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# MTH 253

## Section 10.0 Review of Methods for

Evaluating Limits

1 of 3

Formal Definitions

## lim f ( x) L Means that for all > 0 there exists

a > 0 such that |f(x) L| <
x a whenever 0<|x a| < .
f(x)

L+

L
f(x)
L-

a-x a a+
3 of 3

Formal Definitions

## lim f ( x) L Means that for all > 0 there exists

an N > 0 such that |f(x) L| <
x whenever x > N.

L+

L
f(x)
f(x)
L-

N x
2 of 3

Formal Definitions

## lim f ( x) Means that for all M > 0 there

exists a > 0 such that f(x) > M
x a whenever 0<|x a| < .
f(x)

f(x)

a- x a a+
Intuitive Definitions
lim f ( x) L Means that f(x) is really close to L
when x is close to a.
x a Is it a little more or a little less?

## lim f ( x) 0 Means that |f(x)| is really small

when x is close to a.
x a Is it +0 or 0?

## lim f ( x) Means that |f(x)| is really big

when x is close to a.
x a Is it + or ?

## lim f ( x) DNE Means that either the limit is

+, , or it bounces around
x a as x gets close to a.
lim f ( x)
Rule 1 Plug it In! x a

## Calculate f(a). If there are no

problems, f(a) is the limit.
Possible problems?
Division by zero.
Even roots of negatives.
Evaluating a function at a value not in its
domain.
Indeterminate forms
0/0, /, 0 , - 1, 00, 0
Rule 2 Algebraic lim f ( x)
Equivalences! x a

Simplify algebraically
Especially rational expressions

## Long division w/ rational expressions

Rationalize numerator/denominator
f ( x)
lim
Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

## Case 1: f(x)m and g(x)n as xa & m0, n0

m over n f ( x) m
lim
xa g ( x) n

## Case 2: f(x)0 and g(x)n as xa & n0

0 over n f ( x)
lim 0
xa g ( x)
f ( x)
lim
Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

m over 0
f ( x)
lim or or DNE
x a g ( x)

## Case 4: f(x) and g(x)n as xa & n0

over n f ( x)
lim or or DNE
x a g ( x)
f ( x)
lim
Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

m over f ( x)
lim 0
xa g ( x)

## Case 6: f(x) and g(x)0 as xa

over 0 f ( x)
lim or or DNE
x a g ( x)
f ( x)
lim
Rule 3 Quotients xa g ( x)

0 over f ( x)
lim 0
xa g ( x)

## Case 8: f(x)0 and g(x)0 as xa or

f(x) and g(x) as xa
0 over 0
or f ( x) f '( x) LHpitals
lim lim
over x a g ( x) x a g '( x ) Rule
Rule 4 Other
Indeterminate Forms

## Case 1: f(x)0 and g(x) as xa

0 times f ( x)
lim f ( x) g ( x) lim
x a x a 1
g ( x)
Then use
LHpitals Rule
Case 2: f(x) and g(x) as xa

minus
lim f ( x) g ( x) lim h( x)
x a x a
i.e. Change
Algebraically
Rule 4 Other
Indeterminate Forms

## Case 3: f(x)1 and g(x) as xa or

f(x)0 and g(x)0 as xa or
1 or 00 or 0
f(x) and g(x)0 as xa

ln( f ( x ))
lim
lim g ( x )ln( f ( x )) x a 1
lim f ( x) g ( x)
e x a e g ( x)

xa

Then use
LHpitals Rule
Rule 5 Limits of Rational
Functions as x

ax
m
Case 1: m<n lim n 0
x bx

ax
m
Case 2: m>n lim n
x bx

ax
m
a
Case 3: m=n lim n
x bx b
1 of 4

lim
tan x lim
tan x

x k x k
2 2

lim
cot x lim
cot x
x k x k
2 of 4

lim
sec x lim
sec x

x 2 k x 2 k
2 2

lim
sec x lim
sec x

x k x k
2 2
3 of 4

lim
csc x lim
csc x
x 0 2 k x 0 2 k

lim
csc x lim
csc x
x 2 k x 2 k
4 of 4

lim e 0
x
lim e 1
x
lim e
x
x x 0 x

## lim ln x limln x 0 limln x

x 0 x 1 x
MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.1 Sequences

Primary Goal of this Chapter
How are values of transcendental functions
(and others) determined or approximated?
transcendental = non-algebraic

Algebraic Functions
All functions that can be expressed using a finite
number of elementary operations (, , , , and
roots); along with their inverses.

