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FEATURE

GLOBALISED RELIGIONS
FOR A GLOBALISED WORLD

This is a time of great religious


vitality for Christianity and Islam,
explains Gregory Melleuish

U
ntil the presidency of George W. The recent and sudden interest in both
Bush and September 11, 2001 Christianity and Islam has been fuelled by the
there was not a great deal of public threat that their more robust forms, generically
interest in the place of religion in labelled 'fundamentalism', are believed to pose to
the contemporary world. True, the stability and comfort of the secularised West.
Samuel Huntington's 'clash of civilisations' thesis Consequently discussion of religious matters has
had excited some interest in a possible conflict tended to take on an 'Us and Them' character with
between the West and Islam. In general, however, 'Us' being seen as the calm and reasonable children
with declining church membership and attendance of the Enlightenment and 'Them' as fanatics and
in most Western countries it was assumed that the barbarians, be they Christians, Muslims or Jews.
developed world, with America the only major This is not to say that there is not a small hard
exception, was slowly, but inexorably, on the road core of extremists amongst these 'fundamentalists'.
to complete secularity. This meant that discussion Rather it is to point out that the use of a term
of religion tended to focus on such matters as the such as 'fundamentalism' obscures rather than
decline of Christianity, the possibility of female and illuminates when it is used to encompass the beliefs
gay priests and 'moral' issues such as abortion. of millions, even billions, of people.
The Western fixation, particularly amongst its
intelligentsia, on secularisation as the inevitable
Associate Professor Gregory Melleuish fate of humanity has obscured the fact that we are
is in the School of History and Politics at the currently living in one of the great ages of religious
University if Wollongong. vitality and mission, in both the Christian and
Muslim worlds. Much of this religious activity is

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happening in Africa, Latin America and Asia, far Nevertheless there can be little doubt that the
from the eyes ot the Western media, just as much source of much of the vitality in Christianity in
of the 'clash of civilizations' between Christianity the 21st century will come from Africa, Latin
and Islam has occurred in places such as Nigeria and America and Asia. Apart from America the West is
the Sudan and has been reported only sporadically in demographic decline and its numbers of behevers
elsewhere. is declining at an even faster rate.
Over the past 40 years both Christianity and It can be argued that this religious explosion in
Islam have become globalised religions. Much of the more deprived areas of the world really affects
their progress has occurred outside the view of the the secularisation thesis.
West. The consequences of this globalisation are Norris and Ingelhart have argued the
only now coming to be fully appreciated. The heart following:'^
of Christianity no longer lies in the West. Moreover
1. The publics of virtually all advanced industrial
the forms that Christianity is taking in Africa, Asia
societies have been moving toward more
and Latin America are often quite different from
secular orientations during the past 50 years.
those currently prevalent in the West.
Nevertheless,
Fundamentalism is essentially propositional in
2. The world as a whole has more people with
nature, that is to say it is founded on a number
traditional religious views than ever beforeand
of propositions to which one is meant to give
they constitute a growing proportion of the
assent. European and American Protestantism has
world's population.
often taken a propositional form as it has focused
on the Bible as the defining scripture supplying
the 'fundamentals' of belief. Alongside what can There can be little doubt that the
sometimes be a somewhat emotionally arid form source of much of the vitality in
of religion there also developed other forms that Christianity in the 21st century
have focused more on the immediacy of spiritual will come from Africa, Latin
experience. Methodism, and in some ways its
offspring Pentecostalism, have been forms of
America and Asia.
Christianity that have emphasised experience.
Both ot these forms of Christianity are present They relate religious belief to security and
in the current Christian revival. But while prosperity.'' The more affluent and secure people
fundamentalism is perhaps the dominant form are, the less need they have for things outside this
of religiosity in America, it is Pentecostalism world. One could, of course, put it another way: the
that has won over many Christians in the Third more prosperiry a people has the more likely they
World. It has been estimated that there are half are to stray from the path of righteousness.
a billion Pentecostalists in the world today.' It Norris and Inglehart come up with some
has been argued that Pentecostalism appeals to interesting findings. One is that the Protestant
many Africans because they live in a world that work ethic in the contemporary world is weakest
is inhabited by a range of spirits, including evil in cultures that are derived from Protestantism;
ones that can be subdued by Jesus. Moreover they it is prevalent amongst Muslims.'' Another is that
are strongly attracted to the Old Testament while secularised countries are far more liberal regarding
many liberal Christians in the West find it an sexual matters and gender equality than religious
embarrassment. Jenkins has argued that in many countries, especially Muslim ones. At the same time
ways these Third World Christians are close to the countries that are strongly religious have a much
early Christians who also believed in the reality of higher birth rate than secular ones.
spirits around them.' Exorcism was commonplace I hus we are confronted by the rather stark
in the early Church. Moreover as these Third World dichotomy: a secular, developed world with both
Churches place so much emphasis on experience a declining birth rate and a decreasing appetite for
some of them run the risk of moving beyond the hard work versus a religious and growing developing
bounds of Christian orthodoxy.' world. Norris and Inglehart would seem to imply

