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Recommendations for the

design of post-tensioned slabs
and foundation rafts
HP Commission on Practical Design
Members of the Working Group

J. Almeida, Portugal
J. Appleton, Portugal T. Friedrich,
Switzerland H. Ganz, Switzerland M.
Jartoux, France (FIP Commission 2)
V. Liicio, Portugal
M. Miehlbradt, Switzerland
L. Sc hu be rt, G e r man y
K. Schiitt, Germany (FIP Commission 4)
P. Regan, UK (CEB)

First published by SETO, 1999

11 Upper Belgrave Street, London SW1X 8BH, Tel: +44 (0)171-235 4535
ISBN 1 874266 41 7

C) Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte, 1998

All rights, including translation, reserved. Except for fair copying, no part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the FIP Managing Editor, Institution of Structural
Although the Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte does its best to ensure that any information it may give
is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence) is accepted in this respect by
the Federation, its members, its servants or agents.

2 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts


Foreword ........................................................................... 5 5 Construction............................................................... /5

5.1 General .............................................................. 25
1 General ....................................................................... 7
1.1 Introduction ..................................................... 7 5.2 Formwork and sliding layer.............................. 25
1.2 Design basis........................................................ 7 5.3 Placing and tolerance of the tendons.............. 25
1.3 Definitions .............................................................. 7 5.4 Concrete cover and tendon protection ............ 25
1.4 Notation ............................................................... 8 5.5 Prestressing ..................................................
5.6 Anchorage protection .................................. 25
2 Materials ..................................................................... 10 25
2.1. Concrete strength classes.................................... 10 6 Bibliography............................................................... 26
2.2 Reinforcing steel strength classes ....................... 10 Appendix A Foundation raft, Army Dispensary,
2.3 Prestressing tendons ........................................... 10 Switzerland ............................................................... 27
23.1 Prestressing steel ........................................ 10 Appendix B Prestressed ribbed slab for the Stock
2.3.2 Anchorages ............................................. 10 Exchange Building, Lisbon, Portugal ......................
23.3 Ducts and grouting of bonded tendons .... 10 38
23.4 Protection of unbonded tendons .............10
Design ................................................................... 11
3.1 General.......................................................... 11
3.2 Prestressing ....................................................... 11
3.2.1 I n i t i a l p r e s t r e s s 1 1
3.2.2 Effective prestress ................................... 11
3.2.3 Effects of prestress .............................. 11
3.3 Structural analysis ............................................... 12
3.3.1 Methods of analysis ................................ 12
33.2 Design action effects ........................... 12
3.4 Ultimate Limit States .......................................... 13
3.4.1 Bending ................................................... 14
3.4.2 Shear ........................................................ 15
3.4.3 Punching shear........................................... 16
3.5 Serviceability Limit States .................................... 18
3.5.1 Deformations ...........................................18
3.5.2 Cracking ...................................................18
3.5.3 Vibrations .......................................................... 20
4 Detailing ........................................................................................ 21
4.1 Post-tensioned floor systems ................................... 21
4.2 Tendon lay-out ...................................................... 21
4.2.1 General....................................................... 21
4.2.2 Tendon distribution .................................... 21
4.2.3 Tendon spacing............................................. 21
4.2.4 Minimum radius of curvature of
tendons ................................................ 21
4.2.5 Tendon supports .......................................21
4.2.6 Openings.................................................. 21
4.3 Non-prestressed reinforcement ........................... 21
4.3.1 Maximum spacing of bars ......................... 22
4.3.2 Partially restrained edges ....................... 22
4.3.3 Free edges ..................................................22
4.3.4 Hollow or ribbed slabs .............................22
4.3.5 Top reinforcement at columns.................22
43.6 Shear reinforcement ...................................22
4.3.7 At anchorages ............................................... 23
4.3.8 Resistance to progressive collapse........... 24
4.4 Concrete cover ........................................................ 24
4.5 Fire resistance ..................................................... 24

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 3


These recommendations have been prepared by a Working Group of FIP Commission 3 on

Practical Design. This work represents an update of the previous FIP Recommendations for
the design of flat slabs in post-tensioned concrete published in 1980.
In this work the new codes and recommendations were considered, and in particular the
CEB FIP Model Code 90. The new recommendations address post-tensioned flat slabs and

foundations rafts using either bonded or unbonded cables.

The document gives information on this subject as a whole but particular attention is
given to the structural analysis and prestressing effects, to the ultimate limit state of
punching shear and to the service limit state verification for deflection and crack control.
Detailing and construction recommendations are also presented. Two examples, one of a
flat slab and one of a foundation raft, illustrate the design of these structures and the
application of the present recommendations.
FIP Commission 3 also had the collaboration of Professor Paul Regan representing
CEB, M. Jartoux, representing FIP Commission 2, and M. Schutt, representing FIP
Commission 4.
It is the wish of Commission 3 that this document be of direct interest to consultants,
contractors and authorities and that it will assist in widening the use of post-tensioned slabs
in buildings.
The Commission wishes to express its thanks for the work done by the members and by
the Working Group.

Julio Appleton
FIP Commission on Practical Design

FI P De s i gn of po s t - t en s io ned s la bs an d f ou nd a ti on ra f ts 5
1 General
1.1 Introduction Beam-and-slab system
A slab which is supported by beams in one or more
These recommendations present a guide to the design of
directions or a slab in which beams are monolithical with
post-tensioned one-way and two-way slab systems and
the slab in one or more directions to act compositely with
foundation rafts using unbonded or bonded prestressing
tendons. They are intended for slabs used typically in the slab.
building applications and other structures, but are not
intended for use in bridges. Flat slab
The choice of bonded or unbonded tendons is primarily
A slab directly supported on columns.
a matter of preference. If properly designed, both systems
will lead to safe and durable structures.
Advantages claimed for the use of unbonded tendons
Waffle slab
A slab in which recesses are formed in the soffit such as to
very low friction coefficients create a series of ribs in two directions.
tendons fully protected against corrosion during con-
Transfer plate
small and flexible tendons for maximum tendon eccen- A slab which transfers loads from one vertical structural
tricity and small radius of curvature system above to another vertical structural system below
simple and fast placement of tendons the slab for which the vertical structural systems do not
.10 grouting operation align.
On the other hand, advantages of bonded tendons may
Foundation raft (mat foundation)
full exploitation of the yield strength of the prestressing
steel A continuous footing supporting an array of columns and/
or walls in several rows in each direction, having a slab-like
. improved cracking behaviour by activation of bond
forces shape with or without depressions or openings.
. provision of alternate anchorage through bond in case of
loss of a mechanical anchorage or tendon rupture at Prestressing anchorage
some section. A mechanical device which transfers the prestressing force
1.2 Design basis from a tendon into the concrete structure. Anchorages are
distinguished as per their use into stressing anchorages,
As far as feasible this document follows the principles set
non-stressing or dead-end anchorages, couplers (fixed or
out in the CEB/FIP Model Code 1990.
movable), intermediate anchorages, etc. Instead of a
mechanical device, a dead-end anchorage may be provided
by bond between tendon and concrete.

Prestressing duct
3 Definitions A tube which forms a continuous cavity inside the concrete
structure to allow placing and free movement of the tendon
during stressing. Prestressing ducts are corrugated for
bonded tendons, but may be smooth for unbonded
Bonded tendon tendons. Ducts may be made of steel or plastics (high
A tendon that is bonded to :the concrete by grouting or density polyethylene or polypropylene). The specified type
other approved means, and therefore is not free to move of duct should be compatible with its intended use.
relative to the concrete. Installation methods and friction characteristics may vary
with type of duct.
Unbonded tendon
A tendon in which the prestressing steel is permanently
free to move between anchorages relative to the concrete Growing compound
to which it is applying prestressing force. A compound which is used to fill the prestressing duct after
final tendon stressing. It provides permanent corrosion
One-way-slab protection of the prestressing steel. Grouting compounds
A slab which is supported such that under load it curves in may be rigid or flexible. Rigid compounds also provide
predominantly one direction. bond between the prestressing steel and a corrugated duct/
concrete structure. The most usual types of grouting
Two-way-slab compounds are cement grout and grease or wax for
A slab which is supported such that under load it curves in bonded and unbonded tendons respectively.
more than one direction.

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

1.4 Notation design value of the acting shear force per unit
Vsd width of slab
a deflection effective design value of the acting shear force
a0 elastic deflection vSd,eff
per unit width of slab
ax deflection considering time dependent effects wl plastic modulus of the punching control peri-
aadm allowable deflection limit meter
au deflection value at ultimate limit state z lever arm of the compression and tension
be strip width of slab chords
b dimension of critical perimeter along x zs distance of the tensile reinforcement from the
by dimension of critical perimeter along y A centroid of the cross-section
Cmin minimum cover Act accidental action
Cnom nominal cover area of concrete which is calculated to be in
d effective depth As tension just before cracking
e eccentricity Asp area of non-prestressed reinforcement
fi fundamental frequency of vibration AM,/ area of prestressed reinforcement
icd design value of concrete cylinder compressive Dxy area of shear reinforcement
strength E torsional stiffness per unit width of slab
fck characteristic value of the concrete cylinders mean value of the secant modulus of elasticity
compressive strength Ep of concrete
fir critical value of the vibration frequency ES modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendon
fct,eff effective value of axial tensile strength of Fd modulus of elasticity of reinforcement steel
concrete Fk design value of actions
fctd design value of axial tensile strength of concrete G characteristic value of actions (upper or lower)
fctk 0.05 0.05 fractile characteristic value of axial tensile K permanent actions
strength of concrete M coefficient dependent on the ratio between
fctk 0.95 0.95 fractile characteristic value- of axial tensile Mc column dimensions
strength of concrete. Msd bending moment
farn mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete P decompression bending moment
fp0.1k characteristic tensile strength of prestressing Pi design value of the acting bending moment
steel, defined as the 0.05 fractile of the yield effective prestress per unit width of slab
strength or 0.1% proof stress initial force in the prestressing steel at the active
characteristic tensile strength of prestressing Pm,o
fptk anchorage per unit width of slab
steel Pm,t mean value of the prestressing force after
fst longitudinal tensile reinforcement acting force transfer per unit width of slab
per unit width of slab Po mean value of the prestressing force at time t
fyd design value of tensile strength of reinforcing per unit width of slab
steel Pp0
prestressing force after transfer per unit width
fyk characteristic tensile strength of reinforcing of slab
steel, defined as the 5% fractile of the yield PRd
punching force equivalent to the compression
strength or 0.2% proof stress effect of the prestress
h total depth of the slab Ptk.
Q design value of the punching resistance force
k coefficient which allows for the effect of non- design value of the punching acting force
uniform self-equilibrating stresses characteristic value of the tendon strength
icc coefficient which takes account of the nature of variable actions
the stress distribution within section immedi- strength of the structure
ate'y prior to cracking. combination of actions or actions effects
I span Sq
a permanent actions or actions effects
/13,net span prestress or prestress effects
/710 decompression bending moment per unit width variable actions or actions effects
of slab angle between the shear reinforcement and the
rnsci design value of the acting bending moment per Ec
plane of the slab
unit width of slab EP
coefficient which allows for the effect of the
/71sdn, design value of the acting twisting moment per eccentricity of the punching force
unit width of slab Es compressive strain in the concrete
Psd design value of the transverse applied load per 1)
( tensile strain in the prestressing steel
unit area of slab characteristic elongation of prestressing steel at
spacing of reinforcement bars Yc maximum load
Sr radial spacing of shear reinforcement layers "Yr tension strain of reinforcing steel
/to length of the periphery of the load or column Yg angle between the shear force principle direc-
//1 control perimeter for punching "YP tion and the y-direction
V shear force per unit width of slab partial safety coefficient for the concrete
V0p equivalent decompression shear force per unit partial safety factor for actions
width of slab partial safety factor for permanent actions
VRd shear resistance per unit width of slab partial safety factor for prestress

8 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

'Yq partial safety factor for variable actions
- partial safety coefficient for the reinforcing and
prestressing steel
cp creep coefficient
friction coefficient between the tendons and
their ducts
0 angle between the inclined strut in compression
and the tension chord
p ratio of flexural tensile bonded reinforcement
crc compressive stress in the concrete
GrcP design longitudinal concrete stress, at the
centroid of the slab section, due to effective
0ct,max maximum tensile stress in the concrete
tensile stress in the prestressing steel
6p0 tensile stress in the prestressing steel after
transfer of prestress to concrete
crpi initial tensile stress in the prestressing steel at
the active anchorage
as tensile stress in the reinforcing steel
nominal shear stress
7,b coefficient
A/ increase of tendon length from the effective
force up to ultimate per plastic hinge location
o immediate prestress losses
AP, friction prestress losses
APt time dependent prestress losses
0 diameter of a reinforcement bar

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 9

2 Materials

2.1 Concrete strength classes Table 1 Characteristic strengths for concrete grades
Design should be based on a strength class of concrete Concrete grade C25 C30 C35 C40
which corresponds to a specified value of the characteristic
fck [MPa]
compressive strength, L k, with respect to cylinders, in fct, [MPa]
accordance with ISO 1920, ISO 2736/2 and ISO 4012. The Luc 0.05 [MPa]
characteristic strength is defined as that strength below fctk 0.95 [MPa]
which 5% of all possible measurements for the specified EE [GPa]
concrete may be expected to fall. 25 30 35 40
The characteristic compressive strength and the corre- 2.6 2.9 3.5
sponding tensile strengths for some currently used concrete 1.7 2.0 1.1 2.4
grades are presented in Table 1. The E-modulus values 3.4 3.8 4.3 4.7
27 29 30 31
indicated correspond to the reduced modulus of elasticity,
to account for the initial plastic strain, to be used where
only an elastic analysis of the structure is carried out. 23.4 Protection of unbonded tendons
For the evaluation of other parameters, e.g. shrinkage
Corrosion protection materials for unbonded tendons
and creep values, appropriate National or International
should comply with the requirements of the FIP Recom-
Standards should be used.
mendations Corrosion protection of unbonded tendons.