## Transcendental Functions include, Express in

Trigonometric & inverses terms of
Hyperbolic & inverses algebraic
Exponential & inverses (i.e. logarithms) functions?

## Other Uses of Infinite Series:

solve DEs, difficult Integrals, model physical laws
Sequence

Formally:
A function whose domain is a set of integers.

Intuitively:
An ordered list of numbers (called terms).

The Domain:
Usually, the positive integers (can start anywhere).
Can be finite, however this chapter is only concerned
with infinite sequences and therefore sequence will
imply infinite sequence.
A function whose domain
Sequence is the set of integers [n,).

Notation:
a
n n1
General
Term

Meaning:
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , ... , an , ...
Example:
2n 1
n1 1, 3, 5, 7, ... , 2n 1, ...

## n can start anywhere and it is not required that an has a formula

A function whose domain
Sequence is the set of integers [n,).

## No simple well defined process.

Pattern recognition.

## Useful Tips (assume n starts at 1):

integers starting at k = n+(k-1)
evens = 2n
odds = 2n-1
alternating signs (1st positive): (-1)n+1
alternating signs (1st negative): (-1)n
Examples: Finding the general term
Sequences from a list of terms.

2 4 6 8 2n
, , , , , ,
3 4 5 6 n2

1 1 1 1
1, , , , , n 1 ,
3 9 27 3

1 2 6 24 n 1 n!
, , , , , (1) ,
7 11 15 19 4n 3
Sequences One More Example ...................

## Find the first three terms of the sequence ...

3 5n 6n n
2 3

3 n 1

1, 3, 5,
What does this imply? ODD Integers!

1, 3, 5, 5, 1, 9, 27,
Graphing Sequences
Domain?
Integers in the interval [a,).

Graph?
Disconnected set of points (i.e. not continuous)

## Related continuous Function?

Replace n with x and use all points in the
interival [a,) for the domain.

2n
Example: Graph
n 2 n1
Limit of a Sequence

Given: a
n n1
With sequences n Z+
and an is not continuous,
therefore the limit
definition must be
Find: lim an modified.
n

Limit definition
lim f ( x) L 0 N 0
for x and x
f(x) a continuous
function. such that f ( x) L if x N .
Limit of a Sequence

Given: a
n n1 L+
L
L

Find: lim an 1 2 3 4 N
n

## Limit definition lim an L 0 an integer N 0

x
for n and
{an} a sequence. such that an L if n N .
Just like
Limit Theorems for Sequences functions!

lim c c
n Also, all methods of
limit evaluation for
lim can c lim an functions, applies to
sequences.
n n

## lim(an bn ) lim an lim bn

n n n NOTE: Alternating
sequences can only
lim(anbn ) lim an lim bn converge to 0.
Why?
n n n

n n n n

## Converges limit exists Diverges limit does not exist

Defining Sequences Recursively

## Each term is determined in terms of one or more previous terms.

x1 k xn 1 f ( xn )

OR

x1 k1 x2 k2 xn 1 f ( xn 1 , xn )

OR
whatever

Fibonacci Sequence: x1 1 x2 1 xn 1 xn 1 xn
MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.2 Monotone Sequences

Does the sequence converge?

## What a sequence converges to is not

always important, but does it
converge to something?

This Section:
Determining if a sequence
converges without finding the
actual limit.
an n1

Terminology
Increasing: an an 1 , for all n

## Strictly Monotone Strictly Increasing OR Decreasing

5n1

How would you describe ?
Is an n1 (strictly) monotone?

Two Tests

## an 1 an 0 strictly inc. an 1 an 1 strictly inc.

an 1 an 0 strictly dec. an 1 an 1 strictly dec.
an 1 an 0 increasing an 1 an 1 increasing
an 1 an 0 decreasing an 1 an 1 decreasing

1
Determine the Behavior of 1
n n1
(use both methods)
Is an n1 (strictly) monotone?

## Let f ( x) be any function f '( x) 0 strictly inc.

f '( x) 0 strictly dec.
where x 1 and f ( x) an
f '( x) 0 increasing
whenever x n. f '( x) 0 decreasing

1
Determine the Behavior of 1
n n1
Properties that Hold Eventually
If a finite number of the terms from the beginning of a
sequence are discarded and the resulting sequence
has a property, then the original sequence has that
property eventually.

