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TITLE : Suspended Solid (SS)


Suspended solids refer to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a
colloid or due to the motion of the water. It is used as one indicator of water quality.
Suspended solids are important as pollutants and pathogens are carried on the surface of
Solids can be classified as either filterable or non-filterable. Filterable solids may either be
settle able or non-settle able. Solids can also be classified as organic or inorganic.
Measurement of solids can be made in different water samples (river and pond) and it is
defined as residue upon evaporation of free water.
Total solids are the term applied to the material residue left in the vessel after evaporation of
a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at a defined temperature. Thus, total solids
are summation of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids.


To determine the total solids in the sample water given that is river and pond.


Total solids measurements can be useful as an indicator of the effects of runoff from
construction, agricultural practices, logging activities, sewage treatment plant discharges,
and other sources.
Total solids also effect water clarity. Higher solids decrease the passage of light through
water, thereby slowing more rapidly and hold more heat, this, in turn, might adversely
photosynthesis by aquatic plants. Water will heat upf effect aquatic life that has adapted to a
lower temperature regime.

As with turbidity, concentrations often increase sharply during rainfall, especially in

developed watersheds. They can also rise sharply during dry weather if earth disturbing
activities are occurring in or near the stream without erosion control practices in place.
Regular monitoring of total solids can help detect trends that might indicate increasing
erosion in developing watersheds. Total solids are related closely to stream flow and
velocity and should be correlated with these factors. Any change in total solids over time
should be measured at the same site at the same flow.

In the case of water:

Water with total solids generally is of inferior palatability and may induce an unfavourable
physiological reaction. It may be esthetical unsatisfactory for purposes such as bathing.
Total solids will be higher in highly mineralized waters, which result in unsuitability for many
industrial applications. It indicates effectiveness of sedimentation process and it affects
effectiveness of disinfection process in killing microorganisms. It is used to assess the
suitability of potential supply of water for various uses. In the case of water softening,
amount of total solids determine the type of softening procedure.
Corrosion control is frequently accomplished by the production of stabilized waters through
pH adjustment. The pH stabilization depends to some extent upon the total solids presents
as well as alkalinity and temperature.

In the case of wastewater:

Solids analyses are important in the control of biological and physical wastewater treatment
processes and for assessing compliance with regulatory agency wastewater effluent
Although the waste water or sewage normally contains 99.9 percent of water and only 0.1
percent of solids, but it is the solids nuisance value.
The amount of solids in wastewater is frequently used to describe the strength of the water.
The more solids present in a particular wastewater, the stronger that wastewater will be. The
environmental impacts of solids in all forms have detrimental effects on quality since them
cause putrefaction problems.
If the solids in wastewater are mostly organic, the impact on treatment plant is greater than if
the solids are mostly inorganic.


Our group is required to determine suspended solids from either river water pond water and
check whether the permissible limit is exceeded.


5.1 2 Filter paper (River and pond sample)

5.2 Pipette
5.3 Analytical balance
5.4 Dish tongs
5.5 Drying oven
5.6 Evaporating dish
5.7 Forceps
5.8 Filter membrane
5.9 Vacuum pump
5.10 Measuring cylinder


6.1 The analytical balance was switched on. This device must be switched on at least 30
mins before the test.
6.2 The filter paper was put inside the balance. The initial dry weight of the filter paper
was noted down.
6.3 50 ml of water sample was filtered by using the filter paper. The vacuum pump was
switched on until there was no water inside the filtered.
6.4 The filter paper was taken out by using the forceps and had been placed it on the
evaporating dish.
6.5 The evaporating dish that contains the filter paper was placed in the oven at 105C
for 50 minutes.
6.6 After 50 minutes, the filter paper was weighed again for final dry weight.
6.7 Step 1-5 was repeated by using another sample of water.

Table 8.1: Table of total suspended solids

Description Pond River
Weight of the filter paper before heated in the oven (g) W1 0.1346 0.1375
Weight of the filter paper after heated in the oven (g) W2 0.1294 0.1318
Weight of the residue (g) W 0.0052 0.0057
Volume of the sample (ml) V 50 50
Total suspended solid (mg/L) TSS 104 114

Sample of calculation for pond:

Weight of residue (g), W = W 1 W 2
= 0.1346 0.1294
= 0.0052 g

Weight of residue in mg = 0.0052 (1000)

= 5.2mg

Volume of the sample in L = 50 1000

= 0.05 L

Total suspended solid (mg/L), TSS = 5.2 0.05

= 104 mg/L

8.1 Michaud, Joy P. (1994). "Measuring Total Suspended Solids and Turbidity in lakes
and streams." A Citizen's Guide to Understanding and Monitoring Lakes and
Streams. State of Washington, Department of Ecology.
8.2 20th ed. New York: American Public Health Association; 1998. APHA. Standard
methods for the examination of water and waste\water.
8.3 2. Makhijani SD, Manoharan A. Nitrate pollution problem in drinking water sources:
Monitoring and surveillance. Paper presented in the workshop water quality field test
kits for Arsenic, Fluoride and Nitrate held from 8-9 Sept. 1999 at ITRC, Lucknow
8.4 3. Chinoy JN. Effects of fluoride on physiology of animals and human beings. Indian
J Environ Toxico. 1991;1:1732.
8.5 Clescerl, Leonore S.(Editor), Greenberg, Arnold E.(Editor), Eaton, Andrew D.
(Editor). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th ed.)
American Public Health Association, Washington, DC

Figure 12.1: The Analytical Balance that was used in this experiment because it is very

Figure 12.2: The picture of vacuum pump