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There are 13 vitamins your body needs. Vitamins are classified solubility contents 1. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS ( A, ,D, E, K vitamins) 2. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS Vitamin C and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). A. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS 1. Vitamin A is an antioxidant. Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Vitamin A also plays a role in your •Vision •Bone growth •Reproduction •Cell functions •Immune system Vitamin A can come from plant or animal sources. Plant sources include colorful fruits and vegetables. Animal sources include liver and whole milk. Vitamin A is also added to foods like cereals. Vegetarians, young children, and alcoholics may need extra Vitamin A. You might also need more if you have certain conditions, such as liver diseases, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn’s disease. Check with your health care provider to see if you need to take vitamin A supplements. 2.Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium, which your bones need to grow. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis or rickets. Vitamin D also has a role in your nerve, muscle, and immune systems. You can get vitamin D in three ways: through your skin, from your diet, and from supplements. Your body forms Vitamin D naturally after exposure to sunlight. However, too much sun exposure can lead to skin aging and skin cancer. So many people try to get their vitamin D from other sources. Vitamin D-rich foods include egg yolks, saltwater fish, and liver. Some other foods, like milk and cereal, often have added vitamin D.
Some juices and cereals have added vitamin C. they become a significant source. or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food. lean meats (especially pork). You must replenish the vitamin every day. whole grains (especially wheat germ).Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. and vegetables are not very high in thiamine. Vitamin B complex a. VITAMIN B1 Thiamine is one of the B vitamins. Function . It is also essential for the functioning of the heart. Good sources include citrus. Dairy products. peas. fish. bones. tomatoes. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. B. Most people get their vitamin K from plants such as green vegetables. and nervous system. but when consumed in large amounts. If you don’t have enough vitamin K. margarine. Vitamin E is also added to foods like cereals 4. Good sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils. Function Thiamine (vitamin B1) helps the body cells convert carbohydrates into energy. Vitamin C is important for your skin. dried beans. red and green peppers. Deficiency: BERI-BERI b. Vitamin E also plays a role in your immune system and metabolic processes. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS 1. cereals. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. seeds. and leafy greens. Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Vitamin B2 Riboflavin is a type of B vitamin. It is water soluble.Vitamin E is an antioxidant. which means it is not stored in the body. and greens. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food. and soybeans. fruits. you may bleed too much. 2. and dark berries. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. broccoli. a group of water-soluble vitamins that participate in many of the chemical reactions in the body. pasta. Food Sources Thiamine is found in fortified breads. muscles. nuts.3. and connective tissue.
Vitamin B3 Niacin is a type of B vitamin. Pantothenic acid is types of B vitamins. It helps break down carbohydrates. fish. Food Sources . legumes. these vitamins must be replaced every day. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. It is water-soluble. Pathothenic acid is also called vitamin B5. green leafy vegetables. skin. Deficiency: PELLAGRA d. which means that the body can't store them. proteins. It is also important for the conversion of food to energy. Food Sources Niacin (also known as vitamin B3) is found in dairy products. That means you need a continuous supply of such vitamins in your diet. Breads and cereals are often fortified with riboflavin. the extra leaves the body through the urine. nuts. dairy products. If the body can't use all of the vitamin. Deficiency: ARIVIFLAVIN c. and fats. and eggs. foods with riboflavin should not be stored in glass containers that are exposed to light. and nerves. Function Pantothenic acid is essential to growth. Legumes and enriched breads and cereals also supply some niacin. It is important for body growth and red blood cell production and helps in releasing energy from carbohydrates. Water-soluble. Leftover amounts of the vitamin leave the body through the urine. and milk provide riboflavin in the diet. eggs. Function Niacin assists in the functioning of the digestive system. Therefore. This is called metabolism. poultry. lean meats. nuts. which means it is not stored in the body. Because riboflavin is destroyed by exposure to light. Food Sources Lean meats.Riboflavin (vitamin B2) works with the other B vitamins.Help the body break down and use food.
including the following: •Eggs •Fish •Milk and milk products •Whole-grain cereals •Legumes •Yeast •Broccoli and other vegetables in the cabbage family •White and sweet potatoes •Lean beef Deficiency: ACNE e. eggs. fish. Vitamin B6 helps maintain normal nerve function and form red blood cells. Function Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine helps the immune system produce antibodies antibodies. meats. nuts. Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin. The body uses it to help break down proteins. . That means you need a continuous supply of such vitamins in your diet. and fortified breads and cereals. the more vitamin B6 you need. Deficiency: Mycrocytic anemia f. Antibodies are needed to fight many diseases. Food Sources Vitamin B6 is found in beans.Pantothenic acid and biotin are found in foods that are good sources of B vitamins. Leftover amounts of the vitamin leave the body through the urine. legumes. Vitamin B7 (biotin) helps break down protein and carbohydrates and helps the body make hormones Function Biotin also helps break down proteins and carbohydrates. The more protein you eat. whole grains. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. The body cannot store them.
