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The method of reducing friction by introducing the substance called lubricant between the
mating parts is called lubrication.
To Reduce wear and tear
To Provide Cooling to the Engine
To Provide sealing action
To absorb shock between bearing and other engine parts
To Reduces friction between moving parts
To Reduce corrosion and Carbon deposits
To reduces vibration by formation of lubrication film
To reduce the noise created by moving parts
To Provide cleaning of various part


Cylinder ,piston ,piston rings and piston pins
Crankshaft and Crank Pin
Small end and big end bearing of connecting rod
Cam , Cam shaft and its bearings
Timing gears


Solid lubricants E.g. graphite, molybdenum, mica
Semi-solid lubricants E.g. Heavy Greases
Liquid lubricants E g. Mineral oils, Vegetable Oil, Linseed, Caster and Animal Oil


Viscosity index
Cloud point and Pour point
Flash point and fire point
Specific gravity
Carbon Residue
Prevent wear on bearing
Leaves no carbon residue
Cleanse the interior of the engine
It should not form an emulsion with water
It should be free from dirt and water
It should not contain Sulphur
Have low consumption rate
Should have very less tendency to oxidation
Low cost
High film strength to prevent seizure when heavy load

Additives are the compound added to lubricant oil to promote and improve their desired
properties. Some of additives are:
1. Viscosity index improvers - additives which improves the viscosity lubricating oils
2. Antioxidants- which reduces the oxidation of lubricating oils
3. Antiwear and Detergent- additives which serve cleansing and sticking of piston


1. Mist or Charge lubrication system
2. Wet sump lubrication system
3. Dry sump lubrication system


In mist lubrication system the lubrication is provided by the mist of lubricating oil
This system is employed for two Stroke Petrol engine
The petrol and lubricating oil (2% to 3%) are previously mixed in the fuel tank
from where it is supplied to Carburettor.
The mixture finds its way to all working parts of the engine like cylinder, piston,
piston rings, Crank case etc.
The petrol gets evaporated and lubricating oil lubricates these various parts.
Petrol and lubricating oil has fixed proportion 1 litre to 50 cc
If the engine has crankshaft bearing as plain instead of ball then there is separate oil
cups provided
Mist Lubrication System

Advantages of the Mist lubrication system:

Its economic and cheap
It needs no oil pump, filters and piping
The probability of lubrication failure is least
Quantity of oil is automatically regulated as per the speed and load of the engine

Disadvantages of the Mist lubrication system:

Increase in carbon deposits due to burning of oil
Needs increased maintenance due to formation of carbon deposits
Spark plug fouling due to carbon deposits
Oil consumption is high
During no load running mixture of. Oil reach to the parts of engine is very small


In the wet sump lubrication system the bottom of the crankcase contain oil pan called Sump
which contains lubricating oil which serves as a reservoir to supply lubricating oil to all the
parts of IC engine. After lubricating the parts of the engine the oil flies back to sump by
gravity and oil is recirculated again.
There are three types of Wet sump lubrication system
Splash lubrication system
Splash and pressure feed system
Fully pressure feed system SPLASH LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The system is suitable for small capacity of four Stroke engine with moderate speed and
bearing loads.
It consists of sump containing lubricating oil.
The end of connecting rod has scoop.
When the piston moves from TDC to BDC, the scoop splashes the lubricating oil to
the wall of cylinder and various parts such as main bearing, camshaft, bearing,
timing gears, piston, cylinder liner etc.
After lubrication the splashed oil falls back into the sump..

Splash Lubrication System

This system is suitable for all types of modern engines including heavy duty engines.
The schematic diagram of system is shown in fig
Fully Pressure Lubrication System
(Reference: R.K. Rajput)
In this method the lubricating oil is fed to various parts under pressure ranging from 2
to 4 bar pressure with the help of an oil pump driven by the crankshaft of the engine.
The oil from the sump is drawn by the pump through filters and it is forced to the main
bearings and the caps of other bearings through the branches of a distributor header
A pressure relief valve (not shown) is provided on the delivery side of the pump to
return the excess oil to the sump if the pressure exceeds the predetermined value.
Drilled passages (shown by dotted lines) help to provide lubricating oil from the main
bearing to the crank pin and it lubricates the big end bearings SPLASH AND PRESSURE FEED SYSTEM

