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IDENTIFICATION

Name of Equipment Microfilter

Equipment Code F-3

Number of Elements 4

Number of tubes per element

Function To separate the cell mass and other solids

from the fermented medium

Operation Continuous

Type Tubular Microfiltration Membrane

Materials Handled Calcium Lactate, Cell Mass, Calcium

Carbonate, Sodium Carbonate, Calcium

Sulfate, Residual sugars and Water

Number Required 2 units

BASIC DESIGN DATA

Pressure 1.5 bar

Pressure Drop 1.9738 atm 2 bar

Temperature 25 30 C

Filtrate Flow 0.2438 m3/h

Permeate Flux 18.7402 L/m2-hr

Rate of Filtration 1.5 m3/hr

Filtration Time 0.3255 hours

Membrane Permeability 329.3533 L/m2-hr-atm

Power Requirement 0.2438 hp

Total Filtering Time 0.6255 hours/day

Shell Thickness 2.0199 x 10-3 m

MEMBRANE DESIGN

Filter Membrane Used Polyether sulfone (PES)

Total Element Area 13.0095 m2

Total Membrane Area/Module 0.093m2

No. of tubes 140

Pore Size 0.1-10 microns

Membrane Diameter 1.55 x 10-3 m

Length 1.022 m

Operating Mode Crossflow Filtration

HOUSING DESIGN

Type 2-port style

Materials of Construction Stainless steel AISI 316/316L

Module Length 1.044 m

PUMP DESIGN

Pump Type Centrifugal Pump

DIAGRAM FOR MICROFILTER (F-3):

D0 = 160.6 mm

L0= 1022 mm

L0 = 1040 mm

I0 = 125 mm

ASSUMPTIONS:

1. The Microfiltration is operated at constant pressure filtration.

2. Material of Construction Stainless steel AISI 316/316L

- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

- Membrane Filtration Handbook, pg.16

4. Operating Pressure: <2 bar; 1.5 bar

- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

- Table 14 from Membrane Filtration Handbook

6. Membrane Material: Polyether sulfone (PES)

- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

7. Theoretical Internal Diameter of permeate tube: 1 in = 0.0254 m

- Table 8 Types and Variables of Tubular Membranes, Membrane Filtration

Handbook, p.18

8. For Shell Thickness:

- Hesse and Rushton Equipment Design

- Fm = 1.0, for high tensile strength steel

- Fs = 0.25, steel factor

- Fa = 1.0, radiographing factor

- Fr = 1.0, steel relieving factor

- Su = 248 MPa, Table 28-11, p.28-39, Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th

Edition

- e = 0.7, for V and U single butt joint

9. Length of module: 1040 mm

- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

10. Viscosity () of the filtrate, since it is composed mostly of water has a value of = 0.85

cP or 8.5x10-4 Pa-s

- Unit Operation, of Chemical Engineering Appendix

11. The velocity is assumed to be 5 m/s that gives a turbulent flow and good mass transfer, -

pg.1036, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th Edition

Gluconate

Size range of cell mass: 0.5 0.8 microns

- JGI Genome Portal

- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

EQUATIONS

1. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation

29.48, p.1040

= kc ln 2

1 2

Where:

= permeate flux (L/m2-h)

Kc = Mass Transfer Coefficient

Cs = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the retentate (kg/m3)

C1 = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the feed (slurry) (kg/m3)

C2 = maltose, dextrin and insoluble solid concentration in (kg/m3)

2. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation

30.55, p.1041

7.32 1016

Dv=

Where:

Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)

T= operating temperature (K)

ro = radius of particles (cm)

= (cP)

3. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation

3.10, p.53

NRe =

Where:

D = diameter of tube (cm)

D= 1 in 2.54 cm

V= velocity of fluid (cm/s)

= average density of the feed (g/cm3)

= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (g/cm-s)

4. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, p.539

NSc =

Where:

= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (cP)

= average density of feed (g/cm3) = Xi = 1060.256 kg/m3 = 1.060256 g/cm3

Dv = diffusivity (cm2 /s)

5. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, p.552

NSh = 0.0096 NRe0.913 NSc 0.346

Where:

NSh= Sherwood Number

NSc= Schmidt Number

NRe = Reynolds Number

6. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation

17.50 p.545

kc =

Where:

NSh = Sherwood Number

D = diameter of tube (cm)

Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)

7. =

8. Hesse and Rushton Process Equipment Design, Equation 4-3, p.87

ts = 2 +

Where:

ts= minimum shell thickness

C = corrosion allowance usually taken as 1/6 inch

D = inside diameter

P = maximum internal pressure

S = working or allowable tensile stress

e = efficiency of the welded joints

P=

3.559 10^6

Where:

H = total dynamic head (Pa)

Q = capacity = 13.7 m3/hr

10. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith

=

( )

Where:

tf = filtration time

= Volume of Filtrate, m3

= Area, m2

= Pressure drop, Pa

Pas

= Cake constant,

m2

=

Where:

Cv = cake constant

= Specific cake resistance

= mass ratio of dry cake to filtrate

kg

= density of filtrate, m3

= Viscosity of Filtrate, Pa s

Mass Ratio of dry cake to filtrate:

dry cake

r=

filtrate

13. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith

=

Where:

So = Volume Specific Surface

=

()

Where:

K = Permeability

= Porosity

Porosity, :

1

=

Ks (1)

Where:

= specific cake resistance

K = Permeability, m2

kg

s = Density, m3

= Porosity

DETAILED DESIGN COMPUTATION

MEMBRANE PROCESS SELECTION

According to Table 2 from Membrane Filtration Handbook, among the four membrane

microfiltration since its primary purpose in the process is to separate the cell mass and other solids

from the fermented medium. Thickness should be in range of 10-150 m. The pore size will be

ranging between 4 - 0.02 m with membrane module allowed are tubular and hollow fiber.

Membrane materials allowed are ceramic PP, PSO (polysulfone) and PVDF

MEMBRANE MATERIAL SELECTION

Means low resistance

18. Means either that the information is based on theory of that practical results have

proved to be dubious

Polyether sulfone (PES) because of its high resistance with most of the organic and inorganic

compounds. It is suitable even at high operating temperatures and has high resistance in a wide

range of pH.

From Material Balance:

Component Mass Mass Density Volume Xi

(kg/day) Fraction (kg/m3) (m3/day)

(Xi)

Calcium Lactate 576.83 0.0946 1,490.00 0.3871 140.954

Water 5,395.31 0.8853 1,000.00 5.3953 885.300

CaCO3 7.44 0.0012 2,710.00 0.0027 3.252

Na2CO3 6.14 0.0011 2,540.00 0.0024 2.794

Cell Mass 3.2329 0.0005 600.00 0.0037 0.300

CaSO4 7.88 0.0013 2,320.00 0.0033 3.016

Glucose 97.55 0.0160 1,540.00 0.0633 24.640

Total 6,094.38 5.8578 1060.256

Table 2: Filtrate/Permeate

Component Mass Mass Density Volume Xi

(kg/day) Fraction (kg/m3) (m3/day)

(Xi)

Calcium Lactate 576.74 0.0948 1,490.00 0.3871 141.252

Water 5,394.48 0.8870 1,000.00 5.3945 887.000

Na2CO3 6.14 0.0010 2,540.00 0.0024 2.540

CaCO3 6.84 0.0011 2,710.00 0.0027 2.981

Glucose 97.54 0.0161 1,540.00 0.0633 24.794

Total 6,081.74 5.8500 1058.567

Table 3: Residue/Retentate

Component Mass Mass Density Volume Xi

(kg/day) Fraction (kg/m3) (m3/day)

(Xi)

Calcium Lactate 0.08 0.006329 1,490.00 0.0000537 9.43021

Water 0.82 0.064873 1,000.00 0.00080 64.87300

Cell Mass 3.23 0.255538 600.00 0.0054 153.32280

CaSO4 7.88 0.623418 2,320.00 0.0034 1446.32976

Glucose 0.01 0.000791 1,540.00 0.0000065 1.21814

CaCO3 0.59 0.046677 2,710.00 0.00022 126.49467

Total 12.64 0.00988 1801.66858

MEMBRANE AREA CALCULATION

Diffusivity (Dv):

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, page 538

7.32 1016

Dv=

Where:

Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)

T= operating temperature (K)

ro = radius of particles (cm)

= viscosity (cP)

Size range of calcium lactate: 0.000394 0.0015 microns (Molecular Recipes: Calcium

Chloride, Calcium Lactate and Calcium Lactate Gluconate)

Size range of cell mass: 0.5 0.8 microns (JGI Genome Portal)

Dave of calcium lactate = = 9.47 x 10-8 cm

2 1 1

Dave of cell mass = = 6.5 x 10-5 cm

2 1 1

Dave = = 3.2547 x 10-5 cm

2

3.2547 105

r0 ave = = 1.6274 105 cm

2

= viscosity (cP)

Assume that the bulk concentration comprises major component of the solution which is

composed of water with viscosity of 0.85 cP or 8.5x10-4 Pa-s.

