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Saint Louis University

1

Acknowledgement:

This talk is based on results presented by Professor Robert Bryant

of Duke University during a lecture entitled One Hundred Years of

Holonomy in October of 2003 as part of 150 Years of Progress in

the Mathematical Sciences, A Conference to Celebrate the Sesqui-

centennial of Washington University.

This version of the talk has benefited from the input of the referees

of [2], the editor of the MAA Monthly, as well as the summer 2006

REU students in Mathematics at Cornell University.

2

Problem Statement: Given a pair of orientations for a

sphere resting on a plane, is there a closed path along which one can

roll the sphere (without slipping or twisting), starting with the first

orientation, and return to the origin with the sphere in the second

orientation?

START

y

x

3

Origin of the Problem [1]:

In the late nineteenth century the notion of holonomy was in-

troduced to describe certain features of mechanical systems. A

mechanical system is said to be non-holonomic with respect to

a given constrained motion if the system can move between any

two states without violating the constraint. Otherwise, the sys-

tem is said to be holonomic with respect to the constraint.

In our case, the mechanical system is the sphere on the plane,

the possible states include all possible orientations of the sphere

at a fixed point on the plane, and the constraint on the motion

is that the sphere must be rolled (with no slipping or twisting)

about a closed path. (a closed path begins and ends in the same

place)

4

A Simpler Example [1]:

System: A particle in the xy-plane.

States: The position of the particle may be any coordinate (x, y).

Constraint: The velocity vector of the particle must be perpen-

dicular to its position vector.

If the position vector is ~r(t) = x(t)~i + y(t)~j and ~v (t) = dx~

dt

i + dy ~

dt

j then this

system must obey the identity:

dx dy

x +y = 0,

dt dt

dy

which means y dx = x. This is a separable differential equation whose

general solution is x2 + y 2 = C, for any non-negative constant C.

system is holonomic.

5

A Rolling Wheel:

Consider a wheel of radius R rolling with angular frequency 0 .

y

B

6

Still a Rolling Wheel:

The velocity of the center C will be

B, will be given by

R~j, then ~vB = ~0.

This last observation characterizes rolling without slipping, i.e.,

that the point of the wheel in contact with the ground

must have zero instantaneous velocity.

7

The Rolling Sphere: Equations of Motion (1 of 4)

Let ~r(t) = f (t)~i + g(t)~j be the path in the plane about which

the sphere is to be rolled. (The spheres center, C, will follow

~rC (t) = ~r(t) + ~k.)

The first problem is to determine what rotation of the sphere,

~ (t), produces this motion under the constraint of no slipping

and no twisting.

No slipping means the velocity at the bottom of the sphere is

zero:

~0 = ~vB (t) = ~rC

0

(t) +

~ (t) ~rB/C

0

= ~rC ~ (t) (~k)

(t) +

= f 0 (t)~i + g 0 (t)~j + x (t)~j y (t)~i.

~ (t) ~k = 0.

No twisting means

8

The Rolling Sphere: Equations of Motion (2 of 4)

The two previous observations now imply that

Since the path ~r(t) is closed (starts and ends at the origin for

our purposes) in order to determine the final orientation of the

sphere we only require information about the relative motion of

points on the sphere with respect to the center.

In other words, given the rotation

~ (t) we can find the final state

by considering the sphere as if it were spinning in place.

The next task is to characterize the motion of an arbitrary point

on the sphere under such a rotation.

9

The Rolling Sphere: Equations of Motion (3 of 4)

The motion of an arbitrary point P will be given by

~i ~j ~k

~vP (t) = 0 0

~ (t) ~rP/C (t) = g (t) f (t) 0 .

xP (t) yP (t) zP (t)

dx 0

dt f (t)z(t)

dy

= 0

g (t)z(t) .

dt

dz

dt f 0 (t)x(t) g 0 (t)y(t)

10

The Rolling Sphere: Equations of Motion (4 of 4)

Recall that the goal is to solve this system of equations given for

a given path given an initial condition (x0 , y0 , z0 ).

For example, consider a linear path ~r(t) = at~ + bt~, where a, b

R. In this case, the equations of motion are

dx

dt 0 0 b x(t)

dy

= 0 0 a y(t) , (1)

dt

dz

dt a b 0 z(t)

Outside the realm of piecewise linear paths, however, solution of

the equations of motion will be more challenging.

11

The Holonomy Question:

Assume the sphere begins at the origin.

An orientation of the sphere is determined by two features:

the point on the sphere which occupies the North pole;

the location of a point on the equator (i.e., an angle about

the z-axis).

One could prove that the system is nonholonomic by:

showing that one can achieve any desired rotation about the

z-axis without disturbing the North Pole by rolling through

a closed path;

showing that any point on the sphere can be relocated to the

North Pole by rolling through a closed path.

12

Lemma 1: Rotation about the z-axis:

The no-twisting constraint prevents us from directly rotating the

sphere about the z-axis, but we can accomplish an equivalent trans-

formation by rolling the sphere through the path depicted below.

Initial Position N

P N

S

P S P Q P N

N (x, y) = (0, /2)S

y

S

x

(x, y) = (0, /2) S (x, y) = (/2, /2)

N P

13

Lemma 2: Relocation to the North Pole (1 of 2)

A given point P on the sphere can be relocated to the North Pole

by rolling the sphere through a rectangular path similar to that of

Lemma 1.

