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Mapua Institute of Technology

School of Languages Humanities and Social Sciences

SS14 Philippine History

Marquez, Jose Lorenzo Aaron M. SS14/A4

ECE-2 / 2015111654 Class activity (Library


Research on the different native revolts against Spain:

During the Spanish colonial period, 15211898, in the Philippines there were
several revolts against the Spanish colonial government by indigenous Moro, Lumad, Indians, Chinese
(Sangleys) and Insulares,(Mestiso) often with the goal of re-establishing the rights and powers that had
traditionally belonged to Lumad Timueys, Maginoo Rajah and Moro Datus.

Most of these revolts failed because the Friars always invoked Roman Catholicism to the majority
of the local population to side up with the well-armed colonial government and to fight with Spanish as foot
soldiers to put down the revolts.

It is also worthy to mention that in Mindanao and Sulu, a continuous defense of their sovereignty
was sustained against all odds by the Bangsamoro and their allies for the whole duration of Spanish
conquest and rule (over 300 years).

16th century

Dagami Revolt (15651567)

The Dagami Revolt was a revolt against Spanish colonial rule led by the Family Dagami, in the
island of Leyte in the Philippines, in 1567.

Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt (1574)

The Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt, also known as the Tagalog Revolt, was an uprising in 1574
against Spanish colonial rule led by Lakandula and Rajah Sulayman in Tondo Manila. The revolt occurred
in the same year as the Chinese pirate Limahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly defended enclosure
of Intramuros. This Revolt was caused by losing Soliman and Lakandula's kingdom when they were
defeated by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi to accept the Spanish sovereignty on the promise that they would be
well-treated by the Spaniards and would still retain some of their royal and political powers.

When Governor General Lavezaris replaced Legaspi, he revoked their exemptions from paying
tribute and confiscated their lands. Father Martin convinced Lakandula and Soliman to abort the revolt and
promised to grant their privileges. Nevertheless, Solaiman continued his revolt which was brutally crushed
in 1574.

Pampanga Revolt (1585)

The Pampanga Revolt was an uprising in 1585 by some native Kapampangan leaders who
resented the Spanish landowners, or encomenderos who had deprived them of their historical land
inheritances as tribal chiefs, Datus. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros, but the conspiracy was
foiled before it could begin after a Filipino woman married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the
Spanish authorities. Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera,
and the leaders of the revolt were arrested and summarily executed by Christian Cruz-Herrera.
Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (15871588)

The Conspiracy of the Maharllikas, or the Tondo Conspiracy, of 15871588, was a plot against the
Spanish colonial rule by the kin-related noblemen, or datus, of Manila and some towns
of Bulacan and Pampanga. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first
cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to revolt. The uprising failed when they were denounced to the
Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes, in Palawan.

Revolts Against the Tribute (1589)

The Cagayan and Dingras Revolts Against the Tribute occurred on Luzon in the present-day
provinces of Cagayan and Ilocos Norte in 1589. Ilocanos, Ibanags and other Filipinos revolted against
alleged abuses by the tax collectors, including the collection of high taxes. It began when six tax collectors
who had arrived from Vigan were killed by the natives. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish
and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. The rebels were eventually pardoned and the Philippine
tax system reformed.

Magalat Revolt (1596)

The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in 1596, led by Magalat, a rebel from Cagayan. He had been
arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish. He was later released after some urging by
some Dominican priests, and returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he urged the entire country
to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities against his fellow natives for refusing to rise up against
the Spaniards. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged.

The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmn sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with
Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and
executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified
headquarters by his own men.

17th century

Igorot Revolt (1601)

By order of the Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmn an expedition was sent to

the Cordillera region for religious conversion purposes with the aid of Padre Esteban Marin. Marin, the
curate of Ilocos at that time, tried initially to convince the Igorots to convert peacefully to Catholicism. Marin
allegedly even tried to create his own dictionary in the Igorot dialect to advance this cause.

