism section of this Guidebook for
Eagles, P., McCool, S. & Haynes, C. (2002). Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for
Planning and Management. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom: IUCN.

Forbes, J. (2007). A Map Analysis of Potentially Developable Land . Regional Studies, 3(2), 179-195.
Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09595236900185191

Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (2006). A Guide to Comprehensive Land Use Plan Preparation
(Volumes 1 and 2). Quezon City, Philippines: Author.

_________ (2001). Planning Strategically. Quezon City, Philippines: Author.

_________ (1996). Model Zoning Ordinance. Volume X. Fourth Revised Edition. Quezon City,
Philippines: Author.

National Economic and Development Authority, Department of Budget and Management and
Department of Finance (2007). Joint Memorandum Circular No. 1. Guidelines on the Harmonization
of Local Planning, Investment Programming, Revenue Administration, Budgeting and Expenditure
Management.

Municipality of Rodriguez, Rizal (2011). Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2012 2022.

Municipality of San Clemente, Tarlac (2011). Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2011 2020.

Municipality of San Clemente, Tarlac (2011). Comprehensive Development Plan 20112016.

Municipality of San Clemente, Tarlac (2011). Local Development Investment Programming 20112020.

OSullivan, D. (2014). Boolean Overlay and Sieve Mapping. Unpublished raw data, Department of
Geography, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania. Retrieved from https://www.e-education.psu.
edu/geog586

Republic of the Philippines (1975). Presidential Decree No. 705. Forestry Reform Code of the
Philippines.

____________________ (1977a). Presidential Decree 1151. Philippine Environmental Policy.

____________________ (1977b). Presidential Decree 1152. Philippine Environmental Code.

____________________ (1978). Presidential Decree 1586. Philippine Environmental Impact


Statement System.

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Supplemental reading 2 Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the Mandated Local Plans
Supplemental reading 2 Linking the tourism development plan within the Mandated local plans

References
____________________ (1981). Presidential Proclamation 2146. Proclaiming Certain Areas and Types of
Projects as Environmentally Critical and within the Scope of the
Environmental Impact Statement System Established under PD No. 1586.

____________________ (1991a). Republic Act 7160. Local Government Code of the


Philippines.

____________________ (1991b). Republic Act 7192. Women in Development and Nation Building Act.

____________________ (1995). Republic Act 7942. Philippine Mining Act.

____________________ (1997). Republic Act 8435. Agriculture and Fisheries

Annexes
Modernization Act.

____________________ (2001a). Republic Act 9147. Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection
Act. 2001.

____________________ (2001b). Republic Act 9072. National Caves and Cave Resources
Management and Protection Act.
pull-out worksheets
____________________ (2002). Republic Act 9184. Government Procurement Reform Act.

____________________ (2009). Republic Act 9593. Tourism Act.

Serote, E. (2005). Rationalized Local Planning System of the Philippines. Bureau of Local Government
Development Department of the Interior and Local Government.

United Nations Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization (2005). Making Tourism
More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Maker. Madrid, Spain: Authors.

World Tourism Organization (2003). Sustainable Development of Ecotourism: A Compilation


of Good Practices in Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises. Madrid, Spain: Author.

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Supplemental reading 2 Supplemental reading 2
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex A. Relevance of CDP Sectoral Goals to the Tourism Development Plan Annex B .Relevance of Existing Land Use Classification to the Tourism Development Plan

Sector Goals Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan Ex isting Land Use Classification Relevance to the Tourism Development Plan

Social Sector

Economic Sector

Environment Sector

Infrastructure Sector

Institutional Sector

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Supplemental reading 2 Supplemental reading 2
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex C. Overlaid Tourism Map Annex D:

Sieve Mapping Methodology


Sieve mapping entails combining spatial data sets (which contains information from different sources) using Geographic
Information System (GIS) applications. This process will allow easy/direct reading and analysis of the spatial distribution
of land characteristics (Forbes, 2007). The resulting output is a single map where layers displaying varied information are
shown superimposed.

In the sieve mapping process, four basic steps were taken to come up with a map overlay for analysis, they are:

4 1. Determining the inputs


2. Data acquisition

Basic Steps
3. Putting the data sources into
a uniform coordinate system
4. Overlaying the maps

Data Inputs
The data used are barangay and municipal Boundary, water systems, infrastructures such as roads, bridges, and
transportation terminals, well-known tourism sites, and areas prone to natural hazards such as floods, landslides,
and faults.

Using GIS techniques, these data were digitized, edited, and transformed from their original formats to a consistent
data format (and placed in a geodatabase). This is essential in showing a discernible spatial distribution or
phenomenon. Furthermore, data processing was applied so that they can be used for further analysis.

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Supplemental reading 2 Supplemental reading 2
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Data Acquisition Annex E


Data were acquired from different government agencies and various open data sources available to the public.
These sources are: COLOR CODES FOR ZONING MAP (URBAN)

National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA)


Municipal Planning and Development Office (MPDO-Rodriguez) ZONING CATEGORY COLOR CODE
Department of Environment and Natural Resource (DENR)
Land Management Bureau (LMB) 1. Residential
Mines and Geosciences myrBureau (MGB)
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philvocs) R1
Google Earth
Open Street Map (OSM) R2
Global Administrative Areas (GADM)
R3

Uniform Coordinate System


Since the data came from different sources, their coordinate systems (a reference system used to represent
2. Commercial
the real world locations of geographic features) were not identical. Thus, the input data need to be
converted into a common coordinate system to ensure that the map layers are referenced to the same
C1
planar surface. This was done using projection and transformation tools in GIS. The final coordinate system
is WGS 1984 UTM Zone 51 North, a projected coordinate system.
C2

Map Overlay and Resulting Output C3

The final step in the sieve mapping process is overlaying the different data layers. The output map shows 3. Institutional
the location of tourism sites in reference to the road network, river network, transportation terminals,
infrastructures, fault lines, and areas that are prone to hazards such as flooding and landslide. G1

S1

4. Industrial

I1

I2

I3

5. Infrastructure

6. Open Space

Overlaying the different Appropriate


data layers 7. Others color other than
the above

(Cemetery, Land fill site)

Source: HLURB, 1996

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Supplemental reading 2 Supplemental reading 2
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex G. Situating Tourism Potentials / Sites


Annex F Thematic Maps

COLOR CODES FOR ZONING MAP (GENERAL) Attraction/Site from


Tourism Map
Refer to HLURB Land Use
Zoning
Classification
Combined Guidelines
Infrastructure Map
hazard map for other types
of map
ZONING CATEGORY COLOR CODE

1. Built-up

2. Agriculture

3. Forest

4. Special Use

4.1 Mining/Quarrying

4.2 Grassland/Pasture

4.3 Agro-Industrial

4.4 Tourism
Appropriate
color other than
4.5 Other Uses the above

Source: HLURB, 1996

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Supplemental reading 2
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Linking the Tourism Development Plan within the mandated Local Plan

Annex H. Road Classification to Attractions/ Site

Attraction/Site from
Location Road Classification
Tourism Map

- 20
Adopting the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading
3
Supplemental reading 3 Adopting the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 3 Adopting the Tourism Development Plan


This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook for Local Government
Units:
Example 1: Resolution Adopting the Tourism Development Plan
Walks you through the steps on mobilizing support and commitment towards
plan institutionalization; and
Provides tools, worksheets and tips to facilitate adoption and institutionalization
of the tourism plan. Resolution No. ___, Series of ___

ADOPTING THE TOURISM PLAN OF THE PROVINCE/CITY/MUNICIPALITY OF _________________

WHEREAS, the Local Government Code has identified the development and promotion of tourism as a
mandate of the local government;

Why is there a need to adopt the plan? WHEREAS, the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) recognizes that tourism can serve
as the primary engine of growth for the local economy;

WHEREAS, ____________ Province/City/Municipality possesses enormous tourism potential which, if


Formally adopting the Tourism Development Plan (TDP) through a resolution provides the necessary tapped and developed, can generate revenues for local businesses, create jobs, and improve the well-being
impetus for implementation. Once the TDP has been approved by the Local Chief Executive(LCE), he/she of the community;
can endorse it to the Sanggunian for adoption. There are two ways of gaining support and commitment
of the Sanggunian towards this end, depending on the situation in the LGU, to wit: WHEREAS, the adoption of a tourism development plan, a blueprint of progress and development for
the ____________ province/city/municipality, paves the way for the realization of the stakeholders
aspiration to become an established tourist destination;

NOW THEREFORE, this body in session assembled;


The Sanggunnian Chairperson for tourism development, with assistance from the Local Planning
and Development Coordinator, presents the draft plan to the Sanggunian. It is important to include RESOLVED, to adopt as it hereby adopts the Tourism Plan of the Province/City/Municipality of
a representative from the Sanggunian early on in the process to build his/her commitment to ______________.
champion tourism in the local legislative council; or
CARRIED.

The LCE presents the draft plan to the Sanggunian. The LCE, as the Chairperson of the Local I hereby certify to the correctness of the foregoing resolution which was duly adopted by the Sanggunian
Development Council (LDC), the mandated planning body, is in a position to rally support of the Panlalawigan/Panglungsod/Bayan during its regular session on _____________.
members of the legislative body to approve the plan. It is essential to involve non-government
organization members of the LDC in all stages of the tourism development planning to show that (Signed)
the development of the plan was a result of a collaborative effort of various stakeholders, and as
such, enjoys broad-based support. Secretary to the SP/SB

ATTESTED:

Presiding Officer
How can we institutionalize the plan?
SB Member SB Member SB Member

The active participation of the Sanggunian in the formulation of the TDP is envisioned to facilitate its
SB Member SB Member SB Member
approval. The Sanggunian can issue a resolution to adopt the plan to jumpstart tourism development
in their respective jurisdictions. A sample resolution is provided in Example 1. The presentation to the
Sanggunian should include proposed legislative measures that are needed for tourism development, APPROVED:
which can be integrated in their respective legislative agenda. This may include updating of the Zoning
Ordinance to protect identified tourism sites and infrastructure requirements of the plan.
Governor/Mayor

3- 1 -2
Preparing for Tourism Development Plan

4
Implementation

Supplemental reading
Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:
You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex A.
Prioritize tourism projects for implementation;
Rank prioritized tourism projects using the Goal Achievement Matrix (GAM)
method; and
Enhance success of the plan implementation through capacity development.
Example 1. Tourism Project Profiles
Estimated Project
Project Name Brief Description
Cost (Php)
Ecotourism The proposed project advocates protection of the natural resources, the base 13.2 M
Development Project from which the ecotourism industry thrives. It seeks to put in place
mechanisms that are environmentally sustainable, economically viable, and
This section will tackle how the TDP would be implemented through the ranked tourism projects from socially equitable in order to bring about development in the municipality
its list of programs/projects/activities (PPAs) identified in the section on Formulating the Tourism that would redound to the benefit of local communities.
Development Plan. The GAM method, developed by Morris Hill in 1966, will be used in the process of
selecting, prioritizing and ranking all those listed PPAs using a set of criteria and assigned weights.
Wawa Dam Road The proposed project is a rehabilitation of the 5 km access to Wawa Dam 50 M
Similarly, it will cover discussion on capacity development for implementors and stakeholders which can Improvement Project which will benefit xxx people / residents.
boost the successful implementation of the TDP.

