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Phytochemical and Pharmacological Accounts


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Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy (SAJP) ISSN 2320-4206 (Online)
Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2): 162-177 ISSN 2347-9531 (Print)
Scholars Academic and Scientific Publisher
(An International Publisher for Academic and Scientific Resources)
www.saspublisher.com

Review Article
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Accounts of Some Reviewed Plants with
Antidiabetic Potential
Kharjul Mangesh1*, Kharjul Ashwini2, Bhairy Srinivas2, Gupta Shivram2, Kale Aaditi2
1
Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacy, JJT University, Vidhya Nagari, Jhunjhunu-Churu Road, Chudela,
Jhunjhunu- 333001, Rajasthan, India
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Shivajirao S. Jondhle College of Pharmacy, Asangaon, Thane-421601,
Maharashtra, India

*Corresponding author
Kharjul Mangesh
Email:

Abstract: With increased morbidity and mortality, diabetes mellitus is emerging as major health problem. 69% adults of
developing countries and 20% of developed countries are susceptible to diabetes. Insulin therapy is suggested only when
diet or oral hypoglycemic fails to control blood glucose levels and in case of postpancreatectomy. Insulin analogues are
advantageous with low risk of hypoglycemia particularly nocturnal hypoglycemia. Drawbacks of insulin therapy are like
local pain, inconvenience of multiple injections, insulin edema, lipohypertropy, insulin allergy, resistance and above all
of this are weight gain. Oral hypoglycemic agents like Sulphonylureas (Glibenclamide, Glipizide, Gliclazide), Non-
Sulphonylureas (Nateglinide, Repaglinide), Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (Acarbose, Miglitol), Dipeptidylpeptidase(DPP)
IV inhibitors (Sitagliptin, Linagliptin, Alogliptin, Dutogliptin, Gemiglaptin) are used for treatment of diabetes but they
have their own limitations due to selective mechanism of action. WHO in 1976 officially recognized importance of
traditional medicine as source of primary health care by globally addressing its traditional medicine programme. India
being the botanical garden of the world, is the largest producer of medicinal herbs. 21,000 plants are listed by WHO,
used for medicinal purposes around the world. This review covers phytochemical and pharmacological accounts of some
plants with antidiabetec potential. Herbal drugs are the oldest known healthcares available to mankind, enlisted in
naturopathic, ayurvedic, homeopathic and other medicine systems obtained from natural sources. Herbal drugs becomes
advantageous over allopathic drugs due to their safety, low cost, complete accessibility with enhance tolerance.There is
more preclinical research warranted for exploration of antidiabetic potential of new plants/herbs whichever is not yet
studied and there is also need of clinical establishment of antidiabetic plants which are already found promising in their
preclinical evaluation.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Oral hypoglycemic agents, phytochemical, Herbal drugs

INTRODUCTION T- cell mediated immune attack and life span of


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) pancreatic cell is decreased by one third along with
As per WHO diabetes mellitus referred as diabetes, ketoacidosis in body tissues and fluid [1, 4, 8].
characterized by hyperglycemia is a chronic disease,
which occurs when pancreas produces insufficient Type-II or Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
insulin or there is decreased insulin sensitivity in cells (NIDDM)/ adult-on-set diabetes
[1, 2] by the year 2025,300 million people worldwide Lack of insulin secretion in response to blood glucose
will be affected by most common endocrine disorder levels demonstrates NIDDM. Reduced insulin
i.e. diabetes [3]. 69% adults of developing countries and sensitivity is predominant abnormality, leading to
20% of developed countries are susceptible to diabetes hyperglycemia which can be reversed by drugs
[4]. With increased morbidity and mortality, diabetes improving insulin sensitivity or reducing glucose
mellitus is emerging as major health problem [5-7]. production by liver [1, 8].

Types of DM Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)


Type -I or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus In a non-diabetic pregnant woman, gestational
(IDDM)/ juvenile-onset /ketone-prone diabetes diabetes develops near the end of the 3rd trimester or
It is immune mediated or idiopathic diabetes mellitus, beginning of 4th trimester. It is characterized by
characterized by destruction of beta cells of pancreas by carbohydrate intolerance due to bodys inability to use

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

insulin as a result of pregnancy induced hormonal


changes. 4% of pregnancies are affected by gestational Pharmacodynamics of Insulin
diabetes, which disappears after child birth [3, 9, 10]. Initial dose: 0.5-1.0 units/ kg per day and
maintenance dose Adjust doses to achieve premeal and
TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS bedtime glucose level of 80-140 mg/dl. Insulin
Allopathic treatment (insulin therapy) facilitates glucose entry into adipose tissues, muscles,
Insulin and liver by stimulating several enzymatic reactions
It is an endocrine hormone released from cells of that start at the insulin receptors. The stimulation of an
pancreas, obtained from biological origin and classified intrinsic tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor results in
as rapid acting, short acting, intermediate acting or long an increase in membrane phosphorylation that
acting. In 1992, insulin was introduced for clinical use consequently increases the membrane permeability to
before each main meal and one injection in the night, glucose through a complicated cascade of intracellular
usually at 1 a.m. insulin is a small protein with a events and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production
molecular weight of 5808. It contains 51 amino acids [13,15].
arranged in two chains A and B linked by disulphide
bridges [11-14].