The Igorots, however, killed Marin and the Governor-General sent Captain Aranda with Spanish and Lumad
foot soldiers. The revolt was short-lived as Aranda made use of extreme measures and executed them
quickly to dispel the revolt in the Cordillera region.

The Chinese Revolt of 1603

In 1603, at least 30,000 Chinese merchants were slaughtered and in Luzon Chinese officials and
civilians were killed without authority by what The Ming Shi-lu (Mng shl) describes as the barbarian
Spanish chieftain of Luzon during that time. The surviving Chinese fled to Wawa, or what is now known as
Guagua, this atrocity is known in Chinese history as the Luzon Tragedy (L sng cn n). The Chinese
inhabitants of Manila set fire to Legarda and Binondo and for a time threatened to capture
the Moro stronghold in Intramuros.
Tamblot Revolt (16211622)

The Tamblot Revolt or Tamblot Uprising was a religious uprising in the island of Bohol, led
by Tamblot in 1621. The Jesuits first came to Bohol in 1596 and eventually governed the island and
converted the Boholanos to the Catholic faith. Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest, urged his fellow
Boholanos to return to the old belief of their forefathers.

The revolt began on the day when the Jesuits were in Cebu, celebrating the feast day of St. Francis
Xavier. It was finally crushed on New Year's Day, in 1622. Tamblot was executed and his head was severed
on a pike to serve as a warning to the populace.

Bankaw Revolt (16211622)

The Bankaw Revolt was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Bancao,
the datu of Carigara, in the present-day Carigara Philippine province of Leyte.

Bankaw had warmly received Miguel Lpez de Legazpi as his guest, when he first arrived in
the Philippines in 1565. Although baptized as a Catholic in his youth, he abandoned this faith in later years.
With a babaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess, and
pressed six towns to rise up in revolt. Similar to the Tamblot Uprising, Pagali used magic to attract followers,
and claimed that they could turn the Spaniards into clay by hurling bits of earth at them.

Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza sent the alcalde mayor of Cebu, Juan de Alcarazo,
with Spanish and foot soldier colonial troops, to suppress the rebellion. Bankaw's severed head was
impaled on a bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also
beheaded, and one of the babaylans was burned at the stake. Three other followers were executed by firing
squad which the Spanish already possessed at that time. Other historical sources/accounts report The
Bankaw Revolt as the first recorded uprising against foreign colonization. The (16211622) dates may be
inaccurate. Carigara was known only a decade after Magellan landed in Limasawa in 1521. The uprising
may well have taken place towards the end of the 16th century.

Itneg Revolt (16251627)

The Itneg Revolt, or the Mandaya Revolt, was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led
by Miguel Lanab and Alababan, the two were previously baptized as Catholics against their will and were
from the Itneg or Mandaya tribe of Capinatan, in northwestern Cagayan, in the Philippines. The region is
now part of the landlocked province of Apayao. Miguel Lanab and Alababan killed, beheaded and mutilated
two Dominican missionaries, Father Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao, who were sent by the
Spanish colonial government to convert the Itneg people to Christianity. After cutting Father Garcia's body
into pieces, they fed his flesh to a herd of pigs. Afterwards, they compelled their fellow Itnegs to loot,
desecrate Catholic images, set fire to the local churches, and escape with them to the mountains.

In 1626, Governor-General Fernndo de Silva sent Spanish and foot soldier colonial troops to
suppress the rebellion. They destroyed farms and other sources of food to starve the Itnegs, and forced
them to surrender in 1627.

Ladia Revolt (1643)

Pedro Ladia was a Moro Bornean and a self-claimed descendant of Lakandula who came to
Malolos in 1643. At that time, his land was confiscated by the Spanish and he thought that it was about
time that they stage an uprising and put himself as King of the Tagalogs. This was despite the fact that a
parish priest tried to convince him not to pursue his plans. Upon his capture, he was brought to Manila
where he was executed.
Sumuroy Revolt (164950)

In the town of Palapag today in Northern Samar, Agustin Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his
followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo y servicio or forced labor system being undertaken in
Samar. This is known as the Sumuroy Revolt, named after Agustin Sumuroy.