There is a need for LGUs to implement those ranked projects in the TDP because they are the fulfillment
of its goals and objectives. However, it has to be complemented with the necessary capacity development
of the implementers and stakeholders to make the implementation successful. Others

Tourism Project Profile


A project profile is a document that briefly describes the tourism project, indicating the objectives,
location, and target beneficiaries. Likewise, it also indicates the possible sources of funds and the period
of project implementation. More importantly, it spells out the project components and activities and their
corresponding costs.

A tourism project can be broad enough to include component projects which are related and
complementary. It can also be specific such that it has no component projects. This is illustrated in
Example 1.

-1 -2
After screening the tourism projects, the shortlisted ones would then be prioritized to
Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
Based on the given table for prioritizing tourism projects in Step 1, construct another

STEP 2
determine those to be given utmost importance during the implementation phase.
table and write down the set of prioritized tourism projects as shown in Example 2.
You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex B.

These are the steps in prioritizing tourism projects:


Set a hierarchy of prioritization categories and match them with a set of criteria. Serote Example 2. Prioritized Tourism Project
STEP 1

(2005) provides a valuable means of doing this, as shown in Table 1, which can be
adopted by LGUs. Timeframe1
Estimated Cost Implementing
Project Name 1 2 3
(Php) Office
Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Table 1. Criteria for Prioritizing Tourism Projects Ecotourism


Development
Project
CATEGORY GENERAL CRITERIA
Wawa Dam Road
Projects that cannot be reasonably postponed Improvement Project
Projects that would remedy conditions dangerous to public health, safety and welfare
Urgent
Projects that maintain critical programs
Others
Projects that respond to emergency situations

Projects required to complete or make usable a major public improvement


Projects required to maintain minimum standards as part of on-going program
Essential
Desirable self-liquidating projects
Projects for which external funding is available

Projects that should be carried out to meet clearly identified and anticipated needs
1 Timeframe assumes the maximum tenure of the Local Chief Executive.
Necessary Projects to replace obsolete or unsatisfactory facilities
Projects for repair or maintenance to prolong life of existing facilities

Projects needed for expansion of current programs


Desirable Projects designed to initiate new programs considered appropriate for a
progressive community

Projects that can be postponed without detriment to present operations if


Acceptable
budget cuts are necessary

Projects recommended for postponement or elimination from immediate


consideration in the current LDIP
Deferrable
Projects that are questionable in terms of over-all needs, adequate planning
or proper timing

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Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
Ranking Tourism Projects Table 3. Weight of TDP Goals

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
The GAM determines which of those prioritized tourism projects contribute substantially to Goal Representation Weight
achieve the goals and objectives ofthe TDP, especially if the investments poured into these
projects would bring favorable socio-economic benefits to the host LGU. The GAM is a familiar 1. Premier ecotourism destination W1 20%
tool among City / Municipal Planning and Development Coordinators because it is used in the
2. Improved safety, mobility and less circuitous access routes
formulation of the Local Development Investment Programming (LDIP). Hence, you can ask them W2 20%
to tourism sites
to assist you in using GAM to rank your prioritized tourism projects.
3. Improved protection and safety of tourists from disaster risks
W3 20%
and natural hazards
The result would be a tabulation of ranked tourism projects based on their total scores derived
4. Sustainable ecotourism development W4 20%
from summing up the products of the assigned weight for each goal multiplied by the rating of
each prioritized tourism project. 5. Enhanced social welfare delivery W5 10%

6. Maximized role of ICT in the tourism industry W6 10%

Total 100%
Here are the steps in ranking tourism projects:

Establish a project rating scale. The rating scale provided by Serote (2005) shown
STEP 1

in Table 2 may be used to assess the contribution of a particular prioritized tourism


Construct a GAM table similar to Table 4. In order to compute for the total score

STEP 3
project to the fulfillment of any TDP goal.
of each project, refer to Table 4 and the sample on Example 3.
The rating for each tourism project may be represented by letter R with a subscript
corresponding to the project rating to distinguish them from each other. You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex C.

Assign a corresponding weight on each goal from the TDP. If the weight is in terms
STEP 2

of percentage, the total weight should be equal to 100%. The weight for each Table 4. Goal Achievement Matrix
tourism project may be represented by a variable W with a subscript
corresponding to the number assigned to the goal. Examples of weighted TDP Project Rating x Goal Weight ( R x W) Total
goals are presented in Table 3. Proposed Score
Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 Goal 4 Goal 5 Goal 6 Rank
Project No. (a + b + c + d
(a) (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) + e + f)
2
1 R x W1 R x W2 R x W3 R x W4 R x W5 R x W6
2 R x W1 R x W2 R x W3 R x W4 R x W5 R x W6
Table 2. Tourism Project Rating Scale 3 R x W1 R x W2 R x W3 R x W4 R x W5 R x W6

Project 4 R x W1 R x W2 R x W3 R x W4 R x W5 R x W6
Representation Description
Rating 5 R x W1 R x W2 R x W3 R x W4 R x W5 R x W6

3 R1 Project contributes greatly to the fulfillment of the goal 6 R x W1 R x W2 R x W3 R x W4 R x W5 R x W6


Others
2 R2 Project contributes moderately to the fulfillment of the goal

1 R3 Project contributes slightly to the fulfillment of the goal

0 R4 Project does not contribute to the fulfillment of the goal

-1 R5 Project slightly inconsistent with the goal

-2 R6 Project moderately inconsistent with the goal

2 Subscript of R depends on the project rating


-3 R7 Project greatly contradicts the goal

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Construct a table for the ranked tourism projects using the GAM method in Step 3,

STEP 4
as illustrated in Table 5. The 10 topmost ranked tourism projects or more can then
Example 3. Goal Achievement Matrix (Sample with scores)

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
be submitted to the office of the Local Chief Executive for funding consideration.
Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Proposed Project Rating x Goal Weight ( R x W) Total You may find the pull-out worksheet for you to fill out in Annex D.
Rank
Project No. Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 Goal 4 Goal 5 Goal 6 Score

1 3 (0.2) 2(0.2) 1(0.2) 0(0.2) 2(0.1) -1(0.1) 1.30 1

2 0 (0.2) -3(0.2) 2(0.2) -1(0.2) 1(0.1) -2(0.1) -0.50 6 Table 5. Ranked Tourism Projects
3 -2 (0.2) 0(0.2) 3(0.2) 1(0.2) 3(0.1) 2(0.1) 0.90 2
3
4 2 (0.2) 1(0.2) -2(0.2) 0(0.2) -1(0.1) 0(0.1) 0.10 3 Timeframe

5 1(0.2) 2(0.2) 0(0.2) -2(0.2) -3(0.1) -3(0.1) -0.40 5 Rank Estimated Implementing
Project Name 1 2 3
No. Cost (Php) Office
6 -1(0.2) 0(0.2) -3(0.2) 2(0.2) 2(0.1) 1(0.1) -0.10 4
Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr
Others
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3
The total score is derived from the summation of all the R x W products.
4

RxW Products 6

7
GOAL GOAL GOAL GOAL GOAL GOAL
8
TOTAL
9
SCORE
10

3
Timeframe assumes the maximum tenure of the Local Chief Executive

To illustrate a Proposed Project No. 1 in Example 3 can be taken out and analyzed. Action Planning Process
With reference to Table 2, the total score of Proposed Project No. 1 can be interpreted as follows: After having ranked the tourism projects, an action plan is needed to implement the TDP. The following
are the steps in action planning:

it contributes greatly to the fulfillment of goal 1; 1. Identify the activities for implementing the tourism development plan in a
chronological manner.

it contributes moderately to the fulfillment of goal 2;


2. Define each activity and include the timeframe (start and end) for its implementation.

3.
it contributes slightly to the fulfillment of goal 3;
Identify the means of verifying that the activities are undertaken.

4.
it does not contribute to the fulfillment of goal 4;

Allocate the resources available to support these activities.


it contributes moderately to the fulfillment of goal 5; and

5.
it is slightly inconsistent with goal 6.
Provide a mechanism where these activities can be evaluated.

6. Identify office responsible for each of the activity.

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Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
The Action Plan Matrix

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
The Action Plan Matrix is the product of the action planning process. The matrix contains the identified
Building Capacities for TDP
activities to implement the plan; definition of each activity; means to assess an activity; resources needed
to undertake such activity; how the activity can be evaluated; and the office/s responsible in doing the
Implementation
activity.
As part of the preparation in implementing the TDP, capacity development is necessary to help enrich
the skills of stakeholders and implementors that are needed for its successful implementation.
Example 4. The Action Plan Matrix
Means of Resources Responsible
Activity Definition Evaluation

1. Organizing Formation of all


Verification
List of implementing
Needed
Transportation, Percentage of
Office/s
Mayors Office / What is capacity building?
the different implementing team and names of supplies, food, implementing LGU Administrator,
implementing teams and team members venue, etc. teams organized Tourism Officer,
teams identification of HR, MPDC
Capacity building or development is the process by which individuals, groups, organizations, institutions
members. and societies increase their abilities to: a) perform core functions, solve problems, define and achieve
(Weeks 1 2) objectives and b) understand and deal with their development needs in a broad context and in a
sustainable manner (UNDP, 1998).
2. Holding an Briefing the Attendance sheet, Transportation, Attendance Mayors Office /
orientation implementing Minutes of meeting, supplies, food, to meeting, LGU Administrator,
meeting teams on etc. venue, etc. Contents of the Tourism Officer, The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) defines capacity development in the same
the expected minutes. HR, MPDC manner. Capacity development refers to the approaches, strategies and methodologies used to improve
outputs and performance at the individual, organizational, network/sector or broader system level. Among its key
deliverables, etc. objectives are to: a) enhance or more effectively utilize skills, abilities and resources; b) strengthen
(Weeks 3 4) understandings and relationships; and c) address issues of values, attitudes, motivations and conditions
in order to support development goals (DILG-LGSP, 2009).
Others
There is no singular definition of capacity building. Over the years, capacity building has evolved from
being a focus of individual training towards the development of institutions and recently a complex
systems at large. Recent definitions emphasize the continuing process of strengthening of abilities to
perform core functions, solve problems, define and achieve objectives, and understand and deal with
development needs (UNESCO, 2005).