Table 1: Pharmacokinetics of Insulin [15]


Biosynthesis and release Distribution. Metabolism Excretion
Proinsulin is precursor of Insulin doesnt shows Liver is a principle site for insulin About 98% of
insulin, biosynthesized in plasma protein binding, metabolism where aspartially it is unchanged insulin
pancreas and certain hence it is rapidly metabolized in muscles tissues is reabsorbed in the
proteolytic enzymes breaks distributed throughout the and kidneys. With a short half life proximal tubules
down it into active form extracellular fluid, once (about 5-6 minutes), 50% of for further action.
i.e. insulin. releases from pancreas. circulating insulin is deactivated
by the liver.

Advantages and disadvantages of Insulin multiple injections, insulin edema, lipohypertropy,


Insulin therapy is suggested only when diet or oral insulin allergy, resistance and above all of this are
hypoglycemic fails to control blood glucose levels and weight gain [15-18].
in case of postpancreatectomy. Insulin analogues are
advantageous with low risk of hypoglycemia ALLOPATHIC TREATMENT (ORAL
particularly nocturnal hypoglycemia. Drawbacks of HYPOGLYCAEMIC THERAPY)
insulin therapy are like local pain, inconvenience of

Fig. 1: Classification of allopathic antidiabetic medicines

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

Sulphonylureas isbenzoic acid derivatives and later is phenylalanine


Sulphonylureas derivatives of sulfonic acid and urea, derivatives [23].
are time tested oral hypoglycemic from last 50 years
[19, 20] Second generation (Glibenclamide, Glipizide, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Gliclazide) sulphonylureas are clinically used today Acarbose and Miglitol are luminally acting oral
were as First generation(Tolbutamide, Chlorpropamide, hypoglycemics acts by inhibiting enzyme Alpha-
Acetohexamide, Tolazamide) sulphonylureas is glucosidase [22].
outdated [21, 22].
Dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP) IV inhibitors
Non-Sulphonylureas Sitagliptin and linagliptin are worldwide registered
(Meglitinides)Nateglinide and Repaglinide represents DPP-IV inhibitors. Alogliptin, dutogliptin, and
non sulphonylureas as meglitinides where former gemiglaptin, are recently developed [24].

Fig. 2: Antidiabetec Mechanism of Allopathic Medicines

Table 2: Simplified comparative data of oral hypoglycemic agents [3,4,13,27]


Dose of
CLASS
DRUG

Individual drugs(mg/day) Advantages Disadvantages Most common ADR


drugs Initial Maintaina
dose nce dose
Acetohexami 250 1500 Inexpensive, Weight gain, Hypoglycaemia, Rare
Sulfonylureas

de improved lipid and allergies, SIADH can be


Glipizide 5 20 profile by lowering rarebut severe caused by first
Triglycerides hypoglycemia generation and
glyburide 2.5 08
disulfiram reaction
Glimepride 1-2 - with alcohol, cardio-
vascular effects
(Megli
tinides

Nateglinide 180-480 120 Lower Weight gain Experience limited,


)

triglycerides, similar to hypersensitivity

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

Repaglinide 0.5-2 16 uncommon hypoglycemia reactions including


hypoglycemia pruritus,
rashesandurticaria.
Metformin 500mg 2550 Metformin is only Minimal effect Gastrointestinal
b.i.d FDA approved oral on HDL, used side effect (Diarrhea)
diabetic in children as monotherapy minimized by XR form.
Biguanides

more or =to 10 does not sustain Lactic acidosis occurs


years. Lowers TG HbA1C rarely , abdominal
and total reductions discomfort, and metallic
cholesterol, No taste
hypoglycemia, No
weight gain
Alpha- Thiazolidined
glucosidase iones (TZDs)

Pioglitazone 15-30 45 Lower TG, and Weight gain, Gastrointestinal


Rosiglitazone 4-8 8mg/day raises HDL, elevated ALT adverse effects at
or No hypoglycemia levels, and elevated dosages, rare
4mg b.i.d effect edema noted. liver failure,