2.2 Reinforcing steel strength classes

The design may normally be based on a grade of steel
selected from the S400 or S500 series, where the numbers
denote the characteristic tensile strength, defined as the
5% fractile of ire yield strength or 0.2% proof stress.
Other steel grades, according to national practice, may be

2.3 Prestressing tendons

2.3.1 Prestressing steel
Prestressing steel should comply with appropriate Interna-
tional and National Standards. Widely accepted standards
are EN10138, and ASTM A421, A416, A722 for prestres-
sing wires, strands, and bars, respectively.

23.2 Anchorages
Tendon anchorages should comply with the requirements
of the FIP Recommendations for acceptance of post-
tensioning systems. These recommendations stipulate
minimum performance levels for the efficiency of prestres-
sing anchorages, load transfer from anchorages into
concrete structures, and fatigue strength of the tendon

2.3.3 Ducts and grouting of bonded tendons

Ducts for bonded tendons, grouting materials and grouting
procedures should comply with the requirements of the
FIP Guide to good practice Growing of tendons in
prestressed concrete.

10 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

3 Design
3.1 General
FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
In order to ensure an appropriate level of safety and of
(b) after transfer of prestress to concrete
suitability of the structure for its purpose, consideration
should be given in the design to different limit states. 6
P0 = 0-75fptk
Durability is ensured by a multistage protection strategy 0-po = 0.85fpuk (3.2)
which involves the following aspects:
. cementicious grout or corrosion protective grease
. sealing of anchorages
. protective sheathing 3.2.2 Effective prestress
In general it is sufficiently accurate to define the prestres-
highly impermeable cover sing force by the mean values:
. concrete cover thickness
Pno = Pi 11P0
. coating on concrete surfaces Pm.t = Pi APo APt (3.3)
steel protection. is the initial force at the active anchorage
Pni3O is the mean value of the prestressing force after
When conceiving and designing a structure proper con- transfer
sideration of accidental action effects should be made. P,,t is the mean value of the prestressing force at time t
Danger of progressive collapse should be eliminated. This AP0 are the immediate losses
comment is particularly relevant when unbonded tendons AP t are the time dependent losses
are used. In continuous slab systems intermediate an- In general Pm,0 is to be considered with permanent loads at
'r a g e s s h o u l d b e u s e d t o p r e v e n t a l o c a l fa i l u r e transfer and P m. t with the relevant combination of
generating a global failure. Accidental actions, such as permanent and variable actions.
fire, should be considered in design, directly and/or by Immediate and time-dependent losses should be evalu-
proper detailing. ated following the principles of international standards.
The limit states are placed in two categories: Immediate losses include those due to elastic deformation
. the ultimate limit states are those associated with of concrete at transfer, anchorage slip and friction. Time -
structure failure or other states prior to collapse which, dependent losses are due to creep and shrinkage of
for simplicity, are considered in place of collapse itself. concrete and relaxation of prestressing steel.
. the serviceability limit states which correspond to states Friction losses are estimated by the formula:
beyond which specified service requirements are no AP, = P0(1 p.(a+kx)) (3.4)
longer met.
In general the designer chooses the most critical limit and values for ;.L. and k depend on the type of tendon,
states for design, and checks either by simplified calcula- protection, and on the material and characteristics of the
tions, by using ,special detailing provisions or by direct duct. They should be given in technical approval docu-
verification, the other limit states. ments. As a guide, the following values are commonly
For flat slabs particular attention should be given to adopted in the design of post-tensioned slabs:
checking the serviceability limit state of deflection and the
ultimate limit state of punching shear. Kim)
A distinction needs to be made between bonded and Bonded tendons
bonded prestressing regarding their structural effects, in a steel duct 0.17/0.20
0.005 to 0.01
Unbonded tendons
zcially when checking ultimate limit states. plastic coated 0.05/0.07

3.2 Prestressing
These recommendations apply to prestress from post-
tensioned tendons, bonded or unbonded. 3.2.3 Effects of prestress
The effects of prestress can in general be considered by
using two equivalent approaches:
3.2.1 Initial prestress (a) treating prestressing, defined by its mean value, as an
The tensile stress in the tendons should not exceed the external action. The remaining contribution of the
following values: prestressing steel may be taken into account by
(a) at the time of tensioning assessing its stress increase for loads applied after
prestressing. This approach can be applied both for
Crpi = 0.80f ptk
SLS and ULS verifications
Crpi = 0.9040 .ik (3.1)
(b) considering, for a ULS check, the contribution of the Frame models, such as the equivalent frame model
prestressing steel as a resisting effect. In this case, described in ACI 318/89 and BS 8110, are commonly used
only hyperstatic effects due to prestress may be for the analysis of vertical and horizontal actions, if the
included in the action effects. structural system and the applied loads are sufficiently
The present document specially addresses slabs in build- regular. In quantifying the stiffness of the equivalent
ings. The deflection control is an important consideration, horizontal elements, special care must be taken. This
and the balancing load technique is a very useful method to aspect becomes important when high moments are
analyse these structures. For these reasons prestress is in transferred between the slabs and the columns, as is the
general treated as an action. case in structures under horizontal actions.
In addition to vertical equivalent loads, prestress induces For foundation rafts the soil-structure interaction should
axial forces which can be considered uniformly distributed be adequately considered.
all along the slab, except for regions near anchorages,
where cables are concentrated.
Prestressing involves a shortening of the slab. Such 3.3.2 Design action effects
shortening is not possible without restraints, in general. Values of actions should be chosen in accordance with
Restraints are caused- by adjacent structural elements appropriated National or International Standards. Actions
below and above the slab, such as columns and walls for include applied forces (direct actions), imposed deforma-
slabs and, in addition, by subgrade friction for foundation tions (indirect actions) and environmental attack.
rafts. The designer should check the consequences of such According to the actions' variation in time they are
restraints on the slab and on the adjacent elements classified as:
connected to the slab. . permanent actions (G), including dead loads, prestres-
Subgrade friction between slab and ground is necessary sing, shrinkage, creep
to transfer lateral loads from the superstructure through . variable actions (Q), including imposed loads, tempe-- -
the foundation raft to the ground. ture, wind, snow, earthquake
The shortening of the slab due to temperature variations,
shrinkage and prestress, introduces friction forces at the . accidental actions (A), including fire, explosions, impact.
interface of slab and ground. The friction forces depend on The earthquake action is considered as an accidental
the type of ground, contact pressure between slab and a c tion in so me Nat ion al S tandard s. -
ground, applied shortening, and other parameters. The design value of actions (Fd) is expressed in general
The friction forces will affect the concrete stresses in the terms by:
foundation raft. The subgrade friction is often considered
Fd = YCFk or Fd = "YftliFk (3.5)
as a pure friction problem (subgrade friction = contact
pressure x friction coefficient). As a guide, friction coeffi- where:
cient values between 0.5 and 2.0 have been used in design. "Yt is a partial safety factor (-ye = t for serviceability limit
For relatively short slabs and small applied shortening, states)
elastic deformations of the ground may reduce subgrade
friction considerably.
111 is a coefficient such that APFk represents a frequent,
quasi-permanent or combination value of the action,
3.3 Structural analysis and
Fk may be defined by its characteristic value (upper or
3.3.1 Methods of analysis lower), by its mean value or by a specified value.
The analysis of prestressed slabs may be performed Prestressing can in general be considered as the
applying linear elastic, plastic or non -linear material average value in each span.
models, using finite elements, grid or frame structural Designers should consciously select appropriate lr
models. It should be noted that adequate ductility of the arrangements with due consideration of the type and
reinforcing steel is necessary (see CEB-FIP Model Code of the structure.
1990). For building slabs subjected predominantly to vertical
Linear elastic methods are generally accepted as a
suitable model both for SLS and ULS verifications. loads, the following arrangement of loads are in general
The static theorem of the theory of plasticity may be sufficient:
used for the ULS check. This method is recommended . any two adjacent spans loaded with the design action
since it yields a lower bound for the ultimate load of the loads and other spans loaded with the permanent loads,
system. To this end, a plausible distribution of the internal or all the spans fully loaded
forces is chosen, and the cross-sections or elements of the . alternative spans loaded with the design action loads and
structure are designed accordingly. The assumed distribu- other spans loaded with the permanent loads.
tion of internal forces has to satisfy the conditions of
equilibrium, and should in general not differ too much Prestressed foundation rafts receive loads transmitted by
from the elastic model. the superstructure, by prestressing effects and by the
When using the finite element method for ULS, it is reaction of the soil. In general the fol lowing load
acceptable to use zero torsional stiffness (Dy= 0) in the arrangements are sufficient:
case of ribbed slabs. The same comment applies when the . maximum design load from the superstructure combined
grid model is used for both solid or ribbed slabs. with minimum or maximum design loads applied directly
The kinematic theorem (yield line analysis) may be to the raft foundation
applied to slabs where the failure mechanism is well
FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
12 Non-linear analysis by FEM can be used as a verification
process for complex structures. --
. permanent loads of the slab and superstructure at 3.4 Ultimate Limit States
transfer of prestress.
Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse or
For buildings subjected to lateral loads, the following load with other forms of structure failure. These include:
combinations should also be considered:
. maximum vertical loads combined with unfavourable . loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it,
lateral loads considered as a rigid body
. maximum lateral loads combined with minimum vertical f ailure by excessive deformation, rupture or loss of
loads. stability of the structure or any part of it.

Ultimate Limit States The limit state checks are made by comparing the design
action or action effects (Sd) with the corresponding
The combination of actions or actions effects may be strength of the structure (Rd), i.e. verifying that:
written in the form:
Sd = "Yg Sg -Yp Sp "yo Sq1 + "Yqi Sql (3.6) Sd < Rd (3.10)

force and punching shear will be treated with speCial

-Nu and values given by National Standards shall be used.
reference to prestressed slabs.
Usual values are:
The design strength of the structure or of any cross-
Yg Yp %/q
section should be determined with the following partial
max 1.35 1.0 1.5 safety coefficients for materials:
min 1.0 1.0 0
. concrete -yd = 1.5
*-yp = 1.35, applied to the initial force at the anchorage, should be used for . reinforcing and prestressing steel -y, = 1.15
',ecking local effects in the anchorage zone.
Ultimate limit states of axial force, bending, torsion, shear

Redistributions of forces and moments may occur in a The design strength for concrete is presented in Table 2:
structure because of cracking, time -dependent effects,
Table 2 Concrete design strengths
differential deformations of supports, inelastic deforma -
tions and other factors. Therefore the designer may choose Concrete grade C25 C30 05 C40
not to strictly use the action effects determined with the
theory of elasticity. In fact in the model adopted fed [MPa] 16.7 20.0 23.3 263
fad [MPa] 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7
(equivalent frame, grid, slab) assumptions and simplifica-
tions are made which themselves influence the elastic
results. The simplified diagram given in Fig 1 can be used to
evaluate the resistant action effects under uniaxial com-
pression stress states,
Serviceability Limit States The idealised diagram presented in Fig 2 can in general
The combinations of actions effects (S) may be written in be used for mild steel or steel cold worked by drawing or
the forms: rolling.
Rare combination (Short-term) Fig 3 illustrates recommended stress strain character-
istics of prestressing steel for design purposes.
G+P+Qi+ (3.7) Fig I. Design stress-strain diagram for concrete

