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Altair

Engineering

Altair HyperMesh Tutorials


New in Version 4.0
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2000 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved.

Trademark Acknowledgments:

Altair HyperWorks, Altair MotionView, Altair HyperMesh, Altair HyperGraph, Altair HyperOpt, Altair
HyperShape/Pro, Altair OptiStruct, and Altair HyperForm are registered trademarks of Altair Engineering,
Inc.

All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
The Location of the HyperMesh Tutorial Files
All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

The following tutorials are included:


Creating a Macro Menu - HM-115
Defeature Panel - HM-131
Automesh/Remesh - HM-136
Automesh/Proj to Edge-HM-137
Spotweld - Hm-215
Fatigue Panel - HM-630-L
Modeling Contact for MARC - HM-1050
Modeling a 3-D Example for MARC - HM-1051
Dummy Positioning, Seatbelt Routing, and Control Volumes - HM-1101
Composite Panel - HM-1300

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 3


Creating Macro Menus - HM-115
A macro is similar to a user-defined script, or executable. The user can write a macro specifically for
themselves that will execute a series of steps semi-automatically. The macro language is the same
language used in the command files generated by HyperMesh.

When creating a new macro the user must first decide if they want to add another page or place the
new macro button on a pre-existing page.

The following exercises are included:


How to create another page
How to create a new button
How to create a macro

How to create another page


Inside of the hm.mac file, which is the user defined macro, the user will add a command to add an
additional page button. This button in turn will execute a macro that will create a new page.

To create another page in the macro menu:

1. Open up a new text file.


2. Type in *createbuttongroup(0,0,"User1",1,0,10,CYAN,"User defined
macros","macroSetActivePage",1)
3. Then create additional pages.
4. Type in *createbuttongroup(0,0,"User2",2,5,5,CYAN,"User defined
macros","macroSetActivePage",2)
5. Type in *createbuttongroup(0,0,"Name of page",2,5, 5,Color of page, "Description of what is on
the page","macroSetActivePage",3)
6. Type in *setactivegroup(0,0,1) to make the group 0 the active group.
Note: Any button placed on page 0 will be displayed on all pages.

7. Type in
*beginmacro(macroSetActivePage)

*setactivepage($1)

*endmacro()

Note: The page number was passed from the end of the button and retrieved in the macro with
the ($1).
8. Save the file as temp.mac.

Note: This is the macro that will allow the user to change from page to page.

Documentation for the *createbuttongroup and the *setactivepage command


can be found in the on-line help as well as the other above commands.

4 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To create a new button:

1. Open the temp.mac file.


2. Type *createtext(1, Shortcuts,17,0)
3. Type *createbutton(1, "geom clean", 16, 0, 10, BUTTON, "Geometry Cleanup
Panel", "macroEnterPanel", "geom cleanup")
4. Type *createbutton(1, Spotweld, 3,0,10,GREEN,Spotweld along edges,
macroSpotweldEdges)
5. Type *createbutton(2,User defined button,3,0,10,GREEN,Description of
what the macro will do, The name of the macro, Any arguments the user
wishes to pass to the macro)
Note: Arguments can be passed after the calling of the macro.

6. Type in the following macro to execute the macroEnterPanel:


*beginmacro("macroEnterPanel")
*enterpanel($1)

*endmacro()

Note: The page to enter was passed from the button and retrieved in the macro with the ($1).

The macro for the Spotweld Edges is in the next section.

7. Save the file as temp.mac.


Note: All of the above commands can be found in the on-line help.

To create a macro:

1. Open the temp.mac file.


2. Type in the macro for the SpotweldEdges:

*beginmacro(macroSpotweldEdges)

*createmarkpanel(elements,1,"select elements for independent


nodes")

*findedges(elements,1,0)

*renamecollector(components,"^edges","temp1")

*createmark(nodes,1) "by collector" temp1

*createmarkpanel(elements,2,"select elements for dependent


nodes")

*findedges(elements,2,0)

*createmark(nodes,2) "by collector" ^edges

*createmultiplespotwelds(1,2,15,0,0,0,0,0,3,"")

*createmark(components,1) "temp1" ^edges

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 5


*deletemark(components,1)

*endmacro()
3. Save the file as temp.mac.
4. Open HyperMesh.
5. Select the options panel.
6. Select the menu config page.
7. Load your macro temp.mac.

8. Click retrieve .
Note: The above macro will find all of the nodes on the edges of the elements chosen and then
create weld elements between them. The macro works by first calling the macro from the
button that was created. Then it begins the macro.

The *createmarkpanel command is a command that allows the user to select a set of
elements from within HyperMesh similar to the extended entity selection window and
place them in a user-defined mark.

The next two commands simply find the edges of the elements selected and place them
into a temp1 collector.

Then the *createmark command takes the nodes found on the edges and places them
in a user mark.

The next three commands repeat the selection of elements, the finding of edges and then
the renaming of the collector.

Finally the *createmultiplespotwelds command takes the two user marks and
places spotwelds between them with the first set of nodes being the independent nodes
and the second set the dependent nodes. The last two commands remove the two-temp
collectors so that the macro can be repeated.

6 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Defeature Panel - HM-131
The defeature panel, located on the Geom page, provides tools to help remove unwanted features in
geometry, e.g. edge and surface fillets, holes etc. The tools remove features and create any
necessary filler surfaces as a substitution.
Remove trim lines
Remove Pin Holes
Remove surface fillets and make sharp corners using the parameters specified
Remove edge/line fillets using the specified parameters
Trim-Intersect to remove edge fillets by selecting two points of tangency around the fillet

Remove Trim Lines


Remove trim lines can be used to retrive the original surfaces from which the current surfaces were
trimmed. It can also be used to remove the interior trim lines of a surface. Interior trim lines are any
free edges that are entirely contained within a surfaces boundary.

In this example, we will remove the interior trim lines by specifying one of the lines:

1. Retrieve the HM database file defeature.hm.

2. Go to the defeature panel on the Geom page.


3. Select trim lines subpanel.
4. Click the toggle below remove and select interior trim lines.
5. Click lines and select one of the interior trim lines defining one of the small rectanglular cut outs
on the top center surface. Alternately, click in the lines box and select displayed from the
extended selection menu.
6. Click untrim to remove the interior trim lines.
Note: The other option under remove is to remove all trim lines. This function allows you to
specify a surface and will return the original, untrimmed surface information. Depending
on the CAD package and method used to create these surfaces, the results of this
operation will vary.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 7


Surface Fillets
This function can be used to remove surface fillets, or fillets between two non-coplanar surfaces. The
rounded fillet surface will be replaced by a planar, tangential extention of the adjacent surfaces.
Fillets may be specified by selecting the fillet profile as a line, or by specifying a surface and range of
fillet radii.

To search the surface fillets by min/max radius:

1. Retrieve the hm file defeature.hm.


2. Select the surf fillets subpanel.
3. Select the toggle for surfaces to search: and select surfs.
4. Click in the surfs box and select displayed.
5. Set the fillet params as follows: Min radius = 5.0; Max radius = 15.000
6. Click find fillets.

Figure 1: Use the radius parameters of an example fillet profile to identify surface fillets.

Note: At this point, a new subpanel appears where you can be specific about selecting the fillet
to be removed, fillet ends and edge associativity. Ignore edge association can be used
to verify or modify the selection of edges whose adjacent surface geometry will be
ignored in favor of using the selected fillet surfaces geometry when calculating the
tangent surface. This is commonly used if the adjacent surface has a very high degree of
curvature compared to the fillet, or if the edge in question is a free edge. Fillet ends can
be used to verify or modify fillet ends. Unless a string of fillets makes a complete loop and
closes upon itself, you should see at least two fillet end lines.

7. Click remove to delete the rounded fillet surfaces and replace them with an intersecting, planar
surface tangent to the fillet surface edge.

8 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure2: After removing surface fillets, adjacent surfaces are extended along the tangent until they intersect.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 9


Edge Fillets
This option can be used to remove any edge fillets on a free surface edge. HyperMesh can identify
these fillets given a range of fillet radii and a minimum arc angle. Using these filtering options, you
can find the fillets in your model and then remove them.

To remove fillets:

1. Retrieve the hm file defeature.hm.


2. Go to geom page and defeature panel.
3. Go to edge fillets subpanel.
4. Click on surfs and select the end surface in the extreme +X and Z direction of the model. Set
the radius and angle values as follows: Min radius = 5.0; Max radius = 15.000; Min angle =
15.000.
5. Click find. The fillets will be identified with a blue F and lines indicating the beginning and ending
points of tangency of the fillets.
6. Select both of the fillets to be removed. Alternately, click the fillets button and select all from the
pop up list.
7. Click remove to eliminate the fillets by projecting the surface edges from the point of tangency
until they intersect.

Figure 3: Use the edge fillet function to identify and remove rounded corners on free-surface edges.

10 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Trim-Intersect
The trim intersect function works like the edge fillet function, except the points of tangency are
specified by clicking on the free-surface edge.

To trim points:

1. Rotate the model to center the view to the end surface in the most X and Z direction.
2. Select the trim-intersect subpanel.
st
3. With the blue box highlighting node under 1 edge trim location:, select the trim point (point of
tangency) for one of the edge fillets, as shown in the figure below.

Figure 4: Click on points of tangency of the edge fillets to square off rounded corners on free-surface edges.

4. Select the second point of tangence for this edge fillet.


Note: In this panel, HM is expecting a point to be defined on a surface edge. A temporary node
will be created. After selecting the second point, the trimming and de-filleting operation
will occur.

5. Repeat these steps for the remaining free-edge fillets.


Note: Using a size 10 quad plate element, compare the resulting mesh for the defeatured
model to the original model.

6. Click return to go back to the main menu.


7. Go to the automesh panel on the 2-D page.
8. In the create mesh subpanel, click the surfs box and select all.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 11


9. Click the toggle next to interactive and select the automatic mode.
10. Click mesh to generate the mesh.

Figure 5: Size 10 quad plate mesh after defeaturing the part.

