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INTRODUCTION

Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it
elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver-
G.G.Brown. Communication is that in which people share their views in verbal and non-
verbal form to be understood in formal and informal ways. It is giving, receiving or
exchanging ideas, information, signals or message through appropriate media, enabling
individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or express
emotions. The broad definition includes body language, skill of speaking and writing. It
emphasizes listening as an important aspect of communication. The main purpose of this
study is to find out the level of communication skills among the students of University.

REVIEW OF ARTICLES

ARTICLE: 1
The responses were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance to determine if there is an
overall difference in the perceptions of communication barriers by public accountants in the
following 12 independent categories: department, type of firm, age, sex, position, years in
public accounting, attainment of cpa, highest degree, completion of a communications course,
state undergraduate degree attained, gpa, and membership in a collegiate or fraternal
organization. Taken together, accountants in the national and non-national firms perceive the
seriousness of the barriers the same for both relationships. Taken together, partners and
managers perceive the seriousness of the barriers the same; however, the senior staff and junior
staff accountants perceive the barriers as more serious than do the partners and managers in the
accountant-client relationships. In the accountant-accountant relationship, the junior staff
accountants perceive the barriers as more serious taken together than the partners, managers,
and senior staff. Taken together, the accountants without a CPA certificate perceive the barriers
as more serious than the accountants with a CPA certificate for both relationships. A profile of
an accountant in the accountant-client relationship who is more likely to experience the barriers
as more serious consists of the following: works in the management advisory services
department; is 21-30 years old; is female; is a junior staff member; has less than a year of
experience; is a non cpa has a bachelor's or master's degree; has completed a communications
course; and was a member of a social or fraternal collegiate organization.

From the analysis of the individual communication barriers for the 12 independent categories,
one can conclude that the accountants will probably perceive certain barriers as more serious
than others will. Educators should know the more common and identifiable communication
barriers that are crucial to the effective communication of accountants.
ARTICLE: 2

Communication technology through the internet electronic communication system, our


business communication students have access to the labs program, which allows students to
access library catalogs in selected countries such as Australia, Canada, Israel, and Germany.
Students' interest may be piqued when they discover international book and publication titles
related to business communication, such as how to write business letters and reports by
Australian author Thelma Mansell. Campus academic computing personnel may be able to
offer additional information about labs. A legal aspect of business communication trans-
national electronic communication generated within the United States is subject to laws and
regulations set by the federal government. Nonverbal communication the unit on nonverbal
communication can include differences in gestures and bodily movements among cultures. If
your campus conclusion integrating multicultural communication into units already included
in business communication courses can help students, realize the impact of effective
multicultural communication in various business communication situations. The business
communication course James Calvert Scott state university since the basic business
communication course already has more content than can be adequately covered; my personal
preference is to have a separate international business communication course to address global
issues. The international business communication course should be a required part of any
international emphasis, major, or minor inside or outside of a college or school of business. An
international business communication course could have as its major course goals to help
students understand the dynamics of business communication in a culturally diverse world;
understand the major processes, theories, and concepts of international business
communication; recognize the profound influence of cultural factors on international business
communication; minimize ethnocentrism and maximize mutual respect for other cultures as
creditable and legitimate orientations; develop a mind-set that is conducive to communicating
effectively in the culturally diverse world of international business; and develop strategies and
techniques that facilitate effective communication in the global world of business. My
international business communication course focuses on the topics included in 'sector's book
international business communication, which serves as the primary text.