. Frequent combination (3.8)
S (G + P 411Q +

. Quasi-permanent combination (long-term) S(G + P +

412.1Qi) (3.9)
In the quasi-permanent combination the situation at
transfer of prestress (final or intermediate construction
-0.002 -0.0035
phases) is to be considered.
The Theory of Elasticity with consideration of time-
dependent effects is in general to be used for SLS

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

Steel grade 8400 8500
fvd [MPa] 348 435

Fig 4. Model for evaluation of the stress increase in

unbounded tendons
The stress increase in the unbonded tendon is equal to
Acr = AeE p , where AE is the tendon length increase
uniforml _el uteri_ over thiTength of - tendon-betwccn
he maximumstress, effective plus the stress increase, is
limited to the design strength of the prestressing steel.
For slabs of typical slenderness (1/h between 30 to 40) the
deflection corresponding to ultimate limit state of the slab
may be assumed to be span/50.1
Fig 2. Design stress-strain diagrams for reinforcing steel
Bending with torsion
The influence of twisting moments on the design of
bending reinforcement should be properly considered.
0.9 fp* The following simplified approach may be used for
slabs with orthogonal x and y reinforcement.
Top reinforcement, (in each direction x, y), is necessary
if Misd < 0, where:
M S d = m s d I M Sd x y l (3.13)
Bottom reinforcement, (in each direction x, y), is
necessary if MiSd > 0, where
rn'sd = n2sd IMSdxyl (3.14)

Bending at edge and corner columns
Moments can be transferred between the slab and an edge
Fig 3. Design stress-strain diagram for prestressing steel or corner column, by bending of a strip of slab with a width
(be ). This width should not be greater than the values
3.4.1 Bending defined in Fig 5.
The design bending moment of this strip must not be
Stress increase in unbonded tendons greater than:
For unbonded prestressing steel no force increase beyond
effective force should be considered without detailed I
Mmax = 0.27bed2fcd (3.15)
calculations. v
i be
At ultimate the possible tendon force increase of _____________________
unbonded tendons is primarily a geometrical problem, Nbe w i al.0_04.4c4+444
and depends essentially on the maximum deflection of the
slab and on the increase of tendon length between
anchorages. The increase of tendon length from the
effective force up to ultimate may be estimated assuming ct
Yield lines elair11.4.1110.

rigid body failure mechanisms. For an internal lever arm of o m o m mo w n 0 1 1 1 1 1 .

314 of the effective depth of the section, the tendon length

increase per plastic hinge location is:
Aistipp = 1.5d(aul 1) (3.11) be4 b/2

A/span = 3.0d(au I) (3.12) + a f c2 cl +a

: 46
where au is the assumed deflection value at ultimate limit
state, I is the span and d is the effective depth.
The total tendon len thpar) is the
sum of tendon length increases in the plastic hinges of one _
critical_ _span,
Fig 5. Transferred

14 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

moments at edge and corner columns
Moments can be transferred between the slab and the where P is the effective prestress per unit width of slab at
edge or corner column by torsion of an edge beam or strip the region, and h is the slab thickness. In the evaluation of
of slab if reinforced for that purpose. (r e p the effects of the restraints caused by adjacent
structural elements must be properly considered.
The model to adopt for the shear resistance depends on
3.4.2 Shear the flexural state of the slab. For regions where bending
The following paragraphs apply to solid or ribbed slabs in cracks are not expected a concrete tensile stress control
regions subjected to distributed loads. may be considered instead of the methods described. This
The acting shear force per unit width of slab, including situation may occur at simple supported slab edges, while
bending cracks are usually expected at zones with
the prestressing effects, is given by: continuity.
vsd = vsd(Psd, (3.16) When bending cracks are not expected the following
inequality shall be verified:
Shear without shear reinforcement act.max <fctd (3.23)
The transverse shear resistance per unit width of slab may where Ltd is given in Table 2, and (Tax= is given by:
be given by:
act. max =
VRd = 0.12W00 pfck)113d (3.17)
where: In this expression acp is
the design longitudinal stress at the centroid of the slab
= 1 + V200/d, with d in mm (3.18) section, and T is the nominal shear stress, which, for solid
p is the ratio of flexural tensile bonded reinforcement slabs, may be given by expressions (3.22) and (3.25),
extending for a distance at least equal to d beyond the respectively.
section considered.
The value of f ck shall be limited to 50MPa for the = 3 VS4 (3.25)
purpose of this expression.
In slab regions where vx and vy are of the same order the
acting principal shear force is then given by Bending and shear with shear reinforcement
The effective acting shear force may be determined as in
V= x y (3.19)
the previous section. The transverse shear resistance per
acting on a surface at an angle 4 = arc tan (vy/vx) to the y unit width of slab may be given by:
axis. The ratio of flexural reinforcement is then taken as VRd fyd Z (cot 8 + cot ct) sin a

Asw (3.26)
p = p, cos 4 4 + py sin4 4), where px and py are the ratios of
reinforcement near the face in tension in x and y direction. 8 is the angle between the inclined strut in compression and
Except at simple supports flexural tensile reinforcement the tension chord (Fig 7). This angle may be chosen in the
should extend at least 0.6 d beyond the section at which it is range fro m 45 to 18. 4 (co t 0 .1 and co t 0 .3 ,
no longer required according to flexural calculations. respectively). ac is the angle between the transverse
The acting shear force given by expression (3.16) may be reinforcement and the tension chord.
reduced by the equivalent decompression shear force vop In this expression s is the spacing of the shear
per unit width of slab, as follows: reinforcement (24, 5,,) and z is the lever arm of the
Vstheff = VSd(PSd, P )VoP (3.20) compression and tension chords.
In any case the acting shear force should not be greater
n20 h2 than:
VoP VSd with mo = Cr& (3.21) VSd (PSd < f,d2z sine 6(cot 8 + cot a) (3.27)
where msd = MSel(PSd, P) and v sd = vsapsd, P) are the where
internal effective forces at the considered zone and a ct, is
the design longitudinal stress' at the centroid of the slab fcd2 =-- 0.60 1 0 ck f d
25 c (3.28)
section, which, for solid slabs, may be obtained from the
following expression:
CrcP = Forces from the


P (3.22)

r \ zs

Zone where no bending Zones where cracking Compression

cracks are expected due to bending is expected Forces from the strut
tension chord
Fig 6. Shear regions compression chord
Fig 7. Model for cracked zones with shear reinforcement
FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
The longitudinal tensile reinforcement may be designed for the following acting force per unit width of slab (fst):
wil . ,
1.1 1)
IMSd (Psd, P)I P(z Zs) vsd(Psch P)
f st + (cot 8 cot a)
z z 2 where ex and e y represent the eccentricities M sd (psd ,py
Expressions (3.35) and (3.36) may be used instead of
where z s is the distance of the tensile reinforcement from (3.31) and (3.34) as a good approach for eccentric
the centroid of the cross-section.
The shear reinforcement should be adequately anchored
to the chords. Psd + Pp

3.4.3 Punching shear

This section relates to the punching of slabs of constant
depth within the critical slab area. The slab may have
different levels of prestress in two orthogonal directions, or
be prestressed in only one direction.
. Effective applied load 2.3.h0.1
An effective punching load should be defined taking into
account the effects of an eventual moment transfer
between the slab and the column:
(a) Psd (Psd
PSd. eff = 3PSd(PSd, P) (3.30)
where Psd (psd, 11 is obtained from the analysis of the load
and the equivalent prestress forces. Psd may be reduced by
the loads, including the equivalent prestress, acting inside a
perimeter at a distance 0.5h from the periphery of the
applied force or column (Fig 8(a)). For the effect of the
prestress this is equivalent to reduce, to the reaction, the
value of P tan a of the cables inside that perimeter (Fig
8(b)), which is in many cases a relevant contribution.
The value of p may be taken as:
E3 = 1 + K AlSd ___(PSd P)ac (331)
1- sdkiuSd, , WI
Fig 8. Effective punching load
The control perimeter (u 1) shall be taken at a distance
2.0d from the periphery of the applied force or column and
should be constructed so as to minimize its length (Fig 9).
The parameter w 1 is taken as
wi (3.32)
where d/ is an elementary length of the perimeter and e is
the distance of d/ to the axis about which the moment Msd
The coefficient K depends on the ratio between the
column dimensions c1 (parallel to the eccentricity Msd/Psd)
and c2 (perpendicular to the eccentricity).
bx bx

0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0

K 0.45 0.60 0.70 0.80

For interior rectangular columns:

w1 =21 + ci c2 + 4c2d + 16d2 + 2irdc1 (3.33)

where c1 and c-, are the column dimensions, respectively

parallel and perpendicular to the load eccentricity.
In the case of double eccentricity of the punching force
the following expression may be used:
Fig 9. Control perimeter u1

16 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

punching, while 13 =1.15 may be used for gravity loads as
proposed by Eurocode 2. 13=,+


Anchorage zone

= 1 +1.8

For interior circular columns:

wl = (D + 4 d ) 2

13 = 1 + 0.6ir (3.36b) Fig 10. Control perimeters at edge columns

where D is the diameter of the column.

The effective punching force, given by expression (3.30), where u1 and UT are obtained from Figs 10(a) and 10(b)
respectively, and is the component of the eccentricity
may be reduced by the equivalent decompression punching parallel to the slab edge. If the eccentricity is not toward
force Pp& the interior the previous section on effective applied load
PSd.eit =13 Psd(osd, P) Ppo (3.37) ul applies.

The . compression effect of the prestress may be ui

FIP Design of post-
quantified as: tensioned slabs and foundation rafts Slab-corner column
Pyobx + Pxoby connections
My0 D = P (3.38)
P0 Sd P = bx (3.39) At slab-edge column connections, where the eccentricity is
Mysd + by toward the interior of the slab, the value of 13 must be
where b x and b y are the determined according to the following:
dimensions of the control perimeter along x and y,
and Po and P y o are the decompression forces (3.42)
corresponding to the prestress forces in those directions.
The decompression forces should be evaluated as: where u1 and u; are obtained from Figs 11(a) and 11(b),
MX0 n
respectively. If the eccentricity is not toward the interior
Py0 = E Sd the previous section on effective applied load applies.

where P s d = P S d (Psd, P ) is the design value of the

punching force and MxSd = MxSd (Psd, P) and Mysd = Mysd Punching resistance
(Psd, P) are the total bending moments at the column face
in the width bx and by, respectively. Mx, and Myo stand for Punching resistance without shear reinforcement
the decompression moments in the width b x and b y , The punching resistance force should be taken as:
respectively, defined as
bxh2 bvh2 PRd = 0.12k (100 pfck)1/3uid (3.43)
Mx o cpy and M yo = a cpx-1-- (3.40)
where g + 000/d with d in mm and Lk in MPa. The
where o-cpx and acpy are the mean concrete stress in the slab effective depth of the slab is assumed constant and may be
region due to the effective prestress, obtained from taken as d.(d x+ d y)I2 where dx and dy are the effective
expression (3.22). depths of the reinforcement in two orthogonal directions.
If more than one layer of bonded reinforcement exists, the
mechanical centre of resistance must be considered in the
Slab-edge column connections definition of dx and dr
At slab-edge column connections where the eccentricity The ratio of reinforcement may be calculated as
perpendicular to the slab edge is towards the interior the P = Or, ,py where px and py are the ratios, in orthogonal
value of 13 must be determined according to the following: directions, of all bonded steel. In each direction the ratio
/i Msdui
should be calculated for a width equal to the side
(3.41) dimension of the column (or loaded area) plus 2d to either
, side of it (or to the slab edge if this is closer).
u + rSdw I Unless relevant experimental evidence is available for
the concrete in question,-Lk should be limited to 50MPa.
Fig 11. Control perimeters at corner columns


The lesser of
t1.5d and 0.5c

(a) (b)
Punching resistance with shear reinforcement . vibrations which cause discomfort to people, damage to
PRd = 0.09k (100 P fck)1/3uid + 1.5d its,f'd
the building or its contents, or which limits its functional
asin (3.44)
sr Y effectiveness.
where Asv, is the total area of shear reinforcement in a The limit states checks are made by comparing the service
layer around the column, sr is the radial spacing of the values a, with the established allowable limits aadm, i.e.
layers and a is the angle between the shear reinforcement a < aadm (3.46)
and the plane of the slab. The value of f yd shall not be
taken greater than 300MPa. In some cases these checks can be replaced by equivalent
indirect verifications andior detailing provisions.
Maximum resistance For prestressed slabs the control of deflections is a main
In any case the maximum load, without considering the concern.
prestress effect, i3 Psd (PSd) must not be greater than:
PRd. max = 0.5 fcd2uod (3.45)
3.5.1 Deformations
where uo is the length of the periphery of the load or
column and fcd2 is defined in 3.27. At corner and edge In establishing the allowable limit values for deformations
the specific requirements of the use of the structure have to
columns the segments of this perimeter normal to slab be considered. As a guide, the following limits may be
edges must not be greater than 1.5d (Fig 13). applied for floors and roofs:
(a) deflection under quasi-permanent combination of
actions, 1/300
3.5 Serviceability Limit States (b) deflection that occurs after installation of partitions,
Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond for frequent loads, 1/500 or I5mm, whichever is V
which specified service requirements are no longer met. lesser.
These include:
The deflection in post-tensioned slabs is primarily influ-
. deformations or deflections which affect the appearance
or effective use of the structure or cause damage to enced by the slenderness of the slab, lfh, by the degree of
finishes or non structural elements prestress and by the magnitude of the loads. In general
deflections do not become critical, for continuous flat slabs
in both directions, if the span/depth ratio is chosen
according to the tables of Fig 14. In using Fig 14, the
a following points may be noted:
. the presented values have been obtained considering
that prestress is designed to balance approximately 70%
of the quasi-permanent actions. More slender slabs may
be possible using higher degrees of prestressing

. for banded waffle flat slabs, permanent load values to be
e 0 4 used (G) should refer to the ribbed zone.
Explicit deflection calculations are necessary for slabs

which lie outside such hypotheses or when deflection limits

other than those referred in 3.5.1 are appropriate. If a
I Sr

significant part of the permanent loads is balanced by
prestressing the deformations can be calculated elastical.
Fig 12. Punching-shear reinforcement In general, concrete will be cracked only locally over the
columns and time dependent effects can be estimated by
ao(1 + c) (3.47)
Cables concentrated in the column strips are quite
effective in reducing the maximum deflection in the slab.