Figure 6: Size 10 quad plate mesh without defeaturing the part.

12 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Note: In these excersises, we used the functions in the defeature panel to simplify the
geometry of a small part. The remove trim lines function was used to eliminate two
rectangular cut outs on the top surface. The surface fillet function was used to remove
the curved fillets where the top surface transitioned to the sides. Edge fillet and Trim-
intersect were used to square off the end surfaces. The results of these operations will
yield a more regular, geometric mesh.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 13


Automesh/Remesh - HM-136
This tutorial demonstrates how to remesh elements using the automesh panel and create mesh
subpanel. In HyperMesh 4.0, you can remesh elements when no geometry exists.

The following exercises are included:


Remesh Elements
Meshing the Surfaces
Remesh the Elements

Remesh elements
In HyperMesh 4.0, the interactive and automatic subpanels are replaced by the create mesh
subpanel. This subpanel has the interactive and automatic options. Interactive is the default
option. In the create mesh subpanel, select the surfaces to mesh or remesh, or select the elements
to remesh.

Elements are remeshed with the use of the HyperMesh inferred surface algorithm. Geometry for the
selected elements does not need to exist in the model. The inferred surface algorithm creates
geometry data from the selected elements in order to create new mesh.

When elements are selected to be remeshed, there is the break connectivity option and the vertex
angle parameter. The break connectivity option detaches the node connectivity between adjacent
selected and unselected elements. This allows you to adjust the node densities along the boundary
of the selected elements. The vertex angle parameter defines the placement of vertices along the
boundary of the selected elements. If the angle between two adjacent element edges along the
boundary is less the specified angle, a vertice is placed at the meeting point of the two edges.

In HyperMesh 4.0, the mixed (quads and trias) meshing algorithm can be used on mapped and
unmapped surfaces. The mixed meshing algorithm generates a quad dominant mesh where all
transitions between opposing mesh densities are accomplished using tria elements. This produces
mesh patterns that are more regular in appearance.

Figure 1 - The automesh panel

14 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Meshing the Surfaces

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Double-click file =.
HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash.
4. Select the remesh.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under <altair
home>/altair/tutorials/hm/.
5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
remesh.hm file.
6. Click retrieve.
7. Click return to access the main menu.

Figure 2 - The remesh.hm file

Rotate the model and notice the contours of the surfaces.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 15


To mesh the surfaces:

1. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D page.


2. Select the create mesh subpanel.
3. Click surfs and select displayed.
4. Click the box preceding reset mesh parameters to: to make this option active.
5. In the element size = field, enter 12.
6. Click the switch next to quads and select mixed.
7. Click mesh.
8. Click mesh again to preview the mesh.
9. Click return.

Figure 3 - Surfaces selected and meshed

To check the mesh quality:

1. Select the checks subpanel.


2. Click jacobian.
Minimum jacobian is 0.45.
3. Click warpage.
Maximum warpage found is 1.33.
4. Click aspect.

16 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Maximum aspect ratio is 4.09.
5. Click skew.
Maximum skew angle is 63.36.
6. Click return to accept the mesh and return to the automesh panel / create mesh subpanel.

Remesh the Elements

To remesh some elements to improve jacobian:

1. Click the input collector switch select elems.


2. Click elems and select by window.
3. Select the elements as shown in Figure 4.
4. Click remesh.
5. Click mesh to preview the mesh.
6. Select the checks subpanel.
7. Click jacobian.
Minimum jacobian is 0.52.
8. Click return to accept the mesh and go back to the automesh panel / create mesh subpanel.

Figure 4 - Elements selected to be remeshed

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 17


Figure 5 - Selected elements remeshed

To remesh some other elements to improve jacobian:

1. Click elems and select by window.


2. Select the elements as shown in the Figure 6.
3. Click remesh.
4. Click mesh to preview the mesh.
5. Click f next to local view to fit the area being meshed to the graphics area.
6. Select the biasing subpanel.
7. Click adjust edge.
8. Right click multiple times on the 0.000 on the lowest boundary edge to change the value to
2.400.
9. Click mesh.
10. Select the checks subpanel.
11. Click jacobian.
Minimum jacobian is 0.66.
12. Click return to accept the mesh and go back to the automesh panel / create mesh subpanel.
13. Click return to go back to the main menu.

18 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 6 - Elements selected to be remeshed

Figure 7 - Selected elements remeshed

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 19


Automesh/Proj to Edge subpanel - HM-137
The automesh/proj to edge subpanel is used to project fixed point interiors of a surface to the
surfaces edge or to multiple surfaces. As a result, when the surface is meshed, the mesh pattern will
look more regular than before. An example of this functionality would be a surface with interior fixed
points that specify weld point locations.

The following exercise is included:


Using the Automesh/Proj to Edge subpanel

Using the Automesh/Proj to Edge subpanel

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select files on the main menu.


2. Click file = twice.
3. Select the file projectedge.hm in the <altair home>/altair/tutorials/hm/ directory.
4. Click retrieve.
5. Click return.

Figure 1 Proj to Edge

20 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To mesh a surface containing interior fixed points without using the proj to edge subpanel:

1. Select automesh on the 2D page.


1. Click create mesh.
2. Select the yellow, slender, rectangular surface.
3. Click the box before reset meshing parameters to:
4. Enter 20 in the field following elem size =.
5. Click the switch below elem size = and select quads.
6. Click mesh.
7. Click mesh again to preview the mesh.
8. Click abort to return to the automesh panel and to not accept the mesh.

Figure 2 - Surface meshed without using the automesh / proj to edge subpanel.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 21


To project the surface's interior fixed points to its edges:

Note: There are three options to do this: a) The fixed points can be projected to its edges; b)
The fixed points can be projected onto its surfaces; c) The fixed points can be projected
to multiple surfaces by changing the tolerance values.

1. Click proj to edge.


2. Select the yellow, slender, rectangular surface.
3. Enter 20 in the field following distance tolerance =.
4. Enter 25 in the field following angle tolerance =.
5. Click project.
Note: The distance tolerance and angle tolerance parameters control the creation of fixed
points. If the shortest distance between an edge and an interior fixed point is less then or
equal to the distance tolerance, a fixed point will be created on the edge. If the angle
ABC, formed by an existing fixed point edge (A), the fixed point to-be-created (B) and the
interior fixed point (C), is greater than the angle tolerance, a fixed point will not be
created.

Figure 3 - Interior surface fixed points projected to surface's edges.

22 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To mesh the surface:

1. Click create mesh.


2. Select the yellow, slender, rectangular surface.
3. Click mesh.
4. Click mesh again to preview the mesh.
5. Click return to accept the mesh.

Figure 4 - Surface meshed after using the automesh / proj to edge subpanel.

Defeature
The defeature panel, located on the Geom page, provides tools to help remove unwanted features in
geometry, e.g. edge and surface fillets, holes etc. The tools remove features and create any
necessary filler surfaces as a substitution.
Remove trim lines
Remove Pin Holes
Remove surface fillets and make sharp corners using the parameters specified
Remove edge/line fillets using the specified parameters
Trim-Intersect to remove edge fillets by selecting two points of tangency around the fillet

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 23


Remove Trim Lines
Remove trim lines can be used to retrive the original surfaces from which the current surfaces were
trimmed. It can also be used to remove the interior trim lines of a surface. Interior trim lines are any
free edges that are entirely contained within a surfaces boundary.

In this example, we will remove the interior trim lines by specifying one of the lines:

1. Retrieve the HM database file defeature.hm.


2. Go to the defeature panel on the Geom page.
3. Select trim lines subpanel.
4. Click the toggle below remove and select interior trim lines.
5. Click lines and select one of the interior trim lines defining one of the small rectanglular cut outs
on the top center surface. Alternately, click in the lines box and select displayed from the
extended selection menu.
6. Click untrim to remove the interior trim lines.
Note: The other option under remove is to remove all trim lines. This function allows you to
specify a surface and will return the original, untrimmed surface information. Depending
on the CAD package and method used to create these surfaces, the results of this
operation will vary.

Surface Fillets
This function can be used to remove surface fillets, or fillets between two non-coplanar surfaces. The
rounded fillet surface will be replaced by a planar, tangential extention of the adjacent surfaces.
Fillets may be specified by selecting the fillet profile as a line, or by specifying a surface and range of
fillet radii.

To search the surface fillets by min/max radius:

1. Retrieve the hm file defeature.hm.


2. Select the surf fillets subpanel.
3. Select the toggle for surfaces to search: and select surfs.
4. Click in the surfs box and select displayed.
5. Set the fillet params as follows: Min radius = 5.0; Max radius = 15.000
6. Click find fillets.

24 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 1: Use the radius parameters of an example fillet profile to identify surface fillets.

Note: At this point, a new subpanel appears where you can be specific about selecting the fillet
to be removed, fillet ends and edge associativity. Ignore edge association can be used
to verify or modify the selection of edges whose adjacent surface geometry will be
ignored in favor of using the selected fillet surfaces geometry when calculating the
tangent surface. This is commonly used if the adjacent surface has a very high degree of
curvature compared to the fillet, or if the edge in question is a free edge. Fillet ends can
be used to verify or modify fillet ends. Unless a string of fillets makes a complete loop and
closes upon itself, you should see at least two fillet end lines.

7. Click remove to delete the rounded fillet surfaces and replace them with an intersecting, planar
surface tangent to the fillet surface edge.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 25


Figure2: After removing surface fillets, adjacent surfaces are extended along the tangent until they intersect.

Edge Fillets
This option can be used to remove any edge fillets on a free surface edge. HyperMesh can identify
these fillets given a range of fillet radii and a minimum arc angle. Using these filtering options, you
can find the fillets in your model and then remove them.