A capacity development plan is a document that seeks to rationalize and strategically focus the capacity
building efforts of LGUs (UNESCO, 2005). Such plan also outlines the capacity interventions or programs
that need to be undertaken to address perceived gaps in knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) of an
The Activity Plan individual or organization.

From the action plan matrix, an activity plan can be formulated to specifically list down related activities
that would help in the plan implementation. Example 5 stems from the action plan matrix in Example 4.

Example 5. The Activity Plan Schedule

Week
ACTIVITY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Organizing the different implementing teams

Holding an orientation meeting.

Others

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What does capacity building involve?

Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
What are the steps in formulating a
Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation

Capacity Development Plan? Capacity in the broadest sense is concerned with the following (UNESCO, 2005):

Human Resource Development. It is the process of equipping individuals with the


understanding, skills and providing access to information, knowledge and training that enable
There is no one way to capacity development planning. them to perform effectively.
The following are some suggested steps:
Organization Development. This covers the elaboration of management structures, processes

1. Establish the organizational and individual competencies that are needed to


implement the TDP (What capacities should be present in the LGU to support the
implementation of priority programs and projects?)
and procedures, not only within the organizations but also within sectors (public, private and
community).

Institutional and Legal Framework Development. This concerns the making of legal and

2. Examine existing capacity vis--vis desired competencies. (Does the LGU have regulatory changes to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels, and in all
adequate leadership, management, technical skills, organization arrangement, sectors, to enhance their capacities.
motivation, technology and equipment, systems and procedures, regulations,
ordinances, and funds to accomplish the goals of the TDP?) Human resource development for tourism must be given priority in order to offer the quality of services

3.
expected by the tourist markets. Developing the human resources for tourism requires a systematic
Identify capacity gaps. (Where are gaps in capacities? Which capacity areas need approach of projecting personnel needs and determining the training required to provide the qualified
to be prioritized?) personnel. Personnel in both the public and private sectors require education and training (UN-WTO, 1998).

4. Identify priority strategies or actions that need to be taken to improve capacities.


(What should be done to improve or develop capacities?)
Developing the human resources for tourism requires a systematic approach

5. Prepare a capacity development plan and budget. (How much time, effort and
budget would be required to make improvements in the present capacity of the
LGU and is it worth it?)
(UN-WTO, 1998):

Surveying and evaluating the present utilization of personnel in tourism and identifying any

6. Assign roles and responsibilities to achieve the goal and the capacity objectives.
existing problems and needs, for example, upgrading the skills of some personnel;

Projecting the future personnel needed based on the number of personnel required in each

7. Monitor the plan and make adjustments as required. (Should goals and objectives
be adjusted given present capacity?)
category and skill level of employment;

Evaluating the total human resources that will be available in the future. This involves
examination of the number of persons in the area who will be seeking employment in the
future, and the educational qualifications of these persons; and

Determining education and training needs of the personnel required and formulating the
education and training programme needed to provide the qualified personnel.
Source: Adopted and modified from the Manual on the Local Planning Process, Formulating the CDP and ELA in ARMM, DILG-LGSP, 2009.

Capacity Assessment
Ideally, LGUs need to undertake a serious capacity assessment and establish the individual and
organizational competencies needed in the implementation of the TDP.

In Supplemental Reading I Profiling the Local Tourism Industry, worksheets enumerating the tourism
stakeholders and their role in tourism, tourism education, as well as tourism projects in the past five
years are provided. This will have to be accomplished by tourism officers and planners, the target users
of this Tourism Guidebook. Such listings can help LGUs identify and later analyze certain tourism-related
capacity building needs in the locality.

In this Supplemental Reading, priority tourism programs, projects and activities (PPAs) have been
identified and ranked. LGUs can also utilize the data from the list of PPAs in ascertaining capacities
needed to realize the PPAs.

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Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
A sample capacity building assessment matrix is provided below. LGUs would also need to A sample capacity development plan is provided below. This plan can be modified, to
prioritize their capacity building interventions form the list of recommended interventions include more information/data depending on the requirements of the user.
taking into consideration budget and other resource requirements.
LGUs can use the pull-out worksheet found in Annex G to formulate their own capacity
LGUs can use the pull-out worksheet found in Annex G to formulate their own capacity building assessment matrix.
building assessment matrix.

Example 7. Capacity Development Plan


Example 6. Capacity Building Assessment Matrix
Priority Target No of Implementation
Resource/
Priority Programs, Capacity Building Priority Capacity Tourism Capacity Target Participants Desired Details
Perceived Skills/ Target Budget
Projects and Intervention Recommended Building Sectoral Goal Building Office Outcome (Timeframe, Who
Knowledge Gaps Stakeholders Requirements
Activities (PPAs) to Address Gaps** Intervention Intervention are involved)
M F
1. Development of Community Conduct of : Conduct of training on Participants to Example: Training on Municipal 15 15 Net income Honoraria for One week
Homestay Program household members Formal Training homestay development and the homestay Increased income Homestay Tourism Office increased by tourism experts
are not used to On-the-job training (OJT) management program of tourism Development 10% Training Participants to the
receiving visitors Study tour Basic Food Preparation and in the community community and Management materials homestay program
Handling enterprises P 50,000.00 in the community
Basic Hygiene
Table Setting
DOTs Minimum
Standards on Homestay
Example: On the Job Tourism 10 10 1 Million Transportation Two weeks
Improved access Training Enterprise mobilized and meal
to financing Office from allowances Staff of tourism
2. Microcredit Staff of tourism Conduct of: Conduct of OJT in business Staff of Tourism microcredit P20,000 enterprises
Program enterprises lack Formal training establishments Enterprises organiza-
OJT tions
knowledge and
skills on financial Mentoring and coaching
management Example: Study Tour in Municipal 5 5 Enhanced Transport Two days
Improved skills of other Tourism Office skills on Meals
the local tourism municipalities/ advocacy P10,000 Saff of the Municipal
3. Lobbying and The staff of the local Conduct of : Conduct of study tour in Staff of the Local office staff cities and Tourism Office
Advocacy tourism office lack Formal training other municipalities and Tourism Office lobbying
the skills to influence Exchange visit/ Study tour cities
policy and access re-
sources from donors
Adapted and modified from the Manual on Local Planning Process: Formulation of the CDP and ELA in ARMM, 2009, DILG-LGSP.

** Capacity Building Intervention may include formal training/workshop, mentoring and coaching, on-the-job training, study tour, exchange visit, etc.

Capacity Building Intervention Plan


Using the data in the Capacity Building Assessment Matrix, LGUs can proceed to develop a more detailed
capacity intervention plan. This Plan indicates the contribution of the LGUs capacity building efforts
to the much larger tourism goals as well as desired outcomes. It also shows the resource requirements,
number of participants, and implementation details and target to undertake the priority capacity
building interventions identified in the capacity assessment matrix.

LGUs can also refer to other capacity assessment and capacity development planning tools such as the
System on Competency Assessment for Local Government (SCALOG) and the Local Government Performance
Management System (LGPMS), the latter found at www.blgs.gov.ph/lgpms.

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Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
Supplem ental reading 4 Preparing for Tourism Developm ent Plan Implemen tation
References
(2007). Lecture slides from Special Course in Urban and Regional Planning (SCURP), University of the
Philippines School of Urban and Regional Planning.

Department of Interior and Local Government and Local Government Support Program (2009).Manual
on the Local Planning Process: Formulation the CDP and ELA in ARMM. Manila: Authors.

Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (2001). Planning Strategically. Manila: Author

Local Government Academy, Department of Interior and Local Government (1998). Guide for Local
Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism. Manila: Author.

_____________________________________ (2009). CapDev Agenda in a Nutshell A Primer on the


Formulation of a Competency based Capacity Development Agenda. Manila: Author.

Republic of the Philippines (1991).Republic Act 7160: Local Government Code of the Philippines.

Annexes
__________________ (2001).Republic Act 9147:Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act.

Serote, E. (2005). Rationalized Local Planning System of the Philippines. Manila: Bureau of Local
Government Development Department of the Interior and Local Government.

United Nations Educational, Cultural and Social Organization (2005).Guidebook for Planning in
Education, Emergencies and Reconstruction, Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning.
pull-out worksheets
Retrieved from http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Technical_Assistance/pdf/
Guidebook/Guideboook.pdf.

United Nations World Tourism Organization (1998).Guide for Local Authorities on Developing
Sustainable Tourism. Madrid: Author.