7.32 1016 (30+273.15)

Dv =

(1.6274 105 ) (0.85 )

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p. 539

NSc =

Where:

= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (cP)

= average density of feed (g/cm3) = Xi = 1060.256 kg/m3 = 1.060256 g/cm3

Dv = diffusivity (cm2 /s)

0.085

NSc =

(1.060256 /3) (1.6042 x 108 cm2 /s)

= 4997399.827

Reynolds Number (NRe):

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p.53

NRe =

Where:

D = diameter of tube (cm)

D= 1 in 2.54 cm

V= velocity of fluid (cm/s)

= average density of the feed (g/cm3)

= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (g/cm-s)

Table 8 p.18 Types and Variables of Tubular Membranes, Membrane Filtration Handbook

Assume V=5m/s that gives turbulent flow and good mass transfer ( pg. 1036 of Unit Operations

of Chemical Engineering, McCabe Smith, 5th Edition)

2.54 (500 )

NRe =

0.085

= 14,941.1765

Sherwood Number NSh (for high Schmidt Number):

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p.552

NSh = 0.0096 NRe0.913 NSc 0.346

Where:

NSh= Sherwood Number

NSc= Schmidt Number

= 0.0096 (14,941.1765)0.913 (4997399.8270)0.346

= 12,919.6280

Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation

17.50, p.545

kc =

Where:

NSh = Sherwood Number

D = diameter of tube (cm)

Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)

kc = = 8.1597 x 10-5 cm/s

2.54

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p. 1042

= kc ln 2

1 2

Where:

= permeate flux (L/m2-h)

Kc = Mass Transfer Coefficient

Cs = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the retentate (kg/m3)

C1 = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the feed (slurry) (kg/m3)

C2 = maltose, dextrin and insoluble solid concentration in (kg/m3)

According to Overall Material balance sheet, since there will be no component of cell mass and

CaSO4 in filtrate/permeate, C2 = 0.

Permeate flux equation will be:

= kc ln 1

Based on Overall Material Balance Data Sheet:

( +4 )

Cs =

(3.23+7.88)/

=

0.009883 /

= 1124.4939 kg/m3

( +4 )

C1 =

(7.88+3.2329)/

=

5.8578 3 /

= 1.8971 kg/m3

Since C2 = 0, = kc ln 1

-5

1124.4939 /3

= (8.1597 x 10 cm/s) ln

1.8971 /3

= 5.2098 x 10-4 cm/s = 5.2098 x 10-6 m/s

From Table 30.4 Conversion Factors for Permeate Flux in Unit Operations of Chemical

Engineering by McCabe Smith

1 2.78 107

=

2

1

2

= 5.2098 x 10 m/s x

-6

2.78107

According to the Membrane Filtration Handbook by Wagner, p. 94, there is no general rule for

the permeate flux of Microfiltration, and,if in doubt, a low flux value should be used, given that

there is also no given permeate flux from the brochures used, thus, this value of permeate flux is

acceptable.

Permeability (Qm):

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p.885

Qm =

()

Where:

= permeate flux

Qm = membrane permeability

P = pressure drop

= osmotic pressure difference

= average viscosity of water as assumed major component in feed

water = viscosity of water (0.85cP)

Osmotic Pressure Difference ():

= (Cs -C1)

Where:

R= 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K

MWave = average molecular weight of cell mass and CaSO4

Cs = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the retentate (kg/m3)

C1 = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the feed (slurry) (kg/m3)

(29000+136.14)/

MWave = = 14568.07 g/mol

2

Cs = 1124.4939 kg/m3 = 1124.4939 g/L

C1 = 1.8971 kg/m3 = 1.8971 g/L

(0.08206 )(30+273.15)

= (1124.4939-1.8971) g/L

14568.0700 /

= 1.9169 atm

For Microfiltration (Process Liquid) from Table 15 of Membrane Filtration Handbook, p.24

Maximum allowed pressure drop = 1.0 bar per element (Table 14 from Membrane Filtration

Handbook)

1

P= 1 bar (2 elements) = 2 bar ( ) = 1.9738 atm

1.01325

P = 1.9738 atm = 200 kPa

Permeability (Qm):

()

Qm=

()

.

2

(0.85 )

=

(1.97381.9169 )(0.85)

Qm = 329.3533 L/m2-hr-atm

From Membrane Filtration Handbook, Table 37 Necessary Steps for Designing a System, p.117:

Area of Element:

( )

=

( )

2

Where:

A= area of membrane (m2)

3

v = Permeate flux ( )

2

3

0.2438 (

)

=

3

0.0187402 ( 2 )

= .

Total membrane area / module = 9.3 2/100 = 0.093 m2

From the Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure, 0.093 m2 is the total

membrane area/module

No. of tubes per element:

. =

/

13.0095 2

. =

0.093 2

. = .

