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Brazil and the World: Brazil in regional and global history, 1808-2010

Module # 7YYB0002 (Level 7, 20 credits)

Tutor: Leslie Bethell

Classes: Wednesdays 10:00-12:00 in room 2A Chesham Building; tutorials 12:00-
13:00 some weeks in the same room.
**Please note that, the two last sessions for this class will occur during the same
week on Monday 21 March & Wednesday 23 March. The class on 21 March will
take place in room K0.31**
Email: TBC
Office Hours: TBC

Educational Aims of the Course

Since its independence from Portugal in 1822 Brazil has been seen, by both Brazilians
and outside observers, as destined to become one of the great nations of the world
and to play a major, and generally positive, role not only in regional but also in global
affairs - because of its continental size, its huge natural resources and its people (a
unique mixture of indigenous, Portuguese, African, German, Italian, Japanese,
Syrian-Lebanese, etc), but also because of the absence of significant linguistic,
religious, racial, ethnic and regional divisions and conflicts within Brazil and Brazil's
peaceful relations with its neighbours (at least since the Paraguayan War) and the
rest of the world.

For more than a century and a half Brazil was largely inward looking, concerned
primarily with state building, economic development and the search for national
identity, relatively peripheral in regional affairs, except in the Rio de la Plata, and
despite strong relations with Europe and, after 1889, with the United States in global
affairs. During the last 15-20 years, however, Brazil has for the first time in its
history begun to play a role in both regional and global affairs commensurate with its
size, resources, population, economy and 'soft power (despite the notable absence
of significant hard power). It is now recognised by its neighbours and the rest of the
world as one of the emerging powers that will play a major part in shaping the 21st

The aim of the course is to enable students to understand Brazil's political,

economic, social and cultural relations with its region (whether defined as the
Western Hemisphere, including the United States, or Latin America, or South
America) and the rest of the world (Britain, Europe, Africa, the 'South') - during the
Empire (1822-89), the first 25 years of the Republic (1889-1914), the period between
the First World War and the Second World War, the Cold War (both under
democracy, 1945-64 and under military dictatorship, 1964-85) and finally the post-
Cold War period.

The course will be part history of ideas: what Brazilian politicians, policymakers and
intellectuals thought about Brazil's place in the region and the world; part history of
international relations: Brazils relations with, and Brazilian policy towards, the
region and the rest of the world.

Learning Outcomes of the Course

On successful completion of this module students will be able to demonstrate
practical and intellectual skill appropriate to a level 7 module and in particular they
will be able to ;
-demonstrate a sound grasp of key issues in Brazilian thinking about, and policy
towards, Europe, the United States, Latin America and the rest of the world, from
independence to the present day
-understand how Brazil has been seen by outsiders at various points in its history
-describe the central goals of Brazilian foreign policy at different phases of the
countrys development
-critically assess the extent to which Brazilians, and the managers of the Brazilian
state, have seen themselves as part of South America and/or Latin America
-understand which countries Brazilian elites sought to emulate at various points in
Brazilian history
-appreciate the importance to Brazil of relations with Great Britain in the nineteenth
century, and with the United States in the 20th century
-analyze the implications of the increasing presence of Brazilian multinationals in the
global economy
-assess the recent controversies surrounding Brazils activist foreign policy

Teaching Arrangements
Teaching will consist of one weekly two-hour seminar held over a single semester. In
most cases the seminar will involve a presentation by the tutor in the first hour,
followed by a variety of interactive formats in the second hour. A one-hour tutorial
may be held on some weeks.

Attendance at all class meetings is mandatory, and, in accordance with college
regulation, students may be removed from the program if they do not attend regularly.
Attendance at sessions whether seminars, tutorials, or screenings is monitored.
Unavoidable absence must always be explained to the member of staff concerned,
preferably in advance. Of course, you may at times be unwell or otherwise unable to
meet a particular deadline for good reason. You must inform the course tutor at once in
all such cases. If you are absent through illness for more than a week you must provide
a medical certificate as soon as you return. If you fail to attend three or more sessions
in any course without valid excuse, you will be contacted and your absence


Student performance will be primarily evaluated through written work: a mid-term
essay of 1,500 words and a final essay of 4,000 words. The work must be submitted
by 5pm on the day of the deadline, in electronic format via KEATS.