Example

What can be 2 3 4 n 3
5, 2, 9,3, , , ,..., ,...
3 4 5 n2

## The sequence is eventually strictly increasing.

Convergence of Monotone Sequences

## If a sequence is eventually increasing, then

there are two possibilities:
1. M (upper bound) where all an M and the
sequence converges to a value L M.
2. No upper bound and the sequence approaches
infinity as n.

## Note: In the first case, finding M guarantees

convergence without the need to find L.
Convergence of Monotone Sequences

## If a sequence is eventually decreasing, then

there are two possibilities:
1. M (lower bound) where all an M and the
sequence converges to a value L M.
2. No lower bound and the sequence approaches
negative infinity as n.

## Note: In the first case, finding M guarantees

convergence without the need to find L.
Convergence of Monotone Sequences

Examples
2 n Eventually decreasing and

## n! Therefore it converges. (why?)

n 1
2 Eventually increasing but no

## n Therefore it diverges. (why?)

MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.3 Infinite Series

Sums of the Terms of a Sequence

3
n 0.3, 0.03, 0.003, 0.0003, ...
10 n1

1
0.3333...
3

9
What would be the sum of the terms of n ?
10 n 1
Infinite Series
The sum of the terms of a sequence is called an
infinite series.

Notation:

u
k 1
k u1 u2 u3 u4 ...

NOTES:

## uk is some function of k whose domain is a set of integers.

k can start anywhere (0 or 1 is the most common)
Partial Sums of an Infinite Series

u
k 1
k u1 u2 u3 u4 ...

s1 u1
s2 u1 u2
sn n1

s3 u1 u2 u3
Sequence of

n partial sums.
sn u1 u2 u3 ... un uk
k 1
Converging/Diverging Series

u
k 1
k u1 u2 u3 u4 ...

sn n1

If converges to S,

then the series converges and u
k 1
k S

## If the sequence of partial sums diverges,

then so does the series (it has no sum).
S is not often easy or even possible to determine!
Geometric Series
Each term is obtained by multiplying the proceeding
term by a fixed constant.

ar
k 0
k
a ar ar 2
ar 3
...

Example:
3
a
1 2 10
3 3 31 31

k 0 10
k 1
...
10 10 10 10 10 1
r
10

## NOTE: w/ geometric series, k usually starts with 0 (not required)

Geometric Series ar
k 0
k

## Case 1a: r=1

ar
k 0
k
a a a a ...
k 0

sn a(n 1) lim sn
n

Divergent!

Geometric Series ar
k 0
k

## Under what conditions does a geometric series converge?

Case 1b: r = -1

ar
k 0
k
a a a a ...
k 0

a, if n is even
sn lim sn DNE
0, if n is odd n

Divergent!

Geometric Series ar
k 0
k

## Under what conditions does a geometric series converge?

Case 2: |r| 1

times
sn a ar ar ar ... ar
2 3 n

r rsn ar ar 2 ar 3 ar 4 ... ar n 1
subtract
sn rsn a ar n 1
a ar n 1 a
sn (1 r n 1 )
1 r 1 r

Geometric Series ar
k 0
k

## Under what conditions does a geometric series converge?

Case 2: |r| 1

a
, if r 1
lim sn 1 r
a ar n 1 ,a if r 1n 1
n
sn (1 r )
1 r 1 r
Convergent if |r| < 1; Divergent Otherwise
The Harmonic Series

1 1 1 1

k 1 k
1 ...
2 3 4

s1 1
1
sn n1
s2 s1
2
1
s3 s2
3 is a strictly increasing sequence

1
sn sn 1
n

## Converges if there is an upper bound.

The Harmonic Series

1 1 1 1

k 1 k
1 ...
2 3 4

## Since for any

1 1 1 2
s2 1 possible upper
2 2 2 2 bound M, you
1 1 1 1 3 can find an n
s4 s22 s2 s2
3 4 4 4 2 where

n 1
s2n
n 1 M
2 2
Diverges because there is no possible upper bound.
MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.4 Convergence Tests

u
k 1
k
Does the Series Converge?
The next three sections:

## 8 Tests for Convergence

Divergence Test
Integral Test
p-Series Test
The test
Comparison Test tells you
Limit Comparison Test nothing!
Ratio Test
Root Test
Alternating Series Test

Each test has it limitations (i.e. conditions where the test fails).
Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

If u
k 1
k & v
k 1
k are convergent

then

u v (u
k 1
k
k 1
k
k 1
k vk )

are convergent.