3.5.2 Cracking
Cracking limits
Appropriate limits, depending on the function and nature
of the structure, should be agreed with the client. In the
absence of specific requirements the following limits may
be assumed, under frequent combination of actions.
Fig 13. Control perimeter for maximum resistance cracking When tendons are self-protected the usual reinforced
of the concrete which is likely to affect concrete crack limits apply.
appearance, durability or water tightness, adversely

(b) limiting bar spacing and/or diameters in ordeir to limit
Exposure classes* Design crack width the crack width.
Normal (1/2) 0.2mm
Severe (3/4/5) decompression
Minimum reinforcement
* Exposure classes according to CEB/FIP Model Code 1990, see section The required minimum reinforcement may be calculated
4.4 later. by:
As. min = kf et. eff kcActicrs (3.48)

Verification of Limit State of cracking ALmin is the area of reinforcement within the tensile zone Act
is the area of concrete which is calculated to be in
Checks may be performed by: tension just before cracking
(a) providing minimum bonded reinforcement in all vs is the maximum stress permitted in reinforcement
immediately after formation of the crack. A value
regions likely to be subjected to significant tension lower than the yield strength of steel may be
due to direct loading or imposed deformations needed to satisfy the crack width limits.
fct,eff is the effective tensile strength of concrete when
cracks may first be expected to occur.
k is the coefficient which allows for the effect of non-
uniform self-equilibrating stresses, k= 0.8 in gen-
eral. 0.5 < k < 0.8 for slabs with h between 0.80m
and 0.30m, respectively (linear interpolation is
is the coefficient which takes account of the nature
of the stress distribution within section immediately
prior to cracking.
= 1.0 pure tension
= 0.4 bending without axial compression
=0.4 to 0.24 for bending with axial compression.
If the effective prestress is significant the minimum
reinforcement area may be reduced because of the
influence of the favourable effect of the compres-
sion force for bonded and unbonded tendons. The
value of ke may be obtained from Fig 15.
ocp represents the average compression in the slab and
should be carefully evaluated.
(g + q)/ g 7.5 10.0 15.0 20.0
The prestressing bonded steel area may be taken into
1.0 45 42 33 27
account as minimum reinforcement, provided that the
2.0 41 34 26 20
different bond behaviour of the tendons is considered. This
3.0 35 29 22 16
may be done by assuming prestressing tendons to be 50%

Control of crack width without direct calculation

When the minimum reinforcement is provided, the
limitation of crack widths to acceptable values can
generally be achieved by limiting bar spacing and/or bar
Crack widths will not generally be excessive provided
that for cracking caused by loading or restraint of imposed



(g + q)/g 10.0 15.0 20.0
1.0 37 . 29 24
2.0 30 22 17
3.0 25 18 14 0.8 2.0 a cp /f ct.eff

Fig 14. Span/depth ratios for interior panels in two - way Fig 15. Influence of the compression stress due to prestress
FT? Design of post - tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
deformations, the bar sizes given in the following table are
not exceeded.
Steel stresses 0
(MPa) (mm)
160 25
200 16
240 12
280 8
320 6
360 5
400 4

The steel stresses should be evaluated for the frequent

combination of actions and the effective value of prestress.
If cracking is caused dominantly by restraint of imposed
deformations the steel stress value, a s, is the one adopted
in the calculation of As, min (eq. 3.48).
For the calculation of crack widths reference may be
made to CEB/FIP Model Code 90.

3.5.3 Vibrations
In order to avoid vibrations affecting the serviceability of
the structure, the fundamental frequency of vibration
should be greater than a critical value which depend on
the function of the buildings.
fi> f er (3.49)
Values of the critical frequency for some typical cases
are indicated in CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, as follows:
Type of structure fcr (Hz)
Gymnasia and sport halls 8.0
Dance rooms and concert halls without permanent 7.0
Concert halls with permanent seating 3.4

In the case of machine-induced vibrations it is not

possible to define a common range of adequate structural
natural frequencies. A coincidence between the funda-
mental frequency of the structure and of the operating
frequency of the machine must be avoided.
More sophisticated design rules have to be applied for
cases which lie outside the above recommendations or if a
claim for higher comfort is made. Reference may be made
to CEB Bulletin d'Information 209 Vibration Problems
in Structures, 1992.

20 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

4 Detailing
4.1 Post-tensioned floor systems
Floor systems can be classified in several different ways.
Flat slabs can be solid, voided or waffle. Some of the more
common systems are illustrated in Fig 16.
Waffle slabs, banded or beam-and-slab systems are
structurally more efficient for increasing span lengths
and/or live load.

4.2 Tendon lay-out Fig 16. Post-tensioned floor systems

4.2.1 General
The distribution of the tendons may be analysed in each ers specifications. In general, spacing of supports is in the
particular situation. Depending on the system, it may be order of 1.0m.
more efficient to prestress the beams, the slab or both.
4.2.6 Openings
4.2.2 Tendon distribution tendons can in eneral be deviated to
The tendons can either be concentrated in the column each side of the o enin . The bends should not be close to
strips or they can be partially distributed in one or both t e opsingy tendons are terminated at the ed es offifie
irections (Fig 17). In _general more than 50% of the openings, an ana ysis sht1'';tTdtnacle---i; ensure su cient
"straigthEr groper behaviour. The design model should
tendons should be placed in the column_ strips at least in
provide therequired reinforcement, ordinary steel or fiost-
one direction. At least two cables should cross the columns. leristdiiiiii tendons, to strengthen the edges around open-
The column strip solution is easier to execute. Solution ings.
(b) induces balancing loads in a more uniformly distributed
fashion but, on the other hand, requires careful planning
on the placing sequence since the tendons cross each other.
In many cases options (c) and (d) appears to be a good
compromise of the previous solutions. 4.3 Non-prestressed reinforcement
A slab should have two lower reinforcement meshes and
two upper reinforcement layers over the support lines. The
4.2.3 Tendon spacing given rules apply separately to each layer.
Sanded tendons_can be placed side by side in groups of not (a) (b)
more than four monostrands, leaving a space between the
groups of at least 0.10m. As a general - -idle, for lightly
reinforced slabs, the maximum spacing of tendons or (c) (d)

bundled groups of tendons should not exceed six times the

slab thickness. Fig 17. Tendon distribution

2.4 Minimum radius of curvature of tendons
Minimum radius of curvature of tendons should follow the
post-tensioning supplier's specification. As a guide a
minimum radius of:
Rmin (m) = 3 .17 ; (MN); Ptk = Tendon ultimate load
may be used for 713._..AigEallthita_d_QIIS- For single strand
tendons and individually greased and plastic sheathed
tendons minimum radii of 1.5m and 2.5m should be used
for 0.5 inch (13mm) and 0.6 inch (15mm) strand,

4.2.5 Tendon supports

Tendon supports should be specified so as to assure the
tendon profile assumed in the design. Maximum tendon
supports spacing should follow the post-tensioning suppli-

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

The yield force provided by non-prestressed secondary
reinforcement, together with any bonded prestressed
reinforcement, should not be less than 0.2 times that of
the main reinforcement in any section. For high concen-
trated loads this ratio should be at least equal to 0.33. The
Secondary reinforcement should be positioned perpendi-
cularly to-the main reinforcement. Appropriate minimum
bonded reinforcement percentages are needed in order to
satisfy requirements such as crack width control as referred Fig 19. Free edges
to in 3.5.2.
4.3.5 Top reinforcement at columns
4.3.1 Maximum spacing of bars All flat slabs should have a concentration of .bonded top
reinforcement at column positions to distribute cracking
Maximum spacing of bars should be as follows:
f or main reinforcement and to assure sufficient punching shear strength. The cross-
sectional area of such reinforcement should be at least
smax = lesser of 1.2 h and 350mm 0.5%, of the concrete section and be distributed between
f or secondary reinforcement
lines that are 2d either side of the column. These values do
smax = lesser of 2 h and 350mm not apply to foundation rafts (Fig 20).
where h denotes the total depth of the slab.

4.3.2 Partially restrained edges The shear reinforcement may consist of closed stirrups,
shear combs, bent-up bars or any other type of transver-
If the edge of a slab is partially restrained, and this restraint reinforcement which satisfies the resistance and anchor
has not been considered in the analysis, top reinforcement needs for the purpose. Bent-up bars may only be used in
should be at least the minimum prescribed in 3.52. This thick slabs.
reinforcement should extend from the face of the support The stirrups should surround the bars of the top and
over a distance of at least 0.21 (Fig 18). bottom longitudinal reinforcement. In general their slope
to the middle plane of the slab should lie between 45* and
90. The shear combs are composed of vertical bars with
4.3.3 Free edges anchor heads at one end and are welded to a steel strip at
Along the length of a free edge, a slab should contain the other end. The angle of bent-up bars to the horizontal
(Fig 19): should not be less than 30. Bent-up bars and stirrups shall
not be used in slabs thinner than 200mm.
reinforcement parallel to the edge consisting of at least
two bars, one in the top and the other in the bottom
Edge column
reinforcement perpendicular to the edge. The free ends
should extend up to a distance of at least 2 h from the

4.3.4 Hollow or ribbed slabs

The top slabs of ribbed or hollow block slabs should be
reinforced with a mesh providing, in each direction, a
cross-sectional area not less than 0.1% of the section of the
top slab.
If the rib spacing exceeds lm, the top slab should be
treated as a flange in order to design the reinforcement
needed to transmit the longitudinal shear forces, and as a
slab in order to design the reinforcement needed for Interior column

?-0.2 t ?-0.2

Edge solid strip

Edge beam Waffle slab
Fig 20. Top reinforcement at columns
Fig 18. Detailing on partially restrained edges
FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
4.3.6 Shear reinforcement
A2 - = 0.2 bwf`--"1:
( (43)
s min ytk
and should be provided in a distance d in the direction
perpendicular to the support
45Sa S9Q0 a 30
Stirrups Bent-up bars . the spacing of bars in the direction of the support should
not exceed 1.5d or 800mm whichever is the smaller.
Fig 21. Shear reinforcement

The spacing of the various layers of shear reinforcement Punching shear reinforcement
should satisfy the condition: The maximum spacing defined in expression 4.2 should be
respected in all radial directions.
s <0.75d (1+ cot a) (4.2)
For punching shear reinforcement consisting of bent-up
where a is the angle of inclination of the shear reinforce- bars account can be taken only of those passing above the
ment. area defined by a contour line located at a distance d/4
The distance between the face support and the nearest away from the contour line of the loaded area (Fig 22).
layer of shear reinforcement should not exceed d/2 as
defined in Fig 21.
43.7 At anchorages
It is necessary to ensure that the anchorage devices are
Zones close to linear supports able to transfer the design strength of the tendon to the
If shear reinforcement is required in accordance with 3.4.2, concrete. An adequate amount of non-prestressed reinfor-
the following conditions must be met: cement, transverse to the prestress force, should be added
. the shear reinforcement shall be at least equal to at anchorages to avoid bursting and splitting of the
concrete. In thin slabs this reinforcement may be combined