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Supplemental reading 4 Supplemental reading 4
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex A. Tourism Project Profile Annex B. Prioritized Tourism Project

Estimated Project Timeframe


Project No. Project Name Brief Description
Cost (Php)
Estimated Cost Implementing
Project Name 1 2 3
(Php) Office
Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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Supplemental reading 4 Supplemental reading 4
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex C. Goal Achievement Matrix Annex D. Ranked Tourism Projects

Project Rating x Goal Weight ( R x W) Timeframe


Total
Proposed Project No. Score Rank Rank Estimated
Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 Goal 4 Goal 5 Goal 6 (a+b+c+d+e+f) Project Name 1 2 3 Implementing Office
No. Cost (Php)
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr Yr
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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Supplemental reading 4 Supplemental reading 4
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex E. The Action Plan Matrix Annex F. The Activity Plan Schedule
Means of Resources Responsible Week
Activity Definition Evaluation
Verification Needed Office/s ACTIVITY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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Supplemental reading 4 Supplemental reading 4
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex G. Capacity Building Assessment Matrix Annex H. Capacity Development Plan


Priority Programs, Capacity Building Priority Capacity
Perceived Skills/ Target Target No of Implementation
Projects and Intervention Recommended Building
Knowledge Gaps Stakeholders Priority Participants Details
Activities (PPAs) to Address Gaps** Intervention Tourism Target Desired Out- Resource/ Budget
Capacity Building (Timeframe, Who
Sectoral Goal Office Staff come Requirements
Intervention are
M F involved)

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Supplemental reading 4 Supplemental reading 4
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Profiling the Local Tourism Industry

Annex I
Budgetary Requirements (in millions)
Project profile 5

Program / Projects / Activities LDIP Period

I Title of the Project:


Ecotourism Development Project 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 TOTAL

II Project Proponent: Tourism Infrastructure Support


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
San Clemente Municipal Tourism Office Development

III Brief Description of the Project :


The proposed ecotourism development in San Clemente aims to advocate protection and Promotion of Ecotourism Events - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 1
conservation of the natural resources, the base from which the ecotourism industry thrives.
Specifically, it seeks to put in place mechanisms that are environmentally sustainable,
economically viable, and socially equitable in order to bring about economic development
in the municipality that would redound to the benefit of local communities. LGU support Institutionalization 0.1 - - - - - - - - - .1

IV
Project Goals and Objectives:
Strengthening Partnership for
Goal: Attainment of socio-economic growth of the municipality through sustainable Environment Protection and - 0.1 - - - - - - - - .1
ecotourism development Management
Objectives:
1. To increase investment in ecotourism project by improving infrastructure, security,
Promotion and Marketing of Banner
communication, community development and local pride; and Emerging Sites
- 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 1
2. To improve performance in terms of tourist arrivals and receipt and develop a strong
backward linkages with other sectors ; and
3. To increase share of jobs generated
Competency Building for Tourism
- 0.25 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 - - 1
Industry Personnel

V Project Location :
Sitio Lippet and Sitio Canding, Barangay Maasin
TOTAL 1.1 1.65 1.55 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.225 1.225 1.125 1.125 13.2

VI Target Beneficiaries :
Sitio Lippet and Sitio Canding, Barangay Maasin
Target Beneficiaries: Local communities of San Clemente and Brgy. Maasin

VII Sources of Funds :


LGU San Clemente
Provincial Government
Department of Tourism
Official Development Assistance

VIII Proposed Period of Implementation: 2011-2016

IX Project Status: NEW

X Project Components/Activities and Cost

5 With modification from the original version (LDIP 2011 2020 of San Clemente, Tarlac)

- 25 - 26
Photo credits by George Tapan

Financing the Tourism

5
Development Plan

Supplemental reading
b.
Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan


This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs:

Prepare the tourism project milestone matrix;


External Funding Source:
Present how to source funds from public and private sectors
For LGUs which would want to implement a tourism project even if
to finance the ranked tourism projects; and
it is not included in the Local Development Investment Plan (LDIP),
Know the importance of writing an effective tourism project proposal.
Annual Investment Plan (AIP) or Executive and Legislative Agenda
(ELA), they may resort to alternative financing schemes. These
financing options are illustrated in Table 2.

As Republic Act 7160 puts it, It shall be the basic policy that any
Financing the Tourism Development Plan (TDP) is a means of funding the ranked tourism projects. local government unit may create indebtedness and avail of credit
This is made possible by determining the total cost of all these projects through formulating the facilities to finance local infrastructure and other socio-economic
Tourism Project Milestone Matrix. development projects in accordance with approved local
development plan and public investment program. (Sec. 296)
Likewise, it is at this stage of the tourism development planning process where LGUs allocate
resources or source out the funds needed to implement those ranked tourism projects. The
resources or funds may be sourced internally (locally) or externally (national/international) from
various financing options. Table 2: External Financing Schemes

Official Development
Private Financing Borrowing
Assistance (ODA)

Funding Sources Multilateral loans


(may also be grants) Bond Floatation
Public (Government
Financial Institutions)
It is assumed that for each ranked tourism project, a Project Profile has already been prepared and
(Provincial equity funds)
Private (Commercial banks)
submitted to the office of the Local Chief Executive for funding consideration. In response, the LGU may Bilateral loans
employ different strategies to mobilize financial resources to fund those ranked tourism projects. There (may also be grants)

c.
are financial options available both from local and external sources.

a. Local Funding Source:


For tourism development projects which are to be funded internally, there
are two possible funding sources: Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) and
local revenues, as illustrated in Table 1.
Public- Private Partnership (PPP):
The LGU may enter into contract with a private sector to make the
latter provide financial, technical and other operational support to
implement those ranked tourism projects. The Build-Operate-Transfer
(BOT) and its variants2 are forms of a PPP.

d.
Table 1. Local Financing Schemes

Destination Coordination Private Business Investment:


Taxes Private individuals may donate to the LGU or provide grants
User Fees/Charges to support the implementation of its tourism projects.
Development Fund 1
Service Fees

1 Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) No. 2011 1 dated April 13, 2013 further strengthened the utilization of the 20% component of the annual 2 Some of these variants are: Build and Transfer (BT), Build-Own-and-Operate (BOO), Build-lease-transfer (BLT), Build Own Operate Transfer
internal revenue allotment shares, especially if it is directed to social development and economic development programs and projects. (BOOT), Design, build, operate, maintain (DBOM), Design, build, finance, operate (DBFO), etc.

-1 -2
The Tourism Project
Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan


Example 1. Accomplished Tourism Project Milestone Matrix

Milestone Matrix Rank


No.
Name of
Project
Location
Estimated
Cost
(P000)
1
Milestone (P000)

2 3
Source of Implementing
Funds office
Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7 Yr 8 Yr 9

The project milestone matrix contains the total costs of all the ranked tourism projects in the TDP
along with some brief features such as location, estimated cost, project milestone and funding Wawa Dam
source of each project. 5 Km
Access Road
Improvement
Project

Accomplishing the Tourism Project


San Rafael
1 50,000 LGU, DPWH
Rodriguez
25,000 - - - - - - - -
15,000 - - - - - - -

Milestone Matrix Phase I


Phase II
Phase III
10,000 - - - - - -

Consider the following hypothetical ranked tourism project below:


TOTAL 50,000 25,000 15,000 10,000

Ranked tourism projects, especially those which have large estimated costs, can be implemented
An existing example of a tourism project is that of the City of Alaminos, in the Province of Pangasinan,
in phases to cushion their impact to the financial coffer of LGUs. This is called the project which has embarked on the Hundred Islands Marine Theme Park Project.
milestone, which makes it possible to put all those ranked tourism projects in place annually.
Thus, implementing them is made financially viable for LGUs. The project is designed to establish an ecological theme park within the Hundred Islands National Park
(HINP). Composed of several islands from the hundred islands, it will feature an island connecting
bridges, floating bamboo rafts and cottages, diving and marine sanctuaries, among others.
Wawa Dam 5-Km Access Road Improvement Project; a P 50 million project
to be funded by LGU and DPWH The project components are: establishment of fish sanctuaries, snorkeling and diving areas; installation of
floating connectors; establishment of boat houses or floating day cottages and bamboo rafts; acquisition
of water based sports facility; promotion of the theme park to residents and tourists; and conduct of
capability building activities to manage the theme park.
Take the following steps:

1 Identify the deliverable/s on each project which can be


implemented annually.
Wawa Dam 5-Km Access Road Improvement Project
Deliverable: 5-Km Improved Access Road
Project Proposal
When an LGU considers tapping external sources to fund the implementation of tourism projects,

2
it prepares and submits tourism project proposals to prospective funding institutions.

For each deliverable, distinguish if it can be done in phases. A tourism project proposal 3 is a document used to convince a prospective sponsor / grantor that
Then, estimate the cost in each phase. a tourism project must be implemented to solve a particular problem or to respond to an
opportunity. It contains technical information, financial requirements and the steps how it would
Wawa Dam 5-Km Access Road Improvement Project be carried out. The basic outline of a project proposal is presented in Box 1.
Deliverable: 5-Km Improved Access Road
Phase I 2.5 km P 25 million There are instances, however, that tourism project proposals need supporting documents such
as a pre-feasibility study or a feasibility study. This would entail the conduct of socio-economic,
Phase II 1.5 km P 15 million
financial and technical studies, return of investment (ROI), etc. to support the viability of the

3
Phase III 1 km P 10 million proposed project.

Plot them in the worksheet shown in Example 1. Project proposals that were already funded by external benefactors / grantors could serve as a
guide for writing effective tourism project proposals. They are available at the M/CPDC Office
of LGUs.

3 Funding institutions have different project proposal formats which can be downloaded from their websites.

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Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan


References
Box 1 Project Proposal Outline City Government of Alaminos, Pangasinan (n.d.).Tourism.Retrieved from
http://www.alaminoscity.gov.ph/thecity/cityproject.aspx?id=1&agenda=Tourism.

I
General Information
Department of Interior and Local Government (2011).Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) No. 2011- 1:
Project Title
Amending DIG-DBM Joint Memorandum Circular No. 1, dated September 20, 2005, titled Guidelines on
Nature of Project
the appropriation and utilization of the 20% of the annual Internal Revenue Allotment for development
Proponent
projects, and DILG Memorandum Circular no. 2010-138 dated December 2, 2010, titled Use of the 20%
Contact Person
component of the annual Internal Revenue Allotment shares. Retrieved from http://www.dilg.gov.ph/
Project Cost
PDF_File/issuances/joint_circulars/DILG-Joint_Circulars-2011414-c7a40511f3.pdf
Project Location

II
Local Government Support Program in ARMM (2009).A Manual on the Local Planning Process
Executive Summary (Formulating the CDP and ELA in ARMM).Davao City: Author.
Project Background
Project Description National Economic Development Authority and Asian Development Bank (2006). Investment
Objectives and Expected Outputs Programming Planning and Revenue Generation Guidebook. Manila: Authors.
Target Beneficiaries
Activities, Strategies and Expected Outputs Republic of the Philippines (1990).Republic Act 6957: An Act Authorizing the Financing, Construction,
Funding Source 4 Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure Projects by the Private Sector. 1990.
Investment Requirements
Target Date of Implementation _______________________(1991).Republic Act 7160: Local Government Code of the Philippines.
Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanism
_______________________(1994).Republic Act 7718.Expanded Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Law.

