You are on page 1of 45

ecch the case for learning

best-selling cases

2012 edition
How to use the case bibliography

This bibliographical supplement presents the best-selling cases from the ecch
catalogue during 2011. It incorporates abstracts and full bibliographical details
such as setting, topics and details of any teaching note. Visit the ecch website at to view and download a pdf version of the bibliography.

Cases are listed under ten major subject categories, each with its own entry.
Within each subject category, cases appear alphabetically by title. Teaching
notes do not have separate entries. Their reference numbers and lengths
appear within the corresponding case entry.

Case entry:
404-015-1 Reference number
Rarick, CA Author(s)
Barry University, Florida Authors institution
Dan and Melissa Woodruff, an American Abstract
couple, moved to Medellin, Colombia
when Dan is offered a position with his.....
Colombia; Textiles; 275 employees; Setting
Kidnapped Topics
Political risk
9pp Length
Published sources Source
404-015-8 (4pp) Teaching note (length)

Reference number
This is the number to use when ordering the item.
Cases in a series are generally denoted by the use of (A), (B), (C) etc.
The individual(s) listed either wrote or supervised the writing of the case.
Authors institution
Where there are multiple institutions, their names will appear directly under the
corresponding author(s).
The abstract summarises the content of the case and its teaching objectives.
This provides information on the geographical location of the subject of the case, the type
of industry, the size of the organisation and the year(s) of the case event.
These are key words, subjects and issues within the case which are supplied by the
The length is given either in pages or in minutes if a video; if the item is a CD-ROM this will
be indicated here; s/w means software.
This relates to the main source of data:
Field research
Published sources
Generalised experience
Teaching note (length)
If a teaching note is available for the case its reference number will appear here followed
by its length in pages in brackets.

Visit our website at

Search the collection

Everyone can search the full collection of more than 70,000 items at
directly from the home page. You can search according to type of product
(book, case, article, multimedia, instructor material etc) and by criteria such as
author, topic, date or key word(s).

Search results

The screen will list the number of items found for your search with basic
identifying details for each. Icons indicate the availability of inspection copies
and instructor materials. Clicking on a title reveals a synopsis of the content.
There is a facility to save selected items to your favourites for future reference.

Instant download

Most items are available to purchase for instant download indicated when items
are added to your basket.

Free inspection copies and instructor materials

Registered, approved educators and trainers can access on-line inspection

copies and instructor materials (teaching notes, presentations etc) free of charge.
Inspection copies contain the full text of the product (every page is clearly
marked to avoid copyright infringements) to allow its suitability for classroom
use to be assessed.

Receiving the latest information

On the ecch website you can find out about the many services ecch provides to
support the writing and teaching of cases. You can also subscribe to:

Monthly e-mail updates

A free service giving details of cases, management articles and book chapters
registered during the preceding month. This service is the most comprehensive
of its kind worldwide and can be tailored to cover the subject areas you are
interested in. To subscribe visit
Case method training
Select to receive information on the latest case writing and teaching workshops.
For further details visit
ecch connect
This free, quarterly e-bulletin will keep you up to date with what's
happening in the case community and provide you with details of new and
popular teaching materials being used worldwide.
Subscribe at

ecch Case Awards 2012

Overall winner
Yakov Bart, Pierre Chandon, Steven Sweldens and Raquel Seabra de Sousa

Economics, Politics and Business Environment

Christopher A Bartlett and Carole Carlson
Harvard Business School

Justin Paul and Charlotte Feroul
Nagoya University of Commerce & Business / Ivey Publishing

Ethics and Social Responsibility

Heiko Spitzeck
Cranfield School of Management

Finance, Accounting and Control

Vandana Guttal and Seshagiri Rao Chaganty
IBS Research Center

Human Resource Management / Organisational Behaviour

Indu Perepu and Vivek Gupta
ICMR Center for Management Research

Knowledge, Information and Communication Systems Management

Michael Barrett
Cambridge Judge Business School

Continued overleaf

ecch Case Awards 2012 (continued)

John Deighton
Harvard Business School

Production and Operations Management

Michael Marks, Hau Lee and David Hoyt
Stanford Graduate School of Business

Strategy and General Management

Johannes Meuer, Barbara Krug, Tao Yue and Lori DiVito
Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University

Case writing competition 'Hot topic': Social Media and Change

Hanna Halaburda, Ivan Nausieda, Robert McKeon and William Collis
Harvard Business School

Case writing competition: New case writer

Kelsey McCarty, Massachusetts General Hospital
Jrmie Gallien , London Business School
Retsef Levi, MIT Sloan School of Management

Outstanding contribution to the case method

James A Erskine, Michiel R Leenders and Louise A Mauffette-Leenders
Richard Ivey School of Business

For more information visit

Case method and specialist management disciplines

9-694-046 United States; $82 million sales revenue; New Jersey; 5,300 employees, $604.4
BARILLA SPA (A) 1990 million revenues; 2002
Hammond, JH Cost analysis Innovation
Harvard Business Publishing Decision making Service management
Pricing strategy 22 pp
Barilla SpA, an Italian manufacturer that Game theory
sells to its retailers largely through third- Field research
Demand analysis 5-605-031 (26pp)
party distributors, experienced widely
fluctuating demand patterns from its 4 pp 5-606-031 (30pp)
distributors during the late 1980s. This Generalised experience
case describes a proposal to address the 5-191-115 (5pp)
problem by implementing a continuous
replenishment program, under which 9-693-013
the responsibility for determining EURO DISNEY: THE FIRST 100 DAYS
shipment quantities to the distributors 9-673-057 Schlesinger, L
would shift from the distributors to BENIHANA OF TOKYO Loveman, G
Barilla. Describes support and resistance Sasser Jr, WE Anthony, RN
within Barillas different functional areas Klug, JR Harvard Business Publishing
and within the distributors Barilla Harvard Business Publishing
approached with the proposal. The Walt Disney Co theme parks
Discusses the development of a chain of historically have thrived on the basis of a
Italy; 7,000 employees, $2 billion themerestaurants. The student is asked formula stressing excellent customer
revenues; 1990 to evaluate the current operating service and a magnificent physical
Distribution planning strategy and suggest a long-term environment. The formula has proven
Order processing expansion strategy. successful in Japan, as well as the United
Suppliers States. With the controversial opening of
Logistics 1972
Corporate strategy Euro Disney in France, however, there has
21 pp Expansion become reason to doubt the
Field research Multinational corporations international appeal of the formula. The
5-695-063 (22pp) case documents issues involved with
17 pp Euro Disney. Examines the transferability
Field research of a successful service concept across
5-696-021 (10pp) international boundaries.
9-191-058 France; 16,000 employees, $1 billion
Aguilar, FJ International business
9-603-080 Service management
Harvard Business Publishing COMMERCE BANK
The sales manager and controller have to 23 pp
Frei, FX Published sources
decide on a price for a textile that lost Hajim, C
significant market share as a result of a 5-693-082 (12pp)
Harvard Business Publishing
recent price increase. Information on
manufacturing costs and on the pricing Taught in the second module of a course
behavior of Beauregard and its only on Managing Service Operations, which
competitor are available for analysis. The addresses the design of sustainable 9-803-069
case provides an opportunity to practice service models . Commerce Bank has FOUR SEASONS GOES TO PARIS: 53
contribution analysis, considering fixed become one of the fastest growing banks PROPERTIES, 24 COUNTRIES, 1
and variable costs as reported in a typical in the country, despite having defied PHILOSOPHY
cost report. Also tests the students conventional wisdom about how to grow
deposits. Banks historically have grown Hallowell, R
ability to recognize the need to consider Knoop, CI
the situation from the competitors point either by competing on deposit rates or
through acquisitions that expand their Bowen, D
of view. Finally, it poses a prisoners Harvard Business Publishing
dilemma for the two firms where each deposit base. Commerce has the lowest
would prefer a set of prices unfavorable deposit rates in each of the local markets Illustrates how Four Seasons manages
to the other so that prices are likely either it serves and has acquired no other banks, hotels in countries with strong and distinct
to be unstable or to be stable at a yet its growth rate is unparalleled. Its national cultures. Focuses on how the
suboptimal level for both parties. The secret? Commerce differentiates itself on chain meets its exacting service standards
class can close with students attempting service. Explores the highly refined service in a variety of settings worldwide, with
to devise a pricing strategy that would model that guides the design of its special attention on France.
reach the optimal level. operations and service features and France; 2002
considers the trade-offs involved in Organizational behavior
competing on service. Globalization
Human resource management

Case method and specialist management disciplines

Values Mexico, Canada, USA; Food and kindred Diverse protagonist, female
Service management products; Large Diversity case
24 pp Strategic alliances Management of service industries
Field research Market analysis Time series
5-803-173 (9pp) Corporate strategy Diversity
Developing countries 5 pp
27 pp Field research
8A96G03 (17pp) UVA-QA-0389TN (9pp)
Fry, JN UVA-QA-0389 9-688-122
Ivey Publishing Bodily, SE COOPERATIVE, 1996
Weatherford, L Abridged version
This case explores a proposal by Labatt
management to purchase a 22% interest Darden Business Publishing Shapiro, RD
in a Mexican brewing business and strike The manager of a large downtown hotel Harvard Business Publishing
associated agreements for cooperative has to decide whether to accept 60 Describes the continuous flow process
activities throughout North America. An additional reservations or not. If she used to process cranberries into juice and
evaluation of the deal requires an accepts, she will be overbooked and face or sauce. Requires students to analyze
assessment of the prospects of the certain costs if all the reservations show process flows to determine where the
venture in the Mexican and US beer up. She must forecast, based on historical bottlenecks are and to decide how, and
markets, the potential for synergies in the data, how many of the people holding whether, to expand capacity. Original
cooperative activities, and ultimately the reservations will show up and then version written by JG Miller and RP Olson.
pricing and financing of an investment in decide whether to take the additional Massachusetts; 1980
a developing economy. This case is bookings after taking into account the Co-operatives
similar toUna Cerveceria Por Favor: cost involved. The case is used to treat Capacity analysis
Labatt Buys Into Mexico, in that it varies seasonality and exponential smoothing Process analysis
primarily in the time perspective from in time-series forecasting. Process flow
which the issues are addressed. Only one Large city; Hotel; $5 billion in sales; 1988
of these cases is necessary in a course. 10 pp
Decision theory Field research
Forecasting 5-677-197 (22pp)

visit Heskett, JL
Harvard Business Publishing
Various proposals are set forth for
Discover: expanding the capacity of the hospital. In
on-line access to free instructor assessing them, serious consideration
materials has to be given to the culture of the
instant downloads inspection organization and the importance of
preserving it in a service delivery system.
copies and for use in teaching
In addition to issues of capacity and
free cases organizational analysis, describes a well-
features focused, well-managed medical service
facility that may well point the way to
case method resources and future economies in the field.
Ontario; 1982 Organizational behavior
Social enterprise
Market segmentation
Quality management
Capacity planning
Word-of-mouth marketing
18 pp

Case method and specialist management disciplines

Field research Airlines should buy gates and slots to beginning of a module on regression. It
5-686-120 (16pp) initiate service to New Yorks LaGuardia focuses on the simple linear regression
airport, which does not fit the airlines model relating equity returns to market
profile for cost, ease of service, and other returns. This use of regression (to
factors. The bigger issue is how the calculate a stocks beta) is very common
9-805-002 organization should deal with in financial analyses and will be seen by
SHOULDICE HOSPITAL LIMITED competition that has successfully the students in other courses. The case
Abridged version emulated more and more of what it does serves to clarify the distinction between
in an operating environment that has systematic and unsystematic risk and
Hallowell, R changed significantly. Hence the subtitle, between R-squared and the standard
Heskett, JL which was suggested by Herb Kelleher, deviation of residuals as measures of
Harvard Business Publishing Southwests Chairman and CEO, Emeritus. forecasting uncertainty.
A hospital specializing in hernia New York, Texas; 35,000 employees, gross Diverse protagonist
operations is considering whether and revenue $10 billion; 2008 Female
how to expand the reach of its services. Operations Portfolio management
The teaching purpose is to teach in Service management Regression analysis
service management, management of Risk analysis
operations, and business strategy courses. 16 pp
Field research Security analysis
Ontario; $12 million revenues; 2004 5-910-426 (10pp) Diversity case
Organizational behavior Statistics
Social enterprise Diversity
Expansion 8 pp
Capacity planning Published sources
Field research
Sucher, SJ
McManus, SE
Harvard Business Publishing
9-694-023 In just seven days, the Ritz-Carlton
SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: 1993 (A) transforms newly hired employees into
Ladies and Gentlemen Serving Ladies
Heskett, JL and Gentlemen. The case details a new
Hallowell, R hotel launch, focusing on the unique
Harvard Business Publishing blend of leadership, quality processes,
Southwest Airlines, the only major US and values of self-respect and dignity, to
airline to be profitable in 1992, makes a create award-winning service.
decision as to which of two new cities to District of Columbia; 18,000 employees,
open, or to add a new long-haul route. $1.5 billion revenues; 2000
Provides windows into Southwests Organizational behavior
strategy, operations, marketing, and culture. Innovation
Texas; 1993 Change management
Corporate strategy Operations management
Operations research Human resource management
Service management Brands
29 pp 30 pp
Field research Field research
5-602-113 (28pp)

Heskett, JL Bodily, SE
Sasser, E Darden Business Publishing
Harvard Business Publishing An account executive has the task of
This is the fourth in a 35-year series of HBS calculating a beta value for three stocks
cases on an organization that has of interest to an important client, based
changed the rules of the game globally on five years of monthly total returns. The
for an entire industry by offering both client is interested in these beta values as
differentiated and low-price service. The measures of the riskiness of the three
focus of the case is on whether southwest investments. The case is used near the

Economics, Politics and Business Environment

9-792-060 China, Angola capital estimate. A research analyst pegs

ACID RAIN: THE SOUTHERN Macroeconomics the cost of capital at 12%, the CFO of
COMPANY (A) 24 pp Ameritrade uses 15%, and some
Reinhardt, FL Published sources members of Ameritrade management
Harvard Business Publishing believe that the borrowing rate of 9% is
the rate by which to discount the future
The Southern Co, an electric utility, is cash flows expected to result from the
planning its compliance with the 1990 project. There is also disagreement as to
amendments to the Clean Air Act. The 9-703-027 the type of business that Ameritrade is in.
Act established a system of tradeable BOTSWANA: A DIAMOND IN THE Management insists that Ameritrade is a
permits for sulfur dioxide emissions. The ROUGH brokerage firm, whereas some research
company must decide whether to install Alfaro, L analysts and managers of other online
pollution control equipment and Spar, DL brokerage firms suggest that Ameritrade
generate excess permits for sale to other Dev, V is a technology/Internet firm. A two-day
firms, or to emit larger quantities of sulfur Allibhoy, F case to estimate the cost of capital that
dioxide, save capital costs, and purchase Harvard Business Publishing Ameritrade should employ in evaluating
pollution permits. Can be used to teach the proposed large investments in
discounted cash flow analysis of a make In the years since independence, tiny,
marketing and technology. The lesson
versus buy decision. Also raises issues of landlocked Botswana has gone from
plan builds on the prior cases in the Risk
expected cost minimization, questions of being one of the worlds poorest nations
& Return module. Uses the capital asset
economic and political uncertainty, and to becoming a stable, prosperous state,
pricing model to estimate Ameritrades
the value of flexibility. blessed with the highest sustained
cost of capital. Focus is on CAPM
growth rate in the world. This case
United States; Electric utilities; Large, $8 variables such as the risk free rate, market
highlights the role that foreign direct
billion revenues; 1992 risk premium, and beta. Students will use
investment (FDI) has played in this
Buy or make decisions regression analysis to directly calculate
success, as well as how strong local
Electric power the beta estimates. Arguments will be
institutions have helped to harness the
Environmental protection made as to which comparable firms
benefits that the foreign investor - here,
Financial management (brokerage firms or Internet firms) should
the giant De Beers company - has
Financial planning be used to obtain beta estimates.
brought. Also, examines how Botswana
Pollution control was able to avoid the natural resource Omaha, NE; Brokerage; Employees 500,
Public utilities curse that has haunted so many other $77 million revenues; 1997
Rates of return resource-abundant countries. Capital budgeting
7 pp Capital costs
Africa; Natural resources; 1966-2003
Field research Capital markets
Business & government relations
5-794-043 (25pp) Financial services
Economic development
Holding companies
Foreign investment
Regression analysis
Developing countries
24 pp
9-711-016 24 pp
Field research
5-703-036 (21pp)
5-201-123 (10pp)
Musacchio, A
Werker, E
Schlefer, J
Harvard Business Publishing 9-201-046
Since emerging from decades of conflict COST OF CAPITAL AT AMERITRADE
in 2002, Angola has been growing at a Mitchell, M CORPORATION: THE DABHOL POWER
scorching double-digit rate, led by its oil Stafford, ER PROJECT IN MAHARASHTRA, INDIA (A)
industry. But the nation remains beset Harvard Business Publishing Abridged version
with seemingly intractable problems:
immense inequality, low life expectancy, Ameritrade Holding Corp is planning Wells, LT
a non-diversified economy, and constant large marketing and technology Harvard Business Publishing
grumblings of corruption. The global investments to improve the companys
A large, lucrative power plant is
financial crisis and subsequent fall in competitive position in deep- discount
negotiated for construction/operation by
state oil revenue drives a loan-seeking brokerage by taking advantage of
an American power company in Indias
Angola towards either the IMF, who emerging economies of scale. In order to
evolving privatized power sector. The
demand extensive reforms, or the evaluate whether the strategy would
process of incorporating the project is
Chinese, who seek to take a direct stake generate sufficient future cash flows to
captured in this case. The American
in the nations recovery. The case explores merit the investment, Joe Ricketts,
company will own and operate the plant
the dynamics of post-conflict recovery as chairman and CEO of Ameritrade, would
in India, which will sell power to India.
well as the challenges associated with a need an estimate of the projects cost of
reliance on oil wealth, including the capital. There is considerable
resource curse and Dutch disease. disagreement as to the correct cost of

