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Running head: Week 1 Articles

Week 1 Analyzing Scholarly Articles

By Kylene Coonis

MUS 233 Music for Classroom Teacher

August 28, 2017
Week 1 Articles 2

Article 1

3 Interesting Things

Music can be used for classroom transitions. According to Heather Walport-Gawron a

middle school English language arts teacher (2014), “music is a great way to signal classroom

transitions”. Music can be a nice subtle signal that teachers can use to let their students know that

it is time to move from one thing to the next. Teachers can use music as writing prompts for their

students. Walport-Gawron ( 2014) explains that “the teacher can have a song playing in the

classroom when the students come in, and then he or she can have their students sit down and

write about what they just heard”. This is a great way to help students write a creative writing

piece. Music can be a great way to teach academic vocabulary. Walport-Gawron ( 2014) how

“music is a great aid in helping students to learn new vocabulary”. Catchy songs can get stuck in

students heads which makes them a great tool for learning vocabulary. If the students can

remember the song, then they can remember the vocabulary.

2 Surprising Things

Teachers can use music to help students get to know them. According to Walport-

Gawron (2014), “Teachers can use music both to share themselves with their students as well as

learn about their students”. Music can be used to express feelings and experiences which. By

sharing personal songs, teachers can help students to learn more about the type of person they

are. Music can help people to think critically. Walport-Gawron (2014) discusses how “music

makes the brain more receptive for critical thinking by opening up doors in the brain known as

neurons which creates space that is receptive to learning”. Students will be able to think more

critically in the classroom all because of music. I found these two things to be surprising because
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I never thought to use music as a way to help my students to get to know me, and I also did not

realize that music could open up doors in my brain.

1 Question & Answer

How can music be used to support the content that the students are learning in the

classroom? Music can be used to help students learn more about the content in several ways such

singing a song that has vocabulary terms or by listening to a song that has more information on

that subject. Walport-Gawron (2014) suggests that “teachers can use lyrics of songs to help

students recognize nouns and verbs”. Music can be used for a variety of activities that can help

students learn more about the content they are learning in class.

Article 2

3 Interesting Things

Most teachers are not comfortable with teaching music concepts and integrating music

into other class subjects. Kim and Choy (2008) explain that “ a study was conducted to compare

how requiring preservice teachers to take a music education course would increase their

confidence in integrating music into their classrooms, and they found out that the music

education course greatly increased the preservice teachers confidence in teaching and integrating

music into their future classrooms”. A music education course is a huge help for increasing

confidence in teaching and integrating music concepts for all teachers. The expectation teachers

to be able to teach music concepts in the elementary classroom did not change. According to

Kim and Choy (2008), “the expectation for all teachers to be able to teach music concepts in

their classroom remained the same before and after the survey on preservice teachers was

conducted”. The expectation for teachers to be able to teach music concepts in their classrooms

was high even though their confidence was low. Preservice teachers’ attitudes towards teaching
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music concepts did not change after the music education course. Kim and Choy (2008) point out

that” preservice teachers’ attitude toward teaching music education did not change after their

experience in the music education course”. The preservice teachers confidence increased but

their attitudes stayed the same.

2 Surprising Things

The music education course increased preservice teachers confidence in playing

instruments. Kim and Choy (2008) describe how “at the beginning of the survey that was

conducted to see how a music education course would increase confidence in preservice

teachers, most preservice teachers did not think that they could play an instrument but at the end

of the course they did think that they could play a musical instrument”. The music education

course increased preservice teachers confidence in playing musical instruments. The music

education course increased preservice teachers confidence in teaching upper grades. Kim and

Choy (2008) discusses how “preservice teachers felt more comfortable with teaching music

concepts to upper elementary grades after they took a music education course”. Preservice

teachers felt comfortable enough to teach music concepts to all elementary grade levels after

taking a music education course. These things surprised me because I figured preservice teachers

would be more confident with teaching music but I did not think that they would be more

comfortable playing an instrument, and I did not realize that a music education course would

help preservice teachers to teach music concepts to upper grades.

1 Question & Answer

What does a teacher with self-efficacy look like? A teacher with self-efficacy is

open to new ideas and teaching techniques. According to Kim and Choy (2008), “teachers with

high self-efficacy are more open to reflecting and experimenting with new teaching techniques
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as well as using new teaching approaches”. Teachers with high self- efficacy are hard workers

and the work of their students tend to reflect that.