To remove fillets:

1. Retrieve the hm file defeature.hm.

2. Go to geom page and defeature panel.


3. Go to edge fillets subpanel.
4. Click on surfs and select the end surface in the extreme +X and Z direction of the model. Set
the radius and angle values as follows: Min radius = 5.0; Max radius = 15.000; Min angle =
15.000.
5. Click find. The fillets will be identified with a blue F and lines indicating the beginning and ending
points of tangency of the fillets.
6. Select both of the fillets to be removed. Alternately, click the fillets button and select all from the
pop up list.
7. Click remove to eliminate the fillets by projecting the surface edges from the point of tangency
until they intersect.

26 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 3: Use the edge fillet function to identify and remove rounded corners on free-surface edges.

Trim-Intersect
The trim intersect function works like the edge fillet function, except the points of tangency are
specified by clicking on the free-surface edge.

To trim points:

1. Rotate the model to center the view to the end surface in the most X and Z direction.
2. Select the trim-intersect subpanel.
st
3. With the blue box highlighting node under 1 edge trim location:, select the trim point (point of
tangency) for one of the edge fillets, as shown in the figure below.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 27


Figure 4: Click on points of tangency of the edge fillets to square off rounded corners on free-surface edges.

4. Select the second point of tangence for this edge fillet.


Note: In this panel, HM is expecting a point to be defined on a surface edge. A temporary node
will be created. After selecting the second point, the trimming and de-filleting operation
will occur.

5. Repeat these steps for the remaining free-edge fillets.


Note: Using a size 10 quad plate element, compare the resulting mesh for the defeatured
model to the original model.

6. Click return to go back to the main menu.


7. Go to the automesh panel on the 2-D page.
8. In the create mesh subpanel, click the surfs box and select all.
9. Click the toggle next to interactive and select the automatic mode.
10. Click mesh to generate the mesh.

28 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 5: Size 10 quad plate mesh after defeaturing the part.

Figure 6: Size 10 quad plate mesh without defeaturing the part.

Note: In these excersises, we used the functions in the defeature panel to simplify the
geometry of a small part. The remove trim lines function was used to eliminate two
rectangular cut outs on the top surface. The surface fillet function was used to remove
the curved fillets where the top surface transitioned to the sides. Edge fillet and Trim-
intersect were used to square off the end surfaces. The results of these operations will
yield a more regular, geometric mesh.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 29


Spotweld - HM-215
The first part of this tutorial demonstrates three different ways to create spotwelds or 1D elements in
spotweld panel:
Using geom
Using nodes
Using elems
Using geom option creates 1D elements when surface geometry is available. Using nodes option
creates spotwelds or 1D elements between two nodes or two node sets. It is often used to connect
two finite element parts. Using elems options creates spotwelds or 1D elements between two
element sets. Different from using node options, the 1D elements generated in this way are not
necessary keeping the connectivity between two parts.

The second part of this tutorial demonstrates the use of spotweld input translator in conjunction with
spotweld panel.

Using Geom
Using geom subpanel creates 1D element among surface geometry. It is further divided into two
options: surfs-surfs and lines-surfs. The surfs-surfs subpanel is intended to project a number of spot
weld (or any 1D element type) locations defined by either points or nodes onto a large number of
surfaces within the search tolerance of the identified location. When two or more surface
intersections are found for a given location, fixed points are added to the intersected surfaces, nodes
are created at these fixed points, and FE 1D elements are created between nodes. During the
element creation, an option property can be assigned to the 1D elements and an optional set of local
coordinate systems aligned with the 1D elements axis can be created. The ind surf options allows
you to pick individual surfaces defining the independent and dependent regions.

Figure1

The second option in this subpanel, lines-surfs, has the same functionality as surfs-surfs except the
1D elements are created between a group of lines and a set of surfaces. Two options are given in
choosing the line: lines and line list. When lines option is chosen, each line is treated independently.
This results in elements being located at beginning and end of each line with the remainder of the 1D
elements being spaced evenly along the length of each individual line. If the line list option is chosen,
all of the selected lines are combined head to tail in the order they are selected, and are treated as a
single line. The density/spacing option indicates the number or spacing of 1D elements along the line
or a set distance between the weld elements to be created along the line or lines.

30 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure2

Retrieve and prepare the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Double click file =.
HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash.

4. Select the spotweld_geom.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under <altair
home>/altair/tutorials/hm/.
5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
spotweld_geom.hm file.
6. Click retrieve.
7. Click return to access the main menu.

Figure 3

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 31


8 Go to option/modeling subpanel located at permanent menu.
9 Check the box in front of element handle to turn on the element handles.
10 In the cleanup tol = field, enter 0.5.
11 Switch template labels (type) to HM labels (config).
12 Click return to exit option panel.
13 Click geom clean button located at the macro menu to access the geom clean panel.
14 Enter edges/equivalence subpanel, click surfs, choose all, then click equivalence.
15 Click return to access the main menu.
16 Enter files panel.
17 In the files = field, enter spotweld_step1.hm then click save.
18 Click return to access main menu.

Create 1D element using surfs-surfs option:

1. Retrieve spotweld_step1.hm in the file panel.


2. Click geom clean button located at the macro menu to access the geom clean panel.
3. Enter edges/(un)suppress subpanel, click lines, choose all, and click suppress.
4. Click on spotweld panel located at 1D page. The default setting is using geom subpanel with
surfs-surfs option.
5. Click return.
6. Click surfs and select all.
7. Click on the switch under the weld location and choose points.
8. Click on points again to bring up extended entity selection window. Choose points by collector,
select component collector named Points, and click select.
9. In the search tolerance = field, enter 1.0.
10. Click create. Note each element has its own local coordinate system.

32 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 4

Create 1D element using lines-surfs option:

1. Retrieve spotweld_step1.hm saved earlier in the files panel.


2. Click return to access the main menu.
3. Enter spotweld /using geom subpanel. Choose lines-surfs option.
4. Click the switch in front of all surfs to choose ind surfs. Now the user can specify the
independent surfaces and dependent surfaces through this option.
5. Activative the surfs button next to ind surf. Choose the surface belonged to lvl9 component
(blue component) by clicking the surface in the window area.
6. Click the surfs button next to dep:. Choose the upper flange belong to lvl7 component (orange
component) by clicking these four surfaces in the window area.
7. Change to without system by clicking the switch in front of build system.
8. In the space = field, enter 20.
9. In the search tolerance = field, enter 10.
10. Highlight the lines button, choose the middle lines of the upper flange.
11. Click create.
Note: The weld will be created between two ends of each line with weld equally spread along
the line based on the specified spacing. Welds will not be created if the separation
between ind surfs and dep surfs is larger than search tolerance (shown in the left part
of Figure 5).

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 33


Figure 5

12. Click reject button.


13. Now change the lines to line list.
14. Select the same lines described in step 10.
15. Click create.
Note: There is no weld created at the connection of these two selected line since HyperMesh
considers these two lines as a single line in this case to create the welds.

Figure 6

1. Click reject button again.


2. Click the toggle in front of spacing to use the density option.
3. In the density = field, enter 10.
4. Change line list to lines option.
5. Select the same lines as step 10.
6. Click create.
Note: 10 welds are created in the long line. Due to the distance between two parts, there are
only 4 welds created in the short line.

34 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 7

Using nodes
This subpanel is used to create 1D elements between nodes. It is further divided into two options:
node-node and nodes-nodes. Node-node option creates one 1D element at a time. Nodes-nodes
option creates multiple 1D elements at a time by specifying the nodes on the independent FE shell
mesh, and a set of possible dependent nodes on the dependent FE shell mesh. This option will find
the best pairing of the independent and dependent nodes within the search tolerance and create 1D
elements between them.

The move dep node option can be activated to move the dependent node and create a 1D element
normal to the surface formed by the elements attached to the independent node. This relocation can
occur either with or without pre-existing geometrical surfaces defining the dependent surface. With
the move dep node option activated, the remesh dep region option is available to remesh the
dependent region if the quality of mesh is not acceptable.

Figure 8

Retrieve and prepare the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Double click file =.
HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash.

4. Select the spotweld_node.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
<altair home>/altair/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
spotweld_node.hm file.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 35


6. Click retrieve.
7. Click view located at permanent menu. Choose right.
8. Click return to access the main menu.

Figure 9

Create 1D elements using nodes-nodes option

1. Enter spotweld panel located at 1D page.


2. Click nodes-nodes button.
3. Activate the nodes box next to indep. Click the nodes in the window area as shown in Figure 10.

36 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 10

4. Activate the nodes box next to dep:. Click the nodes box again to bring up the entity selection
window, click by collector, and select the big_flange component collector.
5. In the search tolerance = field, enter 5.
6. Click create. Created welds are shown in Figure 11.
7. Click reject.
8. Check the box in front of move dep nodes option. Note the remesh dep region is available
now.
9. Click create. Created welds are shown in Figure 12.
10. Click reject.
11. Check the box in front of remesh dep region.
12. Click create. The welds created in this option are shown in Figure 13.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 37


Figure 11

38 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 12

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 39


Figure 13

Using elems
Using elems supanel is used to create 1D elements between elements. It is intend to connect two or
more finite element models at specific weld locations that are not necessary on the node of the
elements. Therefore the 1D elements created in this way are not necessarily connected to the FE
shell elements. When nodes or points are selected, HyperMesh will first duplicate the selected
nodes or points, project these duplicated nodes or points to the inferred surfaces created by these
two element sets, then create 1D elements between the projected points. The ind elems option
allows you to pick individual elements defining the independent and dependent regions.

Retrieve the file for this exercise:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Double-click file =.

40 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash.

4. Select the spotweld_elem_new.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
<altair home>/altair/tutorials/hm/.
5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
spotweld_elem_new.hm file.
6. Click retrieve.

