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You are on page 1of 142

Evaluating Limits

1 of 3

Formal Definitions

a > 0 such that |f(x) L| <

x a whenever 0<|x a| < .

f(x)

L+

L

f(x)

L-

a-x a a+

3 of 3

Formal Definitions

an N > 0 such that |f(x) L| <

x whenever x > N.

L+

L

f(x)

f(x)

L-

N x

2 of 3

Formal Definitions

exists a > 0 such that f(x) > M

x a whenever 0<|x a| < .

f(x)

f(x)

a- x a a+

Intuitive Definitions

lim f ( x) L Means that f(x) is really close to L

when x is close to a.

x a Is it a little more or a little less?

when x is close to a.

x a Is it +0 or 0?

when x is close to a.

x a Is it + or ?

+, , or it bounces around

x a as x gets close to a.

lim f ( x)

Rule 1 Plug it In! x a

problems, f(a) is the limit.

Possible problems?

Division by zero.

Even roots of negatives.

Evaluating a function at a value not in its

domain.

Indeterminate forms

0/0, /, 0 , - 1, 00, 0

Rule 2 Algebraic lim f ( x)

Equivalences! x a

Simplify algebraically

Especially rational expressions

Rationalize numerator/denominator

f ( x)

lim

Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

m over n f ( x) m

lim

xa g ( x) n

0 over n f ( x)

lim 0

xa g ( x)

f ( x)

lim

Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

m over 0

f ( x)

lim or or DNE

x a g ( x)

over n f ( x)

lim or or DNE

x a g ( x)

f ( x)

lim

Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

m over f ( x)

lim 0

xa g ( x)

over 0 f ( x)

lim or or DNE

x a g ( x)

f ( x)

lim

Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

0 over f ( x)

lim 0

xa g ( x)

f(x) and g(x) as xa

0 over 0

or f ( x) f '( x) LHpitals

lim lim

over x a g ( x) x a g '( x ) Rule

Rule 4 Other

Indeterminate Forms

0 times f ( x)

lim f ( x) g ( x) lim

x a x a 1

g ( x)

Then use

LHpitals Rule

Case 2: f(x) and g(x) as xa

minus

lim f ( x) g ( x) lim h( x)

x a x a

i.e. Change

Algebraically

Rule 4 Other

Indeterminate Forms

f(x)0 and g(x)0 as xa or

1 or 00 or 0

f(x) and g(x)0 as xa

ln( f ( x ))

lim

lim g ( x )ln( f ( x )) x a 1

lim f ( x) g ( x)

e x a e g ( x)

xa

Then use

LHpitals Rule

Rule 5 Limits of Rational

Functions as x

ax

m

Case 1: m<n lim n 0

x bx

ax

m

Case 2: m>n lim n

x bx

ax

m

a

Case 3: m=n lim n

x bx b

1 of 4

lim

tan x lim

tan x

x k x k

2 2

lim

cot x lim

cot x

x k x k

2 of 4

lim

sec x lim

sec x

x 2 k x 2 k

2 2

lim

sec x lim

sec x

x k x k

2 2

3 of 4

lim

csc x lim

csc x

x 0 2 k x 0 2 k

lim

csc x lim

csc x

x 2 k x 2 k

4 of 4

lim e 0

x

lim e 1

x

lim e

x

x x 0 x

x 0 x 1 x

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Primary Goal of this Chapter

How are values of transcendental functions

(and others) determined or approximated?

transcendental = non-algebraic

Algebraic Functions

All functions that can be expressed using a finite

number of elementary operations (, , , , and

roots); along with their inverses.

Trigonometric & inverses terms of

Hyperbolic & inverses algebraic

Exponential & inverses (i.e. logarithms) functions?

solve DEs, difficult Integrals, model physical laws

Sequence

Formally:

A function whose domain is a set of integers.

Intuitively:

An ordered list of numbers (called terms).

The Domain:

Usually, the positive integers (can start anywhere).

Can be finite, however this chapter is only concerned

with infinite sequences and therefore sequence will

imply infinite sequence.

A function whose domain

Sequence is the set of integers [n,).

Notation:

a

n n1

General

Term

Meaning:

a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , ... , an , ...