Republic of the Philippines-Office of the President (1987). Executive Order No. 226:
Omnibus Investments Code of 1987.

4
This must separately identify those projects which are for public investment, private investment and PPP.

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Supplemental reading 5
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Financing the Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 5 Financing the Tourism Development Plan


Annex A. Tourism Project Milestone Matrix

Milestone (P000)
Rank Estimated Source of Implementing
Name of Project Location 1 2 3
No. Cost (P000) Funds office
Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7 Yr 8 Yr 9

Annexes
pull-out worksheets

-7 -8
Monitoring and Evaluating

6
the Local Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading
Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating The Local Tourism Development Plan
Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan
M&E analyzes progress towards actual achievement of results. An example of an M&E Strategy
This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units: is found in Example 1 below.

Presents a simplified discussion of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) concepts; A pull out worksheet is found in Annex A.
Discusses the importance of undertaking M&E; and
Recommends simple tools to doing M&E.

Example 1: Tourism M&E Strategy

Data Source
Goals & Success Targets per Collection
to Assess Frequency Responsibility
Objectives Indicator Indicator Methods
Performance

How did we do? Increased


number of
Number of
business
100% increase
in number of
Business Permit Local Planning and
tourism-related permits issued tourism-related Document Every three
Checking on the progress of plan implementation (monitoring) and taking stock on where things are businesses by LGU with businesses
and Licensing
review years
Development Office
(evaluation) need to be done on a regular basis. Doing monitoring and evaluation will give us indications Office and Tourism Officer
owned by host owners from owned by
how future efforts in tourism can be improved. Monitoring and evaluation (or M&E) functions as a community host community community
management tool to inform all tourism stakeholders about the efficiency and effectiveness of strategies,
programs, projects and activities that have been implemented in the destination. Evaluation results can
be useful in replicating successes and correcting mistakes, and can also serve as an accountability and
learning tool for local government units.

The focus of monitoring and evaluation differ:


Monitoring is the continuous tracking/measurement of progress and performance against
what was planned (schedules, outputs, resource use, cost); and
Evaluation is the systematic measurement of performance at the level of tourism goals
and objectives.

How do we measure progress?


The development of an M&E strategy should not be an afterthought, but should be undertaken as an
integral part of the planning phase. As has been discussed in the section on Formulating the Local Tourism
Development Plan , goals ,objectives, targets and success indicators are identified during plan formulation.
Box 1

Key elements of an M&E strategy


The following elements need to be identified during the planning process:
MONITORING & EVALUATION
Results (goals, objectives, outputs);
Success Indicators to measure progress towards results;
Explicit targets per result;
Data source to assess performance;
Collection methods;
Frequency at which measurements will be made
Roles and responsibilities

Source: Paran, 2009

-1 -2
Evaluating Plan Implementation

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating The Local Tourism Development Plan
Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Using and Communicating M&E


Results back to Stakeholders Example 2 below shows plan targets vs. accomplishments for tourism. The example indicates that
the programs, projects and activities identified in the plan that have been implemented were very
successful in accomplishing the economic goals and objectives. This also signals the effectiveness of
The local chief executive (LCE) has to regularly report back the accomplishments of his/her the strategic directions/strategy chosen by the stakeholders. If the actual accomplishments are lower
administration to the constituents. The results of the Tourism Plan M&E can be integrated in than the target, there may be a need to review and change the strategy.
the State of the Province/City/Municipality Address (SOPA/SOCA/SOMA) of the local
government unit. Example 2: Tourism Targets vs. Accomplishments
Actual
Results Strategy Baseline Data Targets
The LCE can include the following in his/her report. Accomplishments
Economic
Goals and objectives achieved (e.g., capacities of stakeholders developed; benefits
to residents/host community; resources generated from tourism ventures); Goal Increased income of Develop community based Average annual 50% by 2013 100% by 2013 (Php
host island tour packages for small household income 80,000)
Projects, programs, and activities accomplished; and
communities islands is Php 40,000 in
Expenditures. 2007

Objectives Improved tourism 50% of male members 50% male members;


skills of host island of peoples organiztion 60% female members
community and 50% of female trained in tourism

Baseline data members of peoples


organization trained in
tourism

How will you know if the interventions identified in the plan are effective unless you know the
Increased number 100% increase in the 200% increase in
situation beforehand? This is where baseline data come into play. Baseline data show the situation to be of tourism-related number of tourism new tourism business
addressed by the tourism development plan prior to the planning period. Baseline data serve as the businesses businesses owned by permits issued by LGU
starting point for evaluation studies, but need to be gathered from the onset. They are useful for owned by island community members
measuring the performance of the tourism industry in your localities. You can determine the effect of the community
strategies by comparing the situation before and after plan implementation. The difference between the
baseline and the actual results will show if interventions undertaken have been effective. Supplemental
Reading 1 - Profiling the Local Tourism Industry discusses more about baseline data.
The use of established and existing monitoring mechanisms and structures in the LGU can help reduce the
cost of monitoring. It is recommended that the Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment Report (as shown in
Example 3) be used to report the accomplishments of the LGU in implementing the tourism development
plan. The Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment worksheet is found in Annex C.
.

It is important for the local government to use M&E results in re-planning. The non-attainment of goals and
objectives requires a re-evaluation of strategies as well as the programs, projects and activities that have
been implemented by stakeholders.

Data source to assess success

Box 2
In order to have a cost effective M & E Strategy, the use of already available
tourism data is recommended such as:
Business permits issued by the local government
Hotel room inventory and occupancy rates
Attraction visitor counts and admissions
Event related figures
Visitor information from visitor centers
National, regional, provincial studies and data
Other studies by academe, private sector and NGOs

Source: Adapted from Leones and Dunn, 1999

6- 3 -4
References

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating The Local Tourism Development Plan
Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

The Annual/ End-of-Term Accomplishment Report can be adapted to suit the requirements
of tourism plan monitoring. Leones, J. & Dunn, D. (1999). Strategies for Monitoring Tourism in Your Communitys Economy.
Tucson: University of Arizona.

Paran, J. C. (2009). A Manual on the Local Planning Process: Formulating the CDP and ELA in ARMM. Davao City:
Example 3: Annual / End of Term Accomplishment of an LGU Local Governance Support Program in ARMM.

Annual/End-of-Term Accomplishment Report


Province/City/Municipality of ________________
Programs, Success Project
Beneficiary Coverage Actual
Strategy Projects, Indicators Target Accomplishment Cost Remarks
Sector Area Disbursement
Activities (Outcome/Output) (Php)

Develop Community-Based Number of One Host-community Whole 7 Million 6 Million Community


commnity-based Ecotourism Project Community-based community-based barangay organizing took a
tour packages tour/s operating in tour operating longer time which
for small islands the host barangay by 2012 resulted in delay
of registration
in SEC; however
membership of the
organization
Activities Number of At least thirty Community-based exceeded target.
Community community community organization SEC registration
organizing members members belong formed with 60 is set to be
to the members completed by June
organization 2013
Three skills
training program

Skills Training Number of skills One product Three skills


Program training conducted developed program
conducted

Product Number of One community One product


Development products developed based tour developed

Community-based Whale and


tour developed Dolphin Watching
tour itinerary
developed

Product pilot Tour pilot -tested Tour pilot tested Tour was pilot
testing tested

One One
community-based community-based
ecotourism ecotourism
organization/s organization
registered with registered
the SEC

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Supplemental reading 6
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Supplemental reading 6 Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan
Annex A: Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy
Data Source
Results Goals & Success Targets per Collection
to Assess Frequency Responsibility
Objectives Indicator Indicator Methods
Performance

Annexes
pull-out worksheets

-7 -8
Supplemental reading 6 Supplemental reading 6
Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan Tourism Guidebook for Local Government Units Monitoring and Evaluating the Local Tourism Development Plan

Annex B: Targets vs. Accomplishments Reporting Annex C: Annual/ End Term Accomplishment
Actual Programs, Success Project
Goals Results Strategy Baseline Data Targets Strategy Projects, Indicators Target Accomplishment
Beneficiary Coverage
Cost
Actual
Remarks
Accomplishments Sector Area Disbursement
Activities (Outcome/Output) (Php)

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Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading
7
Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs: Identifying and Managing
Identify and analyze the positive and negative impacts of tourism
in the area; and the Impacts of Tourism
Manage these impacts by enhancing the positive impacts and minimizing
the negative impacts.
Tourism impacts our community, economy, society and ecosystems. We should always be on
the watch for these impacts so that we can manage them properly. Positive impacts such as
more job opportunities for the people, more forest cover can be enhanced. On the other hand,
negative impacts such as increased incidence of pollution, increased crime must be mitigated

Sustainable Tourism by adoption of appropriate policy and pursuing good environmental management practices.

Such impacts can be categorized as economic, social and ecological/bio-physical based on the
Tourism has to be sustainable, following the principles of the Philippine Agenda 21 principles of sustainable development. The following discussions of this supplemental reading
(Calanog, Reyes and Eugenio, 2011): will assist you in assessing these impacts and suggesting possible measures to manage them
so that tourism becomes sustainable and can be enjoyed by future generations.

Economically viable. Thus, tourism provides self-sustaining and long-term livelihood for

A.
people, it is pro-poor, and provides jobs;

Environmentally sound. Here, tourism enriches natural resource base, reduces negative
impacts, promotes the value of biodiversity as well as non-living resources e.g. air water and land;
Ecological/Bio-physical Impacts
Culturally appropriate. Tourism in this respect promotes native culture,
local knowledge and indigenous knowledge systems, and respects local traditions; and Tourism activities can create negative impacts on the environment. Tourists generate wastes,
trample on vegetation, cause traffic, etc. Thus, the negative impacts have to be mitigated to
preserve the beauty of the natural environment and also the quality of life of the local residents.
Socially just, humane and gender equitable. Tourism upholds the rights and dignity of
people, including women, children and persons with disabilities.
Positive impacts can be made if utmost care is placed on preservation and conservation
of natural resources in the destination and in rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems.

To assess the ecological/biophysical impacts of tourism in your LGU, please answer the
following questions and then fill up the following table:

a)
Assess and describe the ecological/bio-physical impact of tourism in your destination.

b)
Are these impacts positive or negative? Please check.

c)
Describe the existing management measures to mitigate negative impacts and enhance
positive impacts.

Figure 1. Sustainable Tourism Principles d)


Identify possible policies, programs, projects, and activities that may address the impacts.