Article 3

3 Interesting Things

Math scores for students in high quality music programs were higher than

students in low quality music programs. According to Johnson and Memmott of the University

of Kansas (2006), “elementary students in all regions that were in higher quality music programs

had better math scores than students who were in lower quality music programs”. Music is

actually helping their test scores. Students who participated in lower quality instrumental

programs still scored better than students who were not in a music program at all. Johnson and

Memmott (2006) point out that “middle school students in lower quality instrumental music

programs still had better test scores than students who were not in a music program at all”.

Schools cannot use music programs to increase test scores. Johnson and Memmott (2006) discuss

how “although there is a strong relationship between participation in music programs and

academic success, schools cannot use participation in music programs to increase test scores

because there are a lot of other variables to consider”.

2 Surprising Things

The schools that had high quality music programs had lower English scores than schools

with low quality music programs, Johnson and Memmott (2006) explain that “ the schools on the

west coast in higher quality music programs had lower English scores then the schools that were
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in lower quality music programs”. Students with poor choral programs had the worst test scores

of all groups. Johnson and Memmott (2006) describe how “high school students in low quality

choral programs had lower test scores than all other groups including students who do not

participate in any music program”. I was surprised that students in higher quality music

programs would have lower English scores and I also did not realize that middle school students

in low quality choir programs would have lower test scores.

1 Question & Answer

Does music education increase standardized test scores? It seems that students who are in

music programs tend to have higher standardized test scores. According to Johnson and

Memmott (2006), “there is a relationship between higher test scores and participation in music

programs but music programs cannot be declared the cause of higher test scores”. Research did

not prove that music programs were the cause of higher test scores because there were many

other factors to consider.

Article 4

3 Interesting Things

Music can have a positive effect on English language learners. According to John L.

Vitale of Nipissing University (2011), “ there is a positive correlation between music and

scholastic achievement for English Language Learners” (p. 321). Music is also linked to higher

grades and test scores. Vitale (2011) describes how “students in music had higher grades in

math, English, history, and science as well as higher test scores in reading and citizenship” (p.

321). The connection between music and intelligence is really just a coincidence. Vitale (2011)

discusses how “both academics and music performance requires high levels of self-discipline,
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concentration, and perseverance which is why music students tend to perform well

academically” (p. 322).

2 Surprising Things

Music can also help preschoolers. Vitale (2011) points out that “piano instruction helped

preschool students to perform better on a spatial reasoning test” (p. 321). Research claims that

musicians have very distinct brains. According to Vitale (2011), “11 year old children who play

instruments have more grey matter volume in both the sensorimotor complex and the occipital

lobes than other children” (p. 322). I was surprised by how music can actually help preschoolers,

and I did not know that musicians had very distinct brains.

1 Question & Answer

Does music make you smarter? Research shows that music does in fact help elementary

children to gain several academic skills. Vitale (2011) explains that “music education has a

positive effect on a child’s academic achievement such as helping a child to gain skills in

literacy, numeracy, intellectual development, general attainment, creativity, and valuable

learning skills” (p. 321). Music can help people to gain different academic skills but research has

not proven that all musicians are smarter because of music.

References

Choy, Doris, Kim, Jinyoung. (2008). “Learning to Toot Your Own Horn: Preserve Teachers

Integrating Music into a Childhood Classroom”. Journal of Research in Childhood

Education, Vol. 22 No. 4. Retrieved from

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B93afei4RAMAX0FlTUMzMnZBbEE
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Johnson, Christopher M., Memmott, Jenny E. (2006). “Examination of Relationships between

Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test

Results”. Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol. 54 No. 4. pgs. 293-307.

Retrieved

from https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B93afei4RAMAX0FlTUMzMnZBbEE

Vitale, John L. (2011). “Music Makes You Smarter: A New Paradigm for Music Education?

Perceptions and Perspectives from Four Groups of Elementary Education Stakeholders”.

Canadian Journal of Education, Vol. 34 No. 3. pgs. 317-343. Retrieved from

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B93afei4RAMAX0FlTUMzMnZBbEE

Walpart-Gawron, Heather. (2014). “8 ways to Use Music in the Language Arts

Classroom”. George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved from

https://www.edutopia.org/blog/using-music-strategies-language-arts-classroom-he

ather-wolpert-gawron