There are two kinds of minerals: . mushrooms. g. leftover amounts leave the body through the urine. That means you need a continuous supply of the vitamin in your diet. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs. It is water-soluble. Vitamin B12 is special. like the other B vitamins. the building block of the human body. meat. B9 is in green leafy vegetables. Deficiency: Pregnant women may lead to birth defects. watermelon. Typically. bananas. It helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of the central nervous system. shellfish. making hormones and regulating your heartbeat. Function Folic acid works along with vitamin B12vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break down. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. mushrooms. including building bones. liver. use. citrus fruits. dried beans. and milk products Deficiency: PERNICIOUS ANEMIA Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. egg yolks. Vitamin B12 Cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin. liver. because the body can store it for years in the liver. water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored by the body. and wheat bread. No deficiency but symptoms in adult lead to impaired growth g. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. and create new proteins. nuts. Vitamin B9 Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. Food Sources Vitamin B12 is found in eggs. poultry. milk. is important for metabolism . Leftover amounts of the vitamin leave the body through the urine. The vitamin helps form red blood cells and helps produce DNA. peas.Food Sources B7 is made by intestinal bacteria and is also in peanuts. Function Vitamin B12. and grapefruit. After the body uses these vitamins. which carries genetic information.
2. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. MACROMINERALS are minerals your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium. and repair of cells and tissues. These include iron. Function The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and teeth. Fruits and vegetables contain only small amounts of phosphorus. cobalt. A meal plan that provides adequate amounts of calcium and protein also provides an adequate amount of phosphorus.1. sodium. iodine. Phosphorus is a mineral that makes up 1% of a person's total body weight. copper. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. MICROMINERALS are minerals your body needs just small amounts. Although whole-grain breads and cereals contain more phosphorus than cereals and breads made from refined flour. It plays an important role in the body's utilization of carbohydrates and fats and in the synthesis of protein for the growth. potassium. cheese and yogurt. this is a storage form of phosphorus called phytin. Function Magnesium in the body serves several important functions: •Contraction and relaxation of muscles •Function of certain enzymes in the body •Production and transport of energy . which is not absorbed by humans. zinc. phosphorus. MACROMINERALS Calcium has many important jobs. Magnesium is an essential mineral for human nutrition. manganese. It is present in every cell of the body. Foods rich in calcium include dietary products such as milk. fluoride and selenium A. green vegetables. and leafy. but most of the phosphorus in the body is found in the bones and teeth. maintenance. It is also crucial The main food sources are the protein food groups of meat and milk. magnesium. chloride and sulfur.
which is table salt. such as dark green. leafy vegetables. Sodium is also critical for the functioning of muscles and nerves.•Production of protein Food Sources Most dietary magnesium comes from vegetables. although the amount varies depending on the source. tissues. Food Sources Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. and organs: •It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance. Milk. Potassium is a mineral involved in electrical and cellular body functions. . seeds •Soy products (such as soy flour and tofu) •Whole grains (such as brown rice and millet) Sodium is an element that the body needs to function properly. potassium is classified as an electrolyte. It has various roles in metabolism and body functions and is essential for the proper function of all cells. Other foods that are good sources of magnesium: •Fruits or vegetables (such as bananas. In the body. Function Potassium is a very important mineral to the human body. dried apricots. •It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids amino acids and in carbohydrate metabolism. and avocados) •Nuts (such as almonds and cashews) •Peas and beans (legumes). The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride. •It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth. beets. and celery also naturally contain sodium. as does drinking water. Function The body uses sodium to regulate blood pressure and blood volume.