P0

P = (x0 , y0 , z0 )

~v = x0~ + y0~

~u = x0~ + y0~

14

Lemma 2: Relocation to the North Pole (2 of 2)

1. Roll the sphere in the ~u direction (along a great circle) until

the midpoint P 0 of the connecting arc is at the North Pole;

2. Roll the sphere in the ~v direction units, relocating P 0 to the

South Pole;

3. Roll the sphere in the ~u direction so that P is at the South Pole;

4. Roll the sphere in the ~v direction by units, bringing the

sphere back to the origin and rotating P to the North Pole.

15

Nonholonomy of the Rolling Sphere

tion of the sphere is achievable at a fixed point on the plane by way

of rolling with no slipping or twisting. (More details can be found in

[2].)

through closed paths with no slipping or twisting is a nonholonomic

system.

Thus far the equations of motion have been put to little use. What

else can we do with them?

16

A Circular Path for the Rolling Sphere:

Suppose the sphere is rolled through a circle of radius R which

begins and ends at the origin:

dx

dt R sin t z(t)

dy

= R cos t z(t) .

dt

dz

dt R sin t x(t) R cos t y(t)

by using a rotating coordinate system.

17

Rotating Coordinates: (1 of 3)

Introduce a rotating coordinate system (xr , yr ) via:

x(t) cos ( 2 t) sin ( 2 t) x (t)

= r .

y(t) sin ( 2 t) cos ( 2 t) yr (t)

The (xr , yr , zr ) coordinates are time dependent and rotate with

the sphere through the circular path. Under this change of vari-

ables the equations of motion become:

dxr

dt yr (t) + Rzr (t) 0 1 R xr (t)

dy

r = x (t) = 1 0 0 y (t) .

dt r r

dzr

dt Rxr (t) R 0 0 zr (t)

18

Rotating Coordinates: (2 of 3)

The equations of motion are now given by a first order, linear

system of differential equations, whose general solution is:

0

1

x1 (t) =

~ R

R +1

2

1

0 1

1 p p

x2 (t) =

~

1 cos ( R + 1t) 0 sin ( R2 + 1t)

2

2

R +1

R 0

0 1

1 p p

x3 (t) =

~ 1

sin ( R + 1t) + 0 cos ( R2 + 1t).

2

R2 + 1

R 0

19

Rotating Coordinates: (3 of 3)

The coefficients for the particular solution are given by:

R 1

C1 0 R2 +1

R 2 +1 xr (0)

C2 = 0 1 R y (0) .

2

R +1 R +1

2 r

C3 1 0 0 zr (0)

If (xr (0), yr (0), zr (0)) = (0, 0, 1) (the North Pole) then the par-

ticular solution is given by

0 0 R

1 p

~

xr (t) = 2 R R cos (t) + R2 + 1 0 sin (t) ,

R + 1

1 R2 0

where = R2 + 1.

20

A Circular Alternative to Lemma 2:

Proposition 2. For any given point P on the sphere there exists

a piecewise differentiable path ~r(t) (0 t T < ), composed of

circular components, such that rolling the sphere through the path

~r(t) relocates P to the North Pole.

The proof will make use of the axial symmetry of the sphere. Let ~u

and ~v be the images, respectively, of ~ and ~ under a rotation by in

the xy-plane. Replace the standard circular path, above, by

~r(t) = R(1 cos t)~u + R sin t~v (0 t 2). (2)

Suppose that rolling the sphere through the original circle moves a

point P on the sphere to another point, Q. If P and Q are the images

of P and Q, respectively, under the same rotation used above, then

rolling the sphere through the path (2) will move P to Q.

21

Proof of Proposition 2:

Fix P = (x0 , y0 , z0 ) in the closed northern hemisphere (z0 0).

The circular path relocates the North Pole to the altitude

h p i

z(2) = 1 + R cos (2 R2 + 1) /(R2 + 1).

2

(3)

5 1

R = 0 7 z(2) = 1 and R = 7 z(2) = .

2 9

The Intermediate Value Theorem implies that any desired non-

negative altitude can be achieved.

For every nonnegative altitude, there exists a point P with that

altitude which can be moved to the North Pole by a circular

path.

22

Proof of Proposition 2:

Given another point, P , with the same altitude as P it is possible

to rotate the circular path so that P is relocated to the North

Pole instead of P . Thus, any point in the northern hemisphere

can be relocated to the North Pole by a single circular path.

Now fix P = (x0 , y0 , z0 ) in the southern hemisphere (z0 < 0).

Two circular paths will be used in sequence to move P to the

North Pole.

Consider the great circle containing P and the North Pole. Ob-

serve that the shorter arc between P and the North Pole has

length less than or equal to .

The midpoint of this arc lies in the closed northern hemisphere,

so there exists a circular path which relocates the midpoint of

the arc to the North Pole. It follows that this path also moves

P to closed northern hemisphere.

23

Necessity of Two Circular Paths:

Proposition 3. The North and South Poles cannot be exchanged

by rolling the sphere (with no slipping or twisting) through a single

circular path.

solution for the circular path obtained above. For a fixed radius

R > 0 the sphere returns to its starting point when t = 2 and the

image of the North Pole satisfies

2 1 R2 1 + R2

1 + 2 = 2 z(2) 2 = 1.

R +1 R +1 R +1

Thus, z(2) can never equal 1, showing that the North and South

Poles cannot be interchanged via rolling along a single circular path.

24

Conclusion:

For more information about this subject or the details of the preced-

ing arguments one could look at the following references.

References

[1] Robert Bryant. One Hundred Years of Holonomy. Washington Uni-

versity in St. Louis, October 2003.

[2] Brody Dylan Johnson. The nonholonomy of the rolling sphere. Amer.

Math. Monthly, 114(6):500508, 2007.

25

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