Create 1D elements:

1. Enter spotweld/using elems subpanel.


2. Click the switch under the weld location and choose nodes.
3. Select the nodes belonging to component surf1 (blue component).
4. Highlight elems box. Click elems and choose all.
5. In the search tolerance = field, enter 2.

6. Switch build system to without system.


7. Click create.
Four weld elements are created. Note these 1D welds are not connected to the shell elements.

Figure 14

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 41


Importing weld data to existing model:

The spotweld data in ASCII format can be imported to HyperMesh through feinput translator. The
supported formats include Element ID, spotweld locaton, Connector part Ids. Each weld location is
stored in HyperMesh as a free point. Based on whether the welds connect two, three, or four parts
(2t, 3t, 4t), different component collectors are generated to store these welds respectively (named
Master weld points_2t, Master weld points_3t, or Master weld point_4t). Once these weld point is
imported to the model, the welds can be generated from spotweld panel.

Retrieve the file for this exercise:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Double click file =.
HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash.

4. Select the spotweld_elem_new.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
<altair home>/altair/tutorials/hm/.
5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
spotweld_elem_new.hm file.
6. Click retrieve.

Import weld data:

1. Go to files / import subpanel.


2. Double click translator =, click next, and choose spotweld.exe.
3. Double click files =, choose spotweld_point.txt.
4. Click import.
5. Click return to access main menu.
6. Click display panel located at permanent menu. A new component, Master Weld points_2t
containing 7 free points is created.

Create welds between sheel elements on the imported welds:

1. Enter spotweld/using elems subpanel located at 1D page.


2. Switch weld location option from nodes to points.
3. Click point, choose by collector, and select component named Master weld points_2t.
4. Highlight elems box. Click elems and choose all.
5. In the search tolerance = field, enter 2.
6. Switch build system to without system.
7. Click create. Note these welds are not connected to the dependent shell elements.

42 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Figure 15

Create welds between surfaces on the imported weld points.

1. In the spotweld panel, click reject.


2. Click F2 function key to delete panel. Delete all the elements.
3. Click Esc key to return to spotweld panel.
4. Choose using geom subpanel and choose surfs-surfs option.
5. Click surfs, choose displayed.
6. In the search tolerance = field, enter 2.
7. Click point, choose by collector, and select component named Master weld points_2t.
8. Click create.
Note the fixed points are created between the welds and the surfaces.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 43


Figure 16

44 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Fatigue Panel - HM-630L
This tutorial demonstrates how to write an input file for a given fatigue solver using the options
available on the fatigue panel.

The following exercise is included:

Using the fatigue panel to export data and write an nSOFT input deck

See Also

fatigue panel
Interfacing with nSOFT

Using the Fatigue Panel to Export Data and Write an


nSOFT Input Deck
In this tutorial, retrieve the file keyhole.hm. This file contains a finite element (FE) model -for which
an analysis has already been conducted- to obtain the stress/strain information for durability loads of
interest.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Click file = twice.
HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash.
4. Select the keyhole.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.
5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
keyhole.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.
7. Click return to access the main menu.

To load the results file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the results subpanel.

3. Select the keyhole.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

4. Click return.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 45


To export data and write a fatigue solver input deck:

1. Select the fatigue panel on the Post page.

2. Click the upper left toggle and select static/modal.


Results contained in keyhole.res were obtained from linear statics analysis.
Note: Select the transient dynamic option if a dynamic finite element analysis was
used to obtain the stress/strain results for the model.
3. Click the lower left toggle and select ascii.
Note: Select the binary option if the fatigue solver allows a binary input file.

For more information on fatigue solvers and acceptable input file formats,
please see the fatigue panel in the Panels On-line Help.

4. Click output file = and enter a name for the output file.
This file becomes the input file for the fatigue solver.
5. Click data group = and select any of the data groups that you want to write to the output file.
The data groups are organized based on whether nodal or elemental results are available in the
results file.
Note: For more information on how HyperMesh organizes the analysis results available
in the results file, please see the fatigue panel in the Panels On-line Help.

6. Click the switch under select simulation: and select all.


This specifies the data in the results file that is written to the output file. In this case, selecting all
writes the stress/strain data for the selected nodes or elements for all loadcases represented in
keyhole.res.
Note: For a static/modal analysis, you can write out stress/strain information from one
or all of the simulations.

For a transient dynamic analysis, you can write out stress/strain information for
one or all of the time steps, or you can choose a range from the starting time step
to the ending time step.

For more information, see the fatigue panel in the Panels On-line Help.

The next step is to select the entities for which the finite element analysis results file is written.

Note: The type of entity you select is based upon the data group you selected. Select
nodes if the data group you selected refers to nodal results. Similarly, select
elements if the data group you selected refers to elemental results. If the data
group results and the entity type are not the same, HyperMesh displays an error
message, Results file doesnt contain nodal values.

7. Click the entity input collector switch and select elems.

46 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


8. Click elems and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.
9. Draw the window as shown in the figure below.

10. Click interior.


11. Click select entities.
12. Click write.
An ascii file is written to your directory.
You can read this file into the appropriate fatigue solver to complete the fatigue analysis.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 47


Modeling Contact for MARC - HM-1050
This tutorial explains how to use the 2-D interface between HyperMesh and MARC. The following
exercises are included:

Defining Material Properties.


Defining Geometry Properties for 2-D Solid Elements.
Defining Contact Bodies and Contact Properties.
Creating Loads and Boundary Conditions.
Defining Control Cards.
Exporting the File to MARC.
Running hmmarc and Post Processing.
All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator for assistance.

Defining Material Properties


HyperMesh supports many different material models for MARC. In this example, you create two
different material models with no temperature variation. The component collector then assigns the
material properties to the elements.

To read in the initial model file:

1. Select the files panel.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Double-click file = and select marc2d_tutorial.hm.
4. Click retrieve.

To select the MARC template for a 2-D mechanical analysis:

1. Select the template subpanel.


2. Double-click file = and choose marc/stress2d.tpl from the templates directory.
3. Click return.

48 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To create the ISOTROPIC material model card:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Create the material collector with the appropriate card image:
- Select the create subpanel.

- Click the switch after collector type and select mats.

- Click name = and enter STEEL.

- Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.

- Click card image = and choose ISOTROPIC.

- Click create/edit.

3. Edit the card image to add the appropriate material model cards:
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath Youngs and enter 2.1E5.

- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath Poissons and enter 0.3

- Click return to accept the changes to the card image.

4. Click return to exit the panel.

To create the MOONEY material model card:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Create the material collector with the appropriate card image:
- Select the create subpanel.

- Click the switch after collector type and select mats.

- Click name = and enter RUBBER.

- Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.

- Click card image = and select MOONEY.

- Click create/edit.

3. Edit the card image to add the appropriate material model cards:
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath C10 and enter 0.8.

- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath C01 and enter 0.2

- Click return to accept the changes to the card image.

4. Click return to exit the panel.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 49


To tie the ISOTROPIC material card to the component collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Select the update subpanel.
3. Click the switch after collector type and select comps.
4. Click comps and select STEEL from the list.
5. Click select to finish the selection process.
6. Click material = and select STEEL.
7. Click update.
8. Select material id from the list.
9. Click update.

To tie the MOONEY material card to the component collector:

1. Click review.
2. Select RUBBER from the list.
3. Click comps and select RUBBER from the list.
4. Click select to finish the selection process.
5. Click material = and select RUBBER.
6. Click update.
7. Select material id from the list.
8. Click update.
9. Click return to exit the panel.

50 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Defining Geometry Properties for 2-D Solid Elements
HyperMesh supports geometry properties for shells, solids and beams from the component collector.
In this example, create the GEOMETRY model definition cards and tie them to the existing
component collectors.

To create GEOMETRY model definition cards for already existing components:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.
3. Select the card image subpanel.
4. Click name = and select STEEL.
5. Click card image = and select GEOMETRY.
6. Click load/edit.
7. In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath EGEOM(1) and enter 1.0.
8. Click return to exit the panel.
9. Click name = and select RUBBER.
10. Click card image = and select GEOMETRY.
11. Click load/edit.
12. In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath EGEOM(1) and enter 1.0.
13. Click return to exit the panel.

To view or change the entries in a geometry model definition card:

1. Select the card panel from the permanent menu.


2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.
3. Click comps and select RUBBER from the list of component collectors.
4. Click select to finish the selection process.
5. Click edit to view or edit the GEOMETRY model definition card image.
6. Click return to finish the viewing process or change an entry.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
Note: You can also define a GEOMETRY model definition card during the creation of a
component collector.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 51


Defining Contact Bodies and Contact Properties
HyperMesh supports the definition of deformable and rigid contact bodies for stress analysis. A
deformable contact body can be defined using sets, components, or individual element IDs. In this
example, you use individual element IDs to define the deformable contact body. This has the
advantage of a graphical visualization of the defined deformable body. The present version of the
interface cannot handle a rigid body definition based on more than one curve segment. Therefore all
curves which describe the rigid body have to be combined into a single curve. In this example, define
the rigid body in the most common manner as line segments. Notice that HyperMesh creates an
interface group for each contact body (also for the contact header block).

To create line segments of the plot element type on curves:

1. Select the global panel from the permanent menu.


2. Select the component = subpanel and select RIGID.
3. Click the element order: toggle and select first.
4. Click the element size = button and enter 0.5.
5. Click return to exit the panel.
6. Select the elem types panel from the 1-D page.
7. Click the plot subpanel and select FACET_2.
8. Click return to exit the panel.
9. Select the line mesh panel from the 1-D page.
10. Click the input collector switch and select lines.
11. Pick the line where you want to create elements.
12. Click the toggle to select segment is whole line.
13. Click the element config: switch and select plot.
14. Click mesh.
15. Click return to exit the subpanel.
16. Click return to exit the line mesh panel.

To define the header for the contact model definition card:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the interfaces subpanel.
3. Select the create subpanel.
4. Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.
5. Click name = and enter header.
6. Click type = and enter CONTACT_HEADER.
Notice that the parameter CONTACT_HEADER now appears in the card image.