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Some of the management measures below may help you solve your problems:
Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


Example 1. Checklist of Ecological/ Bio-physical Impacts of Tourism
Programs,

1
Projects,
+ - Management measure
Description of existing Activities,
Category
and potential impact Policies (PPAP) Compliance to Environmental Laws
(Pls. check)

Ecosystems e.g. Increased forest cover Forest protection; reforestation Reforestation project How do you rate your LGUs compliance to existing environmental laws in relation to
forests, rivers, tourism? Please rate with 5 being the highest and 1 the lowest:
coral reefs

Destruction of coral reefs Enforce regulations on tourists to avoid


stepping on corals and on boatmen Example 2. LGUs Compliance to Environment Laws Checklist
not to anchor on the coral reefs;
establish a marine protected area. Law/Ordinance Rating Comments

Wildlife species Diminishing bats in caves Do not put lights in the caves There is mutilation, defacing and destruction of objects of
National Integrated Protected Areas Systems Act of natural beauty; damaging and leaving trails in damaged
1992 (Republic Act 7586) condition; dumping wastes; and altering, removing
Agriculture and destroying or defacing boundary marks or signs.
fisheries
The river destination is very dirty, leading to the closure of
Aesthetic Blocking of natural view due Enact building ordinances to avoid Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 (Republic Act 9275)
the river cruise.
to construction of buildings construction of physical infrastructure
that will block the view
Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (Republic Act 8749) Air pollution due to tricycles in town center disturbs tourists.

Rocks/caves Landslides in tourism area Enforce protected area Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000
due to mining; gathering of environmental regulations Litter is everywhere in the beach and on roads.
(Republic Act 9003)
stalactites and stalagmites in
caves
Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes There is a high level of mercury content in the river, making
Control Act of 1990 (Republic Act 6969) swimming hazardous.
Cleanliness and Increased litter
solid waste
The mitigating measures in the Environmental Impact
Environmental Impact Assessment (DENR-Department
Assessment (EIA) of some companies are not being followed;
Noise level Increased noise in public Administrative Order(DAO #25)
the multi-partite monitoring team is not active.
places
Mining is occurring in the protected areas polluting the river
.Philippine Mining Act of 1995 (Republic Act 7942)
Crowding Increased crowding in public Compute carrying capacity and limiting swimming activities.
places and limit visitors or increase
carrying capacity Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines (Presidential
Kaingin is rampant.
Decree 705)
Water quality Increased water pollution Improve sewerage system and septic Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act
from sewerage tanks There is unregulated gathering of wildlife resources.
(Republic Act 9147)

Air quality Increased air pollution from Anti-smoke belching National Environmental Awareness and Education Act There is limited knowledge of the community concerning
tricycles campaign; improve four- stroke engine of 2008 (Republic Act 9512) ecology.
implementation
There is rampant illegal logging in the protected areas and
Moratorium on Logging (Executive Order #23)
tourist destinations.
Others:
National Greening Program (Executive Order #26) Some reforested areas have low survival rates.

Climate Change Act of 2009 (Republic Act 9729) The tourist areas are constantly flooded.

Habitat conservation is poor certain areas; diminishing


Convention on Biological Diversity number of wildlife populations particularly of wildlife species
(e.g. Philippine eagle, Philippine tarsier, tamaraw).

DENR- DAO2013 19 Guidelines on Ecotourism


Planning and Management in Protected Areas

LGU Ordinances

Others

Legend: + Positive -Negative

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Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


If the implementation of the laws is wanting, your LGU can improve law enforcement, enhance monitoring Have you observed the following indicators in any of your tourism sites?
techniques and create programs and projects to promote conservation of natural resources and waste Please check if yes:
minimization and management, and use other techniques. Some management measures are described in
the following section.
____ diminishing water supply
____ decreased number, diversity and distribution of wildlife

2
____ crowded tourism sites

Managing Environmental Impacts ____ overbooked hotels


____ crowded areas for visitors - (e.g. swimming pools, trails)
____ trampled trails
Regulating tourism development through the issuance of permits. An Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) may be required before final approval of project. DENR DAO# 25 ____ steep slopes are over-utilized for human habitation in hotels and resorts
determines the coverage of projects that requires EIA. Environmentally critical projects ____ increased garbage and litter
including mining need EIA. Projects inside protected areas, including tourism projects may
require EIA. Likewise, anti-pollution control devices have to be installed before permits are ____ lack of transportation
issued. Smoke belching vehicles should be denied permit to operate. For restaurants,
sanitation services should be satisfactory. New building sites can be chosen to avoid
cutting of centennial trees or virgin forests.
The following measures may be considered in arriving at solutions:

Are there proposed projects related to tourism that have to be studied now, before a Diversify products and activities
permit is granted? What are they? What needs to be done?
Manage the flow of visitors in attractions
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________ Increase the number of facilities
_________________________________________________________________________________________ Distribute evenly the viewing sites
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Increase the numbers of accommodations, beds, restaurants
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Limit the number of hours for visitation at protected areas
Are there existing projects related to tourism that need a closer environmental Encourage off-season use
monitoring? What are they and what needs to be done? Provide adequate information and interpretation
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Increase durability of heavily-used resources
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________ Improve participation of stakeholders
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________

Tools have been developed to respond to problems of overcrowding or over-use. One such tool is carrying
capacity analysis that considers the maximum number of visitors in an attraction. Several formulas have

3 Considering Carrying Capacity and Limits been developed to compute for carrying capacity.

of Acceptable Change You may consult an instrument in computing for carrying capacity from the manual Making Ecotourism
Work (2011). Alternately, the limits of acceptable change (LAC) approach may be used, especially in
developing visitors management programs in protected areas (McCool, 1996).
Often times, when a tourist destination is overcrowded or water resources are
inadequate for tourists, this can be an indication that the number of visitors in the area While carrying capacity is oftentimes used to manage impacts, it can also contribute to planning spatial
has surpassed its comfortable and enjoyable limits. Sometimes, visitors would complain development in tourism, and is one of the mechanisms for establishing standards for sustainable tourism
about these problems. Do you have such tourism sites and activities that are overcrowded (Jovicic, 2008).
or where deterioration of the environment has been felt due to tourism?

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4
Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


Please check if the following situations are observed in your tourism attractions. Also note the principles
Managing the Tourism Impacts on Biodiversity and recommendations for biodiversity conservation that can be included in your TDP.

Biodiversity is an important resource for tourism. More tourists come if the coral reefs for Example 3. Situations Observed in LGU Tourism Attractions Checklist
snorkeling and diving are pristine. Trekking and sightseeing are more enjoyable with a good
forest cover. Food is good if the fishing grounds provide for fresh and abundant catch. PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
INCIDENTS/SITUATION /X
Swimming is enjoyable if the quality of the water is Class A or good for recreational purposes. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
Thus biodiversity conservation is an essential part of tourism management.
Recognize the limit of activities within the Protected Area Management Plan.

Reduce the use of the entire area.


A science-based approach can be useful in planning on the use of biological and Limit the number of visitors in the entire area.
wildlife resources in tourism. The following steps can be undertaken:
Are visitors allowed and found all over the Limit ecotourism activities within the tourism zone. Although more people
protected area? can be accommodated in the multiple use zones and buffer areas, activities
1. Identify the habitats and wildlife species to be featured. For instance, birds especially migratory birds must respect the natural and cultural assets of the place. Keep the strict
protection zone of national parks and sanctuaries free from tourists.
are abundant in mangrove areas or bats are found in the mouths of caves;
Encourage the use of other sites.
2. Develop tourism activities that are based on the natural habitats;
Charge higher visitor fees.
3. Undertake measures to mitigate impacts of tourist activities on wildlife; and
4. Monitor and evaluate the impacts on the wildlife population and quality of the physical environment.
Avoid gathering of wildlife in protected areas and elsewhere. Check DENR AO
No. 2004-15 for list of threatened terrestial wild faura and DENR AO No. 2007-01
as ammended by DENR No. 2007-24 for list of threatened Philippine Plants.
Do visitors and locals collect wildlife?
The DENR-DAO 2013-19 Annex B prescribes a procedure for full ecotourism planning and management Observe the provisions of RA 9147 (Wildlife Resources and Conservation Act) to
to include the following steps: site assessment, ecotourism planning, implementation of the ecotourism conserve and protect wildlife species and their habitats to promote
management plan, and monitoring and evaluation. You may consult the website for the full text of this ecological balance and enhance biological diversity.
planning tool (URL is http://server2.denr.gov.ph/uploads/rmdd/dao-2013-19.pdf ).
Do not disrupt the natural pattern and life cycle of animals. For example, limit
Are visitors in protected areas and natural the visitations at daytime to avoid disruption of sleep of nocturnal animals.
sites allowed to enter anytime of the day?
Generally, biodiversity conservation can be done through:
Night safaris or cave visits should limit the use of light.

a) Protection and restoration of habitats; Are visitors allowed to touch the wildlife Encourage putting limits of distance to observe the animals so as not
in their natural habitats? Are the wildlife to disrupt their daily activities. An example of this is whale watching in
b) Minimization of interactions of wildlife with humans through distance and time; and migrating to nearby untouched areas? Pamilacan, Bohol and Donsol, Sorsogon.
c) Utilization of biological resources properly.
Do not harm the habitats of wildlife. Tourists should not step on coral reefs.
Do tourists step on the corals causing
their destruction?
Maintain trails so as not to trample on forest vegetation.

Protect caves and their wildlife e.g. bats.

Carrying capacity should be considered to avoid overcrowding.

Respect the nocturnal habits of bats, visitation hours must be limited to


Are the caves and wildlife destroyed due daytime and artificial lighting restricted.
to the activities of visitors?
Visitors should not be allowed to gather stalactites and stalagmites and touch
the walls of caves.

The number of caves open for tourism should likewise be chosen and limited to
ensure there are undisturbed habitats for bats and other wildlife.

Conduct regular monitoring of wildlife populations to monitor impacts on


Is there an absence of a biodiversity
biodiversity. A Participatory Biodiversity Monitoring System can involve more
monitoring team and system?
stakeholders including the local community, DENR, local NGO/PO.