ARTICLE: 3
What can an instructor expect in terms of the students' achievement and their attitudes toward
the subject matter, the course, the other students, and the instructor? Since learning is the result
of a communication process, problems or barriers can inhibit or restrict this process, affect
learning, and influence students' attitudes. Each narrative informed the student to assume he or
she was enrolled in either marketing, management, finance, or accounting principles course
and that a particular method would be used to help the students learn the subject matter. Student
interpersonal conflicts personality conflicts between students informal social groupings or
cliques lack of trust in other students Zale of profanity instructor's use of profanity students'
use of profanity 4.Status differences difference between status and position of instructor and
students difference between students' status and position. Students lack of knowledge and
understanding students' lack of understanding of technical language students' inadequate
knowledge of the topic w. Feedback problems lack of feedback to instructor lack of feedback
to students students' tendency not to listen 11. Perceptual differences in perceptions of students
differences in perception between instructor and students cronbach's alpha. The results of
these tests indicated that the student respondents envision all four of the teaching methods,
which require some type of interaction as being significantly more conducive to student
interpersonal conflicts than straight lecture. For all these cases, female students tended to
indicate greater concern than did male students for hostility, distrust, and personality conflicts
with the instructor; the use of profanity; "either-or" thinking; emotional reactions and
defensiveness; students lack of knowledge and understanding; feedback problems; and
perceptual differences. Taken together, the most serious communication barriers to learning
basic business subject matter were perceived by students to be the instructor's tendency not to
listen, students' tendency not to listen, overload or too much information for students,
instructor's hostile attitude, and personality conflicts between instructor and student.
Inappropriate physical appearance of students, students' speaking too loudly, differences
between students' status, differences between status of instructor and students, and students
width overly competitive attitudes were the least serious communication barriers to learning
basic business subject matter in the aggregate.
ARTICLE: 4

These studies sought to determine the effects of different subject matter; different types of
students; different universities; and, of course, alterative teaching methods. Since the
communication process flows back and forth between the instructor and students as well as
among students over time, a particularly large number of potential barriers resulted from these
associations. The relative positions tend to reveal that concerns about the instructor and
differences between the instructor and students are foremost in students' minds. Except for the
accounting students' perception of the seriousness of the "lack of knowledge communication
barriers to learning 89 and understanding" dimension, all the student-subjects perceived that
subject matter differences have very little impact on the general difficulties of learning.
Discussion to date, the major contribution of the research appears to be in the identification of
communication barrier dimensions perceived to exist across pedagogies by business students.
The communication barrier dimensions were found to vary in perceived seriousness with a
dissemble hierarchy of seriousness in the minds of the students. One dimension students
perceived as the most serious in all the studies is the "hostility, distrust, and personality conflict
with instructor." the students' communication barriers to learning 91 view of their instructor is
the main issue in this dimension. Another barrier dimension of major concern to the students
was the "lack of knowledge and understanding" dimension. Students generally have difficulty
in not only gaining feedback to the instructor and other students but also in listening and
receiving feedback from the instructor and other students. Perhaps instructors might allow
students time to meet with other students to make decisions on shorter problems before being
assigned to permanent teams.
ARTICLE: 5

Profession should taps 'been a member of the board of directors of the society of technical
writers and editors, and is a fellow of the society of technical writers and publishers and a
fellow of the American business communication in any discussion on the failure of
communication, the writer usually comes in for an inordinate amount of criticism. Whatever
their situation and origin, all of these writers are, deeply concerned with the profession of
technical writing and all are taking steps to improve themselves. One writer summed up a
common source of frustration in these words: "we obtain specifications for our books from
people who are amateur writers although they may be good engineers. Their directions are
filled with jargon. We find them hard to understand. And by the time the books have been
written and distributed, they become a mystery to the reader who is the customer for the
product." the barriers to effective technical communication as discussed in these workshops
are many, but certainly, these are among the most important: preparation, language, time and
distance, and the human element. Preparation of writers many of the participants felt that there
should be more company indoctrination of new writers and constant retraining of older writers.
"We should be able to write with more authority than we ordinarily do," one writer said. Not
only do Americans write for customers in France and Germany, for example, but also non-
American writers are trying to achieve something called "standard" English. A piece of writing
can become confused and even unintelligible because pieces and bits of information are given
to the writer out of sequence. The human element if ail communications could be computerized,
perhaps a good deal of the criticism of writers would be eliminated. If the writer is called upon
to understand the conditions in other departments and how the engineers and design people
work, why can they not in turn appreciate the writer in his professional environment? One
writer pointed out that he and his associates were forced to work amid noise and office
confusion that the engineer would not tolerate.In these workshop sessions, the participants
urged that some definite training should be given the technical writer in the psychology of
communication and in motivation.
ARTICLE: 6

Organizational cultural influences communication - manifestation field of although the


organizational culture is intended to be a tool for the company's management, through which
consensus and full integration of employees are achieved, experts admit that the employees do
not enter disarmed culturally in the organization, and there are many levels of culture that
influence them.