Economics, Politics and Business Environment

India; 1992-1995 conflicting data that surrounds the of the Sakhalin Energy Investment
Business & government relations concept of afairorlivingwage. Company (SEIC), owned by Royal
Market entry United States, Indonesia, Vietnam; 16,000 Dutch/Shell (55%), Mitsui (25%), and
Energy employees, gross revenue: $9 billion Mitsubishi (20%). Worth approximately
Change management revenues; 1991-1999 $10 billion, the second phase of Sakhalin
Privatization Labor relations II would be the single largest investment
Negotiation Developing countries decision in the history of Royal
15 pp Activists Dutch/Shell, as well as the single largest
Field research International operations foreign direct investment in Russias
Business ethics history. Sakhalin II would also be the
Wages & salaries largest integrated oil and gas project in
Working conditions the world. The project, however, faces a
Business & government relations number of challenges, however. A
9-181-027 production sharing agreement (PSA) - a
FREEMARK ABBEY WINERY 23 pp commercial contract between the
Krasker, WS Published sources foreign investor and a host government
Harvard Business Publishing 5-701-020 (13pp) that replaces the countrys tax and
license regimes for the life of the project -
Freemark Abbey must decide whether to
governs Sakhalin II. Although Sakhalin IIs
harvest in view of the possibility of rain.
PSA enjoys the status of Russian law,
Rain could damage the crop but delaying
9-704-040 other Russian laws conflict with the terms
the harvest would be risky. On the other
JOURNEY TO SAKHALIN: ROYAL of the PSA. PSAs have also become
hand, rain could be beneficial and greatly
DUTCH/SHELL IN RUSSIA (A) controversial within Russia. After several
increase the value of the resulting wine.
years of waiting in vain forlegal
This decision is further complicated by Abdelal, R
stabilization, Shell and SEIC executives
the fact that ripe Riesling grapes can be Harvard Business Publishing
must decide whether the project should
vinified in two ways, resulting in two Operations of Royal Dutch/Shell in Russia go forward.
different styles of wine. Their relative included a strategic alliance with
prices would depend on the uncertain Russia; 90,000 employees, $236 billion
Gazprom, the countrys natural gas
preference of consumers two years later, revenues; 1991-2003
monopoly, the development of the
when the wine is bottled and sold. Foreign investment
Salym oil fields in Siberia, and a small
California; 1980 retail refilling network in St Petersburg.
Decision analysis Focuses on the Sakhalin II project.
Decision trees Sakhalin II is the reason for the existence
Managerial economics
Risk management
3 pp
Field research
5-895-053 (5pp)
ecch connect
HITTING THE WALL: NIKE AND Subscribe to our free, quarterly
Spar, DL case method articles
Burns, JL featured cases
Harvard Business Publishing
information about workshops &
In the mid-1990s Nike, one of the worlds competitions
most successful footwear companies, is
hit by a spate of alarmingly bad publicity. details of best sellers.
After years of high-profile media attention
as the company that canjust do it, Nike is
Subscribe at
suddenly being portrayed as a firm that
relies on low-cost, exploited labor in its
overseas plants. Nike officials vigorously
deny the charges, claiming that Nike has
no control over the independent
contractors who manufacture Nike shoes.
But the activists will not retreat.
Eventually, Nike must learn to deal with
the activistsclaims and with the tangle of

Economics, Politics and Business Environment

Energy oil platform namedBrent Sparin the Boston, MA; Investment management;
Strategic alliances North Sea to protest its scheduled Employees 133, $31 million revenues;
27 pp disposal in the Atlantic. This action took 1994
Field research the operator Shell Expro (a joint venture Higher education
between Shell and Esso) totally by Investment management
surprise, as this was the first protest of
any kind that Shell management had 21 pp
9-200-007 encountered. The case describes the Field research
LONG-TERM CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, reasons why Shell wanted to dispose of
LP (A) the Brent Spar Platform in the deep sea
and why Greenpeace rejects these plans.
Perold, AF
Harvard Business Publishing Germany, UK, Netherlands; Oil; 208-014-1
Multinational; April 1995 THE NORDIC ECONOMIC MODEL
Long-Term Capital Management, LP Stakeholder management
(LTCM) was in the business of engaging Crisis management George, SS
in trading strategies to exploit market Environment Govind, S
pricing discrepancies. Because the firm IBS Center for Management Research
employed strategies designed to make 15 pp
Published sources The Nordic economic model,
money over long horizons - from six characterised by market-based
months to two years or more - it adopted IMD-2-0070-T (8pp)
economies and generous welfare
a long - term financing structure systems, seemed to be working well, with
designed to allow it to withstand the countries in the region figuring at the
short-term market fluctuations. In many top of various lists that ranked countries
of its trades, the firm was in effect a seller IMD-2-0071 on the basis of human development, per
of liquidity. LTCM generally sought to THE BRENT SPAR PLATFORM capita income, economic freedom, etc.
hedge the risk - exposure components of CONTROVERSY (B) The case discusses the history of the
its positions that were not expected to Steger, U Nordic economies over the years. It then
add incremental value to portfolio Killing, P explains the main features of the Nordic
performance and to increase the Schweinsberg, M economic model and goes on to examine
value-added component of its risk Winter, M some of the reasons behind the global
exposures by borrowing to increase the IMD competitiveness of the Nordic
size of its positions. The funds positions economies. The case also recounts some
were diversified across many markets. This is the second of a three-case series.
The protest of Greenpeace against the challenges that these countries face as
This case is set in September 1997, when, well as the criticisms of the welfare model
after three and a half years of high deep-sea disposal of the Brent Spar leads
to a major consumer boycott against Shell. adopted by these countries. The case
investment returns, LTCMs fund capital ends with a brief discussion on the
had grown to $6.7 billion. Because of the Within weeks, Shell suffered a significant
loss of market share in Central Europe and outlook for these countries. The teaching
limitations imposed by available market objectives of this case are to: (1)
liquidity, LTCM was considering whether faced protests from the highest political
leaders across Europe. Despite all this Shell understand the evolution of Nordic
it was a prudent and opportune moment economies; (2) analyse the reasons
to return capital to investors. continues towing the platform to its
planned disposal site in the Atlantic. behind the competitiveness of the Nordic
Connecticut; 1997-1998 Meanwhile at sea strong fights are taking economies; (3) evaluate the sustainability
Capital markets place between Shell and Greenpeace. of the welfare policies adopted by Nordic
Efficient markets economies; and (4) analyse the future of
Investment management Germany, UK, Netherlands; Oil; the Nordic region in the light of
Arbitrage Multinational; April 1995 challenges such as aging populations,
Risk management Stakeholder management globalisation, etc. This case is meant for
Crisis management MBA / PGDBM students and is designed
23 pp Environment
Field research to be part of the economics curriculum.
13 pp Nordic region; 1950-2007
Published sources Nordic economic model
IMD-2-0070-T (8pp) Welfare state
IMD-2-0070 Competitiveness of nations
CONTROVERSY (A) High tax rates and economic
9-295-024 growth
Steger, U THE HARVARD MANAGEMENT Pension reforms
Killing, P COMPANY (1994) Aging population
Schweinsberg, M Denmark
Winter, M Light, JO
IMD Harvard Business Publishing
This is the first of a three-case series. In Harvard University decides upon the asset
April 1995 Greenpeace boarded a Shell allocation for its endowment, and the
mode in which it should be managed.

Economics, Politics and Business Environment

Sweden how to define the market? The case

Finland discusses the economic analysis of
19 pp mergers and the parameters of their
Published sources regulation. It allows the analysis of the
208-014-8 (4pp) determinants of merger activity from a
corporate perspective. It also looks at the
theory and the practice of merger
regulation and aims at discussing the
main aspect of competition law, ie, the
4269 abuse of a dominant position. A
UNITED CEREAL: LORA BRILLS particular emphasis is made on the
EUROBRAND CHALLENGE definition of the relevant market while
Bartlett, CA assessing market power abused.
Carlson, C Sweden; Trucks and buses - US SIC: 371;
Harvard Business Publishing Volvo sales in 1999: 125,019 SEK; 2000
The case, set within the European Mergers
organization of a giant multinational Abuse of market power
breakfast foods company, describes a Relevant market
launch decision for a new cereal product. Competition policy
As the case evolves, the decision has Truck industry
major strategic and organizational Market share
implications for Lora Brill, European VP. 16 pp
The case focuses especially on two Generalised experience
important decisions facing Brill: Should
Healthy Berry Crunch become the
companys first Eurobrand and be
introduced in a co-ordinated manner
Europewide? And, from an organizational
perspective, should she create Eurobrand
Teams to implement her proposed
Eurobrand concept?
Europe, West Germany; 2010
Organizational structure
Organizational design
Marketing strategy
Market entry
Multinational corporations
10 pp
4270 (12pp)

Traca, D
Strauss-Khan, V
Krinks, P
On March 2000, the European
Commission rejected Volvos application
for competition clearance of the Scania
acquisition on the grounds that it would
give the merged firms a virtual monopoly
in Sweden and a clearly dominant
position in the Nordic area. Such a case
leads to the following questions: (1) why
is competition policy necessary? (2) how
do you measure market power? and (3)


065-C00A becoming impossible to read the mass of smoothies, a new kind of fresh fruit drink
COVER-IT data gathered on the desk in front of that had rapidly become extremely
Spinelli, S them.You think we need to cast light on popular in the US. The first UK brand of
Barrows, E the problem?joked Reed. In truth, each smoothies, PJ, also seemed to be
Stringfellow, S of the three knew it would take more performing well. Pinto had some
Babson College than electricity to illuminate the reservations about the proposal but had
difficulties that confronted them. They been impressed by the three men and
The founder of Cover-It, a business that had been researching their idea for had given an undertaking to raise
sells advertising space on free book almost six months, and at the outset they 235,000 from an angel syndicate to
covers for high schools, is faced with the had set themselves some ambitious invest in their business. Although there
fundamental question of whether to sell goals.The quality of our closest rivals were six others in the syndicate it was
his company when his main competitor product is not as good as you would Pinto who brought most of the deals to
threatens to either squash him or buy make at home, nor as good as the the table. In the past, the others had
him, just as the company projects a major smoothies you can buy in the USA, they usually followed his lead. Having already
improvement in sales and profits. The had said to one another.Well beat them committed to make the investment,
case provides a captivating discussion on on taste, and match them on price. But Pinto now faced a dilemma. A number of
the lifestyle, personality and business the three friendsanalysis now seemed to his partners had reviewed the business
techniques of a young entrepreneur who show that if they stuck to those targets and come back with ano. Now Pinto was
perseveres in his quest to create his own they would struggle to meet a third, no faced with taking on the entire
successful business. There are more less crucial, objective.If youre going to investment personally. Should he
downs than ups during the companys survive youll need to hit gross margins of proceed with the investment, and on
early days. There are multiple examples of 40 percent - thats the standard for the what terms? Or should he go back to the
creative resource marshaling, some of FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) team and pull his offer?
which raise interesting ethical questions. sector, a senior colleague of Wrights at
The owner experiences continuous UK; 1998
Bain, the management consultancy, had Entrepreneurship
rejections from major corporations he is told them early on. But every time that
trying to sell to, poor health and near Business plans
Wright had run a spreadsheet model, the Entrepreneurial finance
poverty before the tide turns and the message had seemed to be the same:
biggest business decision of his young Entrepreneurial marketing
they would not be able to achieve their
life is on the table. financial goals and remain true to their 8 pp
Boston; Marketing; Start-up to early other aspirations. This left the three with Field research
growth; 1993-1998 some stark choices. Should they plan to
Harvest increase price, or lower quality? Or was
Buy-out there another solution to enable them to
Advertising get this business off the ground? 9-805-019
Partners Entrepreneurship EVALUATE POTENTIAL VENTURE
Resource marshaling Business plans OPPORTUNITIES
Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial finance Roberts, MJ
13 pp Entrepreneurial marketing Barley, L
Field research 20 pp Harvard Business Publishing
065-T00A (6pp) Field research Four venture capitalists from leading
Silicon Valley firms are interviewed about
the frameworks they use to evaluate
potential venture opportunities.
807-016-1 807-017-1 Questions include: How do you evaluate
FRESH TRADING (A) FRESH TRADING (B) the ventures prospective business
Bates, J model? What due diligence do you
Bates, J conduct? What is the process through
Mitchell, J Mitchell, J
Rivers, O which funding decisions are made? What
Rivers, O financial analyses do you perform? What
London Business School London Business School role does risk play in your evaluation? and
This is the first of a two-case series.Could This is the second of a two-case series. It How do you think about a potential exit
you turn the light on?Adam Balon asked was early evening in December 1998, route? Russell Siegelman, partner at
his colleague Jon Wright. Wright, Balon and as the winter rain beat heavily Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers; Sonja
and their friend Richard Reed had against the window of his Mayfair office, Hoel, managing director at Menlo
assembled in Balons office at Virgin Cola Maurice Pinto leafed through a well- Ventures; Fred Wang, general partner at
to begin drafting the plan for their thumbed business plan that lay on the Trinity Ventures; and Robert Simon,
business venture, a new brand of fresh desk before him. Fresh Trading Ltd was director at Alta Partners, are interviewed.
fruit smoothie drinks. It was a typical the brainchild of three young
English late summer afternoon - heavily Silicon Valley; 2004
entrepreneurs, Adam Balon, Richard Financial analysis
overcast, with the promise of rain. In the Reed, and Jon Wright. They planned to
steadily increasing gloom it was Entrepreneurship
develop, market and distribute


Entrepreneurial finance Restructuring Deals with lessons learned by Jim Sharpe

Risk assessment Organisational change in operating small businesses within
Interviews 17 pp large companies in preparation for
Business models Published sources owning a small business.
19 pp 806-057-8 (8pp) Aluminum industry
Field research Business models
5-805-055 (5pp) Careers & career planning
603-C05 Management of change
JIM POSS Operations management
806-057-1 Pricing strategy
Bygrave, WD Small business
Babson College
HURD 13 pp
Jim Posss enterprise, Seahorse Power Field research
George, SS Company (SPC), was an engineering
Moganty, S 5-806-175 (4pp)
start-up that encouraged the adoption of
Regani, S environmentally friendly methods of
IBS Center for Management Research power generation by designing products
The case discusses the changes Hewlett that were cheaper and more efficient
Packard Co (HP) underwent under the than twentieth-century technologies. 9-697-079
leadership of Carly Fiorina, who took over Jim was sure that his first product, a JIM SHARPE: EXTRUSION
as the companys Chief Executive Officer patent-pending solar-powered trash TECHNOLOGY, INC (B)
(CEO) in 1999. It talks about the various compactor, could make a real difference. Bowen, H
decisions taken by Fiorina, prominent After funding the product development Feinberg, B
among them being the companys and testing, by May of 2004, the SPC had Harvard Business Publishing
merger with Compaq Computer a total of six team members. They had all Looks at the small amount of information
Corporation, which was one of the been given an equity stake in exchange that Jim Sharpe has about his new
reasons for its decline towards the early for their part-time services. Jim was company and what he must consider as
2000s. The case then talks about the seeking funding to allow him to take the actions from day one forward.
measures taken by Mark V Hurd, who business to the next level with a larger
replaced Fiorina as the companys CEO in production run with reduced Aluminum industry
March 2005, to improve the financial component costs and increased Business models
conditions of the company. The case also production efficiencies. The case Careers & career planning
shows the difference between the chronicles the evolution of the company Entrepreneurship
management style adopted by Fiorina and places Jim at the critical juncture of Management of change
and Hurd in running HP. The teaching deciding how best to deal with potential Operations management
objectives of this case are: (1) to investors and funding alternatives. Pricing strategy
understand the role of a CEO in running Small business
Entrepreneurship Technology
an information technology company; (2) Fabrication and prototype
to understand the impact of change in development 17 pp
leadership on a companys strategy; and Financing Field research
(3) to study the impact of change in Bootstrapping 5-806-175 (4pp)
leadership style on organisational culture. Raising money
This case is meant for MBA / PGDBM Venture capital and private equity
students and is designed to be part of the investors
leadership curriculum. The teaching note Start-up and early expansion stage 9B10M067
includes the abstract, teaching objectives Solar power LOUIS VUITTON IN JAPAN
and methodology, assignment questions,
feedback of case discussion and 8 pp Paul, J
additional readings and references. Field research Feroul, C
603-T05 (11pp) Ivey Publishing
USA; Computers and information
technology; Large; 1999-2006 This case study deals with the
Carleton S Fiorina opportunities and challenges of Louis
Mark V Hurd Vuitton, the leading European luxury
Hewlett Packard (HP) Co 9-697-078 sector multinational firm, in Japan, taking
Carly Fiorina JIM SHARPE: EXTRUSION into account the unique features of
Management style TECHNOLOGY, INC (A) brand management, and integrating
Celebrity chief executive officer Bowen, H culture and consumer behaviour in
(CEO) Feinberg, B Japan. In the last decade, Japan has been
Compaq Computer Corporation Harvard Business Publishing Louis Vuittons most profitable market,
The HP way but it seems that the global economic
Personal computer market crisis has resulted in a decline in sales.