In developing both essays students are strongly encouraged to review literature

from complimentary sources (i.e., readings we have not covered in class), and to
meet and discuss your ideas and progress with the tutor/s as you proceed

Assessment will consist of:

A) Questions (titles below) for the first essay (1,500 words) due 5pm
Wednesday 24 February. The essay is weighted at 25% of the module mark
and the pass mark is 50:

Examine Brazils commercial and financial relations with Britain in the 19th century
OR Was Brazil part of Britains informal empire in the 19th century?

Why and how was the Brazilian slave trade abolished?

Why did Brazil go to war with Paraguay in 1864? OR Why did the Paraguayan war
last so long?

Examine the origins and the nature of mass European immigration to Brazil before
the First World War.

What changes were there in Brazilian foreign policy in the transition from Empire to

Why did Brazil have a different view of the United States from most of Spanish
America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?

Examine Brazils view of Pan-Americanism and Brazils role in the Pan-American

conferences 1889-1910.

Examine English OR French influence on Brazilian cultural and intellectual life in the
19th century.

B) Questions (titles below) for the second essay (4,000 words) due 5pm Monday
25 April. The essay is weighted at 75% of the module mark and the pass mark
is 50:

What was the impact of the First World War OR the World Depression (1928-33) OR
the Second World War on Brazil?

Explain the decline of British trade and investment in Brazil in the first half of the
20th century OR Explain the growth of US trade and investment in Brazil in the first
half of the 20th century.

Examine Brazils political relations with Argentina 1889-1945 OR 1945-64 OR 1964-


To what extent did intellectuals and writers in Spanish America and Brazil think of
Brazil as part of Latin America 1889-1945?

Examine the relations between the Soviet Union and Brazil and the influence of
communism in Brazil 1917-1945

Examine Getlio Vargass policy towards immigration and Brazils immigrant/ethnic

communities 1930-45

How far was Brazilian culture Americanised during the Second World War?

Examine the impact of the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the
Cold War on political developments in Brazil 1944-8

Compare a poltica externa independente (1961-4) with Brazils Third World foreign
policy during the 1970s.

What was the role of the United States in the 1964 golpe in Brazil? OR Examine US-
Brazilian relations under the military regime (1964-85)

Compare Brazilian foreign policy under the Cardoso and Lula administrations

Assess Brazils role in EITHER regional politics OR global politics since the end of the
Cold War.

Course outline

Lecture/seminar I


Portuguese America in the Atlantic world, 1500-1808;

The Portuguese court in Brazil, 1808-21;
The Independence of Brazil, 1822-5, in regional and global perspective.

From Independence to the First World War

Lecture/seminar II

Brazil in the international economy: trade and finance

Brazils commercial and financial relations with Great Britain, the rest of Europe
(Portugal, France, Germany, etc.) and the United States. Was Brazil part of Britains
informal empire?

Lecture/seminar III

(i) International migration to Brazil

The transatlantic slave trade (to abolition in 1850); early European immigration; the
abolition of slavery (1888) and the beginnings of mass European immigration (from
Portugal, Italy, Spain, etc).

(ii) Intellectual and cultural relations with Europe.

Lecture/seminar IV

Brazil, Spanish America and the United States during the Empire (1822-1889)

Wars in the Rio de la Plata: 1825-8, 1851-2, 1864-70 (the Paraguayan War);
Brazil and Pacific republics; Brazil and the United States

Lecture/seminar V

The americanization of Brazils foreign relations during the First Republic (to

Political relations with the United States; Pan-Americanism and Pan-American

conferences (1889 to 1910); the settlement of Brazils frontiers in South America;
rivalry with Argentina; the second Hague peace conference (1907).
The world-views of Nabuco, Rio Branco, Oliveira Lima, etc.

From First World War to Second World War

Lecture/seminar VI


Brazil and the First World War, Versailles peace conference and League of Nations;
relations with the US and the Spanish American republics; Pan-American
conferences 1923 and 1928.
Brazil in the international economy (trade, loans and direct investment): the United
States replaces Great Britain as Brazils principal commercial and financial partner.

Lecture/seminar VII


Impact of the World Depression; Brazils political and economic relations with
Britain, Germany and the United States; influence of international communism and
Brazil and the Second World War US economic, political, military and cultural
hegemony; peace and the creation of the United Nations.

The Cold War

Lecture/seminar VIII


Post-War conjuncture: democratisation 1945-6 and beginnings of Cold War 1946-8;

relations with the United States; 1950s (foreign policy of Vargas and Kubitschek
administrations); relations with Perons Argentina; ISEB and new ideas on Brazils
foreign relations; 1961-4 Quadros and Goulart administrations: politica externa

Lecture/seminar IX


The 1964 golpe and the role of the United States.