The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places
distant from their hometowns to do their forced labor. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes,
or mayors, The Waray were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt.

The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread
to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such
as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such
as Surigao. A rebel government was successfully established in the mountains of Samar.

The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 delivered a big setback to the revolt.
His trusted coconspirator David Dula sustained the quest for freedom with greater vigor but in one of fierce
battles several years later, he was wounded, captured and later executed in Palapag, Northern Samar by
the Spaniards together with his seven key lieutenants.

Maniago/ Pampanga Revolt (16601661)

The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660s. It was a revolt against the
Spanish during the colonial period and was named after its leader, Francisco Maniago. During that time,
Pampanga drew most of the attention from the Spanish religious Orders because of its relative wealth.
They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They were made to work for
eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them.
Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on fire.
The fight soon began and because the Spaniards were busy fighting against the Dutch, they were badly
depleted by the Kapampangans. The Maniago revolt was the start of a much bigger and even bloodier
revolt in Pangasinan. This battle was led by a man named Andres Malong who had heeded the call of
Maniago to revolt against the Spaniards.

Malong Revolt (16601661)

Andres Malong was the maestro de campo of Binalatongan, now San Carlos City, Pangasinan in
the 1660s. He assisted many Spaniards in governing different towns in Pangasinan, and as such, had
learned and was trained to use force and cruelty. He hoped of being the King of the province, however, set
this plan aside when a war, led by Francisco Maniago, broke out in Pampanga. Malong started his campaign
in a small barangay called Malunguey, but failed. Having the same condition as in Pampanga, he led the
people in Pangasinan to take up arms against the Spaniards. It spread like wild fire in Pangasinan. Because
of his success, he proclaimed himself King of Pangasinan.

Almazan Revolt (January 1661)

A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious
and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The letters sent by Don Andres Malong ("King
of Pangasinan") narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms
failed to obtain any support among the natives. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan proclaimed himself
"King of Ilocos", but was later captured and executed. He also had a son which the Ilocanos proclaimed
their prince

Chinese Revolt of 1662

Fearing an invasion of Chinese led by the famous pirate Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were
reinforced. An increasing anti-Chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. In the end, the
invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in the Manila.
Panay Revolt (1663)

The Panay Revolt was a religious uprising in 1663 that involved Tapar, a native of the island
of Panay, who wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted some followers with his
stories about his frequent conversations with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish
against Spanish and colonial foot soldier troops and their corpses were impaled on stakes.

Zambal Revolt (16811683)

A group of chieftains from Zambales had refused to accept the authority of the Crown over their
realm and staged a revolt. The Spanish were very swift to respond and sent a colonial force of 6,000 foot
soldiers to suppress the uprising. After 2 years of conflict, the Spanish had pacified the entire area of
Zambales and all of the chieftains who participated in the revolt were executed.

18th century

Agrarian Revolt of 1745

The Agrarian Revolt was a revolt undertaken between the years 1745 and 1746 in much of the
present-day CALABARZON (specifically in Batangas, Laguna and Cavite) and in Bulacan, with its first
sparks in the towns of Lian and Nasugbu in Batangas. Indigenous landowners rose in arms over the land-
grabbing of Spanish friars or Catholic religious orders, with native landowners demanding that Spanish
priests return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain.

The refusal of the Spanish priests resulted in much rioting, resulting in massive looting of convents
and arson of churches and ranches. The case was eventually investigated by Spanish officials and was
even heard in the court of Ferdinand VI in which he ordered the priests to return the lands they seized. The
priests were successfully able to appeal the return of lands back to the natives, which resulted in no land
being returned to native landowners.

Dagohoy Rebellion (17441829)

In 1744 in what is now the province of Bohol, what is known today as the Dagohoy Revolt was
undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy and his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only revolt
completely related to matters of religious customs, although unlike the Tamblot Uprising before it, it is not
a complete religious rebellion.

After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a
proper Catholic burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest eventually led to the longest
revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano
government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Mariano Ricafort Palacin y Abarca,
failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 foot soldiers to Bohol, which was defeated by
Dagohoy's followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well.

Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829.
Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages:
namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao).

Silang Revolt (17621763)

Arguably one of the most famous revolts in Philippine history is the Silang Revolt from 1762 to
1763, led by the couple of Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang. Unlike the other revolts, this revolt took place
during the British invasion of Manila. On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang declared the independence of
Ilocandia, naming the state "Free Ilocos" and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly independent state.
The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the Spanish.
However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish
authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her
husband's struggle, earning the title "Joan of Arc of the Ilocos" because of her many victories in battle. The
battles of the Silang revolt are a prime example of the use of divide et impera, since Spanish troops largely
used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos.

Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by
Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763.

Palaris Revolt (17621764)

During the British Invasion of the Philippines during the Seven Years' War, the Spanish colonial
government, including Villacorta, had relocated to Bacolor in the province of Pampanga, which was then
adjacent to Pangasinan. It was at this time that the principalia of Binalatongan protested the abuses
committed by the provincial governor. The town leaders demanded that the governor be removed and that
the colonial government stop collecting taxes since the islands were already under the British at that time.
But Governor-General Simon de Anda dismissed the demands and the revolt broke out in November 1762.
The name of de la Cruz, who began to be known as Palaris , emerged as one of the leaders of the revolt,
along with his brother Colet, Andrs Lpez, and Juan de Vera Oncantin.

By December, all Spanish officials, except the Dominican friars who were in charge of the Catholic
mission, had left Pangasinan. The Spanish colonial government had to deal with the British invaders and
the simultaneous Silang Revolt, led by Diego Silang, in the neighboring province of Ilocos in the north. (The
present-day province of La Union was still part of Pangasinan and Ilocos). At the battle of Agno, he faced
on March 1, 1763 the Spanish forces under the command of Alfonso de Arayat, who led a composite troop
of Spanish soldiers and Indios loyal to Spain. Arayat withdrew after losing much of his Indio
loyalists.Pangasinenses took over all official functions and controlled the province up to the Agno River, the
natural boundary between Pangasinan and neighboring Pampanga in the south. (The present-day province
of Tarlac was still part of Pampanga.) At the height of the uprising, Palaris commanded 10,000 men. He
was also in communication with Silang, with whom he was coordinating a bigger offensive against the

However, the Seven Years' War ended on February 10, 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris
(1763) in Paris, France. Also, Silang was assassinated on May 28, 1763 by an Indio under the employ of
the friars. The Spanish were then able to focus on the uprising and mustered forces to surround Palaris.The
Spanish friars, who were allowed to stay in the province, also started a campaign to persuade Pangasinan
residents of the futility of the Palaris Revolt.

By March 1764, most of the province had already fallen, leaving Palaris no escape route except
through Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea in the west. He chose to stay in Pangasinan and hid among
his supporters. But his presence terrified his protectors and his own sister Simeona, who was apparently
threatened by the Spanish clergy, betrayed him to Agustn Matias, the gobernadorcillo (mayor) of the razed
Binalatongan.Palaris was arrested on January 16, 1765 and brought to the provincial capital of Lingayen
for trial. While in detention, he confessed being the principal leader of the revolt. He was convicted and
hanged on February 26, 1765
19th century

Basi Revolt (1807)

The Basi Revolt, also known as the Ambaristo Revolt, was a revolt undertaken from September 16
to 28, 1807. It was led by Pedro Mateo and Salarogo Ambaristo (though some sources refer to a single
person named Pedro Ambaristo), with its events occurring in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte.
This revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos' love for basi, or sugarcane wine. In 1786, the
Spanish colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning private
manufacture of the wine, which was done before expropriation. Ilocanos were forced to buy from
government stores. However, wine-loving Ilocanos in Piddig rose in revolt on September 16, 1807, with the
revolt spreading to nearby towns and with fighting lasting for weeks. Spanish led troops eventually quelled
the revolt on September 28, 1807, albeit with much force and loss of life on the losing side. A series of 14
paintings on the Basi Revolt by Esteban Pichay Villanueva currently hangs at the Ilocos Sur National
Museum in Vigan City. The event is immortalized and commemorated in the Basi Revolt Monument located
along the highway of Piddig.