7. Click create/edit.
8. Edit the card image:

52 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath MaxEnt and enter 500.
- Click the field beneath MxNod and enter 500.
- Click the field beneath FricTy and select 5.
- Click the field beneath CoulFr and select 1.
- Click the field beneath BIAS and enter 0.9.
9. Click return to exit the card image panel.
10. Click return to exit the interfaces panel.

To define the deformable contact body:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the interfaces panel.
3. Select the create subpanel.
4. Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.
5. Click name = and enter defbody1.
6. Click type = and enter BODY_2D_DEFORMABLE.
Notice that the parameter BODY_2D_DEFORMABLE now appears in the card image.

7. Select the interface color subpanel and select Color 12.


8. Click create/edit.
9. Edit the card image:
In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath BodyID and enter 1.

10. Click return to exit the card image panel.


11. Select the add subpanel.
12. Click the switch under slave: and select entity.
13. Click elems to the right of slave: and select by comp.
14. Select component RUBBER.
15. Click select.
16. Click add to the right of slave: to add these elements to the deformable body defbody1.
When elements are added to a group, HyperMesh creates ghost element images that are placed
into the group. The original element that was selected is not modified.
17. Click return to exit the panel.

To define the rigid contact body:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the interfaces panel.
3. Select the create subpanel.
4. Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.
5. Click name = and enter rigbody2.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 53


6. Click type = and enter BODY_2D_RIGID.
Notice that the parameter BODY_2D_RIGID now appears in the card image.
7. Click create/edit.
8. Edit the card image:
- Click the ITYPE switch and select LINE SEGMENT.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath BodyID and enter 2.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath VelX and enter 8.5.
9. Click return to exit the card image panel.
10. Select the add subpanel.
11. Click the switch under slave: and select comps.
12. Double-click comps to the right of slave:.
13. Select component RIGID.
14. Click select.
15. Click update to the right of slave: to add these plot elements to the rigid body rigbody2.
16. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that for the definition of a rigid body as line segments, you have to add the plot elements to
the interface group by components.

To view the normal direction of the line elements:

1. Select the Tool page.


2. Select the summary panel.
3. Double-click template file = and select show_normals2d.sum
4. Click the toggle above print it and switch to displayed.
5. Click summary.
Notice that three vectors appear on the rigid body, which define the normal vector direction of the
rigid body following a right handed rule. For the correct contact definition in MARC, these vectors
have to point into the rigid body.

6. Click return.

To change the normal direction of the line elements:

1. Select the Tool page.


2. Select the summary panel.
3. Double-click template file = and select reverse_normals.sum
4. Click the toggle above print it and switch to displayed
5. Click summary.
The reverse_normals.sum template only works for a single displayed rigid body. If there is
more than one rigid body in your model, mask the others and execute the template only for the
displayed rigid body. You have to repeat the steps above for all desired rigid bodies.
7. Click return.

54 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Creating Loads and Boundary Conditions
In HyperMesh, every load collector can be used to define a set of loads and boundary conditions.
The load collectors can be added to a loadstep, which defines either a model definition data card
block (before END OPTION card), or a history definition data card block (between two CONTINUE
cards) in the MARC input deck.

To create the MODEL DEFINITION DATA load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Select the create subpanel.
3. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.
4. Click name = and enter the name model_def_loads.
5. Click color and choose Color 5 from the pop-up menu.
6. Click create.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the main menu header bar next to the quit button, the active load collector
model_def_loads appears. All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load
collector.

To create constraints on the STEEL component:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the constraints panel.
3. Select the create subpanel.
4. Click size and enter 1.
5. Activate the check boxes next to dof1, and dof2.
6. Deactivate the check boxes next to dof3, dof4, dof5 and dof6.
7. Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up menu.
8. Click points on the screen to create the pick window shown in the picture below.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 55


9. Click select entities.
10. Click create.
11. Click return to exit the panel.

To assign the load collector model_def_loads to a loadstep:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the load steps panel.
3. Click name = and enter model_definition_block.
4. Click loadcols and select the load collector model_def_loads.
5. Click select.
6. Click create.
7. Click return to exit the panel.

56 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To edit the loadstep card image and define a MODEL DEFINITION DATA load and constraint
block (ZERO INCREMENT):

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.


2. Click the upper switch and select loadsteps.
3. Click loadsteps and select the loadstep: model_definition_block.
4. Click select.
5. Click edit.
6. Edit the card image to add the appropriate MODEL DEFINITION CARDS:
- Select Initial from the option list.
- Select CONTROL from the option list.
- Select NOPRINT from the option list.
- Select CONTACT TABLE from the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath NrSets and enter 2.
Notice that two SETS of contact table entries appear.
- Click the field beneath TBo(1) and enter 1.
- Click the field beneath FricC(1) and enter 0.5.
- Click the field beneath Bo(0,0) and enter 1.
- Click the field beneath TBo(2) and enter 1.
- Click the field beneath FricC(2) and enter 0.3.
- Click the field beneath Bo(1,0) and enter 2.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

To create the HISTORY DEFINITION DATA load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Select the create subpanel.
3. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.
4. Click name = and enter the name: history1_def_loads.
5. Click color and choose Color 11 from the pop-up menu.
6. Click create.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the main menu header bar next to the quit button, the active load collector
history1_def_loads is displayed. All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load
collector.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 57


To assign the load collector history1_def_loads to a new loadstep:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the loadsteps panel.
3. Click name = and enter history1_definition_block.
4. Click loadcols and select the load collector history1_def_loads.
5. Click select.
6. Click create.
7. Click return to exit the panel.

To edit the loadstep card image and define a HISTORY DEFINITION DATA load and constraint
block (LOADCASE):

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.


2. Click the upper switch and select loadsteps.
3. Click loadsteps and select the loadstep history1_definition_block.
4. Click select.
5. Click edit.
6. Edit the card image to add the appropriate HISTORY DEFINITION CARDS:
- Select CONTROL from the option list.
- Select AUTOLOAD_TIMESTEP from the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath nitems and enter 60.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath timeinc and enter 0.017.
- Select MOTION_CHANGE from the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath NrSets2 and enter 1.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath ID(1) and enter 2.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath Velx(1) and enter -8.5.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

58 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Defining Control Cards
The definition of the MARC PARAMETER DEFINITION DATA cards in HyperMesh is available on the
cntl cards panel.

To define the appropriate MARC PARAMETER DEFINITION DATA cards:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the cntl cards subpanel.
3. Select the appropriate PARAMETER DEFINITION DATA cards:
- Click title.
- Edit the card image section and enter 2d contact example beneath the title field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
- Click sizing and click return (there is nothing to edit).
- Click no list and click return.
- Click large disp and click return.
- Click print .
- Edit the card image section and enter 5 beneath the print field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
- Click setname.
- Edit the card image section and enter 50 beneath the UpBound field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
- Click post.
- Edit the card image section and enter 1 beneath the nrvar field.
- Edit the card image section and enter 6 beneath the style field.
- Edit the card image section and enter 47 beneath the code field.
- Edit the card image section and enter equiv. Cauchy Stress beneath the label field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
4. Click return to exit the panel.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 59


Exporting the File to MARC
The data currently stored in the database must be output to a MARC .dat file for use with the MARC
solver. The .dat file can then be used to perform the analysis using the MARC solver outside of
HyperMesh.

To export the .dat file:

1. Select the files panel.


2. Select the export subpanel.
3. Double-click template = and choose MARC/stress2d.tpl from the templates directory.
4. Click filename = and type in demo_2d.dat for the input deck.
5. Select TEMPLATE.
6. Click the toggle to all.
7. Click write.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

To save the .hm file and quit HyperMesh:

1. Select the files panel.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Click file = and type demo_2d.hm.
4. Click save.
5. Click return to exit the panel.
6. Click quit to exit HyperMesh.
After you quit HyperMesh you can run the MARC solver using the demo_2d.dat file that was written
from HyperMesh.

Running hmmarc and Post-Processing


After you have run the job using MARC, the .t16 file is available. In order to read the results into
HyperMesh, you must use the hmmarc external results translator to convert the MARC .t16 file to a
HyperMesh formatted results file. Once this is done, you can attach the results file and perform post-
processing procedures.

If you ran MARC and created your own .t16 file, run the hmmarc results translator to create the
results file. If you did not run the solver, you can use the marc2d_tutorial.hmres file supplied in
the Tutorials directory.

To run hmmarc:

At a UNIX or MS-DOS prompt, enter hmmarc demo_2d.t16 demo_2d.hmres.

60 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To import the hm file and attach the results file:

1. If you have a model loaded into HyperMesh, follow these procedures:


- Select the delete panel from the Tool page.
- Click delete model.
- Answer Yes in the pop-up window.
- Click return.
2. Select the files panel.
3. Read the input deck that was used to run the MARC job or the input deck supplied in the Tutorials
directory:
- Select the import subpanel.
- Double-click translator = and choose marc from the feinput directory.
- Double-click filename = and choose demo_2d.dat if you ran your own solver program, or
marc2d_tutorial.dat, if you want to use the supplied file.
- Select EXTERNAL.
- Click the upper toggle to no overwrite.
- Click import.
4. Assign the results file for post-processing:
- Select the results subpanel.
- Double-click file = and choose demo_2d.hmres if you ran your own solver program, or
marc2d_tutorial.hmres if you want to use the supplied file.

5. Click return to exit the panel.

To post-process displacement and stress results:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.


