You are on page 1of 23

SPECIFICATION SHEET

IDENTIFICATION
Name of Equipment Microfilter
Equipment Code F-3
Number of Elements 4
Number of tubes per element
Function To separate the cell mass and other solids
from the fermented medium
Operation Continuous
Type Tubular Microfiltration Membrane
Materials Handled Calcium Lactate, Cell Mass, Calcium
Carbonate, Sodium Carbonate, Calcium
Sulfate, Residual sugars and Water
Number Required 2 units
BASIC DESIGN DATA
Pressure 1.5 bar
Pressure Drop 1.9738 atm 2 bar
Temperature 25 30 C
Filtrate Flow 0.2438 m3/h
Permeate Flux 18.7402 L/m2-hr
Rate of Filtration 1.5 m3/hr
Filtration Time 0.3255 hours
Membrane Permeability 329.3533 L/m2-hr-atm
Power Requirement 0.2438 hp
Total Filtering Time 0.6255 hours/day
Shell Thickness 2.0199 x 10-3 m
MEMBRANE DESIGN
Filter Membrane Used Polyether sulfone (PES)
Total Element Area 13.0095 m2
Total Membrane Area/Module 0.093m2
No. of tubes 140
Pore Size 0.1-10 microns
Membrane Diameter 1.55 x 10-3 m
Length 1.022 m
Operating Mode Crossflow Filtration
HOUSING DESIGN
Type 2-port style
Materials of Construction Stainless steel AISI 316/316L
Module Length 1.044 m
PUMP DESIGN
Pump Type Centrifugal Pump
DIAGRAM FOR MICROFILTER (F-3):

D0 = 160.6 mm

L0= 1022 mm

L0 = 1040 mm

I0 = 125 mm
ASSUMPTIONS:
1. The Microfiltration is operated at constant pressure filtration.
2. Material of Construction Stainless steel AISI 316/316L
- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

3. Type of Microfiltration Membrane: Tubular Membrane


- Membrane Filtration Handbook, pg.16
4. Operating Pressure: <2 bar; 1.5 bar
- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

5. Pressure Drop: 1.9738 atm


- Table 14 from Membrane Filtration Handbook
6. Membrane Material: Polyether sulfone (PES)
- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure
7. Theoretical Internal Diameter of permeate tube: 1 in = 0.0254 m
- Table 8 Types and Variables of Tubular Membranes, Membrane Filtration
Handbook, p.18
8. For Shell Thickness:
- Hesse and Rushton Equipment Design
- Fm = 1.0, for high tensile strength steel
- Fs = 0.25, steel factor
- Fa = 1.0, radiographing factor
- Fr = 1.0, steel relieving factor
- Su = 248 MPa, Table 28-11, p.28-39, Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th
Edition
- e = 0.7, for V and U single butt joint
9. Length of module: 1040 mm
- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

10. Viscosity () of the filtrate, since it is composed mostly of water has a value of = 0.85
cP or 8.5x10-4 Pa-s
- Unit Operation, of Chemical Engineering Appendix

11. The velocity is assumed to be 5 m/s that gives a turbulent flow and good mass transfer, -
pg.1036, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th Edition

12. Size range of calcium lactate: 0.000394 0.0015 microns

- Molecular Recipes: Calcium Chloride, Calcium Lactate and Calcium Lactate


Gluconate
Size range of cell mass: 0.5 0.8 microns
- JGI Genome Portal

13. Length of tube: 1.022 m


- Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure

EQUATIONS
1. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation
29.48, p.1040

= kc ln 2
1 2
Where:
= permeate flux (L/m2-h)
Kc = Mass Transfer Coefficient
Cs = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the retentate (kg/m3)
C1 = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the feed (slurry) (kg/m3)
C2 = maltose, dextrin and insoluble solid concentration in (kg/m3)

2. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation
30.55, p.1041
7.32 1016
Dv=

Where:
Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)
T= operating temperature (K)
ro = radius of particles (cm)
= (cP)
3. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation
3.10, p.53

NRe =

Where:
D = diameter of tube (cm)
D= 1 in 2.54 cm
V= velocity of fluid (cm/s)
= average density of the feed (g/cm3)
= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (g/cm-s)

4. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, p.539

NSc =

Where:
= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (cP)
= average density of feed (g/cm3) = Xi = 1060.256 kg/m3 = 1.060256 g/cm3
Dv = diffusivity (cm2 /s)
5. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, p.552
NSh = 0.0096 NRe0.913 NSc 0.346
Where:
NSh= Sherwood Number
NSc= Schmidt Number
NRe = Reynolds Number

6. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation
17.50 p.545

kc =

Where:
NSh = Sherwood Number
D = diameter of tube (cm)
Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)


7. =
8. Hesse and Rushton Process Equipment Design, Equation 4-3, p.87

ts = 2 +

Where:
ts= minimum shell thickness
C = corrosion allowance usually taken as 1/6 inch
D = inside diameter
P = maximum internal pressure
S = working or allowable tensile stress
e = efficiency of the welded joints

9. Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th Edition, Equation 10-50, pg.10-23



P=
3.559 10^6
Where:
H = total dynamic head (Pa)
Q = capacity = 13.7 m3/hr
10. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith


=
( )

Where:
tf = filtration time
= Volume of Filtrate, m3
= Area, m2
= Pressure drop, Pa
Pas
= Cake constant,
m2

11. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith



=

Where:
Cv = cake constant
= Specific cake resistance
= mass ratio of dry cake to filtrate
kg
= density of filtrate, m3

= Viscosity of Filtrate, Pa s

12. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith


Mass Ratio of dry cake to filtrate:
dry cake
r=
filtrate
13. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith

=

Where:
So = Volume Specific Surface

xv = volume mean diameter

14. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith



=
()

Where:
K = Permeability

So = volume specific curface


= Porosity

15. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith


Porosity, :

16. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by Brown


1
=
Ks (1)

Where:
= specific cake resistance
K = Permeability, m2
kg
s = Density, m3
= Porosity
DETAILED DESIGN COMPUTATION
MEMBRANE PROCESS SELECTION

According to Table 2 from Membrane Filtration Handbook, among the four membrane

processes: reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration; it is best to use

microfiltration since its primary purpose in the process is to separate the cell mass and other solids

from the fermented medium. Thickness should be in range of 10-150 m. The pore size will be

ranging between 4 - 0.02 m with membrane module allowed are tubular and hollow fiber.

Membrane materials allowed are ceramic PP, PSO (polysulfone) and PVDF

(polyvinylidenedifluoride). The operating pressure should be <2 bar (Wagner, 2001).


MEMBRANE MATERIAL SELECTION

17. Means high resistance


Means low resistance
18. Means either that the information is based on theory of that practical results have
proved to be dubious

According to Table 4 in Membrane Filtration Handbook as shown, it is suitable to use

Polyether sulfone (PES) because of its high resistance with most of the organic and inorganic

compounds. It is suitable even at high operating temperatures and has high resistance in a wide

range of pH.
From Material Balance:

Table 1: Input/Feed to the Microfilter


Component Mass Mass Density Volume Xi
(kg/day) Fraction (kg/m3) (m3/day)
(Xi)
Calcium Lactate 576.83 0.0946 1,490.00 0.3871 140.954
Water 5,395.31 0.8853 1,000.00 5.3953 885.300
CaCO3 7.44 0.0012 2,710.00 0.0027 3.252
Na2CO3 6.14 0.0011 2,540.00 0.0024 2.794
Cell Mass 3.2329 0.0005 600.00 0.0037 0.300
CaSO4 7.88 0.0013 2,320.00 0.0033 3.016
Glucose 97.55 0.0160 1,540.00 0.0633 24.640
Total 6,094.38 5.8578 1060.256

Table 2: Filtrate/Permeate
Component Mass Mass Density Volume Xi
(kg/day) Fraction (kg/m3) (m3/day)
(Xi)
Calcium Lactate 576.74 0.0948 1,490.00 0.3871 141.252
Water 5,394.48 0.8870 1,000.00 5.3945 887.000
Na2CO3 6.14 0.0010 2,540.00 0.0024 2.540
CaCO3 6.84 0.0011 2,710.00 0.0027 2.981
Glucose 97.54 0.0161 1,540.00 0.0633 24.794
Total 6,081.74 5.8500 1058.567