Military dictatorship (1964-85): intervention in the Dominican Republic (1965);
relations with the United States, the Spanish South America dictatorships (the inter-
American Cold War) and, under Mdici and Geisel, the Third World, especially
Rapprochement with Argentina and origins of Mercosul.

Post-Cold War

Lecture/seminar X

Brazil in the post Cold War world (c.1990-2010)

Brazil as an emerging regional power. Mercosul, South America, Latin America;

relations with United States.
Brazil as an emerging global power. Multilateral institutions; the US; Europe; the
South - Africa, Asia, China.
Brazil in the region and in the world in the 21st century.


General reference:

Leslie Bethell (ed.), Cambridge History of Latin America vols III (1985) & V
(1986)/Histria da Amrica Latina (EDUSP) vols III (2001) e V (2002), chapters on
Brazil 1808-1930, published separately in Brazil: Empire and Republic (1989).

Leslie Bethell (ed.), Cambridge History of Latin America vol. IX Brazil since 1930
(2008); paperback edition 2015.

Amado Luiz Cervo & Clodoaldo Bueno, Histria da poltica exterior do Brasil So
Paulo: Editora Atica, 1992; 3rd ed. revista e ampliada, Editora UnB, 2008; 4th ed.,

Jos Vicente S Pimenta (org.), Pensamento Diplomtico Brasileiro. Formuladores e

Agentes da Poltica Externa (1750-1964) 3 vols. Braslia: FUNAG, 2013

Rubens Ricupero, O Brasil no mundo [1808-1831], Leslie Bethell, O Brasil no

mundo [1822-89] (English version available), Francisco Doratioto, O Brasil no

mundo [1889-1930], Leiticia Pinheiro, O Brasil no mundo [1930-1964], Francisco
Carlos Teixeira da Silva, O Brasil no mundo [1964-2010], in Histria do Brasil
Nao, Lilia Moritz Schwarcz (org.), vols. I, II, III, IV &V (Madrid: Fundacin
MAPFRE and Rio de Janeiro: Editora Objetiva, 2011-14).

Joseph Smith, Brazil and the United States: convergence and divergence (Athens, Ga.
and London: University of Georgia Press, 2010)

Leslie Bethell, O Brasil e a ideia de Amrica Latina em perspectiva histrica,

Estudos Histricos (CPDOC/FGV), no. 44, (2009), pp. 289-321/Brazil and Latin
America, Journal of Latin American Studies, 42/3, 2010, pp. 457-485.

Seminar I

Leslie Bethell (ed.), Cambridge History of Latin America vols I & II (1984) /Histria
da Amrica Latina (EDUSP) vol I (1997) & II (1999), chapters on Brazil 1500-1808
published separately in Colonial Brazil (Cambridge, 1987)

A.J R. Russell-Wood, The Portuguese Atlantic, 1415-1808, in Jack P. Greene &

Philip D. Morgan (eds), Atlantic history, A critical appraisal (Oxford, 2009)

Gabriel Paquette, Imperial Portugal in the age of Atlantic revolutions. The Luso-
Brazilian world c, 1770-1850 (Cambridge, 2013)

Leslie Bethell, The independence of Brazil, in Cambridge History of Latin America,

vol III (1985)/Brazil: Empire and Republic (1989)

Kenneth Maxwell, Why was Brazil different? The contexts of independence, in

Naked tropics: essays on empires and other rogues (2003)

Seminar II

Alan K Manchester, British preminence in Brazil, its rise and decline; a study in
European expansion [1933] (New York, 1964).

Richard Graham, Britain and the onset of modernization in Brazil 1850-1914

(Cambridge: 1968).

Leslie Bethell, O Brasil no sculo XIX: parte do imprio informal britnico?, in

Jos Murilo de Carvalho e Adriana Pereira Campos (orgs), Perspectivas da cidadania
no Brasil Imprio (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Civilizao Brasileira, 2011), pp. 15-35.

Marcelo de Paiva Abreu & Luiz Aranha Correa do Lago, A economia brasileira no
Imprio 1822-1889, Texto para discusso no. 584, Departamento de Economia, PUC-
Rio, novembro de 2010

Gustavo H. B. Franco & Luiz Aranha Corra do Lago, O processo econmico, in

Histria do Brasil Nao, Lilia Moritz Schwarcz (org.), vol. III A abertura para o
mundo 1889-1930 (Madrid: Fundacin MAPFRE and Rio de Janeiro: Editora
Objetiva, 2012).