Milk and yogurt. Potassium chloride is found in most foods and is usually the main ingredient of salt substitutes. Fruits that contain significant sources of potassium include citrus fruits. as well as nuts. Food Sources The best sources of iron include: . Iron also makes up part of many proteins in the body. kiwi. Function The human body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Vegetables including broccoli. and apricots. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed. potatoes (especially their skins). celery. All meats (red meat and chicken) and fish such as salmon. sweet potatoes. It is also found in many vegetables. B. Dried apricots contain more potassium than fresh apricots. tomatoes. cod. Food Sources Many foods contain potassium. one of which is chlorine. Function Chloride is needed to keep the proper balance of body fluids. and winter squashes are all good sources of potassium. peas. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found in muscles. and sardines are good sources of potassium. tomatoes. Food Sources Chloride is can be found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. rye. and olives.15% of the body weight and is found in the fluid outside cells. Soy products and veggie burgers are also good sources of potassium. MICROMINERALS Iron is a mineral found in every cell of the body. are also excellent sources of potassium Chloride is a salt consisting of two elements. cantaloupe. prunes. lima beans. Iron is considered an essential mineral because it is needed to make part of blood cells. It is an essential part of digestive (stomach) juices.•It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart. bananas. flounder. Chloride makes up about 0. lettuce.
Copper is an essential trace mineral present in all body tissues. immune system. and yeast are also sources of copper in the diet. liver) are good sources of copper. Iodine is a trace mineral and an essential nutrient found naturally in the body. soy beans. Function Iodine is needed for the normal metabolism of cells. helps in the formation of red blood cells. Humans need iodine for normal thyroid function. Food Sources Leafy Vegetables. black pepper. Food Sources Oysters and other shellfish. Metabolism is the process of converting food into energy. It also helps in keeping the blood vessels. dark red meat •Salmon •Tuna •Whole grains Manganese is a critical component of an important antioxidant enzyme. dried fruits such as prunes. and for the production of thyroid hormones.•Dried beans •Dried fruits •Eggs (especially egg yolks) •Iron-fortified cereals •Liver •Lean red meat (especially beef) •Oysters •Poultry. Dark leafy greens. and bones healthy. along with iron. potatoes. cocoa. cereals and whole grains. Legumes. nerves. Function Copper. . whole grains. nuts. and organ meats (kidneys. beans.
Function Zinc is needed for the body's defensive (immune) system to properly work. cell growth. Natural sodium fluoride is in the ocean. and milk products. Food Sources Cobalt is found in eggs. Other good sources are plants grown in iodinerich soil. This element is second only to iron in its concentration in the body. milk.table salt with iodine added -. peanut butter. Small amounts of selenium are good for your health. wound healing. Other good sources of zinc are peanuts. an essential vitamin.Food Sources Iodized salt -. and lamb contain more zinc than fish. Seafood is naturally rich in iodine. Tea and gelatin also contain fluoride. Cod. Dairy products also contain iodine.is the main food source of iodine. Kelp is the most common vegetable seafood that is a rich source of iodine. Selenium is an essential trace mineral. Fluoridation of tap water helps reduce cavities in children by 50 . Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12. Zinc is an important trace mineral.60%. and the break down of carbohydrates . pork. so most seafood contains fluoride. haddock. Function Small amounts of fluoride help reduce tooth decay tooth decay. Fluorides also help maintain bone structure. The dark meat of a chicken has more zinc than the light meat. Food Sources Fluoridated water. and food prepared in fluoridated water. sea bass. It plays a role in cell division. Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and taste. poultry. meat. Calcium fluoride is mostly found in the bones and teeth. . and legumes. shellfish. and perch are good sources. Low doses of fluoride salts may be used to treat conditions that cause faster-than-normal bone loss. such as menopause. Food Sources High-protein foods contain high amounts of zinc. Beef. Fluoride occurs naturally in the body as calcium fluoride. contains fluoride.
Meats produced from animals that ate grains or plants found in selenium-rich soil have higher levels of selenium. Fish. How much selenium is the vegetables you eat depends on how much of the mineral was in the soil where the plants grew. grains. Selenium may boost fertility. liver. eggs. red meat. especially among men. The mineral has been shown to improve the production of sperm and sperm movement. Selenium seems to stimulate antibodies after you receive a vaccination. which play a role in preventing cell damage. It helps make special proteins. are the most common dietary sources of selenium. chicken. called antioxidant enzymes. such as vegetables.Function Selenium has a variety of functions. Food Sources Plant foods. shellfish. and garlic are all good sources of selenium. . It also may help protect the body from the poisonous effects of heavy metals and other harmful substances.
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