Table 3: Residue/Retentate
Component Mass Mass Density Volume Xi
(kg/day) Fraction (kg/m3) (m3/day)
(Xi)
Calcium Lactate 0.08 0.006329 1,490.00 0.0000537 9.43021
Water 0.82 0.064873 1,000.00 0.00080 64.87300
Cell Mass 3.23 0.255538 600.00 0.0054 153.32280
CaSO4 7.88 0.623418 2,320.00 0.0034 1446.32976
Glucose 0.01 0.000791 1,540.00 0.0000065 1.21814
CaCO3 0.59 0.046677 2,710.00 0.00022 126.49467
Total 12.64 0.00988 1801.66858
MEMBRANE AREA CALCULATION
Diffusivity (Dv):
From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, page 538
7.32 1016
Dv=

Where:
Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)
T= operating temperature (K)
ro = radius of particles (cm)
= viscosity (cP)
Size range of calcium lactate: 0.000394 0.0015 microns (Molecular Recipes: Calcium
Chloride, Calcium Lactate and Calcium Lactate Gluconate)
Size range of cell mass: 0.5 0.8 microns (JGI Genome Portal)

0.000394+0.0015 106 100


Dave of calcium lactate = = 9.47 x 10-8 cm
2 1 1

0.5+0.8 106 100


Dave of cell mass = = 6.5 x 10-5 cm
2 1 1

9.47 108 +6.5 105


Dave = = 3.2547 x 10-5 cm
2
3.2547 105
r0 ave = = 1.6274 105 cm
2

= viscosity (cP)
Assume that the bulk concentration comprises major component of the solution which is
composed of water with viscosity of 0.85 cP or 8.5x10-4 Pa-s.
7.32 1016 (30+273.15)
Dv =
(1.6274 105 ) (0.85 )

= 1.6042 x 10-8 cm2 /s

Schmidts Number (NSc):


From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p. 539

NSc =

Where:
= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (cP)
= average density of feed (g/cm3) = Xi = 1060.256 kg/m3 = 1.060256 g/cm3
Dv = diffusivity (cm2 /s)

0.085
NSc =
(1.060256 /3) (1.6042 x 108 cm2 /s)
= 4997399.827
Reynolds Number (NRe):
From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p.53

NRe =

Where:
D = diameter of tube (cm)
D= 1 in 2.54 cm
V= velocity of fluid (cm/s)
= average density of the feed (g/cm3)
= viscosity of major component in solution fed as assumed (g/cm-s)
Table 8 p.18 Types and Variables of Tubular Membranes, Membrane Filtration Handbook

Assume V=5m/s that gives turbulent flow and good mass transfer ( pg. 1036 of Unit Operations
of Chemical Engineering, McCabe Smith, 5th Edition)


2.54 (500 )
NRe =
0.085

= 14,941.1765
Sherwood Number NSh (for high Schmidt Number):
From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p.552
NSh = 0.0096 NRe0.913 NSc 0.346
Where:
NSh= Sherwood Number
NSc= Schmidt Number
= 0.0096 (14,941.1765)0.913 (4997399.8270)0.346
= 12,919.6280

Mass Transfer Coefficient (Kc):


Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith 7th Edition, Equation
17.50, p.545

kc =

Where:
NSh = Sherwood Number
D = diameter of tube (cm)
Dv = diffusivity (cm2/s)

(12,919.6280)(1.6042 x 108 cm2 /s)


kc = = 8.1597 x 10-5 cm/s
2.54

Permeate flux ():


From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p. 1042

= kc ln 2
1 2

Where:
= permeate flux (L/m2-h)
Kc = Mass Transfer Coefficient
Cs = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the retentate (kg/m3)
C1 = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the feed (slurry) (kg/m3)
C2 = maltose, dextrin and insoluble solid concentration in (kg/m3)
According to Overall Material balance sheet, since there will be no component of cell mass and
CaSO4 in filtrate/permeate, C2 = 0.
Permeate flux equation will be:

= kc ln 1

For Cs and C1 calculation:


Based on Overall Material Balance Data Sheet:

( +4 )
Cs =

(3.23+7.88)/
=
0.009883 /

= 1124.4939 kg/m3

( +4 )
C1 =

(7.88+3.2329)/
=
5.8578 3 /
= 1.8971 kg/m3

Since C2 = 0, = kc ln 1
-5
1124.4939 /3
= (8.1597 x 10 cm/s) ln
1.8971 /3
= 5.2098 x 10-4 cm/s = 5.2098 x 10-6 m/s
From Table 30.4 Conversion Factors for Permeate Flux in Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering by McCabe Smith
1 2.78 107
=
2
1
2
= 5.2098 x 10 m/s x
-6
2.78107

= 18.7402 L/m2- h 0.0187402 m3/m2-h

According to the Membrane Filtration Handbook by Wagner, p. 94, there is no general rule for
the permeate flux of Microfiltration, and,if in doubt, a low flux value should be used, given that
there is also no given permeate flux from the brochures used, thus, this value of permeate flux is
acceptable.

Permeability (Qm):
From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe and Smith, 7th Edition, p.885

Qm =
()

Where:

= permeate flux
Qm = membrane permeability
P = pressure drop
= osmotic pressure difference
= average viscosity of water as assumed major component in feed
water = viscosity of water (0.85cP)
Osmotic Pressure Difference ():

= (Cs -C1)

Where:
R= 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K
MWave = average molecular weight of cell mass and CaSO4
Cs = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the retentate (kg/m3)
C1 = cell mass and CaSO4 concentration in the feed (slurry) (kg/m3)

(29000+136.14)/
MWave = = 14568.07 g/mol
2
Cs = 1124.4939 kg/m3 = 1124.4939 g/L
C1 = 1.8971 kg/m3 = 1.8971 g/L

(0.08206 )(30+273.15)
= (1124.4939-1.8971) g/L
14568.0700 /

= 1.9169 atm

Pressure Drop (P):


For Microfiltration (Process Liquid) from Table 15 of Membrane Filtration Handbook, p.24

Typical Number of Elements = 2 (Table 15 from Membrane Filtration Handbook, p. 23)


Maximum allowed pressure drop = 1.0 bar per element (Table 14 from Membrane Filtration
Handbook)
1
P= 1 bar (2 elements) = 2 bar ( ) = 1.9738 atm
1.01325
P = 1.9738 atm = 200 kPa
Permeability (Qm):
()
Qm=
()

.
2
(0.85 )
=
(1.97381.9169 )(0.85)

Qm = 329.3533 L/m2-hr-atm

From Membrane Filtration Handbook, Table 37 Necessary Steps for Designing a System, p.117:
Area of Element:

( )
=

( )
2
Where:
A= area of membrane (m2)
3
v = Permeate flux ( )
2
3
0.2438 (
)
=
3
0.0187402 ( 2 )

= .
Total membrane area / module = 9.3 2/100 = 0.093 m2
From the Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane Brochure, 0.093 m2 is the total
membrane area/module
No. of tubes per element:

. =
/
13.0095 2
. =
0.093 2
. = .
From the brochure, the flowrate is 1.5 m3/hr
Number of units of microfilter:

5.8578 3
. =
1.5 3 /
. = . 4

Porosity,

Wet Cake:

volume of void space


=
volume of cake

(volumeLiquid )
Wet Cake
=
volume of cake

Table 4: Liquid in Cake

Component Mass (kg/day) Density (kg/m3) Volume (m3/day)


Calcium Lactate 0.088633883 1,490.00 5.94858E-05
Glucose 0.014989482 1,540.00 9.73343E-06
Water 0.829028108 1,000.00 0.000829028
Na2CO3 0.000943448 2,540.00 3.71436E-07
CaCO3 0.595008537 2,710.00 0.00021956
Total 1.528603458 0.001118179
From Table 3: Cake Discharge,
Component Mass Density Volume (m3)
CaSO4 7.877676111 2,320.00 0.00339555
Cell Mass 3.232877591 600.00 0.005388129
Total 11.1105537 0.008783679

0.001118179 m3
=
0.008783679 m3
= 0.1273
Density of solids:
total mass of solids
s =
total volume of solids
Table 5: Solid in Cake

Component Mass Density Volume (m3)