## NOTE: p q does NOT imply that q p or ~p ~q.

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

If c0

then

u
k 1
k & cu
k 1
k c uk
k 1

## NOTE: p q does NOT imply that q p or ~p ~q.

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

## If K 0 That is, a finite number of

terms can be removed from a
series without affecting its
convergence or divergence.
then

u
k 1
k & u
k K
k

## NOTE: p q does NOT imply that q p or ~p ~q.

Algebraic Properties of Infinite Series

u
k a
k u
k a b
k b u
k a b
k b

Example:
5k 5(k 4)

k 1 k !

k 5 ( k 4)!

5(k 1)

k 0 (k 1)!
Change of Index
Simplifying the
NOTE Notation!

Since u
k 1
k & u
k K
k

u k

## If there is more then one series, it will be assumed that

they all start at the same beginning value of the index.
The Divergence Test

k

## Proof uk is the kth term

uk sk sk 1
sk is the kth partial sum

k k k k

k

## NOTE: p q does imply that ~q ~p.

The Divergence Test: Examples
If lim uk 0, then uk diverges.
k

2k 1 2k 1
k 3 lim
k k 3
2 Divergent!

2k 2k 2
2k lim k lim k
k 2 k 2 ln 2
0

Test Fails!
REMEMBER: p q does NOT imply that ~p ~q.
The Integral Test u k

## Let f(x) be a decreasing continuous function over [a,) such

that f(k)=uk for all k a.

## f(x) If the Integral

u1
u2
a
f ( x)dx uk
k a 1
converges, so
does the series.
u3
.
. Upper bound for an increasing
. u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 u7 sequence of partial sums.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

If the Integral
f(x)

u1
f ( x )dx u k diverges, so does
u2
u3
a
k a the series.
.
.
. u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 NO upper bound for an increasing
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
sequence of partial sums.
The Integral Test: Examples

k x
1 k 2
1 1 1

1 1 x 2
dx
2 2 u
dx
2
ln u
2

Divergent!

1 1
( 4 2k ) 3 2
1 (4 2 x) 32
dx

1 1 1 1
Convergent!
2 6 u 3 2
dx 1 2
u 6 6

1
p-Series kp

## p=1 1 1 1 1 The divergent

k 1 2 3 ... harmonic series.

p=2 1 1 1 1
k 2 1 4 9 ...

p=1/2 1 1 1 1 1
k 1 2 k 1 2 3 ...
1
p-Series kp
For p 0

1
kp
k p
k q
Note: -p = q 0

lim k
q
k

## Divergent (divergence test) if p 0

1
p-Series kp
For p 1 and p > 0

1 x
1 p
b1 p 1
1 x p

1
x p blim
1 p 1

1 p

1 p

Convergent if p > 1

Divergent if 0 < p 1
MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.5 The Comparison,

Ratio,
and Root Tests

u
k 1
k
Does the Series Converge?

## 8 Tests for Convergence

Divergence Test
10.4 Integral Test
p-Series Test
The test
Comparison Test tells you
Limit Comparison Test nothing!
10.5
Ratio Test
Root Test
Alternating Series Test

Each test has it limitations (i.e. conditions where the test fails).
The Comparison Test
Basic Idea:
If you can show that a first series is less
than a second series, and the second a b
k k
series is know to be convergent, then so
is the first series (sn increasing w/ upper bound).

## If you can show that a first series is

greater than a second series, and the
second series is divergent, then so is the a b
k k
first series (sn increasing wo/ upper bound).

## Difficult Part? Finding the series to compare.

Using the Comparison Test
1. Make an educated guess.
convergent or divergent?
2. Find a series and prove your guess.
usually similar to the original

Increasing the numerator or decreasing the
denominator gives something bigger.
Decreasing the numerator or increasing the
denominator gives something smaller.
Examples w/ the Comparison Test
k 1 k 1 k k 1
k2 k 2
k k k k k
2
2
k
Larger than the divergent harmonic series Divergent

2 2 2 1
k4 k 4 2 4
k k k
4
k
Smaller than twice a convergent p-series Convergent

1 1 1 1
9k 6
9k 6 9k k
Smaller than the divergent harmonic series NOTHING!
The Limit Comparison Test

Basic Idea:
If two series essentially differ by a constant
(except for possibly the first finite number of terms),
then they have the same behavior.

ak
lim 0 and finite
k b
k

## Difficult Part? Finding the series to compare.

Example w/ the Limit Comparison Test
1 1 1 1
9k 6
9k 6 9k k
Smaller than the divergent harmonic series NOTHING!