Facing a weak economy and a shift in Japan, France; Leather and leather The event had been a great success with
consumer preferences, Louis Vuitton has products; Large; 2008-2009 some real buzz generated by the groups
been adapting its unique strategy in the International marketing vision of where the freeformer
Japanese market. The days of relying on a International business phenomenon might lead. Everyone had
logo and charging a high price seem to Strategic management found the groups thoughts provocative.
be gone as there is more interest in Brand management If the NBS team was right, the trend away
craftsmanship and value for money. To 20 pp from mass marketing - towards a
promote sales, the company has had to Published sources consumer culture in which more
launch less expensive collections made 8B10M67 (8pp) individualised market segments of one,
with cheaper materials. The brand has underpinned and enabled by new
also been opening stores in smaller cities, technology, were becoming more
where the lure of the logo still works. important - had huge implications for the
Over the years, Japanese consumers have current business infrastructure. It would
demonstrated fascination with and 807-043-1 create a whole realm of opportunities as
passion for the iconic brand. What have NEW BARN STUDIOS (A) new paradigms of conducting business
been the keys to Louis Vuittons Mullins, JW emerged. The question for Duvall and his
successful business model in the Grant, A team was what to do next; grand
Japanese market? This case was written London Business School concepts were stimulating to talk about,
to help students develop their analytical but exactly what might come of them
This is the first of a two-case series. It was
and strategic decision skills. The case now? Duvall kicked off the morning
1 November 2003, and the New Barn
aims at helping in developing a business discussion with a question.Each of us
Studios (NBS) team, led by Richard Duvall,
model, adapting to a new cultural brings our own experience and
had reconvened to consider what to do
environment, recommending a course of perspective to these issues. Shall we each
next. The previous evening it had hosted
action for further strategic moves, take a couple of hours and make some
a landmark event to which over 60
identifying issues and eventually notes to see if we can identify some
people had been invited, ranging from
enhancing multidisciplinary decision specific ideas that we might pursue?
leading bankers and venture capitalists
making. This case can be used to discuss: UK; On-line banking; Start-up; 2003-2004
to retailers and thought leaders, from
(1) the complexity of multinational On-line banking
think tanks to creative types and
business, particularly the issues of brand e-Commerce
entrepreneurs. The purpose of the event
management, international marketing Effectual reasoning
was to unveil the teams new world view,
and marketing strategy for succeeding in Venture capital
introducing its take on the changing
East Asia; (2) consumer behaviour in Entrepreneurial finance
macro-economic environment and the
Japan and characteristic features of the
technology revolution, coupled with the 16 pp
Japanese market; and (3) strategies to
emergence of a new consumer segment, Field research
succeed in a foreign country.
the freeformers, which was challenging 807-043-8 (7pp)
traditional ways of conducting business.


free inspection copies & Birkinshaw, J

London Business School
instructor materials This is the first of a two-case series. This
case examines the decision by the UK
subsidiary of Pharma (a Swiss
Registered, approved educators pharmaceutical company) to develop a
can access on-line inspection new technology for transmitting drugs
copies and instructor materials through the skin, despite the absence of
(presentations, teaching notes support from the parent companys R&D
etc) for free at labs. The issue facing the managing
director of the UK subsidiary is whether
Register at to continue with the project in the face of
resistance from HQ, or stop.
UK, Switzerland; Pharmaceutical; Large;
7 pp
Published sources


802-015-1 managing their relationship with Maria

PHARMA UK (B): PROPOSAL TO THE Nunez. Nunez, a sceptical and influential
EUROPEAN MARKETING BOARD food service administrator, had been
Birkinshaw, J undermining the RevFoods program at
London Business School Green Academy, a charter school in
Californias Bay Area. Richmond and
This is the second of a two-case series. Tobey believed that if they did not
This case focuses on the European address the issue now, their contract
Marketing Board of Pharma, and the with the school could be revoked, an
decision whether to approve outcome that could threaten RevFoodss
expenditure on the UKs subsidiarys standing with other schools. As
transdermal technology or not. Richmond jogged up the last hill before
UK, Switzerland; Pharmaceutical; Large; reaching Tobeys residence, she
1993-1994 wondered how best to turn their tense
Multinational relationship with Nunez into a
Subsidiary productive partnership.
Entrepreneurship North America
2 pp Revolution Foods
Published sources Public schools
14 pp
9-386-019 Field research
R&R E322TN (3pp)
Stevenson, HH
Jarillo Mossi, JC
Harvard Business Publishing
Outlines alternative mechanisms for ZIPCAR: REFINING THE BUSINESS
getting into business. Shows the means MODEL
by which an experienced entrepreneur
can gain control over the necessary Hart, MM
resources in order to lower the fixed costs Roberts, MJ
of business entry. Provides a mechanism Stevens, JD
for discussing the role of experience, Harvard Business Publishing
credibility, and contacts in the Zipcar is a start-up organized around the
development of a non-business venture. idea ofsharingcar usage via a membership
New York; $3 billion sales; 1984 organization.This case describes several
Capital costs iterations of the Zipcar business model and
Entrepreneurship financial plan.These iterations include a very
Development stage enterprises early version and a version developed just
prior to the launch of the business, as well as
18 pp data from the first few months of operations.
Field research Students are called on to analyze the
5-386-160 (4pp) underlying economics and business model
5-389-029 (6pp) for the venture and to discover how these
assumptions are holding up as the business
is actually rolled out.
Massachusetts; 5 employees, $1 million
revenues; 1999-2000
Operating costs
Grousbeck, HI Financing
Coates, BS Business models
Stanford Business School Business plans
In April 2007, Kristin Richmond laced up Entrepreneurship
her sneakers and began the four mile run Growth strategy
to Kirsten Tobeys house. It was a Wireless technologies
Saturday morning, but the two co- Women in business
founders of Revolution Foods Logos
(RevFoods), a provider of healthy meals 20 pp
and nutrition education to schools in Field research
San Francisco and Los Angeles, felt 5-804-060 (17pp)
pressure to finalize a plan for effectively 5-805-152 (10pp)

Ethics and Social Responsibility

9-104-071 Frustrated with his sales team he tries to the spill continued, critics alleged that
ACCOUNTING FRAUD AT WORLDCOM understand why. One of the sales reps, BP had put profits before safety and
Kaplan, RS Anita, speaks openly about the cause of developed an unhealthy corporate
Kiron, D the companys failing market share and culture where cost-cutting was given
Harvard Business Publishing explains that local competitors pay more priority than the safety of the
doctors financial kickbacks and that there workers. The case will help the students:
The principal players in WorldComs is no way around to do business in that (1) study the factors that led to the Gulf
accounting fraud included CFO Scott industry in China. Alex knows that this is of Mexico oil spill; (2) analyze the
Sullivan, the General Accounting and against the code of conduct and he has responsibilities of BP in the event of the
Internal Audit departments, external to take a position to motivate his team. spill; (3) understand the importance of
auditor Arthur Andersen, and the board the safety culture and process safety
of directors. The case provides sufficient China; Pharmaceutical; MNC; 2009
Leadership and values management; (4) understand the
detail to allow for a full discussion of the effects of the oil spill on the company in
pressures that lead executives and China
Corruption particular and the oil industry in
managers tocook the books, the general; and (5) examine the approach
boundary between earnings smoothing Change management
Ethics and values adopted by BP in managing the spill.
or management and fraudulent This case is meant for MBA/MS students
reporting, the role for internal control Code of conduct
Kickbacks as part of the business ethics
systems and internal audit to prevent or curriculum. It can also be used in the
rapidly detect accounting fraud, the Cultural conflict
operations management curriculum.
expectations about governance 5 pp The teaching note includes the
processes performed by external Generalised experience abstract, teaching objectives and
auditors and the board of directors, and methodology, assignment questions,
the pressure and consequences when feedback of case discussion, and
middle managers follow orders that they additional readings and references.
know are wrong. Written from the public 710-029-1
record, the case contains numerous US; Petroleum; Very large; 2005-2010
quotes from an individual involved in the PROBLEMS: THE GULF OF MEXICO
WorldCom fraud that were reported by Transnational aspect of the ethics
CRISIS debate
the Investigative Committee and Wall
Street Journal articles about several of Syeda Qumer, M Multinationals in transnational
the individuals caught up in the situation. Purkayastha, D accountability
IBS Center for Management Research Corporate social responsibility
United States; 60,000 employees, gross Corporate accountability
revenue: $30 billion revenues; 1999-2002 This case is about the Gulf of Mexico oil
Environmental disaster
Organizational behavior spill and the continuing safety
Accounting policies problems at BP, one of the largest oil
Environmental responsibility
Accounting procedures and gas producers in the world. The
US environmental and safety laws
Financial statements British oil giant with a history of
Process failure
Financial accounting repeated safety violations was held
Cultural failure
Auditing responsible for the oil spill in the Gulf of
Management failure
Bankruptcy Mexico. The spill was caused by an
Gulf of Mexico
Leadership explosion aboard an offshore drilling rig
Corporate governance leased by BP. Eleven workers were 20 pp
Board of directors feared dead and fifteen injured in the Published sources
Fraud explosion. After the explosion, the rig 710-029-8 (5pp)
Business ethics sank 5,000 feet to the ocean floor and
Organizational culture since then at least 210,000 gallons of oil
a day have been leaking into the Gulf.
18 pp The case describes in detail the 709-028-1
Published sources consequences of the oil spill, COCA-COLA INDIAS CORPORATE
considered to be the worst ever SOCIAL RESPONSIBILTY STRATEGY
environmental catastrophe in US
history caused by an industrial disaster. Purkayastha, D
710-030-1 According to experts, the oil spill would Faheem, H
BLUE MONDAY adversely impact the environment as IBS Center for Management Research

de Bettignies, HC well as human and marine life in the This case is about Coca-Colas corporate
Butler, C Gulf region. The case highlights the social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in
China Europe International Business ethical issues involved in the disaster India. It details the activities taken up by
School and examines BPs response to it. Coca-Cola Indias management and
Though the company accepted employees to contribute to the society
Alex, an expatriate sales director for the responsibility for the explosion and was and community in which the company
new Chinese subsidiary of a making efforts to manage the oil spill, it operates. Coca-Cola India being one of
multinational pharmaceutical company remained largely unsuccessful in the largest beverage companies in India,
is concerned about the poor sales figures. plugging the leak. As efforts to contain realised that CSR had to be an integral

Ethics and Social Responsibility

part of its corporate agenda. According Environmental responsibility USA, Colombia, India, Mexico; Beverage
to the company, it was aware of the Economic responsibility (soft drink); Very large; 2001-2006
environmental, social, and economic Sustainability The Coca-Cola Company
impact caused by a business of its scale Water sustainability Business ethics
and therefore, it had decided to Water neutral Corporate social responsibility
implement a wide range of initiatives to Water efficiency (CSR)
improve the quality of life of its  pillar growth strategy University ban
customers, the workforce, and society at Stakeholder tension Environment management
large. However, the company came in for Operations Labour practices
severe criticism from activists and Greenwashing Colombia
environmental experts who charged it 27 pp India
with depleting groundwater resources in Published sources Mexico
the areas in which its bottling plants were 709-028-8 (12pp) Public relations
located, thereby affecting the livelihood Communication
of poor farmers, dumping toxic and Student Union
hazardous waste materials near its Trade Union
bottling facilities, and discharging waste PepsiCo
water into the agricultural lands of 706-032-1
farmers. Moreover, its allegedly unethical COCA-COLAS BUSINESS PRACTICES: 22 pp
business practices in developing FACING THE HEAT IN A FEW Published sources
countries led to it becoming one of the COUNTRIES 706-032-8 (7pp)
most boycotted companies in the world. Fernando, R
Notwithstanding the criticisms, the Tejomoortula, S
company continued to champion IBS Center for Management Research
various initiatives such as rainwater JBEE1-1CS1
The case discusses some of the alleged
harvesting, restoring groundwater FROM GRACE TO DISGRACE: THE RISE
controversial business and labour
resources, going in for sustainable AND FALL OF ARTHUR ANDERSEN
practices of the Coca-Cola Company and
packaging and recycling, and serving the
its bottlers in some countries. It discusses Smith, NC
communities where it operated.
in detail the allegations made against Quirk, M
Coca-Cola planned to become water
Coca-Colas labour practices in Colombia, NeilsonJournals Publishing
neutral in India by 2009 as part of its
environmental and product issues In June 2002, Arthur Andersen LLP
global strategy of achieving water
pertaining to the company in India, and became the first accounting firm in
neutrality. However, criticism against the
its trade practices in Mexico. The case history to be criminally convicted. The
company refused to die down. Critics felt
also highlights the rise in consumer repercussions were immense. From a
that Coca-Cola was spending millions of
activism and details the ban imposed on position as one of the leading
dollars to project agreenand
Coca-Colas products by some professional services firms in the world,
environment-friendlyimage of itself,
universities in the US and in Europe with 85,000 staff in 84 countries and
while failing to make any change in its
following pressure from student unions revenues in excess of $9 billion, Andersen
operations. They said this was an attempt
and other activist organisations. effectively ceased to exist within a matter
at greenwashing, as Coca-Colas business
Coca-Colas responses to these of months. Although Andersens
practices in India had tarnished its brand
allegations have also been presented. conviction related specifically to a charge
image not only in India but also globally.
The case will help the students to: (1) of obstructing justice, public attention
The case discusses the likely challenges
understand the issues and allegations focused on the audit relationship
for Coca-Cola India as it prepares to
faced by Coca-Cola in Colombia, India, between Andersen and its major client,
implement its new CSR strategy in the
and Mexico; (2) understand the Enron Corporation, particularly the
country. This case is designed to enable
challenges faced by multi-national actions (and inactions) that had allowed
students to: (1) analyse the CSR strategy
companies due to the rise in consumer Enron to post spectacular year-on-year
adopted by Coca-Cola India; (2)
activism; (3) appreciate the importance earnings and profit growth. As well as
understand the issues and challenges
of communication and social examining events leading up to the
faced by Coca-Cola with regard to its
responsibility for multi-national demise of Andersen, the case provides an
sustainability initiatives in India; (3)
companies that operate across opportunity to consider the broader
analyse the underlying reasons for the
geographic regions and cultures; and (4) controversy over accounting and
growing criticism against Coca-Cola in
identify the linkage between operational corporate governance practices and,
India, and explore ways in which the
issues and brand equity. The case is more generally, the pressures found
company can address this issue; and (4)
meant for MBA/MS students as part of the within organisations that can foster
understand the concept of
business ethics / corporate social unethical conduct. The case was
greenwashing and discuss and debate
responsibility / international business / prepared from public sources. This case
whether Coca-Cola is serious about its
brand management curriculum. has been peer reviewed by the editorial
water sustainability initiatives.
The teaching note includes: (1) the board of the Journal of Business Ethics
India; Consumer packaged goods, abstract; (2) teaching objectives and Education (JBEE).
beverages; Very large; 2002-2008 methodology; (3) questions for discussion
Corporate social responsibility and analysis; (4) case feedback; and (5) Accounting ethics
strategy additional readings and references. Auditing