HABITAT

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Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


5 Sustainable infrastructure design: Utilizing
green architecture for tourism buildings
Make an inventory of stakeholders and identify possible activities that you
can undertake in collaboration with them. Such activities can lead to
conservation and/or an increase in the number of visitors to your attractions.
Green designs, as stipulated in BERDE (a green building rating system developed by the
Philippine Green Building Council or PHILGBC), is used to measure, verify, and monitor the
environmental performance of buildings that exceeds existing mandatory regulations and
Example 4. Environmental Education Activities
standards. Green design will help enhance the use of natural elements in architecture, thus
maximizing the use of natural light, wind ventilation, local materials and minimizing the use
of electricity and water. Such principles and standards can be implemented in the construction PARTNERS POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
of hotels, resorts, information centers, etc. (URL: www.berdeonline.org/).
Schools:
Green architecture principles can also be done in making trails in national parks and other
tourist attractions. DepEd Conduct exhibits, seminars/talks

The component-strategies for the Formulation of the Ecotourism Undertake National Service Training Program (NSTP) projects
Management Plan (DENR DAO No. 2013 19): CHED Universities/colleges
Conduct trainings and related activities
Conduct research
1. Zoning for visitor use; Grant of graduate school scholarships for tourism employees
2. Visitor site planning and design;
3. Sustainable infrastructure design;
Conduct research to enhance knowledge on biological diversity and to
4. Visitor management; and Research Institutions
monitor pollution
5. Revenue generation.

Another reference is DENR AO 2009-09 re: Standard Design and Specification National Government Agencies
of Signs, Buiding Facilities, and other Infrastructure that maybe installed and/or
constructed within protected areas. DENR Celebrate Earth Day and other Environmental Events

DOT Promote and market tourist destinations

Can you implement a local ordinance on green architecture? What steps can be done to do this? DA Showcase model farms
________________________________________________________________________________________
Others
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________ Groups dealing with communities:
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________ Peoples Organizations/cooperatives
________________________________________________________________________________________
NGOs/civic action groups

The Media:

6 Environmental Education Radio

TV
Environmental awareness is key in having communities and stakeholders value ecological
integrity. To increase their awareness and concern for environment, as well as enhance their Print -newspapers, magazines)
skills, the following can be done: National newspapers (pls. identify)
Community newspapers (pls. identify)

a) adoption of whole-school approach in environmental education (in schools);


Brochures
b) capacity-building for marginalized communities and other
stakeholders (in communities);
c) education of the general public (through media); and
Social media and internet
Facebook
d) Explanations to visitors when they are visiting parks. Twitter
Webpage

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7 B.
Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


Enhanced Environmental Monitoring Social Impacts of Tourism
Tourism also has social impacts. Due to the interaction of the community with other people from various
Participatory biodiversity monitoring system to monitor commercially important species and
cultures, their values, habits and attitudes may be affected. Your job is to enhance positive impacts and
indigenous or rare species can be used. Such a system can have multi-partite composition to
minimize negative social impacts brought about by this interactions.
include DENR-PAWB, PO, NGO, the academe, among others. The local community and
forest rangers can monitor the movement or use of commercially important and
What are the possible social impacts of tourism in your locality? What are your safeguards against negative
endangered species. The academic research institutions can verify and classify them and
social impacts?
conduct further research.

Identify the positive / negative impacts of tourism in your destination using the table below:

Biodiversity Monitoring Sheet for monthly reports by community groups Example 6. Checklist of Social Impacts, Management Measures and PPAPs
and forest rangers:
Programs, Projects,
Description of existing + - Management Measure Activities, Policies
Category (PPAPs)
and potential impact
Example 5. Biodiversity Monitoring Sheet by Community and Forest Rangers
(Pls. check)
PLACE AND DATE
LOCAL/ COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME OBSERVATIONS Development and
More and cleaner public
OBSERVED better maintenance of
toilets
public facilities
Local community (Juan de la
Ex. November 10, 2013; Desmodus rotundus Increased profile
Paniki, Bats Cruz, Elpidio Santos) caught More publicity for the LGU
6:25 pm (common vampire bat) of region
bats for pulutan

Increased local pride

More recreational
opportunities

Change in local
character and culture

Rise in delinquent
The use of text messaging can also be employed to encourage local citizens in monitoring (e.g. texting behavior
or using video regarding traffic violators such as smoke belchers in the Bantay Usok campaign). Is there
Disruption of traffic
a campaign that you want to launch to enhance awareness and monitoring of local citizens? If yes,
describe the campaign and the initial steps to bring this about:
Mixing of different
cultures in community
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________ Excessive demand for
public services (e.g.,
_____________________________________________________________________________________ health, police, fire
services) by tourism
_____________________________________________________________________________________ industry leading to less
access to locals
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Overcrowding in
_____________________________________________________________________________________ public places

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Increase in prostitution


and human trafficking
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Increase in sexual
_____________________________________________________________________________________ harassment and abuse
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Change in social and
_____________________________________________________________________________________ moral values

Others:

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C.
Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


Does your LGU utilize some of the following management practices in dealing
with social impacts of tourism? Please fill up the following checklist: Economic Impacts
Tourism is good for the economy because the money that visitors spend when they come to the
destination helps stimulate the local economy. Tourism promotes employment opportunities and local
Example 7. Checklist of Practices to Manage Social Impacts of Tourism businesses. Thus, you have to ensure that your LGU and community will benefit most from such economic
changes.
CATEGORY PRACTICE YES NO
Fill up the table below to help you identify the economic effects of tourism in your locality.
Preservation of historical sites churches, monuments
Example 8. Checklist of Economic Impacts, Management Measures and PPAPs
Heritage conservation Building museums, exhibits on local culture
Programs, Projects,
Description of existing + - Management measure Activities, Policies
Accurate heritage interpretation of historical and cultural data
Category (PPAPs)
and potential impact
Utmost care taken to safeguard marginalized sectors of society against (Pls. check)
negative impacts of tourism
Increased in tourism
Women and children must be safeguarded against sexual abuse and jobs
violence (e.g., policy that female masseurs cannot enter private rooms in
hotels; children working in tourist establishments need parental consent.)
Increased in business
Protecting the rights of women, opportunities
children, indigenous peoples, persons Please refer to laws that address gender issues that tourism
with disabilities establishments should comply with, e.g. Anti-Sexual Harassment Act.
New Infrastructure,
e.g., better shopping,
Proper physical infrastructure for persons with disabilities, e.g. ramps, dining, and /or
must be constructed in tourism sites recreational
opportunities in the
region because of
Free Prior and Informed Consent sought prior to use of
tourism
indigenous peoples and cultural sites for tourism

Rise in property values


Manufacturing from the local agricultural produce, local clothing and
accessories
Increased shopping
Culinary tours featuring local delicacies, and mandating every culinary opportunities
establishment to promote local food
Promoting local culture foods, Increased employment
dances, songs, crafts. opportunities
Local hotels display local culture and crafts
Higher cost of rent
Local cultural presentations, adhering as close as possible to what is
authentic and traditional, should be part of tourist entertainment Improved opportunities
for local business
Nudity in beaches not to be tolerated

Scanty clothing in churches and other places of worship not allowed Increased funding for
e.g. dress code public services (e.g.
Respecting local norms and health, police, fire
traditions religious festivals, services)
Permission granted prior to entering local villages
dress codes

Respect for the elderly observed Increased revenue for


local government
Common courtesies, e.g. saying thank, encouraged Rise in the overall cost
of living
Researches in universities and other research institutions on local culture
and local knowledge promoted The increase in prices
Engaging in continued research on and property values
local culture
Coordination with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts
undertaken Increased prices

Again, please ensure that such policies and practices are mainstreamed in your tourism planning,
management, monitoring and evaluation.

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Optimizing Local Developing your program
Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


Socio-Economic Benefits Collate all data listed in the succeeding sections, to develop a comprehensive program for managing
environmental concerns in tourism in your TDP. More time and research may be needed to validate the
initial input. The stakeholders can participate in the analysis of data. Integrating the TDP and other local

1
plans will help ensure that such measures are institutionalized and help make tourism sustainable. Also
make sure that the recommendations are implemented, monitored and further improved through the
Mandate a certain percentage of the work force in hotels, resorts, and other years. Whatever the results of the proposed projects and legislations should be inputted in the TDP.
establishments to come from the local population.
For example, 80 percent of the work force should come from the LGU
Negotiate the percentage during the public consultations
Have a good gender balance in the work force, employing also females
Where capable, get management positions and not just blue collar jobs
Developing a Disaster Risk
Consult with the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA)
on such rules Reduction and Management (DRRM)

2
program for tourism
Encourage community-based ecotourism enterprises these include local
guides groups, travel agencies and souvenir shops The Philippines is the third most vulnerable country in the world to natural calamities. Our country is
also located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, making us prone to earthquakes. Climate change brings more

3
typhoons, floods, droughts and other natural calamities. DRRM will help us reduce risks, loss of lives and
destruction of property. Your job is to enhance the capacity of the people to cope with the hazards and
Engage in capacity-building for the industry sector. These activities include: minimize the impacts of these disasters.

Trainings and skills development;


Micro-credit and enhanced financing of tourism projects; and/or
Multi-stakeholder collaboration in the tourism industry. Understanding DRRM

4 Develop products to diversify tourism offerings in your LGU

5 Proper collection and use of fees for tourism, e.g. visitor receipts in attractions,
environmental fees. The income gained should contribute to local GDP, LGU
income or local economy

Figure 2. Disaster Management Cycle

Source: Office of Civil Defense

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Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism Have you done the following to prepare your tourism sites for disasters? Please check if yes.