2. Click simulation = and select inc 60, t=1.002.
Notice that each increment in the MARC analysis is a new simulation.
3. Click data type = and select Displacements.
4. Click the leftmost switch and select scale factor from the pop-up menu.
5. Click scale fact = and enter 1.0.
6. Click contour.
7. Click data type = and select equiv. Cauchy stress.
8. Click assign.
The default location for MARC to output stress values is at the Integration Points. The hmmarc
program takes these values and averages them to the centroid of each element. Therefore, the
most accurate representation of the stress values as they were reported from MARC can be
found with an assigned plot.
9. Click return to exit the panel.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 61


To post-process incremental results:

1. Select the transient panel on the Post page.


2. Click start with = and select inc 0, t=0.00.
3. Click end with = and select inc 60, t=1.002.
4. Click data type = and select equiv. Cauchy Stress.
5. Click scale factor = and enter 1.0.

If you are using the x-version, skip to Step 12.


6. Click transient.
HyperMesh calculates seven frames of animation showing the displacement and equivalent
Cauchy Stress for each increment. In a non-linear analysis, this type of animation is necessary
to view the history of the stress development.
7. Once the animation begins, click the leftmost toggle to visual options.
8. Click the toggle next to mode and select hidden line.
9. Click the toggle next to color and select contour.
10. Click exit to exit the animation.
11. Activate the hidden line option.
12. Click transient.
13. Click exit to exit the animation.
14. Click return to exit the panel.

To post-process contact results:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.


2. Click simulation = and select inc 60, t=1.002.
Notice that each increment in the MARC analysis is a new simulation.
3. Click data type = and select Ex. applied forces.
4. Click contour.
Notice that the Hypermesh results translator hmmarc in the present form can only handle results
files of the MARC Version K6. Also, the displacements of rigid bodies are not transferred
correctly in this version.

62 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Modeling a 3-D Example for MARC - HM-1051
This tutorial explains how to use the 3-D interface between HyperMesh and MARC. The following
exercises are included:

Defining Material Properties.


Defining Geometry Properties for 3-D Solid Elements.
Creating Loads and Boundary Conditions.
Defining Control Cards.
Exporting the File to MARC.
Running hmmarc and Post Processing.
All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator for assistance.

Defining Material Properties


HyperMesh supports many different material models for MARC. In this example, you create a
material with elastic-plastic mechanical behavior. The component collector then assigns the material
properties to the elements.

To read in the initial model file:

1. Select the files panel.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Double-click file = and select marc3d_tutorial.hm.

4. Click retrieve.

To select the MARC template for a 3-D mechanical stress analysis:

1. Select the template subpanel.


2. Double-click file = and choose marc/stress3d.tpl from the templates directory.

To create the ISOTROPIC material model card:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Create the material collector with the appropriate card image:
- Select the create subpanel.
- Click the switch after collector type and select mats.
- Click name = and enter ALU.
- Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 63


- Click card image = and choose ISOTROPIC.
- Click create/edit.
3. Edit the card image to add the appropriate material model cards:
- Select WorkHardData in the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath Youngs and enter 7.0E4.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath Poissons and enter 0.33.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath EqTYS and enter 200.0.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath nrEq and enter 5.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the table entries beneath EqStress and
EqPlStrain and enter the following values:

EqStress EqPlStrain

200 0.00

210 0.15

240 0.70

245 1.25

248 2.00

- Click return to accept the changes to the card image.

4. Click return to exit the panel.

To tie the material cards to the component collectors:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Select the update subpanel.
3. Click the switch after collector type and select comps.
4. Click comps and select test_specimen from the list.
5. Click select to finish the selection process.
6. Click material = and select ALU.
7. Click update.
8. Select material id from the list.
9. Click update.

64 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Defining Geometry Properties for 3-D Solid Elements
HyperMesh supports geometry properties for shells, solids and beams from the component collector.
In this example, create the GEOMETRY model definition card and tie them to the already existing
component collectors.

To create GEOMETRY model definition cards for already existing components:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.
3. Select the card image subpanel.
4. Double-click name = and select test_specimen.
5. Click card image = and select GEOMETRY.
6. Click load/edit.
7. In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath EGEOM(2) and enter 1.0.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

To view or change the entries in a geometry model definition card:

1. Select the card panel from the permanent menu.


2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.
3. Click comps and select test_specimen from the list of component collectors.
4. Click select to finish the selection process.
5. Click edit to view or edit the GEOMETRY model definition card image.
6. Click return to finish the viewing process or change an entry.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
Note: You can also define a GEOMETRY model definition card during the creation of a component
collector.

Creating Loads and Boundary Conditions


In HyperMesh, every load collector can be used to define a set of loads and boundary conditions.
The load collectors can be added to a loadstep, which defines either a model definition data card
block (before END OPTION card), or a history definition data card block (between two CONTINUE
cards) in the MARC input deck. In this example, define three HISTORY blocks with different load
magnitudes.

To create the symmetry load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Select the create subpanel.
3. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 65


4. Click name = and enter the name symmetry.
5. Click color and choose Color 10 from the pop-up menu.
6. Click create.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the header bar left of the quit button, the active load collector symmetry appears.
All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load collector.

To create the constraints on the symmetry plane component:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the constraints panel.
3. Select the create subpanel.
4. Click size and enter 1.
5. Activate the check boxes next to dof1.
6. Deactivate the check boxes next to dof2, dof3, dof4, dof5, and dof6.
7. Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up menu.
8. Click points on the screen to create the pick window shown in the picture below.

9. Click select entities.


10. Click create.
11. Click return to exit the panel.

66 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To create all other load collectors:

1. Select the collectors panel.


2. Select the create subpanel.
3. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.
4. Click name = and enter the name move_zero.
5. Click color and choose Color 12 from the pop-up menu.
6. Click create.
7. Click name = and enter the name move_history1.
8. Click color and choose Color 14 from the pop-up menu.
9. Click create.
10. Click name = and enter the name move_history2.
11. Click color and choose Color 15 from the pop-up menu.
12. Click create.
13. Click name = and enter the name move_history3.
14. Click color and choose Color 16 from the pop-up menu.
15. Click create.
16. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the header bar left of the quit button, the active load collector move_history3
appears. All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load collector.

To create the MODEL DEFINITION Block constraints on the load plane and assign them to the
move_zero load collector:

1. Select the global menu panel.


2. Select the loadcol = subpanel.
3. Select the move_zero loadcollector.
4. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the header bar left of the quit button, the active load collector move_zero appears.
All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load collector.

5. Select the BCs page.


6. Select the constraints panel.
7. Select the create subpanel.
8. Click size and enter 1.
9. Activate the check boxes next to dof1, dof2, and dof3.
10. Deactivate the check boxes next to dof4, dof5 and dof6.
11. Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up menu.
12. Click points on the screen to create the pick window shown in the picture below.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 67


13. Click select entities.
14. Click create.

To create the constraints for the 1 HISTORY block on the load plane and assign them to the
move_history1 load collector:

1. Select the global menu panel.


2. Select the loadcol = subpanel.
3. Select the move_history1 loadcollector.
4. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the header bar left of the quit button, the active load collector move_history1
appears. All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load collector.
5. In the field next to dof1 = enter -0.024.
6. Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up menu.
7. Click select entities.
8. Click create.

To create the constraints for the 2 HISTORY block on the load plane and assign them to the
move_history2 load collector:

1. Select the global menu panel.


2. Select the loadcol = subpanel.
3. Select the move_history2 loadcollector.
4. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the header bar left of the quit button, the active load collector move_history2
appears. All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load collector.

68 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


5. In the field beneath dof1 = enter -0.001.
6. Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up menu.
7. Click select entities.
8. Click create.

To create the constraints for the 3 HISTORY block on the load plane and assign them to the
move_history3 load collector:

1. Select the global menu panel.


2. Select the loadcol = subpanel.
3. Select the move_history3 load collector.
4. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that in the header bar left of the quit button, the active load collector move_history3
appears. All loads and boundary conditions are now added to this load collector.

5. In the field beneath dof1 = enter -0.024.


6. Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up menu.
7. Click select entities.
8. Click create.
9. Click return to exit the panel.

To assign the appropriate load collectors to the loadstep defining the MARC MODEL
DEFINITION DATA block:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the load steps panel.
3. Click name = and enter zero_inc.
4. Click loadcols and select the load collectors symmetry and move_zero.
5. Click select.
6. Click create.
7. Click return to exit the panel.

To edit the loadstep card image and define a MODEL DEFINITION DATA load and constraint
block (ZERO INCREMENT):

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.


2. Click the upper switch and select loadsteps.
3. Click loadsteps and select the loadstep zero_inc.
4. Click select.
5. Click edit.
6. Edit the card image to add the appropriate MODEL DEFINITION CARDS:
- Select Initial from the option list.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 69


- Select NOPRINT from the option list.
9. Click return to exit the panel.
10. Click return to exit the panel.

To assign the appropriate load collectors to the loadsteps defining the MARC HISTORY
Definition DATA blocks:

1. Select the BCs page.


2. Select the load steps subpanel.
3. Click name = and enter history1.
4. Click loadcols and select the load collector symmetry and move_history1.
5. Click select.
6. Click create.
7. Click name = and enter history2.
8. Click loadcols and select the load collector symmetry and move_history2.
9. Click select.
10. Click create.
11. Click name = and enter history3.
12. Click loadcols and select the load collector symmetry and move_history3.
13. Click select.
14. Click create.
15. Click return to exit the panel.

To edit the history1 loadstep card image and define a load and constraint block
(LOADCASE_1):

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.


2. Click the upper switch and select loadsteps.
3. Click loadsteps and select the loadstep history1.
4. Click select.
5. Click edit.
6. Edit the card image to add the appropriate HISTORY DEFINITION CARDS:
- Select CONTROL in the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath chk1 and enter 0.05.
- Select NOPRINT in the option list.
- Select AUTOLOAD_TIMESTEP in the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath nitems and enter 1.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath timeinc and enter 2.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

70 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To edit the history2 loadstep card image and define a load and constraint block
(LOADCASE_2):

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.