Ethics and Social Responsibility

Conflicts of interest carpet suppliers were using child labor. business plan, credibility of start-up team
Normative ethics Describes IKEAs growth, including the - enabled by raising 230,000 through
Ethical decision making importance of a sourcing strategy based business angel financing, in return for
Corporate governance on its close relationships with suppliers in 20% equity. The second part examines
Auditor role and responsibilities developing countries. Details the the companys development of an open
24 pp development of IKEAs strong culture and management style, its responses to
Published sources values that include a commitmentto environmental and social issues
JBEE1-1TN1 (12pp) create a better everyday life for many (responsible entrepreneurship), the way
people. Describes how, in response to it built customer confidence in the brand
regulatory and public pressure, IKEA and resisted early equity market
developed a set of environmental policies floatation or trade sale. A further issue is
that grew to encompass a relationship how to preserve the integrity and
9-399-110 with Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund authenticity of a brand whose
GUARANTY TRUST BANK PLC NIGERIA (WWF) on forest management and consumers feel themselves part of the
(A) conservation. Then, in 1994, Marianne innocent family, with a stake in the
Paine, LS Barner, a newly appointed IKEA Product product, and are anxious to protect it.
Hogan Jr, HF Manager, is surprised by a Swedish The case highlights: (1) the importance of
Harvard Business Publishing television documentary on the use of proving opportunity through good
child labor by Indian carpet suppliers, market research and consumer; (2)
Fola Adeola, the CEO of Nigerias
including some that supply IKEAs rugs. maintaining majority equity share
Guaranty Trust Bank and one of its
She immediately implements a strict holding in the hands of the
founders in 1991, is considering what
policy that provides for contract entrepreneurs by reducing the start-up
should be done to maintain the banks
cancellation if any IKEA supplier uses capital needed through sub-contracting
original vision and vitality in the face of its
child labor. Then Barner is confronted by a expensive manufacturing to proven
rapid growth and success in the
German TV producer who advises her supplier(s); (3) generating favourable
marketplace. Known for its high ethical
that he is about to broadcast an media publicity via low cost shoestring
standards, the bank is planning to
investigative program documenting the and viral marketing (labels, cause related
expand inside and outside Nigeria.
use of child labor in one of the companys marketing, vans, jazz concerts, website,
Among Adeolas concerns is what to do
major suppliers. How should she react to blog); (4) responsible entrepreneurship
about employeesinsistence on
the crisis? How should the company deal through proactive management of
underpaying their personal income taxes
with the ongoing issue of child labor in environmental, social and ethical issues;
- a practice he regards as inconsistent
the supply chain? and (5) the role of challenger brands, and
with the banks mission of being a role
India, Sweden; 90,000 employees, US$1.2 the risks and opportunities when such
model for society. A rewritten version of
billion revenues; 1995 sustainability-based brands associate
an earlier case.
Crisis management with global brands are controversial for
Africa, Nigeria; Banking; 600 employees, their environmental and/or social
$200 million revenues; 1996-1998 impacts. At the end of the case, innocent
Developing countries
Africa faces an immediate issue: with rapid
International management
Banking growth in turnover and employee
International operations
Business and society numbers in the UK and Europe, and after
Business ethics
Business conditions the furore caused by the companys
Social enterprise
Corporate culture decision to sell in branches of
Human resource management
Corporate responsibility McDonalds, what further steps should
Developing countries the management team take to ensure
Business growth
Ethics that its brands reputation survives intact?
Legal aspects of business
Suppliers Soft drinks; 250+ employees; 1998-2008
Organizational development
Social responsibility Sustainability
15 pp Small business
13 pp
Field research Corporate responsibility
Field research
5-907-407 (17pp) Entrepreneurship
Challenger brands
Viral marketing
9-906-414 Brand identity
IKEAS GLOBAL SOURCING Sustainability strategy
708-041-1 Corporate values
INNOCENT DRINKS: VALUES AND Entrepreneurs exiting their
VALUE business
Bartlett, CA
Brown, R 28 pp
Dessain, V
Grayson, D Field research
Sjoman, A
Cranfield School of Management 708-041-8 (14pp)
Harvard Business Publishing
The first part of this case deals with the
Traces the history of IKEAs response to a
development and testing of a new
television (TV) report that its Indian
business idea - market research, written

Ethics and Social Responsibility

709-018-1 board of directors. The proposal he is in 1929 to his receipt of the Nobel Peace
MARKS & SPENCER: THE BUSINESS considering would split the Marriott Prize in 1964. It shows how his family
CASE FOR PLAN A Corp, a premier hotel developer, owner, background, his mentors, and his
Spitzeck, H and manager, into two separate education in theology and philosophy
Cranfield School of Management companies by a stock dividend to helped shape King's dream for black
shareholders. One of the new companies equality through non-violence. This case
Marks & Spencer (M&S) is one of the UKs would contain most of Marriott Corps is one in a series illustrating a uses-of-
leading retailers, with over 21 million profitable management operations, history method ofplacing people. It may
people visiting M&S stores around the while the other would retain ownership be used in conjunction withMalcolm X,
country every week. On the 15th of of its hotel properties as well as most of which chronicles the life of a
January 2007 The Independent its long-term debt. contemporary black leader who sought
published an article titledM&S to go similar ends through dissimilar means.
carbon neutral in 200 million green United States; 202,000 employees, $8.3
billion revenues; 1992 Together, these two cases demonstrate
initiativeannouncing the now famous how placing a person in historical context
M&S Plan A. This initiative is an ambitious Bonds
Financial strategy deepens one's assessment of him or her
environmental strategy incorporating beyond immediate stereotypes.
100 commitments in five key areas: (1) Restructuring
climate change; (2) waste management; Business ethics 26 pp
(3) sustainable raw materials; (4) fairness; 18 pp KSG0365.2 (8pp)
and (5) health. Plan A includes aims for Published sources
M&S to become carbon neutral, send no 5-395-188 (23pp)
waste to landfill, be a fair trading partner
and help customers to live healthier 706-057-1
lifestyles. The Plan A strategy announced PROCTER & GAMBLE PUR PURIFIER
in January 2007, envisaged that all these KSG0365.0 OF WATER (TM) (A): DEVELOPING THE
100 targets would be realised by 2012, MARTIN LUTHER KING PRODUCT AND TAKING IT TO MARKET
and would require an investment of 200 Hanson, M
million. This strategy goes to the core of Billings-Yun, M
Neustadt, RE Powell, K
M&Ss identity. As the economic INSEAD
downturn impacts on retail business, Jones, M
Richard Gillies, head of Plan A, is asked to John F Kennedy School of Government This is the first of a two-case series.
create a business case for the different This case traces the life of civil rights Procter & Gambles (P&G) PuR: Purifier of
initiatives forming Plan A to move leader Martin Luther King from his birth Water, a household water treatment sold
forward. Students are asked to analyse into a black middle class family in Atlanta in small sachets, was developed by P&G,
Plan A initiatives on their business value
and to present their findings.
UK; Retail; 2,000 factories, 20,000 farms,
250,000 employees, sales 2007-2008 9
billion, profit 1 billion; 2008-2009
Corporate responsibility
case writing competition
Business case
Crisis The annual ecch Case Awards
Reputation include two case writing
Business in society competition categories:
Supply chain Hot topic:
12 pp
The Business of Sport
Field research New case writer:
709-018-8 (10pp) for a first teaching case.
Submission deadline:
12 October 2012
Prize: , per category
Paine, LS
Nichols III, CA
Harvard Business Publishing
Marriott Corps chairman and CEO must
decide whether to recommend a
restructuring of the company to the

Ethics and Social Responsibility

in collaboration with the US Centers for 706-043-1 experienced businessman, Cheung. They
Disease Control (CDC), and targeted THE WAL-MART SUPPLY CHAIN open a factory for the manufacture of
bottom of the pyramid(BOP) CONTROVERSY textile dyes. The factory faces cost
households, where water treatment Smith, NC overruns, low productivity, industrial
facilities are often lacking. The product Crawford, RJ accidents and environmental concerns.
was a technological and public health London Business School When handling these issues, Xi defers to
success, but a commercial market failure Cheungs experience and shrewd
case (A). Internal stakeholders, however, Having grown into one of the worlds business skills. Not surprisingly, Cheungs
believed in the effort. They re-positioned largest companies, Wal-Mart has become unprincipled techniques fail and the
the initiative as a corporate social the object of attack from many critics. business goes bankrupt.
responsibility (CSR) venture, and found One of the principal areas of criticism
concerns the manner by which the China; Industrial (dye making); Medium;
support within P&Gs corporate 2002-2005
organisation, where it ultimately became company manages its global supply
chain. The case begins with the example Business partnership
a centerpiece of P&Gs global CSR Values and decision making
portfolio case (B). The case chronicles the of a lawsuit filed by an activist lawyer on
behalf of a number of plaintiffs from Cultural differences
journey from product development for China leadership style
the commercial market, to CSR- various countries, which serves to
introduce the supply chain controversy. Corporate culture
supported BOP partnerships with the Environmental concerns
non-profit sector. A related case is As a background, the case examines
Wal-Marts business model in some Employee safety
available, exploring P&Gs social
marketing partnership with the global detail. The case then presents an 5 pp
NGO (non-governmental organisation), overview of the range of issues related to Generalised experience
Population Services International (PSI): Wal-Marts supply chain policies and
Procter & Gamble and Population practices. The case concludes with a
Services International (PSI): Social description of the ways with which the
Marketing for Safe Water. This case offers company is attempting to respond to its
a rich setting in which to explore the critics, that is, with particular attention to
management of CSR initiatives. It its code of conduct as well as its most
illustrates the challenges and recent initiatives in the area. Key
opportunities that characterise questions for analysis and discussion are:
partnerships between business sector (1) given its business model, can Wal-
and public sector actors in the context of Mart change its corporate practices for
a product development effort targeted at the better? (2) does it appear to be doing
BOP markets. Unlike many BOP cases, the right thing with the various initiatives
however, it is not all is sunshine and roses, it is undertaking? (3) what else might the
as the company fails to meet its initial company do? and (4) what should it do?
goals, in the face of a number of Global; Retailing; Large; 2005-2006
unexpected challenges. The case Corporate responsibility
presents the ethical dilemma of a Business ethics
companys production of public health Retailing
goods, which are not market sustainable. Supply chains
It discusses the aspirations that Globalisation
ultimately salvaged the initiative and the Mainstreaming corporate
market model adjustments made to keep responsibility
the product alive. Labour practices
Global; Consumer products; 110,000 Sweatshops
employees, over 80 countries worldwide; Environmental impacts
2000-2005 17 pp
NGO (non-governmental Published sources
organisation) 706-043-8 (4pp)
Water sector
Social marketing
Bottom of the pyramid (BOP)
Public private partnership (PPP)
Corporate social responsibility de Bettignies, HC
(CSR) Butler, C
Procter & Gamble (P&G) China Europe International Business
24 pp
Published sources The case describes a Chinese
706-057-8 (9pp) entrepreneur Xi, who - for financial
reasons - partners with a more

Finance, Accounting and Control

9-197-047 9-102-048 9-198-048

Palepu, KG Kaplan, RS EVALUATION
Srinivasan, S Jorgensen, BN Simons, RL
Harvard Business Publishing Harvard Business Publishing Davila, A
The market values Arch differently from When Borealis, a European producer of Harvard Business Publishing
analystsvalues. Students are asked to plastics, used a traditional, Citibank has introduced a new,
evaluate the investment potential of time- consuming budgeting process, the comprehensive performance-scorecard
Archs stock based on industry budget was quickly out of date in a system. A regional president struggles
fundamentals and analystsforecasts. competitive environment characterized with a tough decision: how to evaluate
Communications equipment by continually changing input and an outstanding branch manager who has
Technology output prices and dynamic market scored poorly on an important customer
Valuation conditions. This case describes the satisfaction measure. This case provides a
Company, stock valuation process that led Borealis to decide to scoring sheet to be completed by the
replace its budgets with four targeted reader and an explanation of the
28 pp management tools: (1) rolling financial ramifications of the decision for the
Published sources forecasts; (2) Balanced Scorecard; (3) businesss strategy.
activity based costing; (4) and investment United States; 1996
management. It also discusses the Control systems
process of implementing the new Performance appraisals
9-292-140 measurement and control systems. Performance measurement
ARUNDEL PARTNERS: THE SEQUEL Denmark; Plastics industry; 2000 Implementing strategy
PROJECT Activity based costing Incentives
Luehrman, TA Balanced scorecard 9 pp
Teichner, WA Budgeting Field research
Harvard Business Publishing Forecasting 5-199-047 (13pp)
Investment management
A group of investors is considering
buying the sequel rights for a portfolio of 17 pp
feature films. They need to determine Field research
how much to offer to pay and how to 9-187-081
structure a contract with one or more CODMAN & SHURTLEFF, INC:
major US film studios. The case contains PLANNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM
cash flow estimates for all major films 9-104-044
released in the United States during Simons, RL
CAJA ESPANA: MANAGING THE Harvard Business Publishing
1989. These data are used to generate BRANCHES TO SELL (A)
estimates of the value of sequel rights Detailed description of the planning and
prior to the first films release. Designed to Martinez-Jerez, Fd control systems in use at Johnson &
introduce students to real options and De Albornoz, R Johnson. Focuses on the actions of
techniques for valuing them. It clearly Harvard Business Publishing managers in one subsidiary in revising
illustrates the power of option pricing Juan Luis Rojas, Commercial Planning budget targets. Illustrates intensive
techniques for certain types of capital Manager of a Caja de Ahorros (savings strategic planning and financial planning
budgeting problems. Also illustrates the bank), faces the challenge to motivate process in a large, decentralized
practical limitations of such techniques. the branches to sell more long-term company. Includes interviews with the
California; $2.1 billion revenues; 1992 mortgages and ponders whether to use president and senior executives
Decision trees transfer prices to achieve his objective. concerning benefits of the system. Raises
Managing uncertainty Spain; Banking industry; 2,700 issue of the role of formal control systems
Capital budgeting employees, 200 million euros; 2003 in decentralized organizations.
Option pricing Branches New Jersey, Massachusetts; 75,000
Real options Commercial banking employees; 1986
Securities analysis Incentives Planning systems
19 pp Organizational design Control systems
Field research Performance measurement Budgeting
5-295-118 (14pp) Sales management Strategic planning
Transfer pricing Decentralization
14 pp 17 pp
Field research Field research
5-105-020 (16pp) 5-188-029 (9pp)

Finance, Accounting and Control

9-200-069 dividend in several days despite a 47- Students will have to understand the
DEBT POLICY AT UST INC year streak of consecutive dividend process review for capital allocation in
Mitchell, M increases. In response to the this large corporation in order to make
Harvard Business Publishing deregulation of the electric utility their recommendation, as well as
industry, FPL has substantially revised its complete a discounted cash flow.
UST, Inc is a very profitable smokeless competitive strategy over the past
tobacco firm with low debt compared to Canada; Food and kindred products;
several years. The analyst must decide Large; 1995
other firms in the tobacco industry. The whether a change in dividend policy will
setting for the case is USTs recent Capital budgeting
be a part of FPLs financial strategy in this Planning
decision to substantially alter its debt deregulated environment.
policy by borrowing $1 billion to finance 14 pp
its stock repurchase program. Florida; 12,400 employees, $5.3 billion Field research
revenues; 1994 8A95B29 (9pp)
Connecticut; 4,765 employees, gross Dividends
revenue: $1.4 billion revenues; 1999 Financial strategy
Capital structure Securities analysis
Debt management Deregulation
Long term financing Electric power 9-298-101
Taxation Corporate strategy MARRIOTT CORPORATION: THE COST
14 pp 17 pp
Published sources Published sources Ruback, RS
5-201-002 (11pp) 5-296-072 (21pp) Harvard Business Publishing
Presents recommendations for hurdle
rates of Marriotts divisions to select by
discounting appropriate cash flows by the
9-295-059 9A95B029 appropriate hurdle rate for each division.
(A) Cash flow
Foerster, SR
Esty, B Barbara, R Capital costs
Schreiber, CF Ivey Publishing Capital structure
Harvard Business Publishing Valuation
The vice-president of operations must
A Wall Street analyst has just learned that submit a valuation and recommendation 11 pp
FPL (the holding company for Floridas to expand his plant to handle a doubling Field research
largest electric utility) may cut its of sales over the next three years. 5-289-048 (20pp)

ecch case awards  NIKE, INC: COST OF CAPITAL
Bruner, RF
Chan, J
Darden Business Publishing
ecch Case Awards are presented
This case is intended to serve as an
annually to recognise worldwide introduction to the weighted average
excellence in case writing and to cost of capital (WACC). Although the case
raise the profile of the case already provides a WACC calculation, it
method of learning. has been intentionally designed to
Overall winner mislead students. As such, their task is to
identify and explain themistakesin the
Renova Toilet Paper: Avant-garde
analysis, which are designed to highlight
Marketing in a Commoditized conceptual issues regarding WACC and
Category its components that are often
Yakov Bart, Pierre Chandon, misunderstood by students.
Steven Sweldens and Raquel
US; Investment management; 2001
Seabra de Sousa
Cost of capital
INSEAD Investment analysis
(See page  for abstract) Valuation
8 pp
Published sources
UVA-F-1353TN (5pp)