Example:

2n 1

n1 1, 3, 5, 7, ... , 2n 1, ...

A function whose domain

Sequence is the set of integers [n,).

Pattern recognition.

Check your hypothesis.

integers starting at k = n+(k-1)

evens = 2n

odds = 2n-1

alternating signs (1st positive): (-1)n+1

alternating signs (1st negative): (-1)n

Examples: Finding the general term

Sequences from a list of terms.

2 4 6 8 2n

, , , , , ,

3 4 5 6 n2

1 1 1 1

1, , , , , n 1 ,

3 9 27 3

1 2 6 24 n 1 n!

, , , , , (1) ,

7 11 15 19 4n 3

Sequences One More Example ...................

3 5n 6n n

2 3

3 n 1

1, 3, 5,

What does this imply? ODD Integers!

1, 3, 5, 5, 1, 9, 27,

Careful, dont jump to conclusions to quickly!

Graphing Sequences

Domain?

Integers in the interval [a,).

Graph?

Disconnected set of points (i.e. not continuous)

Replace n with x and use all points in the

interival [a,) for the domain.

2n

Example: Graph

n 2 n1

Limit of a Sequence

Given: a

n n1

With sequences n Z+

and an is not continuous,

therefore the limit

definition must be

Find: lim an modified.

n

Limit definition

lim f ( x) L 0 N 0

for x and x

f(x) a continuous

function. such that f ( x) L if x N .

Limit of a Sequence

Given: a

n n1 L+

L

L

Find: lim an 1 2 3 4 N

n

x

for n and

{an} a sequence. such that an L if n N .

Just like

Limit Theorems for Sequences functions!

lim c c

n Also, all methods of

limit evaluation for

lim can c lim an functions, applies to

sequences.

n n

n n n NOTE: Alternating

sequences can only

lim(anbn ) lim an lim bn converge to 0.

Why?

n n n

n n n n

Defining Sequences Recursively

x1 k xn 1 f ( xn )

OR

x1 k1 x2 k2 xn 1 f ( xn 1 , xn )

OR

whatever

Fibonacci Sequence: x1 1 x2 1 xn 1 xn 1 xn

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Does the sequence converge?

always important, but does it

converge to something?

This Section:

Determining if a sequence

converges without finding the

actual limit.

an n1

Terminology

Increasing: an an 1 , for all n

5n1

How would you describe ?

Is an n1 (strictly) monotone?

Two Tests

an 1 an 0 strictly dec. an 1 an 1 strictly dec.

an 1 an 0 increasing an 1 an 1 increasing

an 1 an 0 decreasing an 1 an 1 decreasing

1

Determine the Behavior of 1

n n1

(use both methods)

Is an n1 (strictly) monotone?

f '( x) 0 strictly dec.

where x 1 and f ( x) an

f '( x) 0 increasing

whenever x n. f '( x) 0 decreasing

1

Determine the Behavior of 1

n n1

Properties that Hold Eventually

If a finite number of the terms from the beginning of a

sequence are discarded and the resulting sequence

has a property, then the original sequence has that

property eventually.

Example

What can be 2 3 4 n 3

said about:

5, 2, 9,3, , , ,..., ,...

3 4 5 n2

(discard the first 4 terms)

Convergence of Monotone Sequences

there are two possibilities:

1. M (upper bound) where all an M and the

sequence converges to a value L M.

2. No upper bound and the sequence approaches

infinity as n.

convergence without the need to find L.

Convergence of Monotone Sequences

there are two possibilities:

1. M (lower bound) where all an M and the

sequence converges to a value L M.

2. No lower bound and the sequence approaches

negative infinity as n.

convergence without the need to find L.

Convergence of Monotone Sequences

Examples

2 n Eventually decreasing and

n 1

2 Eventually increasing but no

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Sums of the Terms of a Sequence

3

n 0.3, 0.03, 0.003, 0.0003, ...

10 n1

1

0.3333...

3

9

What would be the sum of the terms of n ?

10 n 1

Infinite Series

The sum of the terms of a sequence is called an

infinite series.

Notation:

u

k 1

k u1 u2 u3 u4 ...