1k 9k 6
lim lim 9
k 1 9k 6 k k

## Therefore, same behavior Divergent!

The Ratio Test

uk 1 uk 1
Let: lim L r where r L k K
k u uk
k

## uk 1 ruk r 2uk 1... r k u1

uk 1 r u1 k
Geometric Series!
Convergent if |r|<1

## Comparison Test If L < 1, the series converges.

The Ratio Test

uk 1 uk 1
Let: lim L s where s L k K
k u uk
k

## uk 1 suk s 2uk 1... s k u1

uk 1 s u1 k
Geometric Series!
Divergent if |s|>1

## Comparison Test If L > 1, the series diverges.

The Ratio Test
uk 1
Let: lim L 1
k u
k

1 1 ( k 1) k
k diverges lim
k 1k
lim
k k 1
1

1 1 (k 1)2 k2
k 2 converges lim
k 1k 2
lim 2
k k 2k 1
1

## If L=1, the test fails!

The Ratio Test
uk 1
Given uk where uk 0 k Let: lim
k u
L
k

## If L = 1, the test fails.

Example w/ the Ratio Test
k
4
k2
4k 1
(k 1)2 4k 1 k2 4k 2
lim lim k lim 2 4 1
k k
4 2 k ( k 1) 2
4 k k 2k 1
k

Divergent!
The Root Test

k

## Proof is similar to the ratio test!

Example w/ the Root Test
k
1 e k

2

k
1 e
k
1 e k
1
lim k
lim 1
k k
2 2 2

Convergent!
MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.6 Alternating Series;

Conditional
Convergence

u k 1
k
Does the Series Converge?

## 8 Tests for Convergence

Divergence Test
10.4 Integral Test
Series p-Series Test
with The test
positive Comparison Test tells you
terms! Limit Comparison Test nothing!
10.5
Ratio Test
Root Test
10.6 Alternating Series Test

Each test has it limitations (i.e. conditions where the test fails).
Alternating Series

(1) k 1
ak a1 a2 a3 a4

OR

(1) a k
k a1 a2 a3 a4

## NOTE: All aks are assumed to be positive.

The Alternating Series Test

(1) k 1
ak a1 a2 a3 a4
OR

(1) a
k
k a1 a2 a3 a4

Converges if
1. ak ak 1 k
2. lim ak 0
k
The Alternating Series Test

(1) k 1
ak a1 a2 a3 a4
Converges if 1. ak ak 1 k 2. lim ak 0
k

Proof:
lim s2 n a1
n
increasing and bounded s2 n S E
lim s2 n1 0
n
decreasing and bounded s2 n1 SO
Since: s2 n 1 s2 n a2 n

n n

## Therefore, under these conditions, the alternating series converges.

Example of the Alternating Series Test

ln k
(1) k 1

k
Decreasing?

d ln x x(1/ x) ln x 1 ln x
0 when x 3
dx x x 2
x 2

Limit?
ln k 1/ k
lim lim 0
k k k 1

Therefore, convergent.
Approximating Alternating Series

## If an alternating series satisfies the

conditions of the alternating series test, and
sn is used to approximate the sum; then

S sn an1

## i.e. The error is less than the first term omitted.

Approximating Alternating Series

Example: k 1

( 1)

k 1 k!
1. Estimate the error if 4 terms are used to
approximate the sum.

(1)51 1
.008333
5! 120
Approximating Alternating Series

Example: k 1

( 1)

k 1 k!
2. How many terms are need to make sure the
error is less than 0.01?

(1)( n1)1 1
0.01 .041666
(n 1)! 4! Therefore,
four terms
1 are needed!
1
0.01 .008333
(n 1)! 5!
Absolute Convergence

u k converges absolutely if

uk is convergent.

## Otherwise, it diverges absolutely.

Absolute Convergence: Example 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
uk 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

1
uk 2k 1 Convergent geometric series,
therefore the first series
converges absolutely.
Absolute Convergence: Example 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
uk 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9

1
uk k Divergent harmonic series,
therefore the first series
diverges absolutely.