< 2d

I 1

s s 0.75d

Vertical stirrups Bent-upbars

- 1- --
r I- 1-

1. $
s< 0.75d


Shear combs Welded shear reinforcement

Fig 22. Punching shear reinforcement

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 23

with the reinforcement of the lo cal anchorage zone T he fo l lo wi n g mi n i mu m co ver s h o u l d b e ad o p t ed ,
specified by the post-tensioning supplier, according to CEB/FIP Model Code 90:

Exposure classes cmin (mm)

4.3.8 Resistance to progressive collapse
To reduce the risk of a progressive collapse in the event of 1. Dry environment 10
a local failure at a slab-column connection the following 2. Humid environment 25
requirements should be met:
3. Humid environment with frost and de-icing
. the total area of prestressed (A.,p) and non-prestressed agents
(As) reinforcement crossing the slab-column interfaces 4. In contact with earth or 40
should be such that 5. Sea water environment
A s f y d + A - v ~ (to
s p, f / ds P sd Scl, (4.4)
. the bars and tendons used in A5 and Asp should pass The quality of concrete cover is the primary corrosion
inside the main reinforcement of the column protection for ordinary reinforcement and internal tendons
in direct contact to the concrete or inside metal ducts.
. the non-prestressed reinforcement is positioned in the Tendons with other positive corrosion protection means,
lower layers and should be anchored on the slab by a full such as individually greased and plastic sheathed strands
anchorage length plus a length equal to d, or by a full and tendons inside wear-resistant plastic duct, providing
anchorage length within the column complete encapsulation from anchorage to anchorage, may
. the prestressed reinforcement may be positioned at the use smaller cover than given in above table but not less
top but it should drop in the slab as it approaches the than 15mm.
span (Fig 23). Attention should be paid to the corrosion protection of
To reduce the risk of progressive failure of unbonded tendon anchorages. A minimum cover of 25mm plus 10mm
tendons intermediate anchorages should be provided as allowance for tolerance is recommended. Otherwise,
deemed necessary by the designer, on average every two watertight and mechanically robust caps may be used fr
spans. protection of tendon end anchorages.

4.4 Concrete cover - 43 Fire resistance

There is not yet enough experimental information on the
The nominal cover to be specified in the design is equal to
behaviour of flat slabs under fire exposure. As a reference
the minimum cover plus a tolerance on the reinforcement the following values for the minimum cover shall be
positioning: considered for normal weight concrete.
cnom crnin + tolerance (4.5) Fire resistance period
It is common to accept a tolerance of 10mm, but not less (mm) Ih 2h 3h
than 5mm.
The minimum cover c m in is the minimum thickness of Continuous solid slabs 20 35 45
Continuous ribbed slabs 25 45 55
concrete between the surface of any reinforcement and the
nearest surface of concrete. It should be determined by
conditions of exposure and by the requirements for fire For simple supported or unrestrained slabs these values
resistance. shall be increased by 10mm.
Screeds or floor finishes of non-combustible materials
will contribute to the fire resistance in proportion to the'
thickness. Special care is to be given to the protection (
Interior column Prestressed
Non-prestressed the tendon anchorages.
reinforcement reinforcement
The fire resistance can be improved by the provision of
an insulating finish.
Ribbed slabs are not suitable for application when a long
fire resistance period is required. Unless specific studies are
performed, the rib width shall be at least 110, 150, 175 and
n. net + d
4 Lb. net + d
200mm, for fire resistance periods of lh, 2h. 3h and 4h


lb, net


Edge or corner column tb, net + d

Fig 23. Progressive collapse reinforcement

24 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

5 Construction
5.1 General
The safety and durability of a prestressed concrete FIP Design of post - tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
structure depends considerably on the quality assurance later drilling of holes for dowels, particularly in slabs with
process adopted in the construction process. unbonded tendons.
The construction of a prestressed slab or foundation raft Care should be taken that any previously placed ducts
generally does not differ from other prestressed structures. are not damaged during the placing of the ordinary
It should therefore be in accordance with appropriate reinforcement and during concreting. Welding operations
National or International Standards (CEB/FIP Model are not allowed near the tendons.
Code 90, FIP Recommendations Corrosion protection of During concreting particular care S must be taken to
unbonded tendons, FIP Guide to good practice Grouting of ensure proper placing and vibration of the concrete,
tendons in prestressed concrete). particularly in the zones with high concentration of
reinforcement, such as the tendon anchorages and the
5.2 Formwork and sliding layer columns heads.
Formwork and falsework should be designed in such a way
that, in addition to the loading, such as deadweight of 5.5 Prestressing
formwork, weight of concrete, weight of reinforcement,
During the prestressing operation measures to avoid
live load in the construction phase, the slab deflections and
accidents must be taken.
shortening due to prestressing of the tendons are also
In order to control cracking that could result from the
heat of hydration and shrinkage of the concrete, early
For foundation rafts it should be considered that the
stressing is advisable.
function of an eventual sliding layer is not affected during The stressing sequence has to be planned carefully and
construction. in such a way as to avoid overloading of the formwork or
structural elements.
5.3 Placing and tolerance of the tendons
The specified placing order of the tendons should be 5.6 Anchorage protection
strictly followed, particularly where the tendons cross each For unbonded tendons, the tendon force will be perma-
other. The tendons should be fixed in a smooth alignment nently transferred to the concrete by the anchorages.
without sudden changes in direction. The tendons should Proper corrosion protection of the anchorage is therefore
be held perpendicularly to their anchor plates or couplings extremely important to ensure the durability of a
for at least a length of 500mm. prestressed slab.
If tolerances are not stated in the design the following After prestressing, the stressing anchorages have to be
values should be adopted: carefully protected against corrosion (usually after grout-
ing at bonded tendons) by filling the anchorage recesses
Tol rance carefully with sealing mortar, or by other means such as
Slab thickness Vertically Horizontally anchorage caps.
h < 200mm h/40 20mm
h > 200mm .5mm 20mm

Tendon fixings should be sufficiently rigid and at

sufficiently close distances to prevent displacement of the
tendons or local damage of the sheathing during the
concreting operation.

5.4 Concrete cover and tendon protection

The tolerance of concrete cover . must be considered
particularly at the high and low points of . the tendons'
alignment. The concrete cover prescribed in the design
should not be reduced in any case because of its negative
effects on the corrosion protection, the fire resistance and
to consider the possibility of setting dowels.
In the regions of low tendon cover it can be useful to
insert fixing devices into the concrete in order to avoid
6 Bibliography
1. FIP Recommendations for the Design of Flat Slabs in
Post-tensioned Concrete (using unhanded and bonded
tendons), Cement & Concrete Association, Wexham
Springs, 1980.
2. Concrete Society Technical Report N 43, Post-
tensioned Concrete Floors Design Handbook, Concrete
Society, London, 1994.
3. ACI-ASCE Committee 423 'Recommendations for
Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Ten-
dons', Committee Report, ACI Structural Journal, May-
June 1989.
4. ENV 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2, Design of Concrete Struc-
tures Part 1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings,
CEN, Brussels, 1991.
5. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, Design Code, Thomas
Telford Ltd., London, 1993.

26 HP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

Appendix A Foundation raft, Army
Dispensary, Switzerland
Al Introduction The principle of a raft foundation is similar to that of a
floor slab turned upside-down. The distributed soil
AM Army Dispensary Building Addition pressure acts on the bottom surface and is held in
equilibrium by the downward-acting concentrated forces
This example has been prepared by H. R. Ganz and M. from columns and walls. The tendons are arranged as in an
Mickula of VSL Ltd. elevated slab, but with the configuration inverted such that
The addition was constructed in 1987 as an extension to the low points are under the columns and walls, and the
the Army Dispensary at Ittigen, near Berne. High storage high points are in the spans.
loads inside the building impose heavy gravity loads on the Prestressing offers the possibility of introducing a
structure. Five elevated concrete slabs and a steel framed favourable system of anchorage forces and tendon devia-
roof comprise the column- and wall-supported super- tion forces on the concrete. The transverse components of
structure, which bears on a raft foundation approximately the anchorage forces and the tendon deviation forces (Fig
2500m2 in plan. A2) provide a load-balancing force, resulting in a more
The building is partially buried, and up to 4m below uniform soil pressure distribution and a reduction in
ground-water level in some locations. The advantages of maximum soil pressure. The prestressing force and the
prestressed concrete are ideal for meeting the service - tendon profile can be selected so that for a given load case,
ability requirements imposed on the structure by the heavy e.g. dead load only, a nearly uniform soil pressure
loads and submersed environment. Additionally, post- distribution results. Practical experience indicates that
tensioning enabled joints and sealing to be dispensed with effective prestress values in the range from 0.75 to
and construction expedited. 1.5MPa yield the greatest marginal benefit.
The early application of prestress, in conjunction with
proper wet curing of the concrete surface, can substantially
reduce the occurrence of early hydration shrinkage cracks.
A1.2 Post-tensioned foundations The in-plane anchorage forces precompress the concrete,
The well-known advantages of prestressed concrete for resulting in a higher resistance to cracking, improved
elevated structures can be applied to the engineering of stiffness and superior watertightness. Additionally, the
foundation structures. Shallow foundations, such as strip vertical force component of the inclined tendon improves
footings and raft slabs, are applications that can substan- the slab's punching shear resistance.
tially benefit from post-tensioning. An orthogonal grid of conventional reinforcing bars in
The purpose of a foundation is to safely transfer applied the order of 0.1%, located close to the surface of the slab,
gravity and lateral loads from the superstructure to the soil. ensures ductile behaviour of the slab, limits potential crack
Additionally, specific needs for reduced peak bearing widths, and resists shear and flexure. The size and spacing
pressures, uniform settlement, rigid/planar settlement and of the reinforcing bars was selected to limit crack width
watertightness can be criteria that favour a post-tensioned
raft solution.
A13 Design conceptAl

14 1 1 1
.2 o o e

. 3 17 18


402 47.50_, 1 7.50 _ 21_0 7.50 7.50 7.50 47.50 0, 017.500 7.50 0 ft.Oti) e. 80 -ti1



V 2.90
r Fee Teta-red-1
Fig Al. General arrangement plan design for

L- I
0 E

Const. Joint

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 27

I F Typical column load, grid C: G = 2600kN
Q 900kN
Uniform live load: = 15kN/m 2
P Uplift from water: 40kN/m2
(a) Prestressed continuous beam on elastic foundation A2.4 Structural materials
Sandy gravel .
WirlOWMEARWARNS Allowable bearing: o.B = 200kN/m2
2111111111M1M111116 Subgrade modulus: K5 = 80MN/m3
(a) Soil pressure due to column loads
100% of F balanced
SIA cube 35 (normal weight)= C25 (FIP/MC 90)
50% of F balanced Uniaxial compressive strength: fck = 25MPa
0% of F balanced Characteristic tensile strength: fctm = 2.6MPa
E modulus: Ecm = 34 000MPa
1111111111kag Reinforcing steel
11111111111111111111111111111111111111 Characteristic yield strength: f y = 460N/mm2
(b) Soil pressure due to prestressing
Young's modulus: Es = 205 000MPa
100% of F balanced
50% of F balanced Prestressing steel
0% of F balanced VSL Multistrand system in steel ducts
VAGMEONAFEWIPANNIPM Strands 0.6" 0, Low relaxation
(d) Soil pressure due to combined action of column loads and prestressing
S t r a n d a r e a : 4 P =A 16MM 2

Fig A2. Effect of prestressing on soil pressure distribution

Characteristic tensile strength: f pu = 1770N/mm2
and crack spacing, and to optimize installation. Supple- Characteristic yield strength: f y = 1590N/mm 2
mental bars were added locally to the reinforcing grid in Young's modulus: Es= 195 000MPa
locations where additional ductility is desired, such as
under load-bearing columns and walls.
The resistance provided by the combination of pre- A2.5 General arrangement
stressed and non-prestressed reinforcement equals or
exceeds that required for flexure and shear in the ultimate A2.5.1 Concrete form
limit state (ULS). Mild reinforcement, in lieu of the The foundation raft is an 0.80m-thick, solid, flat slab of
prestressing, was increased. at locations requiring peak uniform thickness. Thickened pads are not used under the
resistance. load-bearing columns and walls. Construction of the slab
progressed in five stages, the first three stages being
A2.3 Design loads
addressed here.