NOTES:

k can start anywhere (0 or 1 is the most common)

Partial Sums of an Infinite Series

u

k 1

k u1 u2 u3 u4 ...

s1 u1

s2 u1 u2

sn n1

s3 u1 u2 u3

Sequence of

n partial sums.

sn u1 u2 u3 ... un uk

k 1

Converging/Diverging Series

u

k 1

k u1 u2 u3 u4 ...

sn n1

If converges to S,

then the series converges and u

k 1

k S

then so does the series (it has no sum).

S is not often easy or even possible to determine!

Geometric Series

Each term is obtained by multiplying the proceeding

term by a fixed constant.

ar

k 0

k

a ar ar 2

ar 3

...

Example:

3

a

1 2 10

3 3 31 31

k 0 10

k 1

...

10 10 10 10 10 1

r

10

Geometric Series ar

k 0

k

ar

k 0

k

a a a a ...

k 0

sn a(n 1) lim sn

n

Divergent!

Geometric Series ar

k 0

k

Case 1b: r = -1

ar

k 0

k

a a a a ...

k 0

a, if n is even

sn lim sn DNE

0, if n is odd n

Divergent!

Geometric Series ar

k 0

k

Case 2: |r| 1

times

sn a ar ar ar ... ar

2 3 n

r rsn ar ar 2 ar 3 ar 4 ... ar n 1

subtract

sn rsn a ar n 1

a ar n 1 a

sn (1 r n 1 )

1 r 1 r

Geometric Series ar

k 0

k

Case 2: |r| 1

a

, if r 1

lim sn 1 r

a ar n 1 ,a if r 1n 1

n

sn (1 r )

1 r 1 r

Convergent if |r| < 1; Divergent Otherwise

The Harmonic Series

1 1 1 1

k 1 k

1 ...

2 3 4

s1 1

1

sn n1

s2 s1

2

1

s3 s2

3 is a strictly increasing sequence

1

sn sn 1

n

The Harmonic Series

1 1 1 1

k 1 k

1 ...

2 3 4

1 1 1 2

s2 1 possible upper

2 2 2 2 bound M, you

1 1 1 1 3 can find an n

s4 s22 s2 s2

3 4 4 4 2 where

n 1

s2n

n 1 M

2 2

Diverges because there is no possible upper bound.

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

u

k 1

k

Does the Series Converge?

The next three sections:

Divergence Test

Integral Test

p-Series Test

The test

Comparison Test tells you

Limit Comparison Test nothing!

Ratio Test

Root Test

Alternating Series Test

Each test has it limitations (i.e. conditions where the test fails).

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

If u

k 1

k & v

k 1

k are convergent

then

u v (u

k 1

k

k 1

k

k 1

k vk )

are convergent.

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

If c0

then

u

k 1

k & cu

k 1

k c uk

k 1

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

terms can be removed from a

series without affecting its

convergence or divergence.

then

u

k 1

k & u

k K

k

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

u

k a

k u

k a b

k b u

k a b

k b

Example:

5k 5(k 4)

k 1 k !

k 5 ( k 4)!

5(k 1)

k 0 (k 1)!

Change of Index

Simplifying the

NOTE Notation!

Since u

k 1

k & u

k K

k

u k

they all start at the same beginning value of the index.

The Divergence Test

k

uk sk sk 1

sk is the kth partial sum

k k k k

k

The Divergence Test: Examples

If lim uk 0, then uk diverges.

k

2k 1 2k 1

k 3 lim

k k 3

2 Divergent!

2k 2k 2

2k lim k lim k

k 2 k 2 ln 2

0

Test Fails!

REMEMBER: p q does NOT imply that ~p ~q.

The Integral Test u k

that f(k)=uk for all k a.

u1

u2

a

f ( x)dx uk

k a 1

converges, so

does the series.

u3

.

. Upper bound for an increasing

. u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 u7 sequence of partial sums.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

If the Integral

f(x)

u1

f ( x )dx u k diverges, so does

u2

u3

a

k a the series.

.

.

. u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 NO upper bound for an increasing

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

sequence of partial sums.

The Integral Test: Examples

k x

1 k 2

1 1 1

1 1 x 2

dx

2 2 u

dx

2

ln u

2

Divergent!

1 1

( 4 2k ) 3 2

1 (4 2 x) 32

dx

1 1 1 1

Convergent!