Nancy Mitchell, Protective imperialism versus Weltpolitik in Brazil. Part One. Pan-
German vision and Mahanian response; Part Two. Settlement, trade and opportunity,
International History Review xviii (1996)

Seminar III

Herbert S. Klein, The Atlantic slave trade (Cambridge, 1999; 2nd ed. 2010)

Leslie Bethell, The abolition of the Brazilian slave trade. Britain, Brazil and the Slave
Trade Question 1807-1869 (Cambridge, 1970; Digital paperback reprint, 2008).

Jeffrey Needell, The abolition of the Brazilian slave trade in 1850; historiography,
slave agency and statesmanship, Journal of Latin American Studies, 32, 2001

Walter Nugent, Crossings. The great transatlantic migration, 1870-1914

(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), chapter 13: Brazil.

Jeffrey Lesser, Immigration, Ethnicity and national identity in Brazil, 1808 to the
present (Cambridge, 2013)

Needell, Jeffrey D. A tropical belle epoque : elite culture and society in turn-of-the-
Rio de Janeiro, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987, chapter 6, pp. 178-

Seminar IV

Ron Seckinger, The Brazilian Monarchy and the South American republics, 1822-
1831: Diplomacy and state building (Baton Rouge, La, 1984)

Jos Vicente S Pimenta (org.), Pensamento Diplomtico Brasileiro. Formuladores e
Agentes da Poltica Externa (1750-1964) 2013, vol. I (chapters on V. do Uruguai,
Duarte da Ponte Ribeiro, M de Paran and V. do Rio Branco)

Gabriela Nunes Ferreira, O Rio da Prata e a consolidao do estado imperial (So

Paulo Hucitec, 2006), captulo 1, pp. 23-69.

Francisco Doratioto, Maldita guerra: nova histria da Guerra do Paraguai (So

Paulo, Companhia das Letras, 2002), Concluses, pp. 471-85.

Leslie Bethell, The Paraguayan War (1864-1870) London: Institute of Latin

American Studies, 1996

Luis Cludio Villafane Gomes Santos, O Brasil entre a Amrica e a Europa. O

Imprio e o interamericanismo (do Congresso do Panam a Conferencia de
Washington) (So Paulo: Editora Unesp, 2003), captulo 2 O imprio e os
Congressos Interamericanos, pp 69-107.

Luis Cludio Villafane Gomes Santos, O Imprio e as repblicas do Pacifico. As

relaes do Brasil com Chile, Bolvia, Peru, Ecuador e Colmbia (1822-1889)
(Curitiba: Editora UFPR, 2002)

Lawrence F. Hill, Diplomatic relations between the United States and Brazil
[Durham: Duke University Press, 1932] (New York: AMS Press, 1971).

Seminar V

Jos Vicente S Pimenta (org.), Pensamento Diplomtico Brasileiro. Formuladores e

Agentes da Poltica Externa (1750-1964) 2013, vol. II (chapters on Rio Branco,
Nabuco, Rui Barbosa)

Ori Preuss, Bridging the Island. Brazilians Views of Spanish America and
Themselves, 1865-1912 Madrid, 2011; Brazil into Latin America. The demise of
slavery and monarchy as transnational events, Luso-Brazilian Review 49/1, 2012.

Leslie Bethell, O Brasil entre Europa, Estados Unidos e Amrica Latina no

pensamento de Joaquim Nabuco, Novos Estudos CEBRAP, no. 88, November 2010
(English translation available).

E. Bradford Burns, The unwritten alliance: Rio-Branco and Brazilian-American

relations (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966).

Leslie Bethell, O Brasil e as Conferncias Pan-Americanas, in Alzira Alves de

Abreu (org.), Dicionroi Histrico-Biogrfico da Primeira Repblica (1889-1930) 3
vols. (Rio de Janeiro: CPDOC/FGV, Online) (English translation available)

Joseph Smith, Unequal giants: diplomatic relations between the United States and
Brazil, 1889-1930 (Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991); Smith,
Brazil and the United States, 2010, chapters 2 & 3, pp. 30-80.

Synsio Sampaio Ges Filho, Fronteiras: o estilo negociador do Baro do Rio Branco
como paradigma da poltica exterior do Brasil & Clodoaldo Bueno, Rio Branco e o
projeto da Amrica do Sul, in Carlos Henrique Cardim & Joo Almino (orgs), Rio
Branco, a Amrica do Sul e a modernizao do Brasil (Braslia, 2002).