Finance, Accounting and Control

9-298-166 Clausen, H
Fruhan Jr, WE In October 1990, the Boeing company
Harvard Business Publishing announced that it was lauching a new
Reviews basic techniques for estimating aircraft model, the 777. The task for
terminal value in the valuation of students in this case is to evaluate the
businesses. Among the techniques 777 against a financial standard. The
discussed are perpetuities, growing students must estimate a weighted
perpetuities, use of multiples, and average cost of capital (WACC) with
liquidation value. A rewritten version of which to evaluate the project IRRs. The
an earlier note. general objective of this case is to
exercise studentsskills in estimating a
Present value weighted-average cost of capital and
Cash flow cost of equity. The need for students to
Forecasting estimate a segment WACC draws out
Valuation studentsabilities to critique different
8 pp estimates of beta.
Published sources USA; Aircraft manufacture, Boeing; Large;
Cost of capital
Capital budgeting
9-191-006 New product
Abridged version Generalised experience
Cooper, R 294-009-8 (13pp)
Wruck, KH
Harvard Business Publishing
Explores how a cost system can help
support a firms decision to change 9-101-092
strategies. In the process, the students are WILKERSON COMPANY
introduced to a simple activity-based cost Kaplan, RS
system. Siemens Electric Motor Works Harvard Business Publishing
found itself facing an increasingly
competitive environment and so made a The president of Wilkerson, faced with
decision to move from mass production declining profits, is struggling to
of specialty motors to the production of understand why the company is
small lots of custom motors. In doing so, encountering severe price competition
they found their old cost system led them on one product line while able to raise
to poor decision making. By switching to prices without competitive response on
a simple activity-based system, more another product line. The controller
accurate product costs were computed, proposes that the company develop an
facilitating better divisional performance. activity-based cost model to understand
better the different demands that each
Germany; Light manufacturing; Large, product line makes on the organizations
$400 million DM; 1988 indirect and support resources. A
Activity based costing rewritten version of an earlier case.
Cost accounting
Cost allocation Florida; 1989
Cost systems Profitability analysis
Germany Activity-based costing
Strategy implementation Cost accounting
Cost allocation
7 pp Cost analysis
Field research Cost systems
4 pp
Generalised experience
294-009-1 5-104-002 (14pp)
Bruner, RF
Christey, P

Human Resource Management / Organisational Behaviour

ESMT-409-0100-1 This is the first of a three-case series. employees may vary dramatically from
DO YOU REALLY THINK WE ARE SO A French executive with Michelin is one cultural environment to another;
STUPID?: A LETTER TO THE CEO OF expatriated from Clermont Ferrand to and (3) identify and develop strategies
DEUTSCHE TELEKOM (A) South Carolina. Initially confident in his for maximising success when leading in
Korotov, K leadersthip skills, the protagonist learns a cross-cultural environment.
Mueller, U quickly that many aspects of leading a United States; Tyres
Schaefer, U team are quite different in the American Cross-cultural
ESMT European School of environment. Although he ultimately Intercultural / inter-cultural
Management and Technology succeeds, Chalon initially struggles to Multicultural / multi-cultural
understand the different culture in Performance feedback
This is the first of a three-case series. This which he is working and adapt his style
three-part case-study illustrates key National culture
accordingly. The teaching objectives are: Leadership
concepts and lessons about leading (1) to help participants of any nationality
adaptive change in organisations in the Global leadership
understand the complexity of leading in International human resources
context of turning around Deutsche a multi-cultural environment; (2)
Telekom, one of the worlds largest establish that ideas about key 4 pp
telecommunication companies. The case leadership elements such as providing Field research
portrays some of the efforts undertaken constructive feedback and motivating 409-008-8 (18pp)
by Deutsche Telekom under the employees may vary dramatically from
leadership of Rene Obermann after his one cultural environment to another;
ascent to the CEO position in that and (3) identify and develop strategies
organisation. The case illustrates the for maximising success when leading in 409-010-1
challenges associated with resistance to a cross-cultural environment. LEADING ACROSS CULTURES AT
adaptive change, management of MICHELIN (C)
expectations of organisational members United States; Tyres
from their leaders, and the psychological Cross-cultural Meyer, E
challenges of leading necessary, but Intercultural / inter-cultural Gupta, S
unpopular, change efforts under the Multicultural / multi-cultural INSEAD
conditions of pressure from Performance feedback
This is the third of a three-case series. A
organisational stakeholders, who National culture
French executive with Michelin is
consciously or unconsciously attempt to Leadership
expatriated from Clermont Ferrand to
divert the change-oriented leader from Global leadership
South Carolina. Initially confident in his
pushing the organisation forward. The International human resources
leadersthip skills, the protagonist learns
case serves as fruitful ground for 7 pp quickly that many aspects of leading a
exploration of the theory of adaptive Field research team are quite different in the American
change as put forward by Heifetz & 409-008-8 (18pp) environment. Although he ultimately
Linsky (2002), Heifetz, Grashow, & Linsky succeeds, Chalon initially struggles to
(2009a, 2009b), discussion of the dangers understand the different culture in
of leading (Heifetz & Linsky, 2002), and which he is working and adapt his style
psychological challenges of leading (Kets 409-009-1 accordingly. The teaching objectives are:
de Vries, Korotov, & Florent-Treacy, 2007). LEADING ACROSS CULTURES AT (1) to help participants of any nationality
Germany; ICT (information and MICHELIN (B) understand the complexity of leading in
communications technologies); 250,000 a multi-cultural environment; (2)
Meyer, E establish that ideas about key
employees; 2007-2008 Gupta, S
Adaptive change leadership elements such as providing
INSEAD constructive feedback and motivating
Role of leadership
Communication of change This is the second of a three-case series. employees may vary dramatically from
Resistance of change A French executive with Michelin is one cultural environment to another;
Leadership and public relations expatriated from Clermont Ferrand to and (3) identify and develop strategies
Change leadership South Carolina. Initially confident in his for maximising success when leading in
leadersthip skills, the protagonist learns a cross-cultural environment.
14 pp quickly that many aspects of leading a
Published sources United States; Tyres
team are quite different in the American Cross-cultural
ESMT-409-0100-8 (13pp) environment. Although he ultimately Intercultural / inter-cultural
succeeds, Chalon initially struggles to Multicultural / multi-cultural
understand the different culture in Performance feedback
which he is working and adapt his style National culture
409-008-1 accordingly. The teaching objectives are: Leadership
LEADING ACROSS CULTURES AT (1) to help participants of any nationality Global leadership
MICHELIN (A) understand the complexity of leading in International human resources
Meyer, E a multi-cultural environment; (2)
establish that ideas about key 4 pp
Gupta, S Field research
INSEAD leadership elements such as providing
constructive feedback and motivating

Human Resource Management / Organisational Behaviour

499-021-1 the Group to overcome all the limits of funds at the firm, but many believed that
LINCOLN ELECTRIC IN CHINA the system. At this point, the President typical hedge fund manager pay (20% of
Galunic, C wondered whether he could find a way the upside) would harm the MFS culture,
Bjorkman, I to reform the Groups human resources which glorifiedstar performance but not
INSEAD system within the limits set by the state. star egos. Describes the MFS
This case explores the human resources compensation philosophy and plan
This case looks at how Lincoln Electric, practices in a socialist economy. It (including the plans emphasis on
the US-based company renowned for its demonstrates how a SOE in China subjective compensation), the types of
compensation scheme, tried to modified its human resources practices people it attracted, the resulting culture,
implement its human resource policies in order to adapt to a market economy. and how the senior management team
globally, and particularly in China. The case also allows for a discussion of approached the hedge funds question.
The objective is to expose readers to how human resources practices can Includes side discussion on firm-specific
some of the difficulties and myths of serve as a driving force for change in human capital. The teaching purpose is
pushing well-worn ideas overseas. business and management practices. to analyze the design of compensation
The case ends off with an important plans and the incentives created by a
question regarding the companys future, China; State-owned enterprise; 1995-2000
Human resources practices in a plan emphasizing subjective
one that depends on its overseas performance evaluations.
strategy, of which HR is key. socialist economy
13 pp Compensation
China, USA, Europe; Manufacturing; Incentives
1998-1999 401-029-8 (6pp)
Investment management
Compensation Performance measurement
Cross-culture Portfolio management
International expansion
China 9-902-132 26 pp
Incentives MASSACHUSETTS FINANCIAL Field research
SERVICES 5-902-196 (21pp)
20 pp
Field research Lim, J
499-021-8 (11pp) Hall, B
Harvard Business Publishing
Describes the compensation and MESSIERS REIGN AT VIVENDI
performance evaluations at an UNIVERSAL
401-029-1 investment management company. The
MANAGING A NEW STATE-OWNED senior management team of Khurana, R
ENTERPRISE: A DARING EXPERIMENT Massachusetts Financial Services (MFS) Beyersdorfer, D
BY THE BEIJING CAPITAL GROUP Investment Management was Dessain, V
contemplating an introduction of hedge Harvard Business Publishing
Chan, S
Ho, M
Wong, G
Asia Case Research Centre, The
University of Hong Kong
The Beijing Capital Group was one of the
most profitable and successful state-
owned enterprises (SOEs) in China. Since
free cases
its foundation, the Group had been
making unrelenting efforts in promoting
reform, improving capital operation and Our growing collection of free
capitalising on the advantages of the cases is a useful resource,
Group in terms of operational scale. All encouraging more teachers
these had helped it achieve success. The worldwide to try teaching with
employee turnover rate was low as the cases. It has been made possible
staff had a sense of pride in being part of through the generous
a successful firm. For the immediate collaboration of the authors and
future, however, the market environment their schools.
was expected to be increasingly tough.
Some of the important issues that the
President of the Group had to deal with
included how to sustain growth and
remain competitive following Chinas
expected accession to the World Trade
Organisation. Given the structural and
institutional constraints inherited from
the socialist tradition, it was not easy for

Human Resource Management / Organisational Behaviour

Focuses on a crisis in the board at Product development Rob Parson was a star producer in
Vivendi. Highlights the difficulties that Strategy implementation Morgan Stanleys Capital Markets
arise when dramatic pressure from Switzerland division. He had been recruited from a
outside the boardroom affects Technological change competitor the prior year and had
boardroom dynamics. In this case, there 14 pp generated substantial revenues since
are two events. The first is an Published sources joining the firm. Unfortunately, Parsons
unexpectedly large financial loss and a reviews from the 360-degree
pending cash flow crisis that forces performance evaluation process revealed
Vivendis directors to deal with the issue that he was having difficulty adapting to
of dismissing their CEO (chief executive the firms culture. His Manager, Paul Nasr,
officer). Whatever they decide, their 408-083-1 faces the difficult decision of whether to
actions will be scrutinized by the press RICHARD MURPHY AND THE BISCUIT promote Parson to Managing Director.
and investors and will likely be revisited COMPANY (A) Nasr must also complete Parsons
in a legal environment. The second is Jarrett, M performance evaluation summary and
the board diagnosing its role in the Ingram, K conduct Parsons performance review.
financial crisis by approving a series of London Business School 2,000 employees, $1 billion revenues; 1995
costly acquisitions in recent years that Organizational behavior
This case describes the successful journey
led to the crisis. Performance appraisals
of organisational renewal and change for
France; 41,264 employees, 25.5 million a food company facing a changing world Personal strategy & style
euros revenues; 1994-2002 of consumer tastes and fierce Employee promotions
Crisis management competition. The first part of the case Employee retention
Leadership shows how traditions, a strong founding Organizational culture
Corporate governance leader and a previously successful -degree feedback
28 pp operational formula can lead to a Relationship management
Published sources competency trap and organisational 16 pp
5-407-098 (11pp) inertia. The main part of the case focuses Field research
on the years 2002-2006, the challenges of 5-400-101 (18pp)
managing change and the role of a new
Marketing Director, Richard Murphy. He is
tasked with making the company market
9-400-087 orientated over its current model of
REBIRTH OF THE SWISS WATCH production schedules and efficiencies. HR6A
INDUSTRY - 1980-92 (A) The case reveals the important role of SAS INSTITUTE (A): A DIFFERENT
Tushman, M understanding and tackling resistance to APPROACH TO INCENTIVES AND
Radov, DB change, managing multiple and diverse PEOPLE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN
Harvard Business Publishing stakeholders, engaging customers and THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

The Swiss watch industry has been personal resilience in leading change. The Pfeffer, J
devastated by new entrants from Asia in case also highlights that change takes Stanford Business School
the low-and mid-priced watch segments. time and that paying attention to political The SAS Institute is a large, growing
Japanese and Hong Kong firms have and social networks is as important as the software company headquartered in the
used quartz technology to lower costs content of the change itself. Research Triangle in North Carolina.
dramatically. Nicolas Hayek, President of a UK; Food retail; 2,000 employees; 2002-2006 Founded more than 25 years ago, it has
Swiss consulting firm, is asked to help Change management evolved a unique approach, given its
design a new strategy and structure for Resistance to change industry, to developing and retaining
the two Swiss giants, ASUAG and SSIH, Organisational politics talent including using no stock options
which have decided to merge. Ernst Stakeholder management or phantom stock and not paying its
Thomke, Managing Director of ASUAGs Organisational networks salespeople on commission. The CEO
manufacturing arm, also figures Managing your boss and Vice President of Human Resources
prominently. The case outlines options Influencing others must decide how well their current
for the positioning of the new, Organisational renewal management practices will continue to
inexpensive Swatch brand as well as a 13 pp serve them as the company gains greater
number of other flagship Swiss brands. Field research visibility and faces an increasingly
Focuses on alignment of strategy with 408-083-8 (7pp) competitive labor market.
the structure of the new company. North Carolina; Software; 5,000
Topics to address include the employees, $750 million annual gross
management of change and the revenues; 1997
formulation of a detailed action plan to Incentives
make the new company succeed. 9-498-054
15,000 employees; $1 billion revenues; (A) Human resources management
1980-1983 Management philosophy
Management of change Burton, MD
Organizational structure Harvard Business Publishing

Human Resource Management / Organisational Behaviour

Computer software caused the Japanese market to fall to low behavior impacts Brodskys poor
Organizational behaviour levels that Leeson realised he could no performance. This case is a modernized
17 pp longer sustain his position. His unhedged revision of the popular case Wolfgang
Field research bets on the Nikkei index had led to losses Keller at Konigsbrau-Hellas.
so great that Leeson fled his job and his Europe; US$100 million sales
home. Leeson was arrested on his way Superior & subordinate
back to the UK, subsequently tried and Management styles
spent several years in Singapores Leadership
HR1A Changhi prison. The combination of an
SOUTHWEST AIRLINES (A) Performance appraisals
individual seeking to build his reputation Human resource management
OReilly III, CA and driven to appear successful with an
Pfeffer, J organisation that sought to expand its 18 pp
Stanford Business School derivatives business, had unclear lines of Field research
management and communication, and 5-400-069 (20pp)
In 1994 both United Airlines and
was willing to overlook some of Leesons
Continental Airlines launched low cost
misdemeanours because of his apparent
airlines within an airline, to compete with
success, is critical to Baringsdownfall. The
Southwest Airlines. From 1991 until 1993
(B) case summarises the aftermath of the
Southwest had increased its market share
collapse. The penalties for the individuals
of the critical West Coast market from
involved are presented. Two similar
26% to 45%. This case considers how
events, at Daiwa Bank and the Sumitomo
Southwest had developed a sustainable
Corporation, are outlined.
competitive advantage and emphasizes
the role of human resources as a lever for Singapore/London; Finance; Large;
the successful implementation of 1989-1995
strategy. This case asks whether Organisational culture
competitors can successfully imitate the Reward and bonus systems
Southwest approach. Organisational strategy
Psychological factors
Southwest United States; Airlines; 12,000
Managerial control and command
employees, $2.2 billion revenues; 1994
Agency issues
Human resources management
Prospect theory: the influence of
loss and gain decision making
Strategy implementation
Escalating commitment
Organizational behavior
12 pp
27 pp
Published sources
Field research
401-020-8 (5pp)

Soane, E
Gabarro, JJ
Nicholson, N
Harvard Business Publishing
Audia, PG
London Business School Wolfgang Keller, manager of the
Ukrainian subsidiary of a German beer
This is the first of a two-case series. In
company, faces a managerial dilemma.
1995 Barings, one of Britains oldest
His subordinate, Dmitri Brodsky, is a
private banks, collapsed after losses of
talented and experienced commercial
830 million caused by the actions of
director who is not meeting his goals
Singapore-based trader Nick Leeson.
expediently and often requires
Case study (A) examines the
considerable assistance from Keller.
psychological and organisational factors
Furthermore, Brodskys style is causing
that contributed to the collapse. Leesons
conflict with clients, other staff members,
use of a secret account which enabled
and with Keller himself. Keller must
him to hide his huge trading losses from
decide the best course of action to take
his managers was a key factor in his
with this difficult employee in an
successful deception. Despite mounting
environment in which the industry is
concern about Leesons trading activities
rapidly changing and growing and the
and the discovery of significant
war for talent is strong. He must also
unexplained transactions, it was not until
consider what comprises an effective
an earthquake in the city of Kobe which
performance review and how his own