## NOTE: The first series IS a CONVERGENT alternating series.

Absolute Convergence Theorem

## If a series converges absolutely, then

it converges.
convergent
Proof:

u u
k k uk uk uk uk uk

uk uk 0 or 2 uk convergent

u k u k 2 u k 2 u k

## Therefore, by the comparison test, the series converges.

Absolute Convergence Theorem: Example

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
uk 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

1
uk 2k 1 Convergent geometric series,
therefore the first series
converges absolutely.

## NOTE: If it does not converge absolutely, the test fails!

Conditional Convergence
If a convergent series diverges absolutely,
it is said to be conditionally convergent.

Example:

1
(1) k 1

k
Convergent alternating series.

1 1
(1) k 1

k

k
Divergent harmonic series.

## Therefore, the first series is Conditionally Convergent.

Ratio Test for Absolute Convergence

Given uk
uk 1
Let: lim L
k uk

## NOTE: A summary of all of the convergence tests is given on page 672.

MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.7 Maclaurin and Taylor

Polynomials

Review of
Local Linear Approximations Section 3.8

## Find a linear equation that approximates a function around

a point given the derivative of the function at that point.

f(x)
Slope: m f '( x0 )
Tangent Line

f x0
Point: x0 , f ( x0 )
x0

y f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 )
Find a quadratic equation that approximates a function
around a point given the first & second derivatives of the
function at that point.
f(x) y a b( x x0 ) c( x x0 ) 2

y ' b 2c( x x0 )

f x0 y '' 2c
x0

y ( x0 ) f ( x0 ) a
f ''( x0 )
y '( x0 ) f '( x0 ) b y f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2
2
y ''( x0 ) f ''( x0 ) 2c
Local Cubic Approximations
Find a Cubic equation that approximates a function
around a point given the first, second, and third derivatives
of the function at that point.
f(x) y ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
y '( x0 ) f '( x0 )
y ''( x0 ) f ''( x0 )
f x0
y '''( x0 ) f '''( x0 )
x0

f ''( x0 ) f '''( x0 )
y f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 )
2
( x x0 )3
2 6
Local Cubic Approximations
Find a Cubic equation that approximates a function
around a point given the first, second, and third derivatives
of the function at that point.
f(x) y ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
y '( x0 ) f '( x0 )
y ''( x0 ) f ''( x0 )
f x0
y '''( x0 ) f '''( x0 )
x0

## f ( x0 ) f '( x0 ) f ''( x0 ) f '''( x0 )

y ( x x0 ) ( x x0 )
2
( x x0 )3
0! 1! 2! 3!
1
Example f ( x) tan x
Find the Linear, Quadratic, and Cubic equations that
approximate the above function around x0 = 1.

f ( x) tan 1 x f (1) 4
1
y ( x 1)
4 2
1 1
f '( x) f '(1)
1 x2 2
1 1
y ( x 1) ( x 1)2
4 2 4
2 x 1
f ''( x) f ''(1)
(1 x 2 ) 2 2
1 1 1
y ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)3
2

6 x2 2 1 4 2 4 12
f '''( x) f '''( x)
(1 x 2 )3 2
1
Example f ( x) tan x
Find the Linear, Quadratic, and Cubic equations that
approximate the above function around x0 = 1.

1
y ( x 1)
4 2

1 1
y ( x 1) ( x 1)2
4 2 4

1 1 1
y ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)3
2

4 2 4 12
Taylor Polynomials
If f(x) can be differentiated n times at x0, then
the nth Taylor Polynomial for f(x) about x = x0 is

n (k )
f ( x0 )
pn ( x ) ( x x0 ) k
k 0 k!

f ( x0 ) f '( x0 ) f ''( x0 )
( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2
0! 1! 2!
(n)
f '''( x0 ) f ( x0 )
( x x0 )
3
( x x0 ) n
3! n!
Maclaurin Polynomials
A Taylor Polynomial where x0 = 0.

n (k )
f (0) k
pn ( x ) x
k 0 k!

## f (0) f '(0) f ''(0) 2

x x
0! 1! 2!
f '''(0) 3 f ( n ) (0) n
x x
3! n!
Maclaurin Polynomials Example
Find the nth Maclaurin Polynomial for ex.
dn x

n
e
e x
1
dx x 0
x 0

n k 2 3 n
x x x x
pn ( x ) 1 x
k 0 k ! 2! 3! n!