CaSO4 7.877676111 2,320.00 0.00339555
Cell Mass 3.232877591 600.00 0.005388129
Total 11.1105537 0.008783679

kg
11.1105537
day
s =
m3
0.008783679
day
kg
s = 1,264.908843 m3

Volume Specific Surface, So


6
So =
xv
From Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Brochure, the pore/particle size is 10 micrometers
6
So =
10 x106 m
So = 600,000/m

Solving for Permeability, K

3
k=
5(1 )2 So 2
(0.1273)3
k=
2 600,000 2
5(1 0.1273) ( )
m
k = 1.5048 1015 m2

Substituting the given values for Specific Cake Resistance,

1
=
(1.5048 1015 m2 )(1,264.91 kg/m3)(1 0.1273)
m
= 6.0199 1011
kg

Mass Ratio of Dry Cake to Filtrate

dry cake
r= filtrate

11.11055 kg
r=
6074.9 kg

r = 0.00183

Calculation

r
Cv =
2

11 m kg 4
(6.0199 10 ) (0.00183) (1,264.91 3 ) (8.5 10 Pa s)
kg m
Cv =
2

Pa s
Cv = 592232572.8
m2

Solving for filtration time:

( 2 )
= 2
( )

Where:
tf = filtration time
Cv = cake constant
Vf = filtrate volume
A = area of membrane
= pressure drop
(592232572.8)(5.852 )
=
(9.3)2 (200,000)

= . .

Backwash Frequency: once every 15 minutes


Backwash Frequency for 1 hour:
60
1 = 60 15 = 4
1
Backwash Duration: 5 minutes (average) range is 1 10 minutes
Total Filtering Time (t):
Total time of filtration breakdown:
Time of Filtration = 0.3255 hours
Time of Washing = 0.3 hours
_______________________________________
Total Time = 0.6255 hours/day

FILTER MEDIA
The appropriate material for the filter membrane with respect to the feed and pressure applied is
a Polyether sulfone (PES) according to the Pentair X-Flow R-100 Microfiltration Membrane
Brochure.

POWER REQUIREMENT
From Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th Edition, pg.10-23 Equation 10-50

P=
3.559 10^6
Where:
H = total dynamic head (Pa)
H = 1.4804 atm = 150000 Pa 101325 Pa = 48675 Pa
Q = capacity = 13.7 m3/hr
Assume: 1 day = 24 hour-operation
3
48675 13.7

= = 0.1853 kW = 0.2438 hp
3.599106

0.1853
Pactual = = = 0.2647 kW
0.70
TYPE OF PUMP USED: CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
From Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook 7th Edition, pg. 10-24

Centrifugal pump is used due to its capacity ranging from 0.5 m3/h to 2 x 104 m3/h (2
gal/min to 105 gal/min (2 gal/min to 105 gal/min, this type of pump is widely used in the
chemical industry for transferring liquids of all types.
SHELL THICKNESS (ts):

ts = 2 + ( , . 4 3, . 87)

Where:
ts= minimum shell thickness
C = corrosion allowance usually taken as 1/6 inch
D = inside diameter
P = maximum internal pressure
S = working or allowable tensile stress
e = efficiency of the welded joints
S = Su * Fs * Fm * Fr * Fa
Su = ultimate or yield strength of material (ChE Handbook 8th edition, Table 25-8, p.25-36)
Fm = material factor = 1.0 for high tensile strength carbon steel
Fs = steel factor = 0.25
Fa = radiographing factor = 1.12 if mandatory and 1,0 if not mandatory
Fr = stress relieving factor
Su = ultimate yield strength of material (Chemical Engineering Handbook 7th Ed., p.28-39)
Where:
Fm = 1.0
Fs = 0.25
Fr = 1.0
Fa = 1.0
e = 0.7 for V of U double butt joint
Su = 248 x 106 Pa = 2447.5799 atm
S = (2447.5799 atm)(1)(1)(0.25)(1)= 611.8950 atm
Operating Pressure = 1.4804 atm

ts = 2 +
(1.4804 )(0.254)
ts = (2)(611.8950)(0.7)1.4804 + 1.58 103 = 2.0199 103

ts = 2.0199 mm