Knowledge, Information and Communication Systems Management

9-801-199 growth path (revenues have increased Systems be used for one session followed
ADOBE SYSTEMS, INCORPORATED by a compound annual growth rate by Cisco Systems Web-enablement).
Tripsas, MP (CAGR) of 31% and net income surged California; 2000-2001
Harvard Business Publishing ahead at a CAGR of 128%). In 2007, Technological change
Apple declared that they would once Information technology
Examines Adobes battle with Microsoft again change yet another industry -
to establish de facto standards in the ERP
mobile telephony - with the iPhone. The
emerging eBook space. iPhone was heralded as an immediate 23 pp
California; 2000 success in the US, selling one million Field research
Information technology units in a record 74 days (the iPod took 5-301-143 (15pp)
Standardization two years to reach the million unit 5-301-145 (3pp)
Applications mark). Apart from the high sales and the
positive technological reviews, what
29 pp surprised many was the revenue sharing
Field research model that Apple had negotiated with 9-399-150
5-801-375 (13pp) mobile carriers, who had traditionally GES TWO-DECADE
not given up a part of their subscription TRANSFORMATION: JACK WELCHS
revenues to handset manufacturers. The LEADERSHIP
case is set as of 9 November 2007 on the
9-710-467 Bartlett, CA
morning that the iPhone is released in
APPLE INC IN 2010 Harvard Business Publishing
the UK with Telefonicas O2. Students
Yoffie, DB must determine whether the deal will GE is faced with Jack Welchs impending
Kim, R prove advantageous to Telefonicas O2 retirement and whether anyone can
Harvard Business Publishing and the longer-term effects on the sustain the blistering pace of change and
industry structure. growth characteristic of the Welch era.
On 4 April 2010, Apple Inc launched the After briefly describing GEs heritage and
iPad, the companys third major United Kingdom; 2007
Welchs transformation of the companys
innovation released over the last decade Industry analysis
business portfolio of the 1980s, the case
under its iconic CEO Steve Jobs. Apples Technological change
chronicles Welchs revitalization initiatives
strategy of shifting its business into International expansion
through the late 1980s and 1990s. It
non-PC products had thrived so far, Innovation
focuses on six of Welchs major change
driven by the smashing success of the Information systems
programs: TheSoftwareInitiatives,
iPod and the iPhone. Yet challenges Competitive advantage
Globalization, Redefining Leadership,
abounded. Macintosh sales in the 26 pp Stretch Objectives, Service Business
worldwide PC market still languished Generalised experience Development, and Six Sigma Quality.
below 5%. Growth in iPod sales was SIT-0013-E (11pp)
slowing down. iPhone faced increasing United States; 293,000 employees, Gross
competition in the smartphone industry. revenue: $100 billion revenues; 1981-1998
And would Apples latest creation, the Leadership
iPad, take the company to the next level? Change management
9-301-099 Organizational development
California; 36,800 employees, gross CISCO SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE: ERP Business policy
revenue:$43 billion; 1976-2010 AND WEB-ENABLED IT Executives
Market positioning Nolan, RL Organizational culture
Strategic planning Porter, K Corporate strategy
Competition Akers, C Organizational change
Technology Harvard Business Publishing Conglomerates
25 pp Implementing strategy
In a seven-year process, Cisco built its
Published sources strategic I-Net. Beginning in 1994, Cisco 24 pp
5-710-484 (11pp) completely replaced its back-office legacy Published sources
systems. At that time, the company 5-300-019 (16pp)
standardized Internet protocols. In
addition, the company shifted strategic
SI-0167-E focus from IT back-office applications to
APPLES IPHONE: CALLING EUROPE front-office applications. After ERP 9B10E011
OR EUROPE CALLING? (enterprise resource planning), the GOOGLE IN CHINA (B)
Sieber, S company spent the next two years
Compeau, D
Valor, J electronically connecting with customers.
Fang, Y
Mitchell, J A rewritten version of two earlier cases. A
Yin, M
IESE Business School consolidated version of the Cisco Systems
Ivey Publishing
ERP and Cisco Systems Web-enablement
Apple needs little introduction. After the cases. Designed to be taught in one class The case describes the circumstances
launch of the highly successful iPod in session (if two class sessions are available, surrounding Googles reconsideration of
2001, Apple has been on an aggressive it is recommended that Cisco ERP its China strategy. Google officially

Knowledge, Information and Communication Systems Management

announced in January 2010 that its IBM faced in its KM journey. This case is Therefore, the Internet opened a new
Chinese website,, experienced designed to enable students to: (1) business world for travel and tourism
cyber attacks from within China. Google understand the importance of industries facilitated by e-Business /
further announced that, as a result, it had knowledge management in enhancing e-Tourism and e-Trade. The Internet
decided to reconsider its approach to the competence of an organisation; (2) brought two conflicting trends in the
China, including the option of a study the tools and techniques used by marketplace. On the one side
complete exit from the Chinese market. IBM to capture and disseminate disintermediation, where suppliers could
The case presents Googles performance knowledge; (3) examine the role played go directly to the consumers and on the
in China, the details of the cyber attack by top management to develop a other side re-intermediation, where new
and the heated public discussion knowledge management framework in intermediaries emerged to support
following Googles announcement. an organisation; and (4) evaluate the transactions in cyberspace. This case
Students are asked to consider actions ways in which reuse of knowledge can study celebrates one of the most well
that Google should take and the be encouraged in an organisation. This known Internet companies,
corresponding, underlying rationale. case is meant for MBA / MS students as In 1998, Hoberman and
United States, China; Miscellaneous part of the information technology / Lane Fox created as a
services; Medium; 2010 knowledge management curriculum. unique and different travel website
Ethical issues The teaching note includes: (1) the lifestyle portal. They realised the future
Management in a global abstract; (2) the teaching objectives and benefits of the Internet for the tourism
environment methodology; (3) assignment questions; and leisure industries. They launched
Information systems (4) feedback of the case discussion; and their website as a
Government and business (5) additional readings and references. mechanism to distribute distressed travel
USA; Information technology; Very large; inventory to consumers that would like
11 pp instant response to their needs rather
Published sources 1994-2009
IBM than plan their holidays months in
8B10E11 (6pp) advance. In seven years, they achieved
Knowledge management
Learning organisation incredible success and growth. However,
Information sharing it was not enough to survive in the
Wikis competitive travel industry. The
909-018-1 Intellectual Capital Management competitors in the travel industry were
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Programme strong and powerful in terms of the
INITIATIVES AT IBM Communities of practice financial and global perspective.
Gupta, V K Portal Fourteen acquisitions helped gain scale
Perepu, I ICM AssetWeb and presence as well as differentiating
Govind, S On demand Workplace from its competitors,
IBS Center for Management Research Blue Pages thereby building an enviable market and
Collaboration Forums customer base. Travelocity saw the
This case examines the knowledge uniqueness of and
management (KM) practices at IBM. The Knowledge networks
Knowledge caf bought the company with its entire
companys KM initiatives date back to the network of acquired business. After
early 1990s, when the company was Knowledge cockpit
combining Travelocity and
reorganised under Louis Gerstner. Before 21 pp a number of markets,
that, the company was running as silos Published sources technological and cultural challenges
due to which information sharing was 909-018-8 (4pp) emerged. Nevertheless the combined
limited. Then, Gerstner included Travelocity / will be
information sharing as one of the gaining a more powerful place in the
parameters in the performance appraisal European travel market.
system to determine compensation. 907-024-1
IBMs initial efforts in managing Tourism
LASTMINUTE.COM Intermediation
knowledge focused on providing
information about co-workers and work Aga, S Strategic marketing
to enable reuse of the same. This effort Buhalis, D 31 pp
started with the asset reuse programme, Faculty for Business, Economics and Field research
which was formalised as the Intellectual Law, University of Surrey 907-024-8 (12pp)
Capital Management programme. The Tourism requires accurate, timely and
next stage in the evolution of KM at IBM comprehensive information, often for
was communities of practice, which were places that are thousands of miles apart.
self-organised communities, through The Internet facilitates these 9-991-021
which employees with similar job communications. The Internet has MERCK & CO, INC (A)
functions and interests came together. changed the structure of tourism and
IBM used several tools like K Portal, ICM travel, by enabling organisations to use Hanson, KO
AssetWeb, On Demand Workplace, Blue dynamic mechanisms to reach Bollier, D
Pages, Collaboration Forums, to capture, customers efficiently and cost effectively. Weiss, S
share and manage knowledge. The case It has become a virtual market place for Harvard Business Publishing
concludes by examining the challenges both tourists and travel companies.

Knowledge, Information and Communication Systems Management

Researchers at Merck & Co. believe that a 908-024-1 Partnership

drug they had developed for animals OFFSHORING AND INNOVATION AT Competitive advantage
might be an effective treatment for GLOBALCO: NEGOTIATING A WIN-WIN 10 pp
human river blindness, a debilitating STRATEGY FOR THE OUTSOURCING Field research
illness that affects hundreds of thousands RELATIONSHIP
of poor people in the Third World. The Barrett, M
process of development and testing, Cambridge Judge Business School
however, will be enormously costly.
Should the company devote critical In recent years, the evolution of IT 9A98E036
resources to developing the drug, offshoring relationships has been OHIO POLYMER INC
knowing that, even if it were medically marked by a gradual shift away from Bell, PC
successful, it would yield little financial their traditional focus on low cost and Ivey Publishing
return? The case presents background on labour arbitrage. Instead, with the
relationship evolving to new levels of Ohio Polymer is about to negotiate a
economic and scientific constraints that contract with ProBut Hydrocarbon, Inc for
shape the pharmaceutical industry. It global collaboration, the perceived role
of vendors is shifting to one of the purchase of ethylene gas. The contract
provides a framework for discussing will require Ohio to purchase a fixed daily
ethical aspects of product innovation partnership and as a key source of
innovation. This case examines the quantity of the gas at a set price per ton.
and the risks and benefits of investments Ohio Polymers senior management is
in research. It may be used in Strategic challenges and opportunities of a
multinational firm and its Indian vendors looking for advice on how much gas they
Management, Business and Society, and should try to obtain and what price they
Ethics courses. in developing its offshoring relationship
over time. It also raises the crucial should be willing to pay.
New Jersey; Pharmaceuticals question as to how key Indian and North USA; Chemicals and allied products;
Business ethics American firms can transition their Large;
Health offshoring relationship to one of Simulation
Management philosophy partnership driving business innovation. Negotiation
Management styles Manufacturing capacity
Social enterprise India, North America; Telecoms; 60,000
employees; Mid-1990s to mid-2000s Spreadsheet application
Social responsibility
Offshoring 6 pp
5 pp Innovation Published sources
Outsourcing relationship 8A98E36 (5pp)

Gupta, V
case method training Prasad, VN
IBS Center for Management Research
This case examines the open source
innovation process at Mozilla
Taking time out to participate Corporation, the company that
in a case teaching or writing introduced the second most popular
workshop can dramatically internet browser - Firefox. The case
enhance your case skills. ecch begins explaining the way Mozilla came
offers a broad range of workshops into existence. Later, it discusses the
and events for case writers and manner in which the company managed
teachers. its various projects that had an active
contribution to the developing
Customised programmes can be community, both in strategic decision
developed to ensure that learning making and project execution. The case
objectives, time span and budget also discusses in detail, the marketing
are met. efforts of Mozilla to promote the open
source software products. The case
Visit concludes by providing a glimpse into
for further details. the future prospects of the company and
the competition it faces. The teaching
objectives of this case are to: (1)
understand the open source innovation
process at a software company; (2)
identify the kind of leadership required to

Knowledge, Information and Communication Systems Management

manage open source projects; and (3) 9B05E019

recognize the nuances of marketing RJ THOMPSON DATA SYSTEMS, INC
open source software products. This case Schatzberg, L
is designed for MBA / PGDBM students Ivey Publishing
and is meant for the knowledge,
information and communication systems RJ Thompson Data Systems sells,
curriculum. The teaching note includes implements and maintains management
the abstract, teaching objectives and information systems. The president of the
methodology, assignment questions, company receives a call from a potential
feedback of the case discussion, and client to demonstrate a system that they
additional readings and references. had rejected earlier. The company would
benefit from a large sale, however, the
US; IT - software; Large; 2002-2010 president reflects on the experience from
Mozilla Corporation the last presentation to this company; RJ
Firefox Thompson Data Systems spent
Open source innovation considerable time preparing the
Software development presentation, only to be treated poorly
Project management and to have the offer rejected. He must
Netscape communications decide if he should rally the team again.
Open source community Canada; Business services; Small; 2005
Mozilla value network Enterprise resource planning
SeaMonkey Management information systems
Software release cycle Computer system implementation
User-perceptible performance Customer relations
metrics 6 pp
20 pp Field research
Published sources 8B05E19 (5pp)
910-003-8 (4pp)

Koen, K Harvard Business Publishing
Townsend, S This case provides a definition of strategy,
Wits Business School - University of the distinguishes between corporate and
Witwatersrand practice strategy, and discusses how and
By 2003, Quadrem, a global why developing and implementing
e-marketplace that facilitated electronic strategy for professional service firms is
transactions between buyers and suppliers different from developing and
from the mining, metals and minerals implementing strategy for commercial
industry, was in its third year of operation. firms. The case discusses how practice
While some of the regions such as North strategy involves positioning the practice
America, Australasia and South Africa on a spectrum of services and aligning
managed to operate profitably on a the organization and its professionals to
regional level, Quadrem as a whole was not the position. Practices are subjected
yet profitable mainly because of its high continuously to forces that move their
fixed centralised costs. The shareholders positioning. To be successful, practices
however, expected Quadrem to break even must dynamically reposition or realign
by the end of the second quarter in 2004. themselves. The case concludes with a
The case study revolves around Quadrem discussion of the corporate strategy
Africa, based in South Africa, and its challenges facing multipractice
dilemma to increase its growth to help professional service firms.
Quadrem break even globally. Professional, scientific & technical
South Africa; Mining; Medium; 2003 services
e-Commerce Business policy
e-Procurement Corporate strategy
Internet strategy Leadership
Strategy formulation
25 pp
Field research 13 pp


9-599-110 9-504-048 Internet

Note Herman, K Field research
Dolan, RJ Kussmann, E
Harvard Business Publishing Penick, E
Describes the perceptual mapping Wojewoda, S
techniques in a non-technical fashion. Harvard Business Publishing 510-015-1
The procedure is useful for the depiction In 2003, Rose Marie Bravo, Burberrys CEO FORD FIESTA MOVEMENT: USING
of the structure of the market. Discusses is debating how to maintain the currency SOCIAL MEDIA AND VIRAL
alternative methods, presents examples and cachet of the brand across its broad MARKETING TO LAUNCH FORDS
of each, and shows how the maps can be customer base, while entering new GLOBAL CAR IN THE UNITED STATES
used in marketing decision making. product categories and expanding Stephen, AT
Market research distribution. In the past five years, the INSEAD
Consumer behavior brand has become one of the hottest
luxury brands in the world. But Bravo now The Ford Fiesta movement was a social
Consumers media campaign run by Ford in the US
Market structure faces a number of key decisions, including:
(1) which new product categories to during 2009 to generate buzz for the
13 pp enter; (2) how to deal with the upcoming launch of the 2011 Fiesta
Published sources appropriation of the brand by nontarget sub-compact car. This case examines the
customers; and (3) how prominent the campaigns performance and asks what
companys famedcheckpattern should marketers should do there after to
be in its advertising and clothing. convert interested consumers into
9-502-030 buyers. The case can be used as an
United Kingdom; Fashion; 2003 introduction to social media and viral
BETTER SHOWER marketing as tools for launching new
Market positioning products, specifically, to: (1) discuss
Moon, Y Market segmentation appropriateness of different criteria for
Herman, K Marketing strategy evaluating campaign performance; and
Harvard Business Publishing Target markets (2) consider what marketers should do
Process analysis after a campaign to leverage the brand
Harry Rawlinson is Managing Director of
Brand management awareness generated and convert sales.
Aqualisa, a major UK manufacturer of
showers. He has just launched the most 20 pp Motor vehicles and passenger car bodies;
significant shower innovation in recent Field research 2009-2010
history: the Quartz shower. The shower 5-505-007 (18pp) Social media
provides significant improvements in Viral marketing
terms of quality, cost, and ease of Buzz marketing
installation. In product testing, the Quartz Ford Motor Company
shower received rave reviews from both 9-508-047 New products
consumers and plumbers alike. However, DOVE: EVOLUTION OF A BRAND Twitter
early sales of the Quartz have been Facebook
disappointing. Rawlinson is now faced Deighton, J
Harvard Business Publishing Word of mouth
with some key decisions about whether
to change his channel strategy, Examines the evolution of Dove from 12 pp
promotional strategy, and the overall functional brand to a brand with a point Published sources
positioning of the product in the context of view after Unilever designated it as a
of his existing product line. masterbrand, and expanded its portfolio
United Kingdom; 8 million revenue; 2001 to cover entries into a number of sectors
beyond the original bath soap category. 503-082-1
Consumer marketing The development causes the brand
team to take a fresh look at the cliches of PROBLEM (A)
Marketing channels
Marketing strategy the beauty industry. The result is the Christen, M
Market entry controversial Real Beauty campaign. Soberman, D
Market positioning As the campaign unfolds, Unilever learns Chung, SW
Product positioning to use the Internet, and particularly Cothier, G
Product development social network media like YouTube, to INSEAD
Product introduction manage controversy.
This is the first of a three-case series. In
18 pp United States; $50 billion revenues; 2007 response to changes in the European
Field research Networking small car market and the success of the
5-503-058 (23pp) Marketing Renault Twingo, Ford decided to launch a
new small car, the Ford Ka. Before Gilles
Moynier can get to the specifics of the