Tendon distribution: The tendons are uniformly distributed

A2 Design information (Fig A5) in two orthogonal directions, with a slip:
concentration of tendons in each direction under the
A2.1 Design and construction code columns.
Tendon profile: The transition between high and low
Original design and constriction of the post-tensioned points was accomplished with a tendon profile (Fig A3)
substructure and superstructure on the project conformed that is roughly trapezoidal. A trapezoidal profile, in lieu
to the 1968 Swiss code SIA 162 for the design and of a parabolic one, facilitated use of the reinforcing grids for
construction of concrete structures reinforced to conven- supporting the tendons.
tional steel and/or prestressing steel. Additionally, the Anchorages: The tendon anchorages are typically posi-
project conformed to RL 34, the 1976 supplement to SIA tioned at mid-depth of the raft, but can be positioned
162, requiring adequate capacity for the ultimate limit higher or lower to induce a favourable eccentricity.
state. All calculations in the design example conform to the
1998 FIP Recommendations for the design of post-tensioned
slabs and foundation rafts. A2.53 Mild reinforcement
Reinforcing grid: A continuous grid of reinforcing bars,
spaced at roughly 200mm, was placed near the top and
A2.2 Durability requirements bottom surface of the slab. Supplemental bars, of length
span/3, were added to the bottom reinforcing grids under
Minimum concrete cover: top = 30mm the columns over a width of span/3.
bottom . 50mm
A2.5.2 Prestressing

28 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

SZMA414, 100 .41 4495040.64WAW4WASHSW4.04444iffe.444.feamv .4.54, 4141.444, 44sciocoaftec


(Grid 12)

.W.4604~.442414%04, 44:64740.4, 44.4644444450 /44fasoWAVAGX,

(Grid C)

Fig Al Representative tendon profiles FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
Special details: Mild reinforcement was added in the
tendon anchorage zone, and at slab discontinuities such as
openings, steps and reentrant corners along the slab edge
to improve ductility and control cracking. restraint and slab discontinuities were assessed and, where
necessary, mitigated with proper details.

A2.6 Extent of design example

The design example introduces initial member sizing and
.anal design considerations for a site-cast prestressed raft. A3.1 Slab thickness
Details and calculations are shown for representative
locations on the project. ULS design was provided for A3.1.1 Span to depth ratio, L/h
flexure (in the x-direction) and punching shear (at column
C12) in the slab area designated by Fig Al, Common L/h values range from 10 to 12, depending upon
Considerations for service conditions cover: the modulus of subgrade reaction, the load magnitude and
arrangement, the concrete strength, the level of prestress,
. stress checks during construction and the allowable differential deformation. A design aid
. the influence of subgrade friction, and (Fig A4, courtesy of VSL International Ltd.) can assist
. effective prestressing force. preliminary selection of raft thickness and prestressing
Details for construction include:
For the 0.80m slab selected, the span-to-depth ratio is:
. concrete pour sequence
L/h = 8.5m/0.8m = 10.6
. construction joints
. slab interface at subgrade, and
. slab discontinuities.
A3.1.2 Punching shear resistance
A quick check of the punching shear resistance is generally
a3 Preliminary raft sizing performed. If the resistance is insufficient, the slab
in setting the slab depth, primary consideration should be thickness can be increased overall, or just thickened under
given to shear resistance and allowable soil pressure. For a the columns. The benefit from the prestressing at the
typical loading, a suitable slab thickness of 0.8m was control perimeter can be estimated at roughly 20% of the
unfactored gravity load on the column.
arrived at by a cursory check of the span-to-depth ratio and
the punching shear resistance of the slab. A flat plate,
without thickened sections under the columns, was selected
to simplify construction. A31 Prestressing quantities
Using the 0.8m slab thickness, the prestressing quantities The prestressing force is sized in general for precompres-
were sized to furnish a precompression level of roughly sion and/or load balancing. The prestressing force is
1.0MPa, and the corresponding load balancing was then
compared with the self-weight of the structure. The mild assumed to be uniform throughout the bay.
reinforcement grid was laid out based on a reinforcing ratio
of 0.1%. Flexure requirements were checked against the Precompression
combined resistance provided by the mild reinforcing grid
and post-tensioning tendons. Sufficient prestressing was provided to ensure residual
Irregular and locally critical areas were evaluated and compression in the slab commensurate to the exposure and
accommodated with additional reinforcing and/or member durability expectations for the structure. The range of
thickness. Potential problems associated with structural 0.75MPa to 1.5MPa is generally sufficient to accommodate
prestress losses and moderate enough to avoid excessive
slab shortening.
The required prestressing tendons per bay, assuming

Correlation of mat design parameters
Tendon spacing

To maximize the benefit from the tendons in resisting shear
under the columns and flexure in the column strip, three

Uh i tendons in each direction were located under the columns.

The tendon spacing for the bay, starting at the column
centerline, is:


x-direction, 1 space at 0.4m, remaining spaces at 1.6m

1111 1111

0 25
4 50 75 100
y-direction, I space at 0.6m, remaining spaces at 1.6m

125 150 Load balancing

_ Bearing pressure, kPa
Load balancing in the range of 60% to 100% of the
Chart notes1 Bearing pressure, d = PD/L2, where: permanent gravity force is generally sufficient to control
L = distance between column center lines
Pp = unfactored dead load on column slab deflection and improve punching shear resistance, yet
2 h slab thickness moderate enough to avoid excessive camber.
a = radius of column contact area Load balancing check for selected prestressing force and
3 Chart based on a/L a 0.05; larger a/t. values
produce slightly higher Uh ratios
approximate tendon drape of 0.5m:
4 Chart based on C25 concrete; higher grades column load + slab wt.
produce slightly higher Uh ratios Wapplied ________________________________
span length
Fig A4. Design-aid for preliminary raft sizing 2600kN
+ (20kN/m2 x 9m) = 486kN/m 8.5m
1111111111111 NMI
an effective prestress force of 155kN/strand, for roughly mamiammamoimmemomm
1.0MPa effective precompression in the raft are: iimuuntosusuitalU1111111111111111F/1111111111111
Pbay = Abay(1MPa) = (9m x 0.8m)(1000kN/m2) ilitimminurnsiminimmummar.
= 7200kN i l l e s i m m u m m i n a l s i n s i u m m u i r i n g ANIS
Strands required
7200kN M11111111111110111111111111111111111111111111
= 155kN/00.6" strand = 46 x 00.6 strand/bay Ninitsumi 'ICIMIIIMULINIUB1111111111111111111111111.

Tendons required
46 strands Fig AS. Tendon layout for construction stages 1-3
6 strands/tendon 8(Pbay)(drape)
W b a l a n c e d
choose 7 tendons (6 6) in 66mm 0 ducts (span length)2
(42 strand)( 155kNistrand) 8(42 strands x 155kN/strand)(0.5m)
Precompression =
(0.8m x 9m) (8.5m)2
= 904kPa OK = 360kNim

balanced load vs. applied load:

---= = kN/m = 74% O K
W, 486

A3.3 Mild reinforcing grid

The reinforcing grid for an 800mm slab with p = 0.1%:
A5 = pbh = (0.001)(1000mm)(800mm) = 800mm2/rn
(each way, each face)
grid = 800mm2 /m = 154mm2 / 014 bar = 5 014 bars
(each way, each face)
.'. space the bars at 200mm to limit crack width and crack
Add supplemental bars to the bottom reinforcing grid
under the columns to improve the punching shear

30 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

resistance and ductility in the region that extends
approximately twice the slab depth from the column face.
The additional reinforcing for p = 0.2%:
A5 = pbh = (0.001)(1000mm + 4 x 800mm)
= 3360mm2/m

added bars = 3360mm 2 154mm 2 /014 bar

= 22 014 bars x 3.5mm long

use 22 014 bars x 3.5m bottom spaced at 200mm each way

under the columns.
A3.4 Flexure check (for additional mild FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
reinforcing) A4.2 Minimum bonded reinforcement for crack
A conservative approximation of the applied bending control (per eq. 3.48)
moments in the slab under columns can be made using k f ct effkcAct
Westergaard's formulae'` for a point load on a slab. Assnin
Another approach, shown below, calculated the service
moment for the bay, conservatively assuming uniform soil 0.6(2.6MPa)(0.330)(297mm x 1000mm) 695mm2
bearing, and allocated moment to the joint and span region (220MPa)
according to recognized proportions:
Slab region in the vicinity of column C12: o-s = 220MPa for control of crack width
without direct calculation
Applied moment (in the x direction):

0.24 + [0.8 (0.9MPa/2.6MPa)1(0.16/0.8) = 0.33

(1) uniform bearing pressure, W o.
PG + Q 2600kN + 900kN 412kN/rn L As, p,, = 5(154mm2 /014) = 770mm 2 .. OK
A ct : tension zone depth = 297mm for extreme fibre
(2) bay moment, Mbay stresses of 4.4/ + 2.6MPa in 800mm deep section.
Wa L2 (412kN/m)(8.5m)
Mbay = ___ 8 A4.3 Service stresses
8 3721kNm
SLS checks limit the stress in the concrete and reinforcing
(3) span moment, Mspan over total bay width steel in accordance with specified performance require-
ments. In general, the influence of the post-tensioning,
Ms/.(40%)(Mbay)=(0.40)(3721kNm) restraining elements, subgrade friction and slab disconti-
1488kNm nuities are evaluated.
Net bending stress in the slab was computed in the span
and under the column. Usual methods of stress analysis
(4) joint moment, + Mjoint over total bay width
give an order of magnitude for the average stresses in the
Mjoint = (60%)(Mbay) = (0.60)(3721kNm) uncracked structure. Where calculations indicate that the
structure may crack, the stress in the reinforcing steel and
= 2233kNm
crack widths can be checked.
Secondary prestressing moments were considered when
The adequacy of the selected prestressing and mild calculating net bending stress in the slab. At initial
reinforcement can be verified based on these moments in prestress transfer, the raft is generally lightly loaded and
accordance with general rules. free to camber, thereby impeding the formation of
secondary moments. At successive stressing stages as
column loads and prestressing force increased, the con-
A4 Serviceability Limit State (SLS) raft tribution of secondary moments likewise increased.
A43.1 Stress check at transfer of prestressing
A4.1 Effective prestress force
Early stressing of the tendons is desirable for controlling
Prestress losses were calculated according to the require- hydration cracking. From a practical viewpoint it is
ments of the CEB/FIP Model Code or other prevailing desirable to stress the tendons once, rather than in multiple
National Standards. For this project an initial prestressing stressing stages. Care must be exercised in order not to
,.orce of 170kN (per 15mm/0.6" strand) and an effective overstress the slab at transfer. This may occur where the
prestressing force of 155kN were determined. concrete has not reached design strength, or where the
gravity loads from the superstructure do not yet balance
Initial prestressing force, .P, the deviation forces of the tendons.
This is the force in the tendon after accounting for Stage stressing
frictional losses and anchor set, but before subtracting
time-dependent losses. Codes stipulate maximum allow- A check of the net bending stress at critical locations in the
able initial prestress force in the tendon at specific slab determines the need for stage stressing during
locations. The initial prestressing force is used for assessing construction. Two stressing stages were used to limit the
initial conditions in the slab at time of prestress transfer. tension in the slab. The first stage consisted of stressing 4 of
the 7 tendons in each bay (in each direction) to 100% of
their jacking force. The remaining tendons were then fully.
Effective prestressing force, P eff stressed in a second stressing stage which occurs after the
This is the final force in the tendon, after all losses. Time third elevated slab was erected.
dependent losses account for shrinkage of the concrete At transfer when no column loads are on the slab, a
member because of evaporation of the mix water, creep of single check at either the span or the joint with the greatest
the concrete, and relaxation of the prestressing steel. tendon eccentricity is generally sufficient. For subsequent
stressing stages, stress checks similar to that shown below

for the first stage were used, but expanded to consider B cr(0.5L) (42 strands x 170kN)(0.5 x
secondary moments, load capacity and overstress at critical 35m) EC7 days (0.8m x 9m)(29 x 106kPa)ES =
span and joint locations. = 0.0006m
Check #1: initial stressing, no load on slab (self weight
Caissons, service pits, grade beams and slab steps
of slab is neglected)
Net stress in slab: potentially impede slab shortening and introduce tension
into the raft. The level of restraint is directly proportional
to the potential displacement of the slab at the location of
(M5d AlPo) Po the restraining item. Locating restraining items closer to
W A the slab's centre, or releasing their connection to the slab,
minimizes their influence on the slab. A smooth transition
MPo = Po(dp h/2) = (24 x 170kN)(0.683m - 0.4m) at steps in the slab soffit reduces subgrade interference. An
optimized concrete placement schedule and prestressing
= 4080kN x 0.283m = 1155kNm sequence, in conjunction with distributed mild reinforcing,
are effective at mitigating restraint problems.
Po (4080kN)
= 567kN/m2;
A (0.80m x 9m) Subgrade friction
This is a concern to the extent that it impedes slab
, = bh2 = (9m)(0.80m)2 = 0.960m3 movement. TestsAl indicate that the slab can shorten up to
6 6
0.5mm on a smooth surface (friction coefficient, z. 0.5),
0 1155kNm567kN/m2)
- or up to 3.0mm on a rough surface (1 1.0), before sliding
net.+ = commences at the interface. Displacements below these
0.960m3 values are essentially unrestrained, being absorbed
= +1203 - 567 = +637kN/m 2 OK deformation of the subgrade.