2. Click the upper switch and select loadsteps.
3. Click loadsteps and select the loadstep history2.
4. Click select.
5. Click edit.
6. Edit the card image to add the appropriate HISTORY DEFINITION CARDS:
- Select AUTOLOAD_TIMESTEP in the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath nitems and enter 60.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath timeinc and enter 0.1.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

To edit the history3 loadstep card image and define a load and constraint block
(LOADCASE_3):

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.


2. Click the upper switch and select loadsteps.
3. Click loadsteps and select the loadstep history3.
4. Click select.
5. Click edit.
6. Edit the card image to add the appropriate HISTORY DEFINITION CARDS:
- Select AUTOLOAD_TIMESTEP from the option list.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath nitems and enter 46.
- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath timeinc and enter 2.
7. Click return to exit the panel.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

Defining Control Cards


The definition of the MARC PARAMETER DEFINITION DATA cards in HyperMesh is available on the
cntl cards panel.

To define the appropriate MARC PARAMETER DEFINITION DATA cards:


1. Select the BCs page.
2. Select the cntl cards subpanel.
3. Select the appropriate PARAMETER DEFINITION DATA cards:
- Click title.
- Edit the card image section and enter 3d contact example beneath the title field.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 71


- Click return to exit the panel.
- Click sizing and click return (there is nothing to edit).
- Click no list and click return.
- Click large disp and click return.
- Click plasticity.
- Edit the card image section and enter 3 beneath the form field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
- Click solver.
- Edit the card image section and enter 4 beneath the typ field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
- Click optimize.
- Edit the card image section and enter 10 beneath the typ field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
- Click post.
- Edit the card image section and enter 2 beneath the nrvar field.
- Edit the card image section and enter 6 beneath the style field.
- Edit the card image section and enter 17 beneath the first code field.
- Edit the card image section and enter v. Mises Stress beneath the label field.
- Edit the card image section and enter 7 beneath the second code field.
- Edit the card image section and enter Total equiv. pl. Strain beneath the label field.
- Click return to exit the panel.
4. Click return to exit the panel.

Exporting the File to MARC


The data currently stored in the database must be output to a MARC .dat file for use with the MARC
solver. The .dat file can then be used to perform the analysis using the MARC outside of
HyperMesh.

To export the .dat file:

1. Select the files panel.


2. Select the export subpanel.
3. Double-click template = and choose MARC/stress3d.tpl from the templates directory.
4. Click filename = and enter the name demo_3d.dat for the input deck.
5. Select TEMPLATE.
6. Click the toggle to all.
7. Click write.
8. Click return to exit the panel.

72 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


To save the .hm file and quit HyperMesh:

1. Select the files panel.


2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Click file = and type demo_3d.hm.
4. Click save.
5. Click return to exit the panel.
6. Click quit to exit HyperMesh.
After you quit HyperMesh you can run the MARC solver using the demo_3d.dat file that was written
from HyperMesh.

Running hmmarc and Post-Processing


After you have run the job using MARC, the .t16 file is available. In order to read the results into
HyperMesh you must use the hmmarc external results translator to convert the MARC .t16 file to a
HyperMesh formatted results file. Once this is done, you can attach the results file and perform post-
processing procedures.

If you ran MARC and created your own .t16 file, run the hmmarc results translator to create the
results file. If you did not run the solver, you can use the marc3d_tutorial.hmres file supplied in
the Tutorials directory.

To run hmmarc:

At a UNIX or MS-DOS prompt, enter hmmarc demo_3d.t16 demo_3d.hmres.

To import the hm file, attach the results file:

1. If you have a model loaded into HyperMesh, follow these procedures:


- Select the delete panel from the Tool page.
- Click delete model.
- Answer Yes in the pop-up window.
- Click return.
2. Select the files panel.
3. Read the input deck that was used to run the MARC job or the input deck supplied in the
tutorials directory:
- Select the import subpanel.
- Double-click translator = and choose marc from the feinput directory.
- Double-click filename = and choose demo_3d.dat if you ran your own solver program, or
marc3d_tutorial.dat if you want to use the supplied file.
- Select EXTERNAL.
- Click the upper toggle to no overwrite.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 73


- Click import.
4. Assign the results file for post-processing:
- Select the results subpanel.
- Double-click results file = and choose demo_3d.hmres if you ran your own solver program,
or marc3d_tutorial.hmres if you want to use the supplied file.
5. Click return to exit the panel.

To post-process displacements and stress results:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.


2. Click simulation = and select inc 107, t=100.
Notice that each increment in the MARC analysis is a new simulation.
3. Click data type = and select Displacements.
4. Click the leftmost switch and select scale factor from the pop-up menu.
5. Click scale fact = and enter 1.0.
6. Click contour.
7. Click data type = and select v. Mises Stress.
8. Click assign.
The default location for MARC to output stress values is at the Integration Points. The hmmarc
program takes these values and averages them to the centroid of each element. Therefore, the
most accurate representation of the stress values as they were reported from MARC can be
found with an assigned plot.
9. Click return to exit the panel.

To post-process incremental results:

1. Select the transient panel on the Post page.


2. Click start with = and select inc 0, t=0.00.
3. Click end with = and select inc 107, t=100.
4. Click data type = and select v. Mises Stress.
5. Click scale factor = and enter 1.0.
6. Click transient.
HyperMesh calculates seven frames of animation showing the Displacements and v. Mises
Stress for each increment. In a non-linear analysis, this type of animation is necessary to view
the history of the stress development.
7. Once the animation begins, click the leftmost toggle to visual options.
8. Click the toggle next to mode and select hidden line.
9. Click the toggle next to color and select contour.
10. Click exit to exit the animation.
11. Activate the hidden line option.
12. Click transient.

74 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


13. Click exit to exit the animation.
14. Click return to exit the panel.
Notice that the Hypermesh results translator hmmarc in the present form can only handle results
files of the MARC Version K6.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 75


Dummy Positioning, Seatbelt Routing, and Control
Volumes - HM-1101L
This lesson continues with several exercises demonstrating general interfacing with crash analysis
codes.

Dummy positioning
Seatbelt routing
Reviewing airbag design state

Dummy positioning
The dummy panel is located under the safety panel module. The dummy panel is used to position
any dummy model that contains a component hierarchy (a.k.a. tree structure) defined in HyperMesh .
The dynakey and pamcrash import translators can build the tree structure automatically when
importing supported dummy model files.

H-Point subpanel

Position and rotate the H-point


1. Select files on any of the main menu pages.
2. Activate the hm file radio button.
3. Click file = twice.
4. Select the dummy_position.hm file from/altair/tutorials directory.
5. Click retrieve.

Load the dyna.key template in the files panel:

1. Select files on any of the main menu pages.


2. Activate the template radio button.
3. Click template file = twice.
4. Select the ls-dyna/dyna.key file.
5. Click return to leave the files panel.

76 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Turn off all entities except components and set the component display to shaded only:

1. Click on the only comps macro button found in the Display: group to turn off all entities except
for components.
2. Under the Display: macro button group, click on the per button next to gfx to turn on
performance graphics.
3. Under the vis panel, click on the shaded only icon, then the all button.
4. Click return to leave the vis panel.
5. Enter the dummy panel from the safety panel on the tool page.
6. Activate the H-point radio button to enter the H-point sub-panel.
7. Select any element on the dummy to select the entire dummy.
8. Under position: type 1.280, 0.350, and 0.284 in the x=, y=, and z= number fields
respectivly. The tab key can be used to cycle through the number fields.
9. Click position to move the H-point to the specified coordinates.
10. Under rotate+ set the N1, N2, N3 vector selection to y-axis and set increment = 24.00.
11. Click rotate- to set the rotation angle about the y-axis to 24.00 degrees.

Incremental Point subpanel

Adjusting Limb Positions


Adjusting limbs utilizes the incremental subpanel under the dummy panel. Internally, incremental
rotations are based on successive rotations about X, Y, then Z. These successive rotation values
are reflected in the current number fields. It is not required to rotate joints in order about their
local X, then Y, and then Z axis when using the interface in the dummy panel. There is no
limitation on the number of rotations nor the order of rotations. However, rotating out of sequence
will modify all rotation values reported in the X, Y, and Z current number fields to reflect
successive rotations.

To adjust the limb positions:

1. Activate the incremental radio button to enter the incremental sub-panel.


2. Enter 5.00 in the increment = number field.
3. Select any element in the lower left leg. HyperMesh follows the model hierarchy up to the
previous joint in the knee and down to the end of the hierarchy through the foot.
4. Click the <, decrement, next to yrot row five times to change the rotation of the left knee to
25.0 degrees.

5. Select any element in the lower right leg and click the <, decrement, next to yrot row five times to
change the rotation of the right knee to 25.0 degrees.

Altair Engineering HyperMesh Tutorials 77


6. Repeat this exercise to set the shoulders yrot to 40.0, elbows yrot to 65.0, and wrists xrot
to +/-10.0.

Seatbelt Routing
The seatbelt panel is located under the safety panel module. The seatbelt panel can be used to
create straight seatbelt segments as well as seatbelt segments that wrap around a dummys torso or
lap. The seatbelt panel also allows users to create 1D seatbelts or a combination of 1D and 2D
seatbelts.

Seatbelts panel

To create straight belt segments:

1. Retrieve the seatbelt.hm file from the /altair/tutorials/hm/ directory (or skip this step and
continue with the Dummy Positioning tutorial).
Select files on any of the main menu pages.
Activate the hm file radio button.
Click file = twice.
Select the /altair/tutorials/seatbelt.hm file.
Click retrieve.
2. Set the component display to shaded only.
Under the Display: macro button group, click on the per button next to gfx to turn on
performance graphics

Under the vis panel, click on the shaded only icon, then the all button.
Click return to leave the vis panel.
3. Enter the seatbelt panel from the safety panel on the tool page.
4. Select the view button on the permanent menu on the right side of the menu panels and select
the restore2 button.
5. Activate the yellow from node entity selection box and select the yellow retractor element (see
figure).
6. Select the upper, red slipring for the to node selection box (see figure).
7. Set element size= 0.100.
8. Click mesh. When components for the wrap around: selection have not been specified,
HyperMesh creates straight belt segments between the from node and two node nodes.