Splash system is not sufficient in case of bearing loads are high.
For this reason, the lubricating oil under pressure is supplied by the oil pump to the
main and crankshaft bearing as shown in figure.
Oil pump also supplies oil under pressure to pipes which directs a stream of oil against
the dippers on the connecting rod bearing cups.
Other parts of the engine are lubricated by splash of oil thrown up by the dippers.
This system provides sufficient lubrication to all parts and is favored by most of the
engine manufacturers. This is used in most heavy duty and high-speed engines.
Splash and Pressure Lubrication System
(Reference: H.N. Gupta)
Dry sump is similar to the wet sump method except that in this case the lubricating oil
is maintained in a separate tank kept behind the radiator.
The general arrangement of dry sump lubrication system is shown in the figure.

Dry Sump Lubrication System

. (Reference R.K. Rajput)

In this system the oil contained in the sump is drawn by the pump through the strainer.
This oil after passing through a filter is supplied to supply tank kept outside the cylinder
The function of the filter is to remove from oil the abrasive particles up to 10 to 15
microns that causes the wear of working surfaces and also to prevent sludge deposits to
the bearings
Oil from storage tank is pumped to the engine cylinder and bearings through an oil
The system uses a pressure relief valve to prevent excessive pressure build up after a
cold start of the engine.

Improvements to vehicle handling and stability. The vehicle's center of gravity can be
lowered by mounting the engine lower in the chassis due to a shallow sump profile. A
vehicle's overall weight distribution can be modified by locating the external oil
reservoir away from the engine
Improved engine reliability due to consistent oil pressure. This is the reason why dry-
sumps were invented
Increased oil capacity, by using a larger external reservoir than would be practical in a
wet-sump system
Having the pumps external to the engine makes them easier to maintain or replace.

Dry-sump systems add cost, complexity, and weight
The extra pumps and lines in dry-sump engines require additional oil and maintenance
The large external reservoir and pumps can be tricky to position around the engine and
within the engine bay due to their size
Inadequate upper valve train lubrication can also become an issue if too much oil vapor
is being pulled out from the area, especially with multi-staged pumps.

Difference Between Wet Sump and Dry Sump Lubrication Systems

Dry sump system is similar to wet sump method except that in this case the lubricating oil
is maintained in a separate tank kept behind the radiator.
The oil is kept cool because of air blast thrown on the radiator:
The oil from the tank is supplied by the oil pump under a pressure of 3 - 8 bar to various
parts of the engine through a distributor header covering the entire cylinder block.
Since the temperature rise of lubricating oil in case of dry sump method is less than the wet
sump method due to cooling, this system permits the use of thinner oil compared to wet
sump method.
This is an added advantage over wet sump method since the thinner oils reduce the viscous
friction loads on the engine.
The lubricating oils are normally classified according to their viscosity. The SAE (Society
of Automotive Engineers) method of assigning number to different oils id used universally.
SAE, 5W, 10W, 20W grades are defined in terms of viscosity at -18 degree centigrade and
are the oils which render starting of engine in cold weather easy. SAE 20,30,40,and 50
grades are defined in terms of viscosity at 99 degree centigrade ;these oil work
satisfactorarily in normal and hot climates.

SAE Viscosity Viscosity Range

viscosity units
number At -18^0C At -99^0C

Min. Max. Min. Max.

5W Centipoise - 1200 - -

SUS - 600 - -

10W Centipoise 1200 2400 - -

SUS 6000 12000 - -

15W Centipoise 2400 9600 - -

SUS 12000 48000 - -

20W Centipoise - - 5.7 9.6

SUS - - 45 58

30W Centipoise - - 9.6 12.9

SUS - - 58 70

40W Centipoise - - 12.9 16.8

SUS - - 70 85

50W Centipoise - - 16.8 22.7

SUS - - 85 110

University Questions:
1. Classification of lubrication oils (SAE Rating )(Dec 14)
2. Comparison between dry sump and wet sump lubrication system(Dec 15)
3. What are the functions of lubrication? State required properties of lubricating
oil..(May 16)
4. Requirements of cooling and lubrication system(May 17)