2 6 u 3 2

dx 1 2

u 6 6

1

p-Series kp

k 1 2 3 ... harmonic series.

p=2 1 1 1 1

k 2 1 4 9 ...

p=1/2 1 1 1 1 1

k 1 2 k 1 2 3 ...

1

p-Series kp

For p 0

1

kp

k p

k q

Note: -p = q 0

lim k

q

k

1

p-Series kp

For p 1 and p > 0

1 x

1 p

b1 p 1

1 x p

1

x p blim

1 p 1

1 p

1 p

Convergent if p > 1

Divergent if 0 < p 1

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Ratio,

and Root Tests

u

k 1

k

Does the Series Converge?

Divergence Test

10.4 Integral Test

p-Series Test

The test

Comparison Test tells you

Limit Comparison Test nothing!

10.5

Ratio Test

Root Test

Alternating Series Test

Each test has it limitations (i.e. conditions where the test fails).

The Comparison Test

Basic Idea:

If you can show that a first series is less

than a second series, and the second a b

k k

series is know to be convergent, then so

is the first series (sn increasing w/ upper bound).

greater than a second series, and the

second series is divergent, then so is the a b

k k

first series (sn increasing wo/ upper bound).

Using the Comparison Test

1. Make an educated guess.

convergent or divergent?

2. Find a series and prove your guess.

usually similar to the original

Helpful Ideas:

Increasing the numerator or decreasing the

denominator gives something bigger.

Decreasing the numerator or increasing the

denominator gives something smaller.

Examples w/ the Comparison Test

k 1 k 1 k k 1

k2 k 2

k k k k k

2

2

k

Larger than the divergent harmonic series Divergent

2 2 2 1

k4 k 4 2 4

k k k

4

k

Smaller than twice a convergent p-series Convergent

1 1 1 1

9k 6

9k 6 9k k

Smaller than the divergent harmonic series NOTHING!

The Limit Comparison Test

Basic Idea:

If two series essentially differ by a constant

(except for possibly the first finite number of terms),

then they have the same behavior.

ak

lim 0 and finite

k b

k

Example w/ the Limit Comparison Test

1 1 1 1

9k 6

9k 6 9k k

Smaller than the divergent harmonic series NOTHING!

1k 9k 6

lim lim 9

k 1 9k 6 k k

The Ratio Test

uk 1 uk 1

Let: lim L r where r L k K

k u uk

k

uk 1 r u1 k

Geometric Series!

Convergent if |r|<1

The Ratio Test

uk 1 uk 1

Let: lim L s where s L k K

k u uk

k

uk 1 s u1 k

Geometric Series!

Divergent if |s|>1

The Ratio Test

uk 1

Let: lim L 1

k u

k

1 1 ( k 1) k

k diverges lim

k 1k

lim

k k 1

1

1 1 (k 1)2 k2

k 2 converges lim

k 1k 2

lim 2

k k 2k 1

1

The Ratio Test

uk 1

Given uk where uk 0 k Let: lim

k u

L

k

Example w/ the Ratio Test

k

4

k2

4k 1

(k 1)2 4k 1 k2 4k 2

lim lim k lim 2 4 1

k k

4 2 k ( k 1) 2

4 k k 2k 1

k

Divergent!

The Root Test

k

Example w/ the Root Test

k

1 e k

2

k

1 e

k

1 e k

1

lim k

lim 1

k k

2 2 2

Convergent!

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Conditional

Convergence

u k 1

k

Does the Series Converge?

Divergence Test

10.4 Integral Test

Series p-Series Test

with The test

positive Comparison Test tells you

terms! Limit Comparison Test nothing!

10.5

Ratio Test

Root Test

10.6 Alternating Series Test

Each test has it limitations (i.e. conditions where the test fails).