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


DRRM Act of 2010 (Republic Act 10121) defines Disaster Risk Reduction as a systematic effort to analyse Example 9. Checklist of DRRM Program Elements
and manage the causes of disasters by reducing vulnerabilities and enhancing capacities in order to
lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and probability of disaster. The following definitions will help us STEPS/ACTIVITIES YES RECOMMENDATIONS
understand the principles of DRRM:
1. Prevention/mitigation
Hazard is a phenomenon, event, occurrence or human activity that may cause injury, loss of Make a checklist of natural and human- Obtain a multi-hazard map from MGB-DENR or from the Office of the Civil
lives and damage to property and the environment. This includes natural calamities such as made hazards in your area Defense in your region. Plot tourist destinations in the map
typhoons, floods, droughts, earthquake, tsunami and human-induced hazards such as fire,
wars, epidemics and terrorism; Have you assessed the buildings and other Once the hazards and risks are identified, you might need to relocate tourism
physical infrastructure of tourism establishments and tourists in disaster-prone areas. Retrofit historical sites such
Exposure is about the degree to which people and properties are likely to experience hazards. investments along hazardous areas, eg. as old churches or demolish old buildings that may collapse in the event of an
To reduce exposure, there might be a need to evacuate or relocate tourists; fault lines, flood prone areas, landslide earthquake. Also inspect electrical wiring to prevent outbreaks of fire. After a
Disaster Risk is the exposure of vulnerable communities to a hazard, as well as the probability areas? disaster, conduct damage needs assessment of tourism infrastructure
of harmful consequences resulting from hazards; and,
Is there a green protective wall in your LGU, For beaches, a green wall of mangrove forests can break the impact of the
Capacity or the capability of coping and recovering from the damaging effects of a disaster if your LGU is located in a coastal area and water during storm surges. Where appropriate, you can construct a flood
(e.g. wise use of resources, robust infrastructure, strong and good governance). has a history of tsunamis or storm surge, ? retaining wall to protect tourism establishments and communities

2. Preparedness
Do you have calamity funds that the Calamity funds are needed for easy access during relief and rehabilitation
tourism industry can access? operations

Risk is covered by the following formula: The tourism industry should prepare for natural disasters. After assessing the
hazards, further assess the vulnerabilities and capacity of the industry. Organize
Are there DRRM programs for tourism
DRRM teams in tourist attractions. Ensure that community drills e.g. Earthquake
attractions?
drills are conducted in hotels, resorts and other establishments. In addition,
DRRM Plans must be formulated for tourist attractions and service providers

Early warning systems must be established in destination sites. For example,


Are there early warning systems in tourism bells or sirens can ring during floods. It takes several days before assistance can
attractions? arrive from national agencies so attractions and establishments should have

Hazard x Vulnerability
stockpile food and relief goods

Risk =
For foreign visitors, make a list of contacts of foreign embassies especially
Do you have a list of contacts of foreign
those who frequent your destination so that they can be alerted in case of
embassies?

Capacity
emergencies of their nationals

Do you have an evacuation and relocation Should a disaster strike, evacuate visitors to higher grounds and relocation
plan for visitors who may be affected by sites. Be sure that such relocation sites are safe for the visitors e.g. not easily
calamities? flooded
Also conduct search and rescue operations of some visitors who are dead or
Do you have a provision for visitors in your missing. Provide first aid to injured visitors. Distribute relief goods when
DRRM response and relief plan? supplies are cut. In addressing psychological trauma, provide counselling
services. Report to embassies death and injuries of foreign visitors
Do you have provisions for energy in cases
Solar powered supplies and appliances can be installed for power outage
Typhoon Yolanda, stongest typhoon to hit the Philippines in 2013 had reminded us of disasters?

to keep our DRRM programs in check. To prepare for a DRRM Program, these elements Do you have access to psychologists who
Provide professional services by psychologists based in schools and in DSWD
can deliver first-aid counselling in cases of
should be present: trauma?
to reduce trauma

1.
3. Response
Prevention / Mitigation; Did you deliver relief goods to tourists and

2.
Relief goods should contain food, water and other basic needs
tourism establishments?
Preparedness; FINANCIAL
Did you relocate tourists to evacuation
AID Safe places should be used in relocation until further help will arrives

3.
areas or safe places?
Response; and Did you assist in providing transportation Signals for cell phones will have to be accessed to contact relatives and friends.

4.
and communications to tourists? Transportation may need to be provided to safe areas
Rehabilitation.
4. Rehabilitation
Did you evaluate the needs of the tourism
For rehabilitation, buildings, ecosystems may need to be repaired
industry for rehabilitation?

Have you provided alternative livelihood Boats may need to be repaired or new ones purchased. Farmers may need new
for affected tourism workers? stock of seeds

Did you provide financial aid to affected


The financial aid can come in the form of donations, grants or soft loans
tourism-related businesses?

Others:

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Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism

Supplemental reading 7 Managing the Impacts of Tourism


Do you have a DRRM Program covering the tourism industry? Use the following template
References
in creating one.
Calanog, L., Reyes, P. &Eugenio, V. (2011). Making Ecotourism Work. Manila, Philippines:
Japan International Cooperation Agency.

PHASE ACTIVITY TIME FRAME


Department of Environment and Natural Resources (2003).
Department Administrative Order # 302003 (DENR-DAO 03-30):
Prevention and Mitigation Implementing Rules and Regulations of Presidential Decree 1586, Establishing the Philippine
Environmental Impact Assessment System.

____________ (2013).Department Administrative Order (DAO) 2013-19 Guidelines on Ecotourism


Preparedness Planning and Management in Protected Areas.
Retrieved from http://server2.denr.gov.ph/uploads/rmdd/dao-2013-19.pdf

McCool, S. (1996). Limits of Acceptable Change: A Framework for Managing National Protected Areas:
Experiences from The United States. Paper presented at Workshop on Impact Management in Marine
Relief
Parks, sponsored by Maritime Institute of Malaysia, August 13-14, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Jovicic, D. & Dragin, A (2008). The Assessment of Carrying Capacity A Crucial Tool for Managing
Tourism Effects in Tourist Destinations. TURIZAM, 12: 4-11.
Rehabilitation
Republic of the Philippines (n.d.). Philippine Agenda 21

- 19 -20
Developing Tourism Products and

8
Marketing the LGU Destination

Supplemental reading
Attractions gain by clustering. Clustered attractions have better promotional impact thereby providing more

Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination
Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination
This supplemental reading of the Tourism Guidebook will help LGUs: revenues for businesses (Gunn, 1979). For tourists, especially those on day tours who have time constraints,
clustered attractions become more attractive. In todays mass tourism, the minor and isolated attractions
Understand how tourism products are developed, and promoted to attract require too much time and effort by the visitor to reach and is seldom worth it (Gunn, 1979). Attraction
tourists and visitors; and themes are best carried out when attractions are grouped together, physically or by tour (garden tours,
Get oriented with tourism marketing and promotion techniques. historic tours, architectural tours, and cruises). National parks are examples of attraction clusters, offering
many complementary nature attractions such as beautiful scenery, hiking trails, wildlife conservation parks,
challenging topographic features, and outdoor recreation sites (Gunn, 1979).

Thus, accommodation, transportation, dining and entertainment, attractions and tours normally constitute a
tourism product (with an object that serves as a magnet for tourists: e.g. Taal Volcano). All these elements are

Tourism Product Development


meant to give the tourist a worthy experience.

According to the Philippine National Tourism Development Plan 2011- 2016, the Philippines can capitalize
on its diverse tourism assets and markets by positioning and marketing a portfolio of nine (9) core products:

What are tourism products?

9
A tourism product is an object that attracts tourists. There are various levels of a tourism product: core product, 1) Nature-based;
main (tangible) product and augmented product.
2) Cultural tourism products able to deliver higher growth,
The core product is the unique experience of the tourist while visiting your destination. As a customer, the visitor higher length of stay and expenditure, and wider-spread benefits
should experience enjoyment, and a level of comfort and safety. The level of satisfaction is also dependent on that will appeal to long haul markets in Europe, Middle East and
meeting the purpose of the trip and his/her needs, based on age, budget, socio-economic status and attributes.
North America, and selected markets such as Australia and niche
The figure below will help you understand the levels of tourism product: segments in the regional markets (China, South Korea, Japan,
Hongkong, Taiwan and Singapore);

Core products
3) Sun and beach;
Figure1. Tourism Product
4) Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE);
5) Leisure, entertainment and shopping;

Core Product (Experience) Introduction


6) Diving and marine sports tourism products capable of attracting
large regional markets (specially China, South Korea, Japan, India,
Taiwan, Malaysia, Australia, and USA);
Main Product (Tourist activity) 7) Nautical and cruise;
8) Health/wellness/retirement; and
Augmented Product
(Souvenir) 9) Education tourism products capable of delivering strong future
growth with long average length of stay and expenditure
appealing to European, Middle East and North American markets,
and selected markets such as Australia, and the South Korean and
China markets for educational tourism.
The main (tangible) product includes tourist activities and destinations such as tours, diving and spelunking, etc.
which will provide enjoyment. The augmented product includes accommodations, souvenirs and food, which will
contribute to an overall experience in your destination. For purposes of product development in your LGU, the tourism product will be categorized in this Guidebook
as the following:
There is a core product and a peripheral or optional product. The core product includes the right kinds of
accommodation, restaurant and recreational facilities together with tourist attractions. The peripheral product a. Destination
builds onto this, adding the possibilities of other tourist attractions in the form of various scenic, historic, leisure, b. Circuit
amusement, entertainment, shopping, recreational sites and installations. An ideal destination represents a c. Attraction
cluster of all these components (Doswell, 1997). d. Tour

Each of these product levels will be assessed and developed, based on what is most needed by your LGU.

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Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination
Supplemental reading 8 Developing Tourism Products & Marketing the LGU Destination

Assessing Tourism Products Product category Products New/improved options

Fiestas Town fiestas


Understanding and developing your product can be done Songs and dances Ati-atihan dance, native dances
through various tools: and songs of the region
Religious and cultural events e.g. Penafrancia festival, Higantes
Festival
a. Use of the value chain analysis. Transportation

A value chain describes the full range of activities which are required to bring a product or service Land Bus, FX, Jeepneys, tricycles
from conception, through the different phases of production, delivery to consumers, and final
disposal after use (Kaplinsky and Morris, 2002). Air Airplanes

Water Boats
Figure 2. Value Chain
Accommodation Hotels, hostels, resorts,

Food and beverages Native delicacies

Merchandise Souvenir items

Travel agent Transport Hotel Site Operator


Company Restaurant Cultural Group
Product development improves the profitability of tourism businesses by increasing the number of products
and services available for tourists as well as the number of visits, length of stay and spending by individual
visitors .

These activities can be coordinated by a tour operator, and thus a tour becomes a product by itself.
b. The 5As Framework
What are the gaps in your value chain?
How can they be improved? The 5As Framework encourages LGUs to adopt a more strategic approach in tourism development,
and promotes cooperation with their neighbouring areas to cover for components that may be
lacking in their locality in order to create a seamless tourism experience (Alvia and Libosada, 2009).
Table 1. Product Development and Improvement
Figure 3. 5As Framework
Product category Products New/improved options

Attractions