Novales Revolt (1823)

Novales later grew discontented with the way Spanish authorities treated the Creoles. His
discontent climaxed when peninsulares were shipped to the Philippines to replace Creole officers. He found
sympathy of many Creoles, including Luis Rodriguez Varela, the Conde Indio. As punishment to the rising
sense of discontentment, many military officers and public officials were exiled. One of them was Novales,
who was exiled to Mindanao to fight the Moro. However, Novales was not stopped to secretly return to
Manila. On the night of June 1, 1823, Novales along with a certain sub-lieutenant Ruiz and other
subordinates in the King's Regiment, went out to start a revolt. Along with 800 Indigenous natives in which
his sergeants recruited, they seized the royal palace (palacio del gobernador), the Manila Cathedral, the
city's cabildo (city hall) and other important government buildings in Intramuros. Failing to find governor
general Juan Antonio Martnez, they killed the lieutenant governor and former governor general, Mariano
Fernandez de Folgueras. Folgueras was the one that suggested Spain to replace Creole officers with
peninsulars. The soldiers shouted, "Long live the Emperor Novales!" (Viva el Emperador Novales).

Palmero Conspiracy (1828)

The Palmero Conspiracy in 1828 was a failed plot to overthrow the Spanish colonial government
in the Philippines. The Spanish government suppressed further information on this conspiracy. In 1823, an
order was from Spain declared that military officers commissioned in the Peninsula (Spain) should have
precedence of all those appointed in the Colonies. This was the reaction of Madrid to the series of wars
against Spanish rule that was known as the Spanish American wars of independence; Many Creole military
officers were outranked by their Peninsular counterparts.

In 1828, matters became worse when public officials, mainly provincial governors, were also being
replaced by Peninsulars. In the same year, two Palmero brothers, members of a prominent clan in the
Philippines, along with other people from both the military and the civil service, planned to seize the
government. Such was the prominence of the Palmeros, one of whose most famous descendants
was Marcelo Azcrraga Palmero, that when the Spanish government discovered the plan, they thought it
would be wise not to report it to the public. The plot itself would embarrass the government since the
conspirators were Spaniards themselves and it would seem that Spaniards themselves would want to
overthrow the power of Spain in the country. The main conspirators were exiled.
Pule Revolt (18401841)

One of the most famous religious revolts is the Pule Revolt, more formally known as the Religious
Revolt of Hermano Pule. Undertaken between June 1840 and November 1841, this revolt was led
by Apolinario de la Cruz, otherwise known as "Hermano Pule". De la Cruz started his own religious order,
the Confraternity of Saint Joseph (Spanish: Confradia de San Jos) in Lucban, located in the present-day
province of Quezon (then called Tayabas), in June 1840. However, there were two types of priests in the
Philippines then: secular priests, or parish priests, which were usually Indio, and religious priests, or
convent priests, which were usually Spanish. Due to the concentration of Spanish religious power and
authority in the already-established religious orders (the Augustinians, Jesuits and Franciscans to name a
few) and the concept that Filipino priests should only stay in the church and not the convent and vice versa
(although this was not always followed), the Spanish government banned the new order, especially due to
its deviation from original Catholic rituals and teachings, such as prayers and rituals suited for Filipinos.
However, thousands of people in Tayabas, Batangas, Laguna and even Manila already joined.

Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De
la Cruz and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. Many bloody battles were fought with the
order's last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October 1841. The Spaniards eventually
won, and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas.

Cavite Mutiny (1872)

The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of military personnel of Fort San Felipe, the Spanish
arsenal in Cavite, Philippines on January 20, 1872. Around 200 soldiers and laborers rose up in the belief
that it would elevate to a national uprising. The mutiny was unsuccessful, and government soldiers executed
many of the participants and began to crack down on a burgeoning nationalist movement.