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that this is primarily a function of the relative in contemporary politics and denouncing their
security of the two worlds and that, when every evangelical (i.e., 'fundamentalist') rivals than matters
human being lives in a European-style welfare state, of a more eternal nature.
what Marx termed the 'opiate of the masses' will This can be seen in two recent books, Marion
be tio mote. Maddox's God Under Howard and Michael
But the reality is somewhat more complex than Nothcott's An Angel Directs the Storm. Both books
that. In his recent book The Twilight of Atheism are concerned with denouncing what they see as
Alister McGrath argues that in fact it is atheism the insidious influence that the 'Religious Right'
that is on its last legs in the West. Atheism was exercises over, the first case, John Howard and
largely a by-ptoduct of European radical politics in the second, George W. Bush. Although these
that emerged during the late 18th century.*^ Its writers both come from religious backgrounds, they
heyday was the Marxist era and its function was to express the same disgust with fundamentalist and
announce that one was in revolt against the existing evangelical Christianity that one might expect from
ordct. The demise of communism has also probably thesecular elite. They also tend to see the influence
brought about the demise of atheism, though not of the Religious Right in conspiratorial terms.
religious indifference. It IS interesting that holding these 'extreme'
In a recent article in Christianity Today the beliefs in no way impedes one's capacity to
existence of a small but growing evangelical function in a technological society. One can, like
movement was revealed in that bastion of secularism, many Americans, be both a believer in creation
science and a highly competent engineer; or an
extreme Islamist and an able computer scientist.
One can, like many Americans, be
Contemporary 'flindamentalists' live effectively in a
both a believer in creation science secular and scientific universe and not one, like our
and a highly competent engineer; or African Pentecostalists, full of spirits and magic.
an extreme Islamist and an An answer to this apparent paradox can be found
able computer scientist. in the work of French philosopher Marcel Cauchet.
Cauchet argues in The Disenchantment of the World
that humanity has been on a secular trajectory ever
France. Over the past 50 years the number of since it left the holistic and embedded spiritual
evangelicals in France has grown from 50,000 to world characteristic of hunter-gatherer society.
350,000. The number of evangelical churches has Cauchet believes that the creation of the first states
increased from 760 in 1970 to 1850 today.'' involved the sundering of that world into a heaven
And of course America stands as the prime above and a world below.'"The consequence of that
example of a Western country with a majority of its division in the longer term has been the creation of
population professing a belief in Christianity. It also a secular world that we all inhabit. The worid may
has a higher birth rare than other Western countries no longer be religious but, for Cauchet, this does
and is less enamoured of the welfare state. not imply that people have ceased to be religious."
There is an interesting paradox here. Western Rather the challenge is how to be religious in a
societies, including parts of America, are becoming secular world.
more secular. Certain types of Christianity, especially Much of contemporary religion, especially in
evangelicalism and Pentecostalism, are growing even the West, makes sense when viewed in these terms.
in the most secular parts of the West, including Our world is a disenchanted and secular one. Our
France. At the same time the mainstream churches are religion is no longer to be found in nature but in the
undergoing decay as their membership declines and hearts of men and women. Generally it is a religion
they struggle to remain relevant to the contemporary that has been quarantined from the larger reality
world. In many ways these mainstream churches have in which we live our lives. Religion has become
become linle more than another arm of the secular just another specialised element of our rather
establishment. As such their leaders have effectively fragmented culture in which individuals pursue a
become members of the secular elite more interested rather bewildering range of interests.