12 13 13 13 13
Using the first 7 terms e 11
with x=1 gives an 2! 3! 4! 5! 6!
approximation for e 1 1 1 1 1
11 2.7180555
2 6 24 120 720
Maclaurin Polynomials Examples
Find the nth Maclaurin Polynomials for sin x & cos x.

x 2 n 1
f ( x) sin x x3 x5
p2 n 1 ( x) x
3! 5!
( 1)n

(2n 1)!
n 2 k 1
x
(1) k
k 0 (2k 1)!

f ( x) cos x x2 x4 2n
x
p2 n ( x) 1 ( 1) n
2! 4! (2n)!
n 2k
x
(1) k
k 0 (2k )!
The nth Remainder
If pn ( x) is used to approximate f ( x),
then Rn ( x) f ( x) pn ( x) is the n remainder.
th

Remainder Estimation

Where:
M n 1
Rn ( x) x x0 M f ( n 1)
( x)
(n 1)!
x [ x0 , x]
The nth Remainder Example

## Earlier, e was approximated (2.7180555) with a

Maclaurin polynomial with n = 6, x0 = 0, and x = 1.

## max f ( n1) ( x) max e x e3 M

[0,1] [0,1]

3 6 1
R6 ( x) 1 0 5.95 104
(6 1)!

## Actual error is about 2.26x10-4.

MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.8 Maclaurin and Taylor

Series; Power Series

From 10.9

## Taylor & Maclaurin Polynomials

n (k )
f ( x0 )
pn ( x ) ( x x0 ) k

k 0 k!

f ''( x0 )
f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2
2
(3) (n)
f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
( x x0 )
3
( x x0 ) n

6 n!

## Taylor vs. Maclaurin? Maclaurin x0 = 0

Taylor & Maclaurin Series
(k )
f ( x0 )
pn ( x ) ( x x0 ) k

k 0 k!
Maclaurin
x0 = 0

f ''( x0 )
f ( x0 ) f '( x0 )( x x0 ) ( x x0 ) 2
2
(3) (n)
f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )
( x x0 )
3
( x x0 )
n

6 n!

## NOTE: This assumes that f (n)(x0) exists for all n.

Power Series

c x
k 0
k
k
where, each ck is a constant.

c0 c1 x c2 x c3 x cn x
2 3 n

## NOTE: Every Maclaurin series is a power series.

Convergence Power Series

For what values of x is c x
k 0
k
k
convergent?

## Is there a value of x for which

any power series is convergent?

Yes: x 0
k 0
ck (0) k
c0
Convergence Power Series

For what values of x is c x
k 0
k
k
convergent?

## For any power series, one of the following will be true:

a. The series only converges when x = 0.

## c. The series converges absolutely for all x (-R, R) and

diverges when x > R or x < -R. The behavior a x = R
can vary.

## R is called the Radius (-R,R) or [-R,R] or (-R,R] or [-R,R) is

of Convergence. called the Interval of Convergence.
Power Series: Example
1 and determine
Find the power
series for
f ( x) its interval of
1 x convergence.

f ( x) 1 x ( x) 2 3 1 x
1 4
1 f (3)
3!
x 0 x 0

f '( x) 1 x f (4) ( x) 2 3 4 1 x
2 5
1 4!
x 0 x 0

f ''( x) 2 1 x ( x) n !1 x
3 ( n 1)
2 f (n)
n!
x 0 x 0
Power Series: Example
1 and determine
Find the power
series for
f ( x) its interval of
1 x convergence.?

Ratio Test:
1
xk x k 1
1 x k 0 lim k x 1
k x

Divergent if x 1 (Why?)

## Interval of Convergence is (1,1).

( x) n !1 x
( n 1)
f (n)
n!
x 0
Power Series in xx0

c (x x )
k 0
k 0
k
where, each ck is a constant.

c0 c1 ( x x0 ) c2 ( x x0 ) c3 ( x x0 )
2 3

cn ( x x0 ) n

## NOTE: Every Taylor series is a power series in x-x0.

Convergence Power Series in x-x0

For what values of x is c (x x )
k 0
k 0
k
convergent?

## For any power series, one of the following will be true:

a. The series only converges when x = x0.

## c. The series converges absolutely for all x (x0-R, x0+R)

and diverges when x > x0+R or x < x0-R. The behavior
a x = x0R can vary.