0 - 1155kNm Influence of subgrade friction on the raft

crnet.- = 0.960m3 (567kN/m2) Subgrade friction, and stiff elements, do not affect the
= -1203 - 567 = -1770kN /m 2 OK prestressing force in the tendon; they do, however,
potentially reduce the prestressing force in the concrete.
Special note: Where the tendons are banded or grouped (i.e. at column When calculating the net precompression in the slab,
lines), the effective concrete section for calculating stress in the concrete
subgrade friction is subtracted from the effective prestres-
should be conservatively assessed.
sing force:

A43.2 Stress check at service net precompression, crnet = PnetMe;

Similar stress checks at critical locations for service P neL = Peff subgrade friction
conditions were performed to those at transfer. The Since the 0.0006mm of elastic shortening from the
effective prestressing force, Peff, rather than Po, and the prestressing is essentially unrestrained, maximum loss of
contribution from secondary prestressing moments were precompression at the centre of the slab is a relatively low
used for calculating prestressing moments during service 5%. Fig A6, illustrates the loss of prestressing at the centre
checks. of the slab attributed to subgrade friction A3.
A4.4 Influence of stiff elements and subgrade
0g111111. 11121M1 111111111111
Prestressed and non-prestressed concrete slabs experience E
dimensional changes that occur over time. External forces 08all
which resist the dimensional changes that occur introduce
)7 111 11111111111111111.1111
compression or tension into the slab. The added compres-
sion is often beneficial; the tension, however, is suspec ted

3 11111 111.11111
of cracking the concrete.
10 20 30 40 50 70 80
Slab movement
Slab length (m)
Chart notes
Various actions dimensionally change the concrete mem-
1 P e n = 1 MPa at slab edge
ber. Evaporation of excess mix-water in the concrete 2 P = effective prestressing
causes slab shrinkage. Prestressing forces compress the slab force in center of slab

elastically. Thermal fluctuations induce positive and 3 Coefficient of friction, g = 1.0

4 8 5 = 3.0mm
negative strains in the member. Permanent forces on, and
in, the slab induce creep. Total displacements are directly Fig A6. Effect of subgrade friction on precompression of the
proportional to the slab size. raft
Elastic shortening from the prestressing, 8Es can be
calculated as:

32 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
In general, shrinkage, creep and temperature move- (compare to rough estimate of 1488kNm
ments of the slab, and accompanying subgrade restraint, x 1.451 ULS factor =2160kNm)
can be discounted. Creep of the subgrade typically exceeds
that of the structural concrete. The surrounding earth Peak moment = 269kNm
dampens thermal fluctuations in the raft, and moist earth (2) column strip moment, + MSd
and groundwater permeating into the concrete substan-
tially reduces, or even suppresses, drying shrinkage. Sur- -5 -4 -2 -1 1 2 3 4

face cracking that may occur is controlled by the
reinforcing grid.

A5 Ultimate Limit States (ULS) slab 0

E 400

design 688
600 Slab section (m)

A5.1 Introduction Total moment for bay width =
The ULSs for the raft are those associated with a structural 2470 kNm 58% of total bay moment
failure of the slab by punching shear and/or flexure. (compare to rough estimate of 2233kNm
Accordingly, the design of the raft was checked for x 1.451 ULS factor = 3241kNm)
sufficient strength to resist the design actions with a Moment in 3m strip under column:
reasonable factor of safety. The factor of safety is achieved
by factoring the design actions (load factors), and by +Msd = (3m)(410kNm) + 0.5(3m)(278kNm) = 1647kNm
reducing the material strengths (material coefficients). Moment in middle strips (6m):
Applicable load factors
Self weight of the structure 1.4 +Msd = 2470kNm 1647kNm = 823kNm
"rmanent loads 1.4
_ve loads 1.6
Resisting moment in the span (in the x-direction):
Applicable material coefficients
concrete 'Yc=1-5 (1) prestressing force, P p , and effective depth, dp
mild reinforcing steel -ys= 1.15
prestressing steel -yp = 1.15 (42 x 00.6" strands) (232.1kN/strand)
1.15(9.0m) 942kN/m
A5.2 Flexure check
The bending moments in the slab can be obtained from a dp = 660mm support 06 duct10mm strand offset
finite element analysis of the slab bearing on an elastic
support. In lieu of such analysis a conservative design inside duct = 683mm
approach assuming uniform bearing pressure under the
column tributary area can be used with the ACI 318 A3 (2) mild steel force, T s , and effective depth, d 5 .
equivalent frame method of analysis or other plate/frame
analysis methods. . T, = (5 x 014 bar/m)(154mm2/014 bar)
A finite element (FE) program was herein used for the x (0.460kN/mm2)/1.15 = 308kN/m
analysis of the raft as a flexible slab on an elastic support. d5 = 800mm 300mm cover (3/2)(014) = 749mm
Twisting moments Mxy and My in the slab, in addition to
bending moments M x and My , were designed for. The (3) depth of compression block,
;sting moments MX,,, calculated by the FE program, were
wdded to the Mx moment and included in the moment a = Pp 942kN/m + 308kN/m = 0.088m
diagrams below. 0.85fcd 0.85 x 16 700kN/m2
(4) resisting moment, MRd
Slab regions in the vicinity of column C12
Mp = P(dp x/2) = 942kN(0.683m 0.044m)
Applied moment (in the x-direction):
(1) span moment, Msd
M5 = T(d, x/2) = 308kN(0.749m 0.044m)
= 217kNm/m
frillikeiral II IIIMIll

20: MRd = Mp 602kNm + 217kNm
z 1001111ME 1111111111fferl = 8l9kNm/m
z Total moment for bay width
11.111 .111111111111 = 9m x 819kNm/m = 7372kNm
Slab section (m)

11. 33
FM' Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
Total moment for bay width = 1800kNm
42% of total bay moment
R e s i s t i n g mo me n t ( i n t h e x - d i r e c t i o n ) u n d e r t h e c o l u m n :
d, = 800mm - 50mm cover - (3/2)(014) = 729mm
d p = 800mm - 150mm support - 066 duct/2 - 10mm offset
= 607mm.
(2) resistance in 3m strip under the column: Fig A8. Punching shear cone
T, = (30 x 014 bar)(154mm 2/014 bar)
x (0.460kN/mm2)/1.15 Applied moment vs. resisting moment:
(1) Span moment:
= 1848kN total bay moment =1800kNm <MRd=7372kNm OK
P p = (3 tendons)(6 strands/tendon) peak bay moment = 269kNm < MRd =819kNm OK
(232.1kN/00.6" strand)/1.15 ( 2 ) Colu mn strip mo ment:
= 3633kN total bay moment = 2470kNm < M Rd = 7372kNm OK
3m column strip =1647kNm < MRd = 3202kNm OK
Pp + 3633kN + 1848kN 6m middle strip = 823kNm <3f Rd = 4026kNm OK
b(0.85.fed) (3m)(0.85 x 16700kN/m 2)/1.5 =
includes the actions of the subgrade and tendons acting in -
Mp = Pp (dp - x/2) = 3633kN(0.607m - 0.064m) control perimeter 112 located a distance half the slab dep.,
= 1973kNm from the column periphery.
Ms = Ts(ds - x/2) = 1848kN(0.729m - 0.0645m) PSd.eff = I3(PSd PSd.p) Ppo

= 1229kNm The calculated resistance, PR d, assumed a failure cone

occurring at a control perimeter u1 two times the slab
MRd = Mp = 1973kNm + 1299kNm depth from the column periphery. The reinforcing and
= 3202kN (= 3m x 1067kNm) prestressing steel contributing, to the punching shear .
( 3 ) resistance in middle strip: resistance was limited to that which lies in the tension
face of the slab and is located within the failure cone.
T 5 = (30 x 014 bar)(154mm 2 /014 bar)
PRd = 0.14(100_Pfck)113uid
x (0.460kN/mm2)/1.15
1848kN Slab region under column C12
P p = (4 tendons)(6 strands/tendon)
(232.1kN/00.6" strand)/1.15 Effective applied shear force,
= 4844kN PSd.eff = f3(PSd PSd.p) Pp0
= _________
PSd.eff = 1.15(5080kN 204kN 1781kN) 965kN
Pp + T, 4844kN + 1848kN = 2594kN
b(0-85fcd) (6m)(0.85 x 16 700kN/m2)/1.5 = 0.079m
(1) eccentric punching factor, p = 1.15 for gravity loads
M p = P p (d p x/2) = 4844kN(0.607m - 0.039m) (2) fa c t o r e d c o l u m n l o a d , P S d
= 2751kNm PSd = (1.4
x 2600kN) + (1.6 x 900kN) = 5080kN
Ms = Ts(ds x/2) = 1848kN(0.729m - 0.039m)
(3) bearing force, P
- &La', within control perimeter are
= crsd x Au2 = 92.8kN/m2 x 2.20m2 = 204kN
MRd = Mp Ms = 2751kNm + 1275kNm
= 4026kNm (= 6m x 671kNm) (a) soil pressure, o-sd, under the column (from FE analysis)
Qsd = (481(N/m2 x 1.4) + (16kN/m2 x 1.6) = 92.8kN/m2

(b) area, A u 2, bounded by control perimeter, u,

Ai2 = (1.0m + 0.8m)(0.5m + 0.8m) - (0.8m)2(1 - 0.2517)
Po = 2.20m2

Fig A7. Effective applied load A5.3 Punching shear

An effective applied load, Psd.eff, was used for calculating
the ultimate punching shear capacity of the slab. PSd.eff

34 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts


(4) vertical tendon force, Psd,p acting at control perimeter u2

PSd.p = 2Pp, sin ax + 2Pp,y sin Oty
= 2(18 strands)(155kN)(sin 9.42) perimeter,u
+ 2(18cables) (1551N) (sin 8.95)
= 1781kN
(5) compression effect of the prestress, Po
Pbyox + Pxoby
P po =
(1074kN x 3.34m) + (8711(N x 3.84m) 965kN Fig A9. Punching shear perimeter
3.34m + 3.84m
(2) average effective slab depth,
(a) dimensions of critical perimeter, bx and by, along x and
y axis da = (1/2)(dx + d y) = (690mm + 721mm) = 706mm
bx = 4d + column. = 4(0.710m) + 0.500m = 3.340m (729mm x 37 x 154mm2) + (607mm x 18 x 146mm2)
by = 4d + columns = 4(0.710m) + 1.000m = 3.840m (5698mm2 + 2628mm2)
(b) average precompression, a c ,, and Cr c py = 690mm
Ppx 18 x 155kN
(743mm x 34 x 154mm2) + (677mm x 18 x 146mm2)
x- b yh - 3.840m x 0.800m
= 908kN/m2 d y Y (5236mm2+2628mm2)
- - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
= 721mm
CT Ppy 18 x 155kN 2 (3) average reinforcing ratio,
cPY b x il 3.340m x 0.800m
= 1 044kNim Pave, within region 2d from
c o l u m n f a c e
(C) decompression moments M.0 and A 1 yO, over widths by Pave = /PxPy = N/0.00321 X 0.00322 = 0.00322
and bx A r b. x A p s . x
Mx0 = Crcpx by h2 (908kN/m2)- (3.840m)(0.800m)2 Px d x (column y + 2 x 2 x dx)
6 (37 x 154mm2) + (18 x 146mm2)
372kNm -

Mxo =cPxb,122 = (1044kN/m2) (3.340m)(0.800m)2 690mm(10

6 6 (Arb.y Aps.y 00mm + 2
= 372kNm PY
dv(columnx + 2 x 2 x dy) x2x
(d) factored slab moments MSd.F. in x and y direction at (34 x 154mm2)(18 x 146mm2)
690mm) -
column face over widths by and b.
MSd.P = MSd MSd.Px = 1900
- 578 - 1322kNm (2)
MSd.P y = 1650 - 578 = 1072kNm
Msd.x = 1900kNm and Msty = 1650kNm (from FE analysis)

Mp.x = MP.y = Peff (dp - h/2) = 721mm(500mm + 2 x 2 x 721mm) = 0.00322

= (18 strands)(155kN)(0.607m - 0.4m) = 578kNm
control perimeter (Fig A9)
(e) deco mpression fo rces
ut = 2(1.0m + 0.5m) + 4(0.706m)ir = 11.872m
_ _ D
I0= Sd p PSd.p) applied shear force vs. resistance provided:
PSd.eff = 2594kN < PRd = 3093kN .'. OK
= 1322kNm (5080kN - 204kN - 1781kN) = 871kN