Acarbose NA 25-100mg Lower TG, Minimal effect Gastrointestinal adverse


inhibitors

t.i.d No hypoglycemia on total effects such as bloating,


Miglitol NA 25-100mg noted, cholesterol and flatulence.
t.i.d as well as absence andHDL levels
of weight gain
Sitagliptin NA 100mg Neutral effect On Minimal effect Upper respiratory tract
Dipeptidyl
Peptidase

inhibitors
(DPP) IV

once with/ weight, on total infection, headache.


without No hypoglycemia, cholesterol and
food No drug HDL
interactions

TRADITIONAL & ANCIENT USE OF pharmacological accounts of some plants with


ANTIDIABETIC HERBAL MEDICINES antidiabetec potential. Herbal drugs are the oldest
WHO in 1976 officially recognized importance of known healthcares available to mankind, enlisted in
traditional medicine as source of primary health care by naturopathic, ayurvedic, homeopathic and other
globally addressing its traditional medicine programme medicine systems obtained from natural sources. Herbal
[29]. India being the botanical garden of the world, is drugs becomes advantageous over allopathic drugs due
the largest producer of medicinal herbs. 21,000 plants to their safety, low cost, complete accessibility with
are listed by WHO, used for medicinal purposes around enhance tolerance [31].
the world [30]. This review covers phytochemical and

Table 3: Phytochemistry of herbal antidiabetic medicinal plants


Botanical name of plant General Plant Active ( antidiabetec) chemical constituents with their
(local) part structure
name used
Trigonellafoenum graecum [32] Methi [33]

Fenugreek Seeds
[34] [33]
(English
vernacular)
Trigonelline
(1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate) [35-36]

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

4-hydroxyisoleucine
(2-amino-4-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoic acid)[35,36]

Sotolon [35,37]

Vicine [38]

withaferin-A [38]

Momordica charntia [39] Bitter


gourd, Fruits,
Balsam seeds
pear, [39]
Bitter Charantin [39,41]
melon,
Bitter
cucumber
[40]

Momordicin [42]

Pterocarpus marsupium [43] Indian Heart


kino, wood,
Bijasal [43] leaves,
flowers,
bark, &
gum
[44]

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

(-)-Epicatechin [45]

Pterostilbene [46]

Marsupin [47]

Liquiritigenin [47]

Isoliquiritigenin [47]
Gymnema sylvestre [48] Gurmar,
mera-singi Leaves
[48] [49]

Gymnemic acid [50]

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

Guduchi,
Tinospora cordifolia [51] Giloy or
Amrita [51] Stem
[52]

Columbin [53]

Tinosporaside [53]

Cordifolioside A [53]
Marrubium vulgare L. [54] Horehound Leaf,
[54] roots
[39]

Marrubiin [39,55]

Zingiber officinale [56] Ginger [56] Rhizom


, e [57]
Adark [57]

Sesquiterpene [37,57]
(-Sesquiphellandrene)

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

GrewiaasiaticaL.[58] Phalsa [58] Fruit[58


]

cyanidin 3- glucoside [59,60]

Cocciniaindica [61] Kundaru Ki Fruit,


Bel leaf,
(Cocciniagrandis, (Hindi) root,
Cocciniacordifolia) Ivy Gourd whole
(English) plant
[61] [62]

-amyrin [44,63]

Lupeol [44,63]

cucurbitacin B [44,63]
Camellia sinensis(L.) [64] Chha [64] Leaf
[65]

Epigallocatechingallate [66,67]

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

Azadirachtaindica [68] Neem [68] Bark,


Leaf,
Seed
[62]

Azadirachtin [68,69]

Nimbin [69,70]
Aloe vera [71] Goddess, Leaves
Kumari, [72]
Guarpatha
[71]

Lophenol (phytosterols) [73]

4-Methylenecycloartanol [73]
Biophytumsensitivum [74] Life plant, Leaves
[75]
little tree
plant,

sensitive
plant [74]

Amentoflavone [76,77]

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

Capsicum annum [78] Chilli Fruit


pepper[78] [78]

Capsaicin[79,80]

Acontium carmichaeii [78] Pinyn [78] Root


[78]

Aconitine [81,82]