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One consequence of this fragmentation is a higher socio-economic status. It has been out of
that religious knowledge and training, especially this encounter that much of contemporary radical
fot evangelicals and Pentecostalists, is no longer Islam has been born.
conducted within the context of the broader In part, according to Roy, radical Islam was
culture but has become, like everything else, a created by an input of Western ideas and values
specialised form of technical training. As we noted into Islam. For example, traditionally Islam was not
earlier n:iodern religion tends to reduce its beliefs to particularly concerned with issues such as abortion
a series of abstract propositions. This is in accord and homosexuality but it has taken over these moral
with the argument of Michael Oakeshott that in issues.'^ At the same time the training of Islamic
the modern wotld the technical part of knowledge clerics has become more exclusively concerned
becomes dominant while the implicit knowledge with technical religious issues. As in the West this
or skill in which the technical knowledge was training is no longer embedded in a particular
traditionally embedded fades away. There was
cultural tradition but has been reduced to a number
once a time when a Bachelor of Arts from Oxford
ot technical propositions. The Islamic equivalent
or Cambridge was the preferred training for an
of the Western liberal education is being expelled
Anglican priest.
ftom Islamic theological education.'''
In this sense these modern forms of religion have The result is an Islam that belongs nowhere and
ceased to be part of the wider public culture (insofar everywhere, a globalised Islam that can be carried
as such a public culture still exists) but form their from place to place, just as it can be argued that there
own subcultures, usually outside the radar of the is a globalised form of Christianity that is no longer
media. Only when their activities have an impact linked to any particular culture. More importantly
on the public life, as in the case of Family First in
the last federal election, is any attention directed
their way. Generally their activities in providing a Radical Islam was created by an
self-help communit)' for their adherents and others,
input of Western ideas and values
much after the fashion of the early C^lhurch, do not
figure in public discussion. For example it has been
into Islam. Traditionally Islam
claimed that the activity of the French evangelical was not particularly concerned
churches in helping poor newcomers to France has with issues such as abortion and
played a role in lessening the appeal of radical Islam homosexuality but it has taken
to these people.'"
over these moral issues.
Just as Christianity is being transformed
through its global encounters, the same is true of
Islam. Neither religion is a fixed entity locked in this 'fundamentalist' Islam is not a 'medieval'
a timeless mould. Just as the critical developments religion. In fact just as evangelical Christians seek to
in contemporary Christianity may be occurring in convert Catholics to Christianity so Islamists want
Africa, so the crucial changes in Islam are taking to get rid of the traditional rural Islam founded on
place in its encounter with the West in the West. saints and sufis. It is a thoroughly modern religion
In his Clobalized Islam Olivier Roy points to the acceptable to scientists and engineers.
encounter with Western values in Western societies Both c o n t e m p o r a r y C h r i s t i a n i t y and
as the central transforming element in contemporary contemporary Islam have elements that can be
Islam and in the creation of Islamism. described as 'Jacobin. They adhere to a series
Unlike Christians, Muslims for a long time were of propositions that define the good life; those
uneasy about living outside the realm of Islam, after ptopositions are not tied to a particular place or
all how was it possible to live a righteous life in a time or culture. It is ironic that at a time when the
society run by infidels? In recent times, however, 'Jacobin' political traditions of the West, including
there have been a significant number of Muslim Commutiism, have exhausted themselves it is in the
migrants to both Europe and America, although as two most vital world religions that these 'Jacobin'
Roy points out those going to America have been of tendencies should have re-emerged.

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What does this mean for the world of the 21st I should like to conclude with one final observation.
century? From both a Muslim and an evangelical Christian
1. The first is that Norris and Inglehart are perspective it is not they who are strange and
correct at one level. There will continue to be perverted but the modern world. It is between the
a growing divergence between a largely secular religious and the non-religious that the fundamental
and demographically declining developed world 'clash of civilizations' is occurring in the 21st
and a developing world that will grow in both century.
numbers and religiosity.
Endnotes
2. There will continue to be religious conflict of
' Alistcr McGrath, The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise
the 'clash of civilizations' variety but much of
and Fall of Disbelief in the Modern World (London:
it will occur in the developing world between
Rider, 2004), 214.
Christians and Muslims. " Philip Jenkins, The Next Christendom: The Coming
3. There will be a growing divergence in the of Global Christianity (New York: Oxford University
developed world between liberal Christians on Press, 2002), 129.
' As above. 120.
the one hand and evangelicals and Pentecostalists
'^ Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart, Sacred and
on the other. As one group of Christians in
Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide (Cambridge:
the West slips into a liberal position that is
Cambridge University Press, 2004), 5.
not clearly distinguishable from secularism ^ As above, 239.
so another group will become much more '' As above, 163-9.
determined in its defence of orthodoxy. The As above, 154.
result will be a largely secular society with a ^ McGrath, The Twilight of Atheism, 1\-M.
significant 'saving remnant' that will continue ' Agnieszka Tennant, 'The French Reconnection',
to be extremely active. Christianity Today 49:3 (2005), 28-35.
'" Marcel Gauchet. The Disenchantment oj the World:
4. One consequence of the fact that if one is A Political History of Religion., Trans. Oscar Burge,
religious they must be so in a secular worid is (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997), 33-
that the biggest impact of religion on the wider 46.
society will continue to be when moral issues " As above, 200.
come up for public discussion. On many ofthese "'^ Tennant, 'The French Reconnection', 35.
issues Islam lines up with evangelical Christians '' Olivier Roy. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New
and traditional Catholics. One should expect Ummah (New York: Columbia University Press,
that increasingly there will be political alliances 2004), 32.
between these groups on such issues. '^ As above, 162.

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