## R is called the Radius The set of all values of convergence is

of Convergence. called the Interval of Convergence.
MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series

## Section 10.9 Convergence of

Taylor Series

Question
Is there an open interval about x0 such that

f ( k ) ( x0 )
f ( x) ( x x0 ) k
k 0 k!

lim Rn ( x) 0
n0

## This limit is often difficult to determine!

One way to prove lim Rn ( x) 0
n0

## Use the nth Remainder Estimate and the Squeeze Theorem

M n 1
0 Rn ( x) x x0 M f ( n 1) ( x )
(n 1)! [ x , xo ]

k
x
Example, show that e
n 1
x 3x
0 Rn ( x)
k 0 k ! (n 1)!

n 1 n n n
3x 3x x 3x x 3x
lim lim lim lim lim 0 0
n (n 1)! n n! n 1 n n! n n 1 n n!

lim Rn ( x) 0 x
n0
Some important Maclaurin Series

## See the list on page 701.

Some things to note:
Dont forget to consider the interval of convergence.
Some converge quickly (esp. w/ n! involved).
Some converge slowly (e.g. ln(1+x)).
MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)
Chapter 10 Infinite Series
Section 10.10 Differentiating and
Integrating
Power Series;
Modeling with Taylor Series

Differentiating Power Series

If f ( x) ck ( x x0 ) k converges over (x0 R, x0 R)
k 1

then f '( x)
d

ck ( x x0 ) k over (x0 R, x0 R)
k 1 dx

## Examples: Consider Maclaurin series for sinx, cosx, and ex.

Integrating Power Series

If f ( x) ck ( x x0 ) k converges over (x0 R, x0 R)
k 1

then f ( x) k
c ( x x0 ) k
dx over (x0 R, x0 R )
k 1

f ( x)
b b
and
a
k 1
a
ck ( x x0 ) k dx

## Examples: Consider Maclaurin series for sinx, cosx, and ex.

Determining Taylor/Maclaurin Series
Use Differentiation, Integration,

Example 1

1
1 x x 2 x3 let x = -x2
1 x

1
1 x 2
x 4
x 6
integrate
1 x 2

1 x3 x5 x 7
tan x x
3 5 7
Much easier than finding a general formula for
the nth derivative of the tan-1x function.
Determining Taylor/Maclaurin Series
Use Differentiation, Integration,

Example 2
2 3 4
x x x x2 x4
ex 1 x cos x 1
2 6 24 2 24

Multiply

3 4
x x
e x cos x 1 x
3 6

## Much easier than finding derivatives excosx try it?

MTH 253
Calculus (Other Topics)

## Tests for Convergence Virtual Flash Cards

The Limit of Partial Sums

n
sn ak a1 a2 an
k 1

lim sn L
n

Divergence Test

lim ak 0
k

## otherwise, the test fails.

Geometric Series Test

If the series is
of the form ar
k 0
k

## and diverges otherwise.

If it converges, then a

k 0
ar
k

1 r
P-Series Test

1
If the series is
of the form
k 1 k
p

## and diverges otherwise.

Integral Test

f ( x) ak when x k

1
f ( x)dx

## The integral and series have the

same behavior.
If the integral converges, so does the series.
If the integral diverges, so does the series.
Comparison Test
If If

a
k 1
k b
k 1
k a
k 1
k b
k 1
k

and and

b
k 1
k b
k 1
k

## converges, then diverges, then

they both converge. they both diverge.
Limit Comparison Test

Given a series
b
k 1
k

If
ak
lim 0 and finite
k b
k

## then both series have the same behavior.

Either they both converge or they both diverge.
Ratio Test

If
ak 1
lim L
k a
k

then

## If L < 1 the series converges.

If L > 1 the series diverges.
If L = 1 the test fails.
Root Test

If

lim k ak L
k

then

## If L < 1 the series converges.

If L > 1 the series diverges.
If L = 1 the test fails.
Alternating Series Test

For a series of
the form (1)
k 0
k
ak where ak 0 k

If

ak ak 1 and lim ak 0
k

## then the series converges, otherwise it diverges.

Absolute Convergence Test

If a
k 0
k
converges,

## then so does the series. Otherwise the test fails.

Absolute Convergence

If a
k 0
k converges,

then a
k 0
k converges absolutely.
Absolute Divergence

If a
k 0
k diverges,

then a
k 0
k diverges absolutely.
Conditional Convergence

If a
k 0
k diverges and a
k 0
k converges,

then a
k 0
k converges conditionally.