There is a common background, consisting in specific elements of national culture, but also
differences, which are particular combinations of the characteristics described by other levels
of culture. National culture refers to the culture of a country. The national culture is
distinguished by its particular characteristics that transcend the sum of individual cultures of
the groups that compose it. The influence of regional culture on individuals from a particular
country depends on the extent of its variations in relation to national culture. Gender differences
are not usually described in cultural terms, but in every society exists a feminine culture and
male culture. Social class can be considered as cultural level or criterion of demarcation of
some cultures within a culture. Describing the levels of culture that influence an individual, we
attain the following findings: - the national culture, the level with the highest influence on
individuals, provides a common axiological basis to the individuals from the same country,
having a unifying role; - the action of other levels of culture "individualises", fragmentises,
diversifies. If we consider organizational communication in companies whose employees
belong to the same country or which operate in a single country, without business relationships
that involve other national cultures, we may speak about that "value core" provided by the
national culture. The conclusions remain also valid for the multicultural company, provided
that, when employees belong to different cultures, the managers are tasked to develop a strong
culture, able to ensure the integration in the organization and to adapt it to the external
environment.
ARTICLE: 7

Communication barriers for deaf employees: needs assessment and problem-solving strategies
Pamela lift Kent state university, dept. Professionals working with deaf or hard-of-hearing
individuals need to assess each p. Left / deaf communication barriers individual's affiliation
with the deaf community, or with the normally hearing community. Only 8-10% of deaf
students read at the eighth grade level or higher, significantly compromising their ability to
successfully complete their training and receive a college degree or certificate. Ethnic deaf
minoritys deaf children who come from homes whose native language is not English have
even greater obstacles to learning English and becoming literate. These factors combine to
substantially decrease their abilities to support their deaf children in attaining quality
employment in managerial, professional, or technical fields. Communication difficulties in
employment the deaf population is unique in that individuals may have normal cognitive and
other abilities but still be unable to communicate through speaking, reading, or writing English
in an effective manner. Written language of deaf students has been characterized as containing
high numbers of grammatical errors as well as lacking flexibility and complexity.

Employers in the study conducted by schweich identified in service/training, socializing with


co-workers, department/staff meetings, work-related social functions, receiving instructions
and supervision, and performance evaluations as difficult situations for deaf employees.

The national longitudinal transition study found that up to three years out of secondary school,
competitive employment rates were only 44% for hard of hearing and 25% for deaf individuals.

An important concern for professionals working with deaf individuals is their competency in
communication and in demonstrating culturally appropriate perspectives in dealing with deaf
employees, particularly those who are members of the deaf community.
ARTICLE: 8

Importance of cross-cultural communication study communication covers all aspects of


organization activity. Such training programs can help international managers to understand
their own culturally determined stereotypes and communication preferences in attempt to make
them more accepting and understanding of the communication preferences of managers from
different cultures.

Barriers to effective cross-cultural communication major barriers to effective cross-cultural


communication come from differences in spoken language, the extent to which information is
exchanged, the use of nonverbal behavior, and consideration of time.

Communication in multinational organization official communication comes from the field


through the international division to the appropriate areas at headquarters and back.
Communication can be efficient because all international communication goes through the
international division.

To minimize communication issues, a company can: hire host country personnel who are
familiar with the home country culture have a mixture of home country and host country
nationals in the subsidiary build specialists in certain regions train personnel in the international
division in intercultural communication the international journal of organizational innovation.
Many companies from the Koreans, the French, the Germans, and the Japanese expect that
their workers is able to adapt, function, and communicate in different culture environments. In
the worldwide product structure, global communication relating to one product can efficient
but the communication between different product groups is able to weak because each product
has marketing channels and its own sales force. A global structure needs effective
communication at headquarters and full integration of communication strategies on a global
basis. The product is standardized; the Coca-Cola Company must adapt its communication
techniques and styles to the various communication styles and cultures of its bottlers around
the world. The essentials of communication can lessen when anything changes communication
is crucial again.