Table 4: Mechanism of action, available dose and dosage form of antidiabetic plants
Plant name Antidiabetic mechanism of action Dose Dosage form
Trigonellafoenum It diminishes the carbohydrate 10-15 grams per day in Seed powder. [83]
graecum metabolism by inhibiting intestinal divided doses with meals.
enzyme alpha-amylase. It stimulates [35]
glucose dependant insulin secretion
from pancreatic beta cells to induce
hypoglycemia.[83]
Momordica charntia It mimics insulin activity by Fresh juice- 57-113 gm daily, Crude drug, extracts,
stimulating muscle cells glucose and Tincture- 1.3 ml/ twice/ fruit juice and
aminoacid uptakes, decreases hepatic daily, Juice extract- 300-600 tablets.[77]
gluconeogenesis. [84, 85] mg.[10]
Pterocarpus It exerts protective, restorative, Wood extract (pterostilbene ) The wood extract &
marsupium regenerative effects in diabetic beta 10 mg/ kg, Bark decoction- bark decoction [10]
cells. Insulin releasing activity is 1 gm/ 100 mg body weight
correlated to potential increase in the for 10 days [10]
cyclic adenosine monophosphate
(cAMP) in pancreatic islets, along
with significant convertion of
proinsulin to insulin [86]
Gymnema sylvestre Hypoglycemic activity of gymnemic Powder leaf- 2-4 mg/daily, It is used as water
acid isdue to regeneration of islet Water soluble acidic soluble acidic solution
cells, stimulation of insulin release , solution- 400 mg/day [10] &as powered leaf [10]
increase glucose uptake by cells,
inhibition of glucose absorption, and
suppression of gluconeogenic
enzymes and sorbitol dehydrogenase
[87]

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

Tinospora cordifolia Decreased blood glucose by level and aqueous extract at a dose of the hydro alcoholic
increased glucose tolerance is 400 mg/kg,its effect is and chloroform
correlated with regeneration of beta equivalent to only one extract of t.cordifolia
cells of islets of langerhans [88] unit/kg of insulin [89] stem [90]
Marrubium vulgare Promotes insulin release from beta the aqueous extract at 200 Decoction.[92]
L cells of islets of langerhans or and and 300 mg/kg/ twice daily
inhibit processs of insulin breakdown for 2 weeks [91]
[91]
Zingiber officinale By improving insulin sensitivity it 310 g fresh ginger, or 24 g Fresh ginger juice
reduces fasting blood glucose and dry ginger, 13 /day [93] [93]
improves serum insulin level [65]
Grewia asiaticaL Hypoglycemic effect is mainly result 1 kg sugar, 1 glass of water Syrup (One kg fruit is
of improving glucose utilization by and 2 teaspoon of ghee are crushed with fingers
cells [94] heated to make sheera. Then in 1 liter of water and
1 kg crushed fruit of then strained. Sugar is
Grewiais mixed with it and added to the strained
strained through a fine cloth. juice to make syrup.
2-3 teaspoon strained The syrup is taken
mixture is used With one according to the need)
glass of water twice a day [95]
[95]
Coccinia indica Glucose synthesis is inhibited by Dried extract (500 mg/kg Bimb or Kanturi [97]
suppression of gluconeogenic p.o., for 6 weeks), 36 g
enzymes like glucose-6- phosphatase powder of Whole plant and
and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase. 510 ml juice [96]
Activates glucose-6-phosphate
dehydrogenase thre by promoting
glucose oxidation. Hypoglycemic
effect is also due to insulin
secretagogue activity [96]
Camellia Inhibits development of insulin 1.5 g/body of green tea Tea [97]
sinensis(L.) resistance, hypoglymia and other promoted glucose
metabolic effects .also decreases metabolism in healthy human
glucose absorption from intestine [64, volunteers [99]
98]
Azadirachta indica Improves peripheral glucose uptake Aq. Leaf extract is taken at a decoction and juice of
by inhibiting action of epinephrine on dose of 2-3 tea spoons daily leaves[101] &
glucose metabolism [100] in empty stomach.[68] and capsules [10]
Capsule- 1-2 capsules/ twice
daily [10]
Aloe vera Maintains glucose homeostasis by Aloe vera gel at 200 mg/kg gel extract [71]
interfering with carbohydrate possesses significant
metabolizing enzymes. Increases antidiabetic activity[102]
production and release of insulin [44]
Biophytumsensitivum Possess insulotrophic effects i.e. 200 mg/kg body weight is -
improvement in synthesis and release optimum for hypoglycaemia
of insulin from the beta cells of [89]
langerhans [89]
Capsicum annum Insulin producing cells are protected 1g and 2g Capsicum -
from autoreactive T cells. Anti- frutescence supplemented
inflammatory effects of capsaicin diet [104]
results due to binding of capsaicin to
the VR1 receptors which activates
pancreatic macrophages [103]
Acontium Improvement in peripheral glucose - -
carmichaeii uptake is due to activation of opioid
receptors of peripheral tissues,
thereby lowering plasma glucose
levels [81]

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Kharjul M et al., Sch. Acad. J. Pharm., 2014; 3(2):162-177

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