marketing strategy to launch the Ford Ka, The case describes the selling activities of 9-505-038
he needs to decide how to segment the a sales engineer with respect to a key PRODUCT TEAM CIALIS: GETTING
market and who to target. The market account. The loss of the order for a READY TO MARKET
research firm has conducted a series of CT-Scanner provides the background for Ofek, E
studies among potential small car buyers analyzing the dynamics of the buying Harvard Business Publishing
and now the data must be analysed and situation and the salesmans handling of
interpreted. This case series introduces it. The issues raised are: Who are the cast Lilly and ICOS are preparing for the
students to strategic, conceptual and of characters influencing the buying launch of a new drug, Cialis, to compete
information issues of market decision? What seems to motivate them? against Viagra. To position against the
segmentation and target selection - the What sales strategy would be appropriate. incumbent firm Pfizer, which developed
core concept of marketing theory. The and markets Viagra, and other
Germany; Medical diagnostic equipment newcomers into the erectile dysfunction
modular nature of the case allows the Corporate buying
instructor to focus either on individual market, they must determine how best
Industrial selling to segment the market and which target
issues or on the process of market
segmentation and marketing strategy 9 pp market to focus on. The marketing plan
development. The market research data Field research should take advantage of Cialiss
enables students to get uniquehands IMD-5-0395-T (13pp) medical profile. In particular, they must
onexperience in dealing with market pay special attention to the
research data and a wide range of communication strategy to patients,
statistical tools (cross-tabulations, cluster physicians, and partners. The analysis,
analysis, multi-dimensional scaling, 9-598-061 plan, and action should take into
regression analysis). NOTE ON MARKETING STRATEGY account extensive market research and
Note recent competitive developments.
France; Automobiles; Large; 1996
Multimedia Dolan, RJ 2002
CD-ROM Harvard Business Publishing Market research
Interactive exercise Market segmentation
Describes the major elements of Marketing planning
Market research
marketing strategy: the decisions to be Communication strategy
Marketing strategy
made and the underlying analysis to Competition
Attitudinal segmentation
support that decision making. Target markets
Cluster analysis
MDS Decision making Product positioning
Qualitative data interpretation Marketing strategy 26 pp
Automobiles 17 pp Field research
Quantative data analysis Published sources 5-505-060 (15pp)
Marketing process
Market segmentation
26 pp
Field research
503-082-8 (21pp)
monthly e-mail updates
9-599-078 Monthly e-mail updates is a free
GOING TO MARKET Note service giving details of new
Dolan, RJ cases, management articles and
Harvard Business Publishing book chapters from all sources.
Describes the major issues in deciding
how to reach the market. The most comprehensive of its
Covers issues of channel design and kind worldwide, you can tailor the
channel management. information you receive to cover
Marketing channels
the subject areas you
Marketing management are interested in.
10 pp To subscribe visit
Published sources

Kashani, K


505-098-1 Guerilla marketing 9-504-016

Kumar, N Integrated marketing SERVICE
Tavassoli, N communications Moon, Y
Linguri Coughlan, S Advertising Quelch, JA
London Business School Product-life cycle Harvard Business Publishing
Non-traditional marketing
Founded in Austria in 1984, Red Bull was Starbucks, the dominant specialty-coffee
credited with creating the energy drinks 14 pp brand in North America, must respond to
category. In 2004, the worldwide energy Published sources recent market research indicating that
drinks category was worth 2.5 billion 505-098-8 (10pp) the company is not meeting customer
euros and Red Bull commanded a 70% expectations in terms of service. To
market share. Sold in over 100 markets, increase customer satisfaction, the
Red Bull was the market leader in the company is debating a plan that would
USA as well as in 12 of the 13 West 510-077-1 increase the amount of labor in the stores
European markets where it was present. RENOVA TOILET PAPER: AVANT- and theoretically increase speed-of-
Central to Red Bulls success was the use GARDE MARKETING IN A service. However, the impact of the plan
of word-of-mouth orbuzzmarketing. COMMODITIZED CATEGORY (which would cost $40 million annually)
Through its sponsorship of youth culture Bart, Y on the companys bottom line is unclear.
and extreme sports events, it developed Chandon, P United States; 60,000 employees, gross
a cult following among marketing-wary Sweldens, S revenue: $3.3 billion revenues; 2002
Generation Y-ers, (18- to 29-year olds) Seabra de Sousa, R Market research
who perceived it as an anti-brand. While INSEAD Profitability
it purported to be a sports drink, Red Bull Customer retention
was mostly sold in clubs and bars as an Renova, a Portuguese toilet paper
manufacturer, is battling to survive in a Customer service
alcohol mixer, where its caffeine doses
helped revive clubbers into the early stagnant, commoditised market 20 pp
morning hours. By playing on dominated by international giants and Field research
associations with energy, danger and private labels. To grow and remain 5-504-089 (19pp)
youth culture, Red Bull carefully independent, CEO Paulo Pereira da Silva
cultivated its mystique, which earned it is considering three options: (1) private
nicknames likeliquid cocaine. The label manufacturing; (2) new functional
company used additional non-traditional innovations, and (3) launching a black IMD-5-0604
marketing techniques, such as consumer toilet paper. What should he do? And TETRA PAK (A): THE CHALLENGE OF
education teams who drove around how should the chosen strategy be INTIMACY WITH A KEY CUSTOMER
handing out free cans of Red Bull to implemented? In exploring the
challenges facing small players in Kashani, K
those in need of energy, and student
stagnant commodised categories where Shaner, J
brand managers who promoted the
international giants and private labels IMD
product on university campuses. In 2004,
Red Bull found itself at a crossroads, dominate, this case provides detailed This is the first of a four-case series. The (A)
challenged with defending its market information on consumer behaviour, case of this series describes a failed
share. It faced a maturing market and an competition, and the company attempt to sell new packaging machinery
onslaught of competitive brands, some (including the brand and past to a key Italian customer facing declining
of them promoted by beverage industry communication campaigns). It accounts sales and profits in its milk business. Tetra
giants such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi, for the success of private labels and Paks analysis leads them to propose a new
others as private labels by mass retailers explains when it makes sense to product strategy that is summarily rejected
such as Asda (part of Wal-Mart). Red Bull produce for a private label. It illustrates by the customer. The case raises the issue
needed to determine whether it was the key role of marketing and branding, of Tetra Paks strategy in the Italian milk
outgrowing its anti-establishment status. showing how Renova differentiated on market and the wisdom of its proposed
As a mature brand, it needed to assess hedonic and symbolic benefits in a customer strategy. The broader question is
whether the time had come to transition category that was thought to be whether the company is serving the best
to a more traditional marketing hopelessly commoditized. interest of its key accounts.
approach. But this raised a critical Disposable paper; 2005-2010 Italy and international markets;
question: would this move toward a Marketing Packaging systems; 7 billion euros, 22,000
more mainstream approach Brand employees; 2000-2002
fundamentally destroy Red Bulls Private label Industrial marketing
anti-brand mystique? Luxury Key account marketing
Europe, USA; Energy drinks; 1.26 billion Consumer goods Customer orientation
euros sales; 1982-2004 Blue Ocean Value chain marketing
Buzz marketing Innovation Customer satisfaction surveys
Distribution Advertising Marketing implementation
Growth 23 pp Management of change
Brand building Field research 14 pp
510-077-8 (16pp)


Field research
IMD-5-0604-T (44pp)

Chandon, P
Pacheco Guimaraes, P
Unilever is a solid leader in the Brazilian
detergent powder market with an 81%
market share. Laercio Cardoso must
decide: (1) whether Unilever should divert
money from its premium brands to target
the lower-margin segment of
low-income consumers; (2) whether
Unilever can reposition or extend one of
its existing brands to avoid launching a
new brand; and (3) what price, product,
promotion, and distribution strategy
would allow Unilever to deliver value to
low-income consumers without
cannibalising its own premium brands
too heavily. This case deals with the
question of whether marketing and
branding create value for really poor
consumers. It can therefore be used in an
MBA, executive education or
undergraduate core course on marketing
management to illustrate the value of
marketing and the marketing approach,
or in a brand management course to
explore the frontiers of branding. This
case can also be used in a consumer
behaviour course to examine the
motivations and decision-making process
of low-income consumers. Alternatively, it
can be used in a global marketing or
global strategy and management course
to study the way multinational
companies adapt their strategy to
compete in emerging countries.
Brazil; Home and personal care; US$56
billion; 1996-2004
Low-income consumers
New product introduction
Break-even analysis
23 pp
Field research
504-009-8 (34pp)

Production and Operations Management

UVA-OM-0836 600-003-1 GS3A

Shepherd, S AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) Kopczak, LR
Darden Business Publishing Loch, CH Lee, HL
Bill Kenerson, the owner-operator of a De Meyer, A Stanford Business School
retail bow-tie business, faces two Kavadias, S This case describes a challenge facing
decisions. The first is whether to bring INSEAD Hewlett-Packards (HP) Vancouver
production of bow ties in-house. The IACo is an aerospace company, Division in 1990. Although its new inkjet
second concerns his telephone-order- developing UAVs (Uninhabited Aerial printers were selling well, inventory levels
entry system. Students must calculate Vehicles). The case describes the project worldwide were rising as sales rose. In
the capacity of the production facility of developing a bid for a large contract Europe, high product variety was making
and determine the appropriate staffing under severe time pressure. The case inventory levels especially high. HP
plan for telephone operators. discusses project planning for rapid considered several ways to address the
Middlebury,VT;Retail;$0.75-1.0million;1996 time-to-market. The case discusses inventory issue: air freighting printers to
Capacity planning project management problems occuring Europe, developing more formalized
Entrepreneurship during the development of a new inventory planning processes, or building
Make, buy, or lease product. The main objectives are to a factory in Europe. The teaching purpose
Queuing illustrate: (1) the different ways of is to discuss inventory analysis and / or to
Small business representing project activities; (2) the discuss the organizational challenges
Waiting-line analysis traditional project management companies face in implementing supply
Agency management techniques (CPM, Gantt Chart); (3) chain solutions.
Diverse protagonist extensions of the critical path approach Global supply chain
(to account for time uncertainty, loops
12 pp and rework); and (4) how to focus 12 pp
Field research improvement efforts. Field research
UVA-OM-0836TN (1pp)
UK; Aerospace; 1999
9 pp
Published sources
600-003-8 (23pp) GS3B
Kopczak, LR
Lee, HL
Stanford Business School
Supplements the (A) case.

case development Global supply chain

2 pp
scholarships Field research

Each year, up to ten Philip Law

scholarships are available to 606-012-1
research students at ecch member IDEO: SERVICE DESIGN (A)
institutions to develop teaching Sosa, ME
cases based on original field Bhavnani, R
research carried out during their INSEAD
This is the first of a two-case series. This
case describes how IDEO adapts its
Each scholarship is worth , famed innovation process (developed to
and the student attends an ecch design new products) to the
case writing workshop at no charge. particularities of services and their
design. The case series describes four
Find out more at service design projects to show how IDEO has developed and codified a series
of design methods, which constitute a
toolbox from which teams can pick and
choose depending on the innovation
project. The case study aims to: (1)

Production and Operations Management

operations management. There are four 608-038-1

reinforce the notion of the five-step important concepts that we typically PIONEERING HEALTHY QUICK
innovation process that can be used for stress, more or less, depending on SERVICE FOOD: THE CASE OF YO!
any design project, whether it is a service pedagogical objectives: (1) newsvendor SUSHI
or a product. (The five steps of the IDEO losses in the textile industry; (2) the role
process are: (i) observe; (ii) synthesise; (iii) Day, M
of postponement in final design; (3) the Henley Business School
generate ideas; (iv) refine; and (v) lean enterpriseaspect of Zara; and (4)
implement); (2) highlight the differences process competition and innovation, This case study focuses on the growth of
between product and service design, embedded in technology evolution. Yo!Sushi, a small but expanding chain of
and the subtle differences in the restaurants that serve Japanese-style food
respective processes; (3) introduce the UK; International, retail, textile apparel; using a conveyer belt restaurant design.
notion of IDEO methods as a set of Large; 1998-2001 The case covers the history of the
interchangeable tools to be used Process competition business, how it has developed its site
according to the type of project being Operations management choice policy, how customers are served
worked on, and identify when is it best to Supply chain through the process, and the importance
use them; and (4) introduce the concept Retail apparel of service quality in generating repeated
of knowledge brokering and examine Delayed customisation customer returns. The case study nicely
the ways in which the transfer of Time-based competition highlights the importance of the key
knowledge is carried out across a Newsboy model tenets of a good operations strategy: (1)
distributed organisation. Innovation understanding your different types of
USA, UK; Consulting (transportation, 17 pp customers intimately; (2) being able to
banking, telecommunications, health Published sources shape the design of a process to meet
care); 300+ em ployees; 1999-2005 602-010-8 (37pp) different customer demands; and (3)
Innovation management measuring those aspects of the operation
New product and service that relate to satisfying service quality.
development UK, Europe; Restaurant, food service; 50
Brainstorming UVA-OM-1022 million turnover; June 2007-2008
Prototyping OCEANCOVE Operations strategy
Knowledge brokering Ramdas, K Process profiling
23 pp Leong, J Customer analysis
Field research Darden Business Publishing Quality management
606-012-8 (15pp) Capacity
Rakesh Gupta sits in his new office at
Nariman Point, Mumbai contemplating 30 pp
the future of OceanCove, which in the Field research
last two years has grown from a single 608-038-8 (12pp)
602-010-1 seafood restaurant to a chain of five
MARKS & SPENCER AND ZARA: restaurants. Aware that aggressive
PROCESS COMPETITION IN THE expansion is planned in 2002 and
TEXTILE APPAREL INDUSTRY worried about the recent proliferation of OSA1
Pich, M moderately expensive restaurants RED BRAND CANNERS
Van der Heyden, L serving international cuisine in India, Wilson, RB
Harle, N Gunta must consider a proposal to Stanford Business School
INSEAD increase the size of the existing
restaurants from 120 seats to 160 seats. Presents a simple example of a
This case was written to illustrate the His immediate concern is whether production planning problem amenable
importance of business process design as accepting this proposal will necessitate to analysis using linear programming.
a basis for competition in the textile changing OceanCoves operating California; Canning; 1965
industry. The case illustrates the processes. The case is accompanied by a Production planning
impressive performance of Zara, the new queuing simulation of the restaurant
fashion player from Spain, which has operation, implemented in Flash. 4 pp
innovated in process design so as to Students can observe Littles Law in Generalised experience
deliver new collections in its stores with a action and develop intuition about the
lead-time of 5 to 7 days. The more operational impact of a change in
traditional approach in textile retailing is demand or a change in processing rates
illustrated here by Marks and Spencer within the restaurant. UVA-OM-0661
(M&S), the well-known UK retailer. SILKO-SCALESE MACHINING
Notwithstanding M&Ss current Process analysis CORPORATION
problems, the case does not fall into an Littles Law
Weiss, EN
overly simple comparison between a 12 pp Gursahaney, NK
young, innovative competitor and an Published sources Darden Business Publishing
ageing glory. The authors have taught UVA-OM-1022TN (14pp)
this case both in executive education and Alan Silko must decide whether to invest in
in the MBA core class on process and seven statistical-process-control (SPC)

Production and Operations Management

stations in order to increase his chances of several regions within the Uttar Pradesh Tokyo, Japan; Writing instruments; Mid-
becoming aselect supplierfor a large market. While inventories had gone size, employees 600, $116 million
computer company. The student must do down and fill rates had improved relative revenues; 1991
a discounted-cash-flow/decision-tree to the previous peak-sales season, Mehra Japan
analysis of the option. The student is also was looking for ways to improve Product lines
given the opportunity to construct x-bar performance dramatically. Mehra had Production controls
and range charts and to do an SPC analysis. heard about the concept of vendor- Suppliers
managed inventory (VMI) that was Vertical integration
Baltimore,MD;Machining;$1.6million;1989 gaining popularity in the West.
Decision making 19 pp
Implementing VMI would involve Field research
Investment analysis moving away from the current situation
Process management 5-693-027 (23pp)
in which independent distributors
Quality placed orders for replenishment to the
Statistics WUp plant, to one in which distributors
Supplier relations would instead report their inventory
10 pp levels directly to the WUp supply-chain 9-693-019
Field research management group. Managers in this TOYOTA MOTOR MANUFACTURING,
UVA-OM-0661TN (9pp) group would then decide how much USA, INC
stock to send out to each distributor. Mishina, K
Mehra and his team wondered how this Harvard Business Publishing
idea might be applied to HCCBPLs highly
On 1 May 1992, Doug Friesen, Manager
9-602-096 fragmented supply chain, covering
of assembly for Toyotas Georgetown,
STORE24 (A): MANAGING EMPLOYEE regions where IT infrastructure was
Kentucky, plant, faces a problem with the
RETENTION sparse or non-existent.
seats installed in the plants sole product
Frei, FX Supply chain - Camrys. A growing number of cars are
Campbell, D 11 pp sitting off-line with defective seats or are
Harvard Business Publishing Published sources missing them entirely. This situation is
one of several causes of recent overtime,
Used as part of the third module of a yet neither the reason for the problem
course on Managing Service Operations, nor a solution to it is readily apparent. As
which addresses how managers can the plant is an exemplar of Toyotas
inform their decisions with customer 9-692-011 famed production system (TPS), Friesen is
data. Provides a retailing context in which TOMBOW PENCIL CO LTD determined that, if possible, the situation
employee retention strategies are Mishina, K will be resolved using TPS principles and
explored through analyzing detailed Harvard Business Publishing tools. Students are asked to suggest what
store-level data. action(s) Friesen should take and to
Tombow Pencil Co Ltd, one of Japans
United States; 800 employees, two premier pencil manufacturers, has analyze whether Georgetowns current
$84,767,816 revenues; 2000-2001 been using a subcontractor network in handling of the seat problem fits within
Employee retention order to respond to changing market the TPS philosophy.
Service management conditions. The system currently faces a Kentucky; 4,000 employees, $1-5 billion
5 pp new challenge as Tombow moves to revenues; 1992
Field research address a volatile business market for International operations
5-606-036 (11pp) promotional pencils: an expanding Process analysis
5-606-107 (35pp) market demanding novel products, Quality control
short delivery lead time, and large Production controls
quantities. To overcome growing Suppliers
stockouts and inventory problems, 22 pp
UVA-OM-1351 Yohei Ogawa, the companys new Field research
SUPPLY-CHAIN MANAGEMENT AT president and grandson of the founder, 5-693-046 (25pp)
WUP BOTTLERY (A) must evaluate the performance of
Tombows subcontractor-based
Ramdas, K production system and formulate a plan
Darden Business Publishing of action. Introduces students to the
At the WUp Bottlery in Uttar Pradesh, subcontractor-based production 603-002-1
India, Rajat Mehra, Director of system, a system prevalent in certain ZARA
supply-chain management, mused over parts of the world outside the United Ferdows, K
the WUp plants supply-chain States, and allows them to analyze its Georgetown University
performance over the peak summer performance for simple products with Domiguez Machuca, JA
period that had just ended. The WUp which they are all familiar. The analysis University of Sevilla
Bottlery, which was a wholly-owned poses profound questions about ways Lewis, M
subsidiary of Hindustan Coca-Cola to manage it more effectively and its Warwick Business School
Beverages Private Limited (HCCBPL), future potential as an alternative to
made Coca-Cola and other soft drinks for vertically integrated operations.