Alternating Series

(1) k 1

ak a1 a2 a3 a4

OR

(1) a k

k a1 a2 a3 a4

The Alternating Series Test

(1) k 1

ak a1 a2 a3 a4

OR

(1) a

k

k a1 a2 a3 a4

Converges if

1. ak ak 1 k

2. lim ak 0

k

The Alternating Series Test

(1) k 1

ak a1 a2 a3 a4

Converges if 1. ak ak 1 k 2. lim ak 0

k

Proof:

lim s2 n a1

n

increasing and bounded s2 n S E

lim s2 n1 0

n

decreasing and bounded s2 n1 SO

Since: s2 n 1 s2 n a2 n

n n

Example of the Alternating Series Test

ln k

(1) k 1

k

Decreasing?

d ln x x(1/ x) ln x 1 ln x

0 when x 3

dx x x 2

x 2

Limit?

ln k 1/ k

lim lim 0

k k k 1

Therefore, convergent.

Approximating Alternating Series

conditions of the alternating series test, and

sn is used to approximate the sum; then

S sn an1

Approximating Alternating Series

Example: k 1

( 1)

k 1 k!

1. Estimate the error if 4 terms are used to

approximate the sum.

(1)51 1

.008333

5! 120

Approximating Alternating Series

Example: k 1

( 1)

k 1 k!

2. How many terms are need to make sure the

error is less than 0.01?

(1)( n1)1 1

0.01 .041666

(n 1)! 4! Therefore,

four terms

1 are needed!

1

0.01 .008333

(n 1)! 5!

Absolute Convergence

u k converges absolutely if

uk is convergent.

Absolute Convergence: Example 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

uk 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

1

uk 2k 1 Convergent geometric series,

therefore the first series

converges absolutely.

Absolute Convergence: Example 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

uk 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9

1

uk k Divergent harmonic series,

therefore the first series

diverges absolutely.

Absolute Convergence Theorem

it converges.

convergent

Proof:

u u

k k uk uk uk uk uk

uk uk 0 or 2 uk convergent

u k u k 2 u k 2 u k

Absolute Convergence Theorem: Example

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

uk 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

1

uk 2k 1 Convergent geometric series,

therefore the first series

converges absolutely.

Conditional Convergence

If a convergent series diverges absolutely,

it is said to be conditionally convergent.

Example:

1

(1) k 1

k

Convergent alternating series.

1 1

(1) k 1

k

k

Divergent harmonic series.

Ratio Test for Absolute Convergence

Given uk

uk 1

Let: lim L

k uk

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Polynomials

Review of

Local Linear Approximations Section 3.8

a point given the derivative of the function at that point.

f(x)

Slope: m f '( x0 )

Tangent Line

f x0

Point: x0 , f ( x0 )

x0

y f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 )

Local Quadratic Approximations

Find a quadratic equation that approximates a function

around a point given the first & second derivatives of the

function at that point.

f(x) y a b( x x0 ) c( x x0 ) 2

y ' b 2c( x x0 )

f x0 y '' 2c

x0

y ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) a

f ''( x0 )

y '( x0 ) f '( x0 ) b y f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2

2

y ''( x0 ) f ''( x0 ) 2c

Local Cubic Approximations

Find a Cubic equation that approximates a function

around a point given the first, second, and third derivatives

of the function at that point.

f(x) y ( x0 ) f ( x0 )

y '( x0 ) f '( x0 )

y ''( x0 ) f ''( x0 )

f x0

y '''( x0 ) f '''( x0 )

x0

f ''( x0 ) f '''( x0 )

y f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 )

2

( x x0 )3

2 6

Local Cubic Approximations

Find a Cubic equation that approximates a function

around a point given the first, second, and third derivatives

of the function at that point.

f(x) y ( x0 ) f ( x0 )

y '( x0 ) f '( x0 )

y ''( x0 ) f ''( x0 )

f x0

y '''( x0 ) f '''( x0 )

x0

y ( x x0 ) ( x x0 )

2

( x x0 )3

0! 1! 2! 3!

1

Example f ( x) tan x

Find the Linear, Quadratic, and Cubic equations that

approximate the above function around x0 = 1.

f ( x) tan 1 x f (1) 4

1

y ( x 1)

4 2

1 1

f '( x) f '(1)

1 x2 2

1 1

y ( x 1) ( x 1)2

4 2 4

2 x 1

f ''( x) f ''(1)

(1 x 2 ) 2 2

1 1 1

y ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)3

2

6 x2 2 1 4 2 4 12

f '''( x) f '''( x)

(1 x 2 )3 2

1

Example f ( x) tan x

Find the Linear, Quadratic, and Cubic equations that

approximate the above function around x0 = 1.