Carlos Henrique Cardim, A Raiz das Coisas. Rui Barbosa: O Brasil no mundo (Rio de
Janeiro, 2007), pp. 165-184: Balana da Segunda Conferncia da Paz de Haia.

Seminar VI

Bill Albert, South America and the First World War. The impact of the war on Brazil,
Argentina, Peru and Chile (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 17-24, 77-94, 130-143.

Francisco Luiz Teixeira Vinhosa, O Brasil e a primeira guerra mundial (Rio de

Janeiro, Editora IHGB, 1990), Parte II A participao do Brasil na guerra, pp. 99-

Emily S. Rosenberg, World War I and the growth of United States predominance in
Latin America (New York, 1987), chapter III Anglo-American rivalry in Brazil/
Anglo-American Economic Rivalry in Brazil during World War I Diplomatic
History 2/2 1978, pp.131-152.

Olivier Compagnon, O adeus a Europa. A Amrica Latina e a Grande Guerra

(Argentina e Brasil, 1914-1939) Rio de Janeiro: Rocco, 2014

Eugnio Vargas Garcia, O Brasil e a Liga das Naes (1919-1926): vencer ou no

perder Porto Alegre, Editora da Universidade RGS/Braslia, DF: FUNAG, 2000,
captulo 1, O Brasil e o estabelecimento da Liga das Naes, pp. 27-48.

Eugnio Vargas Garcia, Entre Amrica e Europa: a poltica externa brasileira na

dcada de 1920 (Braslia: Editora UnB, 2006), Concluso, pp. 577-602.

Richard Downes, Autos over rails: how US business supplanted the British in Brazil,
1910-28, JLAS 24/3, 1992

Seminar VII

Jos Vicente S Pimenta (org.), Pensamento Diplomtico Brasileiro. Formuladores e

Agentes da Poltica Externa (1750-1964) 2013, vol. II (chapter on Afonso Arinos).
Vol. III (chapters on Aranha and Macedo Soares)

Marcelo de Paiva Abreu, Anglo-Brazilian economic relations and the consolidation
of American pre-eminence in Brazil, 1930-1945, in Christopher Abel & Colin M.
Lewis (eds), Latin America, economic imperialism and the state: the political
economy of the external connection from independence to the present (London, 1985).

Stanley E. Hilton, Brazil and the great powers, 1930-1939: the politics of trade
rivalry Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975, chapter 1 Brazils view of the world
crisis, pp. 3-38, chapter 7 Epilog: Brazil and the Great Powers at war, pp. 212-28.

Stanley E. Hilton, Brazilian diplomacy and the Washington-Rio de Janeiro axis

during the World War II era, Hispanic American Historical Review 59/2, May 1979,
pp. 201-31 and Frank D. McCann, Critique`, HAHR 59/4, November 1979, pp. 691-

Gerson Moura, Relaes exteriores do Brasil 1939-50 [1982] (Braslia, 2012), chap.
IV Os anos da guerra.

Eugenio Vargas Garcia, O sexto membro permanente. O Brasil e a criao da ONU

(Rio da Janeiro: Contraponto, 2012), Concluso, pp. 291-307.

Antonio Pedro Tota, The Seduction of Brazil. The Americanisation of Brazil during
World War II (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009) [Port. ed. 2000].

Neil Lochery, Brazil. The Fortunes of War. World War II and the making of modern
Brazil New York: Basic Books, 2014

Seminar VIII

Leslie Bethell, Brazil, in Leslie Bethell & Ian Roxborough (eds), Latin America
between the Second World War and the Cold War 1944-1948 (Cambridge, 1992),
Port. ed. 1996.

Gerson Moura, Relaes exteriores do Brasil 1939-50 [1982] (Braslia, 2012), chap.
V Os anos ps-guerra (1945-50).

Stanley E. Hilton, "The United States, Brazil, and the Cold War, 1945-1960: End of
the Special Relationship." Journal of American History 68/3, 1981.

Iuri Raymundo Siepe, Peron e a integrao latino-americana: o Brasil e a Terceira

Posio peronista (1946-55), in Rafael D. Villa & Suzely Kalil (orgs), Ensiaos
latino-americanos de poltica internacional (So Paulo, 2007).

Christopher Darnton, Rivalry and Alliance Politics in Cold War Latin America
(Baltimore, 2014), chapter 3 Antagonism and Anti-Communism in Argentine-
Brazilian Relations.