From the brochure, the flowrate is 1.5 m3/hr

Number of units of microfilter:

5.8578 3

. =

1.5 3 /

. = . 4

Porosity,

Wet Cake:

=

volume of cake

(volumeLiquid )

Wet Cake

=

volume of cake

Calcium Lactate 0.088633883 1,490.00 5.94858E-05

Glucose 0.014989482 1,540.00 9.73343E-06

Water 0.829028108 1,000.00 0.000829028

Na2CO3 0.000943448 2,540.00 3.71436E-07

CaCO3 0.595008537 2,710.00 0.00021956

Total 1.528603458 0.001118179

From Table 3: Cake Discharge,

Component Mass Density Volume (m3)

CaSO4 7.877676111 2,320.00 0.00339555

Cell Mass 3.232877591 600.00 0.005388129

Total 11.1105537 0.008783679

0.001118179 m3

=

0.008783679 m3

= 0.1273

Density of solids:

total mass of solids

s =

total volume of solids

Table 5: Solid in Cake

CaSO4 7.877676111 2,320.00 0.00339555

Cell Mass 3.232877591 600.00 0.005388129

Total 11.1105537 0.008783679

kg

11.1105537

day

s =

m3

0.008783679

day

kg

s = 1,264.908843 m3

6

So =

xv

From Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Brochure, the pore/particle size is 10 micrometers

6

So =

10 x106 m

So = 600,000/m

3

k=

5(1 )2 So 2

(0.1273)3

k=

2 600,000 2

5(1 0.1273) ( )

m

k = 1.5048 1015 m2

1

=

(1.5048 1015 m2 )(1,264.91 kg/m3)(1 0.1273)

m

= 6.0199 1011

kg

dry cake

r= filtrate

11.11055 kg

r=

6074.9 kg

r = 0.00183

Calculation

r

Cv =

2

11 m kg 4

(6.0199 10 ) (0.00183) (1,264.91 3 ) (8.5 10 Pa s)

kg m

Cv =

2

Pa s

Cv = 592232572.8

m2

( 2 )

= 2

( )

Where:

tf = filtration time

Cv = cake constant

Vf = filtrate volume

A = area of membrane

= pressure drop

(592232572.8)(5.852 )

=

(9.3)2 (200,000)

= . .

Backwash Frequency for 1 hour:

60

1 = 60 15 = 4

1

Backwash Duration: 5 minutes (average) range is 1 10 minutes

Total Filtering Time (t):

Total time of filtration breakdown:

Time of Filtration = 0.3255 hours

Time of Washing = 0.3 hours

_______________________________________

Total Time = 0.6255 hours/day

FILTER MEDIA

The appropriate material for the filter membrane with respect to the feed and pressure applied is

a Polyether sulfone (PES) according to the Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane

Brochure.

POWER REQUIREMENT

From Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th Edition, pg.10-23 Equation 10-50

P=

3.559 10^6

Where:

H = total dynamic head (Pa)

H = 1.4804 atm = 150000 Pa 101325 Pa = 48675 Pa

Q = capacity = 13.7 m3/hr

Assume: 1 day = 24 hour-operation

3

48675 13.7

= = 0.1853 kW = 0.2438 hp

3.599106

0.1853

Pactual = = = 0.2647 kW

0.70

TYPE OF PUMP USED: CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

From Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook 7th Edition, pg. 10-24

Centrifugal pump is used due to its capacity ranging from 0.5 m3/h to 2 x 104 m3/h (2

gal/min to 105 gal/min (2 gal/min to 105 gal/min, this type of pump is widely used in the

chemical industry for transferring liquids of all types.

SHELL THICKNESS (ts):

ts = 2 + ( , . 4 3, . 87)

Where:

ts= minimum shell thickness

C = corrosion allowance usually taken as 1/6 inch

D = inside diameter

P = maximum internal pressure

S = working or allowable tensile stress

e = efficiency of the welded joints

S = Su * Fs * Fm * Fr * Fa

Su = ultimate or yield strength of material (ChE Handbook 8th edition, Table 25-8, p.25-36)

Fm = material factor = 1.0 for high tensile strength carbon steel

Fs = steel factor = 0.25

Fa = radiographing factor = 1.12 if mandatory and 1,0 if not mandatory

Fr = stress relieving factor

Su = ultimate yield strength of material (Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th Ed., p.28-39)

Where:

Fm = 1.0

Fs = 0.25

Fr = 1.0

Fa = 1.0

e = 0.7 for V of U double butt joint

Su = 248 x 106 Pa = 2447.5799 atm

S = (2447.5799 atm)(1)(1)(0.25)(1)= 611.8950 atm

Operating Pressure = 1.4804 atm

ts = 2 +

(1.4804 )(0.254)

ts = (2)(611.8950)(0.7)1.4804 + 1.58 103 = 2.0199 103

ts = 2.0199 mm

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