1

y ( x 1)

4 2

1 1

y ( x 1) ( x 1)2

4 2 4

1 1 1

y ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)3

2

4 2 4 12

Taylor Polynomials

If f(x) can be differentiated n times at x0, then

the nth Taylor Polynomial for f(x) about x = x0 is

n (k )

f ( x0 )

pn ( x ) ( x x0 ) k

k 0 k!

f ( x0 ) f '( x0 ) f ''( x0 )

( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2

0! 1! 2!

(n)

f '''( x0 ) f ( x0 )

( x x0 )

3

( x x0 ) n

3! n!

Maclaurin Polynomials

A Taylor Polynomial where x0 = 0.

n (k )

f (0) k

pn ( x ) x

k 0 k!

x x

0! 1! 2!

f '''(0) 3 f ( n ) (0) n

x x

3! n!

Maclaurin Polynomials Example

Find the nth Maclaurin Polynomial for ex.

dn x

n

e

e x

1

dx x 0

x 0

n k 2 3 n

x x x x

pn ( x ) 1 x

k 0 k ! 2! 3! n!

12 13 13 13 13

Using the first 7 terms e 11

with x=1 gives an 2! 3! 4! 5! 6!

approximation for e 1 1 1 1 1

11 2.7180555

2 6 24 120 720

Maclaurin Polynomials Examples

Find the nth Maclaurin Polynomials for sin x & cos x.

x 2 n 1

f ( x) sin x x3 x5

p2 n 1 ( x) x

3! 5!

( 1)n

(2n 1)!

n 2 k 1

x

(1) k

k 0 (2k 1)!

f ( x) cos x x2 x4 2n

x

p2 n ( x) 1 ( 1) n

2! 4! (2n)!

n 2k

x

(1) k

k 0 (2k )!

The nth Remainder

If pn ( x) is used to approximate f ( x),

then Rn ( x) f ( x) pn ( x) is the n remainder.

th

Remainder Estimation

Where:

M n 1

Rn ( x) x x0 M f ( n 1)

( x)

(n 1)!

x [ x0 , x]

The nth Remainder Example

Maclaurin polynomial with n = 6, x0 = 0, and x = 1.

[0,1] [0,1]

3 6 1

R6 ( x) 1 0 5.95 104

(6 1)!

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Series; Power Series

From 10.9

n (k )

f ( x0 )

pn ( x ) ( x x0 ) k

k 0 k!

f ''( x0 )

f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2

2

(3) (n)

f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )

( x x0 )

3

( x x0 ) n

6 n!

Taylor & Maclaurin Series

(k )

f ( x0 )

pn ( x ) ( x x0 ) k

k 0 k!

Maclaurin

x0 = 0

f ''( x0 )

f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2

2

(3) (n)

f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )

( x x0 )

3

( x x0 )

n

6 n!

Power Series

c x

k 0

k

k

where, each ck is a constant.

c0 c1 x c2 x c3 x cn x

2 3 n

Convergence Power Series

For what values of x is c x

k 0

k

k

convergent?

any power series is convergent?

Yes: x 0

k 0

ck (0) k

c0

Convergence Power Series

For what values of x is c x

k 0

k

k

convergent?

a. The series only converges when x = 0.

diverges when x > R or x < -R. The behavior a x = R

can vary.

of Convergence. called the Interval of Convergence.

Power Series: Example

1 and determine

Find the power

series for

f ( x) its interval of

1 x convergence.

f ( x) 1 x ( x) 2 3 1 x

1 4

1 f (3)

3!

x 0 x 0

f '( x) 1 x f (4) ( x) 2 3 4 1 x

2 5

1 4!

x 0 x 0

f ''( x) 2 1 x ( x) n !1 x

3 ( n 1)

2 f (n)

n!

x 0 x 0

Power Series: Example

1 and determine

Find the power

series for

f ( x) its interval of

1 x convergence.?

Ratio Test:

1

xk x k 1

1 x k 0 lim k x 1

k x

Divergent if x 1 (Why?)