W. Michael Weis, Cold warriors and coups detat: Brazilian- American relations

1945-1964 (Albuquerque N.M.: University of New Mexico Press, 1993); The
twilight of Pan Americanism: the Alliance for Progress, neo-colonialism and non-
alignment in Brazil, 1961-4, International History Review 23/2 2001

Paulo Gilberto Fagundes Vizentini, Relaes exteriores do Brasil (1945-1964). O

nacionalismo e a poltica externa independente (Petrpolis: Vozes, 2004)

James G. Hershberg, The United States, Brazil and the Cuban missile crisis, 1962,
Journal of Cold War Studies, Part I 6/2 (2004), Part II 6/3 (2004); High-spirited
confusion: Brazil, the 1961 Belgrade Non-Aligned Conference, and the limits of an
independent foreign policy during the High Cold War, Cold War History 7/3 2007.

Seminar IX

Carlos Fico, O Grande irmo da operao Brother Sam aos anos de chumbo. O
governo dos Estados Unidos e a ditadura militar brasileira (Rio de Janeiro: 2008),
captulo 2, Joo Goulart e a Operao Brother Sam, pp. 65-123, captulo 3, Os anos
de apoio incondicional, pp. 127-183.

Williams da Silva Gonalves and Shiguenoli Miyamoto, Os militares na poltica

externa brasileira: 1964-84, Estudos Histricos 6/12 1993.

Tanya Harmer, Brazils Cold War in the Southern Cone, 1970-5, Cold War History
12/4, 2012; Allendes Chile and the Inter-American Cold War (Chapel Hill, 2011)

Matias Spektor, Kissinger e o Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 2009)

Jerry Davila, Hotel Tropico. Brazil and the challenge of African decolonisation 1950-
1980 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010)

Andrew Hurrell, The Quest for Autonomy: the evolution of Brazils role in the
international system, 1964-1985 [Oxford DPhil thesis, 1986] (Brasilia: FUNAG,

Andrew Hurrell, The international dimensions of democratisation in Latin America:

the case of Brazil, in Laurence Whitehead (ed.), The international dimension of
democratisation (Oxford, 1996).

Seminar X

Andrew Hurrell, Brazil as a regional great power: a study in ambivalence, in Iver

Neumann (ed.), Regional great powers in international politics (London 1992)

Maria Regina Soares de Lima & Monica Hirst, Brazil as an intermediate state and

regional power: action, choice and responsibilities, International Affairs 82/1, 2006

Sean W. Burges, Brazilian foreign policy after the Cold War Gainesville: University
of Florida Press, 2008

Lael Brainard & Leonardo Martinez-Diaz (eds), Brazil as an economic superpower?

Understanding Brazils changing role in the global economy (Washington, D.C.:
Brookings Institution Press, 2009)

Paulo Roberto de Almeida, Lulas foreign policy: regional and global strategies, in
Joseph L. Love and Werner Baer, Brazil under Lula (2009)

Andres Malamud, A leader without followers? The growing divergence between the
regional and global performance of Brazilian foreign policy, Latin American Politics
and Society 53/3 (2011)

Tullo Vigevani & Gabriel Cepaluni, Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times. The
Quest for Autonomy from Sarney to Lula (2012)

Michael Reid, Brazil. The troubled rise of a global power (New Haven & London,

[ Seminars VII-X

Some general studies of Brazilian foreign policy since 1930:

Jos Augusto Guilhon Albuquerque (org.), Sessenta anos de poltica externa

brasileira (1930-1990), 4 vols, 1996-2000.

Paulo Gilberto Fagundes Vizentini, Relaes internacionais do Brasil: de Vargas

Lula (1951-2002) So Paulo, Fundao Prsio Abramo 2003; 2nd ed. 2005.

Patrica Soares Leite, O Brasil e a cooperao Sul-Sul em trs momentos de poltica

externa [os governos de JQ/JG, Geisel e Lula] (Braslia: Funag, 2011)

Luiz Fernando Ligiero, A autonomia na poltica externa brasileira a poltica

externa independente e o pragmatismo responsvel (Braslia: Funag, 2012).

Luis Cladio Villafae G. Santos, A Amrica do Sul no discurso diplomtico

brasileiro (Brasilia: FUNAG, 2014)

Bernardo Sorj & Sergio Fausto (orgs), Brasil e Amrica do Sul: olhares cruzados
(So Paulo: Instituto FHC, 2012)

NB. Books published by FUNAG are can be freely downloaded.