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Seatbelt 1

To create belt segments that wrap around the chest:

1. Activate the yellow from node entity selection box and select the upper, red slipring element (see
figure).
2. Select the lower, red slipring element for the to node selection box (see figure).
3. Activate the comps selection box and select the components that compose the chest area.
Click on the comps entity selection box twice to bring up the component list panel.
Click on the comps entity selection box in the component list panel to bring up the entity
selection window.
Select by assems to bring up the assembly list panel.
Select the upper torso and lower torso assembly.
Click return in the assembly list panel.
Click return in the component list panel.
4. Click orient to create the belt line and enter belt orientation mode.
5. Move the mouse into the GUI area. While holding down the left mouse button, drag the mouse
cursor up and down to rotate the belt line about its endpoints.
6. When the belt is properly oriented, click mesh to create 1D elements along the belt line.
7. If a combination of 1D and 2D elements is desired. Click reject and set the 1D toggle to 1D/2D.
Seat belt width to the desired belt width around the 2D mesh. Set end length to distance
between the slipring and the start of the 2D elements along the belt line. The 1D and 2D element
placement fields are used to set separate current collectors for the two different types of
elements. Additional collectors can be created by hitting F-11 to jump to the collectors panel
within the seatbelts panel.

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Seatbelt 2

To create belt segments that wrap around the lap:

The steps for creating belt segments that wrap around the lap are the same as the steps for wrapping
belts around the chest. The only difference is to select new end points as well as the lap components
instead of chest components .

1. Activate the yellow from node entity selection box and select the lower, red slipring element (see
figure).
2. Select the constraint on the floor for the to node selection box (see figure).
3. Activate the comps selection box and select the components that compose the lap.
Click on the comps entity selection box twice to bring up the component list panel.
Click on the comps entity selection box in the component list panel to bring up the entity
selection window.
Select by assems to bring up the assembly list panel
Select the upper torso and lower torso assembly.
Click return to leave the assembly list panel.
Click return to leave the component list panel.
4. Click orient to create the belt line and enter belt orientation mode.
5. Move the mouse into the GUI area. While holding down the left mouse button, drag the mouse
cursor up and down to rotate the belt line about its endpoints.
6. When the belt is properly oriented, click mesh to create 1D elements along the belt line.
7. If a combination of 1D and 2D elements is desired. Click reject and set the 1D toggle to 1D/2D.
Set belt width to the desired belt width around the 2D mesh. Set end length to distance
between the slipring and the start of the 2D elements along the belt line. The 1D and 2D element
placement fields are used to set separate current collectors for the two different types of
elements. Additional collectors can be created by hitting F-11 to jump to the collectors panel
within the seatbelts panel.

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Seatbelt 3

To detach the seatbelts from the sliprings, retractor, and constraint:

The last step in the process is to detach the seatbelts from the sliprings, retractor, and constraint and
reattach the seatbelts to nodes that are coincident at these locations. This can be accomplished very
quickly in the detach panel.

1. Click return twice to leave the seatbelt panel and then the safety panel.
2. Enter the detach panel from either the 1D, 2D, or 3D pages.
3. Select all of the elements in the seatbelts collector.
Click on the elems entity selection box to bring up the entity selection window.
Select by collector to bring up the component list panel.
Select the seatbelts collector.
Click return to leave the component list panel.
4. Click detach.

Reviewing airbag design state


The control volumes panel is located under the safety panel module. The control volumes panel
can be used to create control volumes as well as review their design state.

To review the design state:

1. Retrieve the seatbelt.hm file from the /altair/tutorials/hm/ directory (or skip this step and
continue with the Seatbelt Routing tutorial):
Select files on any of the main menu pages.
Activate the hm file radio button.
Click file = twice.
Select the /altair/tutorials/seatbelt.hm file.
Click retrieve.

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2. Set the component display to shaded only:

Under the Display: macro button group, click on the per button next to gfx to turn on
performance graphics
Under the vis panel, click on the shaded only icon, then the all button.
Click return to leave the vis panel.
3. Enter the control vol panel from the safety panel on the tool page.
4. Select the view button on the blue permanent menu on the right side of the menu panels and
select the restore2 button.
5. Click review.
6. Select cv1 from the control volume list.
7. Click return to leave the control vol panel. The display of the control volume will be set back to
its initial state.

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Using Composites Panel - HM-1300
The composites panel aligns the element material angle of a mesh of shell elements with a selected
direction or coordinate system. This material angle is used in different analysis codes to define
composites, anisotropic materials, or stress output request directions. You can also review the
material angle directions to verify that they have been set correctly. You can choose to have the
material angles displayed either as vectors or as continuous lines that follow the 0-degree direction
within each element.

The following exercises are included:


Assigning the orientation angle to the element card
Assigning an orientation vector to the elements by using a vector
Assigning an orientation vector to the elements by using an angle
Reviewing Ply Directions

Assigning the orientation angle to the element card


A valid analysis template must be selected for the composites panel to function properly.

Currently, valid analysis templates include:

Nastran
LS-Dyna
Ansys

To use the composites panel to assign the orientation angle, system or vector to the element
card:

1. Retrieve the HM database file named composites.hm.


2. Load the nastran\general template using the files\template panel.

To update all the elements to the correct element types for nastran:

1. Go to the elem types panel on the 2D page.


2. Click on the elems button and select all.
3. Click update to update the element types.
Note: For visualization purposes, HyperMesh projects the local x-axis of the selected system
onto the face of the shell elements. How each analysis code interprets this information
varies.

To assign the material direction using the system ID:

1. Select the elem orientation subpanel from the composites panel on the 2-D page.
2. Indicate the elements that you want to assign material angles to.
3. Select elems, by collector, white and select.
4. Click the Element orientation method: switch and select by system ID.

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5. Select system and enter ID = 1.
6. Click color and select the display color of the review vectors or lines.
7. Click size = and enter a value that specifies, in model units, how large the review vectors are
when displayed.
8. Activate join lines if you want to display connected lines instead of review vectors to represent 0-
degree ply directions.
9. Click assign.

To Undo:

1. Click reject immediately after clicking assign.


Note: The selected elements are re-assigned to the global coordinate system (id = 0) and the
panel is reset. This function assigns the ID of the coordinate system to the selected
elements. How each analysis code interprets this information varies. For visualization
purposes, HyperMesh projects the local x-axis of the selected system onto the face of the
shell elements. If you later modify the system, the element material directions change
implicitly.

To assign an orientation vector to the elements by using a system axis:


1. Select the composites panel from the 2D page.
2. Select the elems, by collector, red component and select.
3. Select the global coordinate system by vector under Element Orientation Method:
4. Set the switch under by vector to local 1-axis.
5. Set size = 1.000.
6. Set the color to blue.
7. Click project.
8. Click the card button from the permanent menu.
9. Set the entity selector to elems.
10. Select any element in the red component.
11. Click edit.
12. Review the card.
Note: The THETA field for the NASTRAN element card is now set to an angle for each element
in the collector. (This is the angle from the global coordinate system x-axis in the model.)

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Figure 1

Note: This function assigns a material angle to the selected elements, which is defined as the
angle between the node1-node2 direction and the projection of the selected local axis
onto the surface of the shell element. How each analysis code interprets this information
varies. For visualization purposes, HyperMesh projects the selected axis onto the face of
the shell elements. Any changes you subsequently make to the specified system have no
effect on the elements.

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Assigning an orientation vector to the elements by using a
vector
1. Select the composites panel from the 2D page.
2. Select the elems, by collector.
3. Select collector color and click select.
4. Set the Element orientation method: to by vector.
5. Set the switch to vector.
6. Select the radial r vector from the spherical coordinate system in the center of the ball.
7. Select the temp node at the center of the ball as the base.
8. Set size = 1.000.
9. Set the color to blue.
10. Click review.
11. Click the card button from the permanent menu.
12. Set the entity selector to elems by double clicking on an element in the model.
13. Select any element in the green component.
14. Click edit.
15. Review the card.
Note: This function assigns a material angle, which is defined as the angle between the node1-
node2 direction and the projection of the selected vector, onto the surface of the shell
element, to the selected elements. How each analysis code interprets this information
varies. For visualization purposes, HyperMesh projects the selected vector onto the face
of the shell elements.

Assigning an orientation vector to the elements by using


an angle
1. Select the composites panel from the 2D page.
2. Select the elems, by collector, in the yellow component.
3. Select the yellow collector and click select.
4. Set the Element orientation method: to by angle.
5. Enter angle = 45.00.
6. Click set.
7. Click the card button from the permanent blue menu.
8. Set the entity selector to elems by double clicking on an element in the model.
9. Select any element in the yellow component.
10. Click edit.
11. Review the card.

86 HyperMesh Tutorials Altair Engineering


Note: THETA is set to 45.000. This function assigns the specified material angle, which is
defined as an angle from the node1-node2 along the surface of the shell element, to the
selected elements. How each analysis code interprets this information varies. For
visualization purposes, HyperMesh rotates the node1-node2 edge of the element around
the element normal through the defined angle.

Note: This option should be used only in situations where great care has been taken to assure
that the node1-node2 direction of the shell elements are initially aligned properly.

Reviewing Ply Directions


1. Select the ply directions subpanel from the composites panel.
2. Indicate the elements that you want to review.
3. Pick the elements on your model or Click elems and use the extended entity selection window.
4. Click color and select the display color of the review vectors or lines.
5. Click ply = field and enter the ply layer number that you wish to review.
6. Click review.
Note: Any elements that do not have a ply angle assigned, display the 0-degree direction as the
ply angle. Ply directions are set through card images in solver templates.

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