( x) n !1 x

( n 1)

f (n)

n!

x 0

Power Series in xx0

c (x x )

k 0

k 0

k

where, each ck is a constant.

c0 c1 ( x x0 ) c2 ( x x0 ) c3 ( x x0 )

2 3

cn ( x x0 ) n

Convergence Power Series in x-x0

For what values of x is c (x x )

k 0

k 0

k

convergent?

a. The series only converges when x = x0.

and diverges when x > x0+R or x < x0-R. The behavior

a x = x0R can vary.

of Convergence. called the Interval of Convergence.

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Taylor Series

Question

Is there an open interval about x0 such that

f ( k ) ( x0 )

f ( x) ( x x0 ) k

k 0 k!

lim Rn ( x) 0

n0

One way to prove lim Rn ( x) 0

n0

M n 1

0 Rn ( x) x x0 M f ( n 1) ( x )

(n 1)! [ x , xo ]

k

x

Example, show that e

n 1

x 3x

0 Rn ( x)

k 0 k ! (n 1)!

n 1 n n n

3x 3x x 3x x 3x

lim lim lim lim lim 0 0

n (n 1)! n n! n 1 n n! n n 1 n n!

lim Rn ( x) 0 x

n0

Some important Maclaurin Series

Some things to note:

Dont forget to consider the interval of convergence.

Some converge quickly (esp. w/ n! involved).

Some converge slowly (e.g. ln(1+x)).

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

Chapter 10 Infinite Series

Section 10.10 Differentiating and

Integrating

Power Series;

Modeling with Taylor Series

Differentiating Power Series

If f ( x) ck ( x x0 ) k converges over (x0 R, x0 R)

k 1

then f '( x)

d

ck ( x x0 ) k over (x0 R, x0 R)

k 1 dx

Integrating Power Series

If f ( x) ck ( x x0 ) k converges over (x0 R, x0 R)

k 1

then f ( x) k

c ( x x0 ) k

dx over (x0 R, x0 R )

k 1

f ( x)

b b

and

a

k 1

a

ck ( x x0 ) k dx

Determining Taylor/Maclaurin Series

Use Differentiation, Integration,

Substitution, Multiplication, Addition, etc.

Example 1

1

1 x x 2 x3 let x = -x2

1 x

1

1 x 2

x 4

x 6

integrate

1 x 2

1 x3 x5 x 7

tan x x

3 5 7

Much easier than finding a general formula for

the nth derivative of the tan-1x function.

Determining Taylor/Maclaurin Series

Use Differentiation, Integration,

Substitution, Multiplication, Addition, etc.

Example 2

2 3 4

x x x x2 x4

ex 1 x cos x 1

2 6 24 2 24

Multiply

3 4

x x

e x cos x 1 x

3 6

MTH 253

Calculus (Other Topics)

The Limit of Partial Sums

n

sn ak a1 a2 an

k 1

lim sn L

n

Divergence Test

lim ak 0

k

Geometric Series Test

If the series is

of the form ar

k 0

k

If it converges, then a

k 0

ar

k

1 r

P-Series Test

1

If the series is

of the form

k 1 k

p

Integral Test

f ( x) ak when x k

1

f ( x)dx

same behavior.

If the integral converges, so does the series.

If the integral diverges, so does the series.

Comparison Test

If If

a

k 1

k b

k 1

k a

k 1

k b

k 1

k

and and

b

k 1

k b

k 1

k

they both converge. they both diverge.

Limit Comparison Test

Given a series

b

k 1

k

If

ak

lim 0 and finite

k b

k

Either they both converge or they both diverge.

Ratio Test

If

ak 1

lim L

k a

k

then

If L > 1 the series diverges.

If L = 1 the test fails.

Root Test

If

lim k ak L

k

then

If L > 1 the series diverges.

If L = 1 the test fails.

Alternating Series Test

For a series of

the form (1)

k 0

k

ak where ak 0 k

If

ak ak 1 and lim ak 0

k

Absolute Convergence Test

If a

k 0

k

converges,

Absolute Convergence

If a

k 0

k converges,

then a

k 0

k converges absolutely.

Absolute Divergence

If a

k 0

k diverges,

then a

k 0

k diverges absolutely.

Conditional Convergence

If a

k 0

k diverges and a

k 0

k converges,

then a

k 0

k converges conditionally.

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