Production and Operations Management

The case offers an illustration of a fast-

response global supply, production, and
retail network. In 2002 Zara, operating
out of La Coruna in north-west Spain, was
the only retailer that could deliver
garments to its 507 stores in 33 countries
in just fifteen days after they were
designed. Its unique systems for product
design, order administration, production,
distribution and retailing were behind
this astonishing capability. Its
unconventional approach provides
interesting opportunities for discussion
and learning. The case is quite popular
with executives, MBAs and
undergraduate business students. It can
be used in a remarkably wide range of
courses - from a core operations
management course to electives focused
on international operations, operations
strategy, global logistics, distribution,
retailing, as well as in specialised and
general executive programmes. The
teaching note includes several
photographs from Zaras operations in La
Coruna, and the appendices are available
as PowerPoint files as the teaching note
supplement. This case was the winner of
the 2003 Indiana University Center for
International Business Education and
Research (CIBER)-sponsored Production
and Operations Management Society
(POMS) International Case Competition.
This case was sponsored by the Indiana
University CIBER Case Collection.
Spain and global; Fashion apparel; Large
multinational; 2002
Global supply chain
Fast-response networks
Fashion retailing
Queuing and inventory models
Manufacturing-marketing interface
Time-based competition
15 pp
Field research
603-002-8 (21pp)

Strategy and General Management

9-796-128 SE Asia, Mexico; Cement; 1998 301-056-1

McGahan, A Re-structuring COMBINED CASE
Coxe, DO Mergers and acquisitions Jenkins, M
Harvard Business Publishing Globalisation Cranfield School of Management
Industry consolidation
Describes the opportunities that Competitive analysis This is a revised and combined version of
confront the African Communications the Formula One Constructors case
Group, an entrepreneurial organization 26 pp series. This case is used to address the
that plans to introduce a wireless Field research issues of achieving competitive
pay-phone system in Tanzania. Provides a advantage in a highly competitive,
foundation for the analysis of value technological and international context.
creation and of value capture. The The introduction outlines the
possibility of entry by other companies, IMD-3-0873 competitive nature of Formula 1 and the
the presence of a large supplier, and EASYJET: THE WEBS FAVOURITE fact that this is an industry of
uncertainties about demand all create AIRLINE sophisticated multi-million pound
important tradeoffs for the new venture. Kumar, N organisations competing at the highest
Used in an advanced course in Rogers, B international level. The case then focuses
competition and strategy to introduce a IMD on a constructor who achieved sustained
framework for evaluating a new business competitive advantage in a particular
based on existing technologies. Principal Stelios Haji-Ioannou, the 32-year-old Chief period. The case is used to illustrate a
concepts include value creation and Executive Officer and founder of easyJet number of principles relating to the
capture, competitor analysis, supplier airlines, achieved profitability for the first resource-based view of strategy, such as
evaluation, and financial forecasting. time in 1999, almost 4 years after defining sources of competitive
launching his London-based low cost advantage; the problems of imitation
Africa carrier. The concept behind easyJet was
Competition and appropriation of key resources; and
to offer low cost airline service to the the idiosyncratic and path-dependent
Decision analysis masses, and the airline accomplished this
Entrepreneurship nature of sources of advantage.
by adopting an efficiency-driven
Industry structure operating model, creating brand Global; Motorsport, Formula One; Large;
Telecommunications awareness, and maintaining high levels of 1950-2003
20 pp customer satisfaction. A key issue in the Sustained competitive advantage
Field research case is whether the airline will continue to Resource based view
5-797-029 (29pp) grow and survive in the highly Core competence
competitive low cost segment of the Distinctive capabilities
market. In 2000, Stelios was anxious to try Strategy
his hand at launching other businesses, Formula 
so he started a chain of Internet cafes. F
CEMEX IN ASIA Some questioned whether Stelios would 16 pp
be able to successfully transfer his low Field research
Williamson, P cost business model to Internet cafes. 399-001-8 (8pp)
Butler, C Undeterred, Stelios moved ahead with his
INSEAD plan to create easyEverything, with the
The case is set in the context of the belief that he could make a profit by
restructuring of the cement industry in encouraging customers to surf the 9-910-036
SE Asia, post-crisis. Western cement Internet, send e-mail and shop on-line. GOOGLE INC
giants had long had ambitions to gain a Instructors should note thateasyJetis the
foothold in this highly profitable first case in a series that includes Edelman, B
industry as part of their globalisation easyEverything: The Internet Shop and Eisenmann, TR
strategy. The 1997 currency crisis gave www.easyrentacar. com. Harvard Business Publishing
them the opening they had been Europe; Airline; 1,000 employees, US$125 Describes Googles history, business
waiting for, and the case describes the million turnover; 2000 model, governance structure, corporate
battle waged by Cemex and its Marketing strategy culture, and processes for managing
competitors to acquire these assets. The Industry analysis innovation. Reviews Googles recent
case describes the acquisition strategy Service management strategic initiatives and the threats they
of a western global company put into pose to Yahoo, Microsoft, and others.
practice in SE Asia. It allows discussion 22 pp Asks what Google should do next. One
on the acquisition process, from the Field research option is to stay focused on the
initial setting of attractive investment IMD-3-0873-T (19pp) companys core competence, ie,
targets, through research, negotiation developing superior search solutions and
to due diligence, and post-merger monetizing them through targeted
integration. It also gives an overview of advertising. Another option is to branch
the wider competitive context. into new arenas, for example, build
Google into a portal like Yahoo or MSN;

Strategy and General Management

extend Googles role in e-commerce (A) and (B) are designed to be used United States; 20,000 employees, $2
beyond search, to encompass a more together to contrast two differing views billion revenues; 1996-1997
active role as an intermediary (like eBay) of major events in a companys history, Competition
facilitating transactions; or challenge both of which are important for a general Internet
Microsofts position on the PC desktop by manager to understand. 19 pp
developing software to compete with United States, Japan; 1948-1974 Published sources
Office and Windows. Management styles 5-798-119 (15pp)
20,100 employees, $22 billion revenue; 2010 Change management
Business models Business policy
Corporate governance Corporate strategy
Corporate strategy 9 pp 9-396-357
Entrepreneurship Field research MCKINSEY & COMPANY: MANAGING
Competition 5-386-034 (7pp) KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING
Network effects 5-704-022 (27pp)
Search engines Bartlett, CA
Harvard Business Publishing
21 pp
Published sources This case is accompanied by a Video
5-910-050 (28pp) Short for Premium Educators to show in
9-798-063 class. To watch the video or display to
LEADERSHIP ONLINE (A): BARNES & students, click on the video icon.
NOBLE VS AMAZON.COM Describes the development of McKinsey
Ghemawat, P & Co as a worldwide management
9-384-049 Baird, B consulting firm from 1926 to 1996. In
HONDA (A) Harvard Business Publishing particular, it focuses on the way in which
Christiansen, ET Describes the attempt of a traditional McKinsey has developed structures,
Pascale, RT retailer, Barnes & Noble, to counter the systems, processes, and practices to
Harvard Business Publishing challenges posed by an Internet-based help it develop, transfer, and
Describes the history of Honda Motor start-up, disseminate knowledge among its 3,800
Company from its beginning through its consultants in 69 offices worldwide.
entry into and subsequent dominance of Concludes by focusing on three young
the US market. The history is explained consultants operating in each
primarily in terms of strategic factors and dimension of the firms organization -
quoted from two sources: an earlier case the local office, the industry practice,
and Boston Consulting Group report on
the motorcycle industry. Should be used
with Honda (B).
United States, Japan; 1948-1974
Business policy
Learning curves
do you write cases?
Corporate strategy
9 pp
Published sources ecch provides a range of support
5-386-034 (7pp) services to case authors:
5-704-022 (27pp)
global distribution
case writing workshop
Christiansen, ET
Pascale, RT Find out more at
Harvard Business Publishing
Describes the history of Honda Motor
Company from its beginning through its
entry into and subsequent dominance of
the US market as seen through the eyes
of Honda executives. The history of
Hondas successful entry into the US
market is viewed as highly adaptive and
fraught with error and serendipity. Honda

Strategy and General Management

and the firms competence center. 309-038-1 307-149-1

sufficient to maintain the firms vital Heracleous, L TAKEOVER ATTEMPT
knowledge development process. Papachroni, A Moeller, S
6,000 employees, $1.8 billion revenues; 1996 Warwick Business School Prodan, M
Innovation This case begins by describing Apples Cass Business School
Business policy near bankruptcy during the 1990s, and its Developed in co-operation with UK-
Knowledge management remarkable turnaround under Steve Jobs based retailer Marks & Spencer and
Knowledge transfer since 1997. The competitive landscape in containing quotes and information
Managing professionals the PC industry is outlined and Apples directly from Stuart Rose, the Chief
Multinational corporations key strategic decisions during the 1990s, Executive Officer of Marks & Spencer, this
20 pp including Jobskey strategic actions to case looks at the build-up to the
Field research accomplish Apples turnaround are unsuccessful hostile takeover attempt by
5-398-065 (16pp) noted. Apples culture, approach to Sir Philip Green in 2004. This case is
strategic human resource management, organised chronologically and sets out
and innovative capacity are explored, the principal tactics used by both Green
including Apples approach ofdeep on the bidder side and Rose for the
IMD-3-1335 collaboration. A key strategic issue noted successful defence. Financial and
NESTLS GLOBE PROGRAM (B): JULY in the case is Apples strategy of shareholder information for Marks &
EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING maintaining a proprietary, integrated Spencer is also provided. The case ends
system of hardware and software which with the withdrawal of Greens hostile
Killing, P is in contrast with the approach of most bid. It is designed to be used in a mergers
IMD other technology firms. The case ends and acquisitions or corporate finance
This is the second of a three-case series. with a forward-looking section, and by class at the post-graduate (MSc or MBA)
This short case continues the GLOBE story reiterating Apples strategic challenges level. A teaching note is available which
and is intended as an in-class handout to during 2009. The teaching objectives for discusses each of the offensive and
be used during the discussion of the (A) this case are: (1) understand industry defensive tactics and their success. The
case. It documents some of the structure and how an organisation might teaching note also includes suggestions
GLOBE-related discussion at Nestls July successfully try to negotiate the forces; for use in the classroom.
2000 Executive Board meeting, which (2) explore the nature of strategic United Kingdom; Retail; 8 billion; 2004
raises fresh issues for Chris. leadership through Steve Jobsleadership Mergers and acquisitions
at Apple Inc; (3) explore the nature of Takeover
Global; Food and beverage; Large; 2000
successful innovation and how it might Hostile bid
Change management
be accomplished; (4) raise some Defence (Defense)
2 pp corporate governance issues; and (5) Philip Green
Field research engage students in strategic analysis and Stuart Rose
IMD-3-1334-T (13pp) strategic thinking. The target audiences Marks & Spencer (Marks and
for this case are: (1) advanced strategy, Spencer)
leadership or innovation students (MBAs Retail
and MScs); and (2) executive education Advisors
IMD-3-1336 participants in strategy, leadership or Lawyers
NESTLS GLOBE PROGRAM (C): innovation courses. Arcadia
GLOBE DAY US; Computers, consumer electronics; Investment banking
Killing, P $32.4 billion revenues; 1985-2009 15 pp
IMD Strategic leadership Field research
Strategic innovation 307-149-8 (11pp)
This is the third of a three-case series. This
Strategic alignment
final case in the GLOBE series is set
Industry analysis
approximately 18 months after the B-
Strategic thinking
case. The setting is a meeting of Nestls
Corporate governance
market heads who are participating in a 302-057-1
daylong event to bring them up to date 25 pp THE EVOLUTION OF THE CIRCUS
on the progress of GLOBE. The morning Published sources INDUSTRY (A)
has been difficult for Chris Johnson - full 309-038-8 (17pp)
Kim, WC
of criticism - and the question is how he
Mauborgne, R
should handle the afternoon.
Bensaou, BM
Global; Food and beverage; Large; 2001 Williamson, M
Change management INSEAD
4 pp This is the first of a two-case series.
Field research Cirque du Soleil very successfully
entered a structurally unattractive circus

Strategy and General Management

industry. It was able to reinvent the about the proper boundaries of the firm,
industry and created a new market and about what Disneys strategy should
space by challenging the conventional be beyond 2001.
assumptions about how to compete. It United States; Entertainment industry;
value innovated by shifting the buyer 110,000 employees, $25.4 billion
group from children (end-users of the revenues; 1923-2000
traditional circus) to adults (purchasers Competitive advantage
of the traditional circus), drawing upon Corporate strategy
the distinctive strengths of other Diversification
alternative industries, such as the Strategy formulation
theatre, Broadway shows and the opera, Strategy implementation
to offer a totally new set of utilities to
more mature and higher spending 27 pp
customers. The case series is designed to Published sources
serve a variety of purposes in the value 5-705-495 (12pp)
innovation and creating new market
space teaching module of an MBA
strategy course or executive education
programme. The case series can be
equally used individually in a standalone
module on value innovation or as part of
a sequence of three to four sessions.
In both instances, the instructor can best
use it to cover the following topics: (1)
the value innovation logic (as compared
to industry and competitive analysis); (2)
the concept of value curve; and (3) the
six paths analysis for creating new
market space.
Canada, USA, Europe; Circus; 2001
Circus and live entertainment
Value innovation
Blue Ocean Strategy
Creating new market space
Redefining industry boundaries
7 pp
Field research
302-057-8 (24pp)

Rukstad, MG
Collis, DJ
Levine, T
Harvard Business Publishing
The first ten pages of this case are
comprised of the companys history, from
1923 to 2001. The Walt years are
described, as is the companys decline
after his death and its resurgence under
Eisner. The last five pages are devoted to
Eisners strategic challenges in 2001: (1)
managing synergy; (2) managing the
brand; and (3) managing creativity.
Students are asked to think about the
keys to Disneys mid-1980s turnaround,

ecch the case for learning

ecch UK Registered Office: ecch USA Registered Office: ecch is the trading name of The European 2012 The European Case Clearing House (a company
Cranfield University, Wharley End Babson College, Babson Park Case Clearing House, a non-profit-making limited by guarantee). All rights reserved. This publication
company limited by guarantee, registered is protected by UK copyright law and under international
Beds MK43 0JR, UK Wellesley MA 02457, USA
in England No 1129396 and entered in treaties. No part of this publication may be copied,
t +44 (0)1234 750903 t +1 781 239 5884 the Register of Charities No 267516. stored, transmitted, reproduced or distributed in any
f +44 (0)1234 751125 f +1 781 239 5885 VAT No GB 870 9608 93. It is also the trading form or medium whatsoever without the permission of
e e name of ecch at Babson, a non-profit- The European Case Clearing House. Photography 2004
w w making company. Tax ID No 04-31-43431. broad daylight. All rights reserved.