For comparison, ACI 318 Eq.(11 37): -

1 yo = 1 072kNm (5080kN 204kN - 1781kN) = 1074kN - Resisting
V, = 0.3( Fri +fpc)bod + vp
shear force 0 12 100
PRd = . ( Phic)1131 - 1 1dave

PRd = [0.12(1.532)(100 x 0.00322 x 25MPa)1/31 applied shear = 1.4(2600kN) + 1.7(900kN) 208kN =

x (11.872m x 0.706m) 4962kN
= (369kN/m2)(8.382m2) = 3093kN

(1) t = 1 + - 400 /d a v e =1 + 000/706mm = 1.532

FIP Design of post tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

Thin concrete layer

Fig A10. Interface at base of raft


II_ IT= 014 0 200

0 E 14
Fig A13. Detailing at slab opening

Fig All. Slab step section

resistance OV, = 0.85[0.3(x/25 000 + 904kPa)

x (3m + 0.706-rr)(0.706m) + (8911N)]
= 0.85[(1771kPa)(3.684m2) + 891]
= 0.85 (6525kN + 891kN) = 6304kN
Fig A14. Centre stressing anchorage
applied shear = 4962kN < resistance = 6304kN OK

T VSL ancnorag4111 type

For comparison, SIA 162:
. Applied shear = 4440kN < resistance = 6281kN OK Stage

Fig A15. Coupler at construction joint

A6 Details for construction Construction joint
A6..1 Concrete work
Shear transfer across the joint was accomplished by
roughening the surface of the old concrete prior to placing
Base .subgrade preparation the new concrete. The effective prestress at a construction
The site was excavated and the subgrade compacted. Lean joint can eliminate the need for a waterstop provided
concrete was placed over the granular subgrade to form a appropriate care is taken in preparing the surface of the old
smooth work surface at the desired datum. For very long concrete and in placing the new concrete.
slabs such as pavements, two layers of polyethylene can be
placed over the subgrade to facilitate slab movement. A6.2 Slab discontinuities
The post-tensioning tendons and local reinforcement in the
Pour layout/sequence raft were detailed to improve ductility and control cracking
at steps, openings and reentrant corners.
Five stages, or concrete pours, were used for constructing
the foundation slab. Pour number 1 started at the west end Slab steps
of the slab and proceeded east to a north-south construc- The reinforcing steel was detailed in accordance with an
tion joint. Longitudinal tendons in pour 1 were stressed at analysis of force transfer through the section. The tendon
the north and south slab edge as soon as the concrete height was profiled at the step to satisfy flexural require-
reaches strength. Transverse tendons run through the ments in the raft for external loads. The geometry of the
construction joint and are stressed when the concrete in step and tendon profile favours crossing and anchoring the
pour 3 reaches strength. tendons at the step, rather than running the tendons
continuous through the step (Fig All).
Openings and reentrant corners
For rectangular openings and reentrant corners (Figs Al2
PT tendons & A13), bonded reinforcement was placed at the' corners
{typical) to distribute the geometry induced stress risers that occur
there. Anchoring of the tendons at openings and reentrant
corners was generally avoided. A gradual sweeping of the
tendons, limited to a 6:1 transition and not permitted
within 1m of an opening or corner, allows the tendons to
run continuous.

Fig Al2. Detail at reentrant corner

36 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

A63 Tendon anchorages
Stressing anchorages interfaced with the stressing equip-
ment, allowing the strands to be stressed and locked-off at
the desired load. Typically, the use of stressing anchorages
at non-stressing locations allows for threading the pre-
stressing steel into the tendon ducts after concrete
Where both ends of the tendon were inaccessible for
stressing, a centre-stressing VSL Z-Anchorage used in
conjunction with anchorages at both ends of the tendon,
permitted the tendon to be stressed from a point along the
tendon accessible via a blockout in the top of the slab.
The Z-Anchorage is unique in that it is stressed against
the tendon and not the concrete, thereby avoiding the
introduction of eccentric anchorage forces into the
After stressing half the tendons at the construction joint
for pour 2, pour 3 tendons were spliced onto the tendon
ends protruding from pour 2 using a VSL K-Coupler,
thereby providing continuous tendons across the three

A7 References
Al. Post-tensioned foundations, VSL International Ltd.,
Berne, Switzerland, June 1988.
A2 Westergaard, H.M.: 'Stresses in concrete runways of
airports'. Proc. 13th Annual Meeting of the Highway
Research Board, 1939/1940.
A3 American Concrete Institute Standard ACI 318-89
Building Code requirements for reinforced concrete.

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 37

Appendix B Prestressed ribbed slab for The
Stock Exchange Building in Lisbon, Portugal
Bi Introduction Although the slab mainly behaves in one direction,
prestressing was also introduced in the transverse direction
This example has been prepared by J. Appleton, J. to control cracking caused by shrinkage and temperature.
Almeida, V. Lucio and A. Costa. The building in question Unbonded prestressing monostrands were chosen due to
was built in Lisbon in 1993 and holds the New Lisbon
ease of placement, to increase eccentricities and to avoid
Stock Exchange. The building has 13 elevated floors and 4
underground floors with a total area of slab construction of injection.
29 000m2. Between columns the ribs are interrupted and solid
The columns of a square section 0.7m to 0.9m wide are in strips are created where prestressing tendons are concen-
general spaced 8.4m in both directions and the ribbed slabs trated. This solution is also convenient for the design of the
are 0.30m thick. In the area of the Stock Exchange a 16.8m flat slab reinforcement for the effects of the earthquake
span was required and a 0.50m prestressed ribbed slab was action.
adopted. This slab was chosen to illustrate this example. The main design criteria were to control the deflections
In Fig B1 a general layout of the slab and of the due to permanent loads with the prestressing forces, and to
prestressing cables at level 01 are presented. For seismic limit the increase of long-term deflections to 25mm for
resistance shear walls were also introduced. frequent load combination.

B2 Design concept
A slab with a 16.8m span could only be conceived B3 Design information
economically as a prestressed slab. The combination of a The flat slab of an underground floor presented in Figs B2
ribbed solution with prestressing reduces the weight of the and B3 was chosen to illustrate this example. For that slab
structure and controls deflections in an effective way. earthquake effects are not significant.


"" 11111111M1111111111111111
- _________ lit -t i



1111111=11111111MI RR

Fig BI. General layout of the slab

38 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

t ___________
1 I" I 1

3 anchorages
10 strands"-

3 anchorages


3 anchorages

3 anchorages



8.40 16.80

Fig B2. Slab analysed area

Design loads: p.=0.06/rad k=6.005/m
Concrete self weight ...................................... 25kN/m3
Surfacing load................................................. 2kN/m2 P is the effective prestress force per tendon after all
Average slab permanent load 9 8kN/m2 immediate and time dependent losses.
Live load ..................................................... 3kN/ m 2
Concrete grade - C30 ....................... fcd= 20MPa B3.1 Design model
Steel grade - S400 ............................. fyd= 348MPa A grid model was used to obtain the structural forces and
Prestressing steel .............................................. fpak = 1800 MPa displacements for the various loads including the effect of
0.9 fp,k/-ys=1409MPa P=160KN per tendon prestress. The grid model is shown in Fig B4 together with
Ep=190 GPa A r;.140 mm 2 the internal forces of relevant sections and reactions at
internal column.


0.15 0.60 1.1_2

0.85 0.45 0.80 60


2.00 O A = 0.26m 2 yinf = 0.

Section 1 - 1 (see Fig. 81)
1=0.0048m' y sup =0.10

-... :. -...

I eA

. wl 4 0.35 0.40 1.10
11, W 0.80
I 0.35
Id It
0 A = 0.255m2
= 0.313m
1 = 0.00591 m ysup = 0.187m
Section 2- 2' (see Fig. 81)
0 A = 0.61m 2 yid = 0.27m
1 = 0.0137m4 ysup = 0.23m
Fig B3. Geometry of representative sections

PIP Design of post tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

- 39
B3.2 Reinforcement details (a) along y direction: Total prestress in a strip;

The prestressing layout and reinforcing steel details are P= (6 x 8 4- 26) x 160kN = 11 840kN
- 1-1:80kN / (8.4 x 0.5)m 2 = 2820kPa
shown in Fig B5 for representative sections of the slab. " om
(b) along
Total prestress in a strip: .
P = (18 +4) x 160kN=3520kN
B4 Ultimate limit states crcpx = 3520IN I [(2.0 + 8.4 0.65) x 0.5jm2 -

In the following sections the ultimate limit states of = 722KPa

resistance to bending, shear, punching and progressive
collapse are checked. For these calculations the following
load combination was used:
B4.1.2 Flexural reinforcement design
The stress increase of the tendon due to plastic deforma-
1.35 G + 1.0P+ 1.5 Q. tion of the slab may be accounted for the flexural
reinforcement design.
(a) in y-direction (point A):
B4.1 Bending from (3.11) and (3.12)
In this section the flexural reinforcement in the solid area
around an interior column, points A and B (Fig B4), is
Aisuppm 1.5d 7 and Ai span = 3.0d with
dimensioned in order to verify the ultimate limit state of au = 1/50 and d = 0.46m
bending resistance.
A/supp = 1.5 x 0.46m/50 = 0.0138m
B4.1.1 Average compression stress due to prestress Alspan = 3.0 x 0.46m/50 = 0.0276m
The average stress in the solid areas along the column lines EA/ = 0.0414m Ae = EAU itendon AP = AeE p A p
will be considered.

Fig B4. Mesh of the grid model and relevant results

Internal forces
Point Dead load Prestress Live load
m v in v m v
(kNm/m) -, (kN/m) (kNm/m) (kN/m) (kNm/m) (1cN/m)
A -812.6 339.1 766.3 -327.2 -214.2 88.0
B -350.3 .- 204.2 211.2 47.5 - 91.1 51.3
(kNm) (kN) (kNm) (kN) (kNm) (kN)
C 532.1 - 470.9 143.6
D -703.8 553.1 661.1 - 513.1 - 1883 143.6
E - 88.2 58.0 92.1 - 49.8 -30.6 15.3

Point Dead load Prestress Live load
F Mx My F Mx M,, F Mr My
(kN) (kNm) (kNm) (kN) (kNm) (kNm) (kN) (kNm) (kNm)
F 1398.3 1282.7 - 96.3 -355.8 - 1332.6 -11.0 372.2 317.0 - 21.9

40 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

Section A -
x x
y = 0.00344386 x2 + y = 0.00207784 x2 +
Layout 2
y = 0.0044324 x + 0.11 y = 0.0043367 x2 + 0.11 0.04857 x + 0.246
0.0496429 x + 0.249
11) to
Elevation N .
0 O O ids
Distances 2.800 5.600 5.600 3.075

. . 8 strands
[ 40 2 , 18 strands r 4012

012 ito2o

Section 1 -1'

012110.20 012110.20

Secti on 2 - 2' Str 08110 .25 Str 08110.25


Fig B5. Prestressing layout and reinforcement details

Stress increase per tendon:

52 tendons with "tendon = 16.8m

Ordinary reinforcement over the column in y-direction -
AP = 0.0414m x 190 x 106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 16.8m point A
= 65.6kN/tendon
18 tendons with ' t e nd o n = 25.2m
Fs F5
AP = 0.0414m x 190 x 106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 25.2m
= 43.71(N/tendon 17'
4 tendons with / tendon = 56.5m

AP = 0.04 14m x 190 x 106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 56.5m

= 19.5kN/tendon
Maximum increase of tendon force: cs, ac

The force increase in the tendon is limited by the design

value of the yielding force which is:
Pyielding = 140 x 10-6m2 x 1409 x 103kPa = 197.3kN msdy = -652kNm/m
AP rn . = 197.3kN 160.0kN = 37.3kN/tendon nsd = crcpy x 0.50m = -1410kN/m
Stress increase per unit width of slab SP = 320kN/m
8P = [(52 + 18) x 37.3kN 4 x 19.5kN]/8.4m = 320kN/m AS = 24.4cm2/m 4)25/0.20
(b) in the x-direction (point B)
A/supp = 1.5 x 0.46m/50 = 0.0138m di p s an

=3.0 x 0.46m/50 = 0.0276m EA/ =

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 0.0414m 41
Stress increase per tendon: Vsd(psd, P) V op=448.9kN
Vsd, e ff =
10 tendons with 'tendon = 27.0m with Vop = 0 (simplifying assumption)
A P = 0.0414m VRd = 0.12(1 + N/200/d)(100Pfck)1/3db
______ x 190 x 106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 A5 (6025) = 29.45 cm2
= 40.81(N/tendon p =29.45 x 10 -4m 2/(0.46m x 1.10m) = 5.82 x 10 3
VRd = 0.12(1 + /200/460)(100 x 5.82 x 10-3 x 30MPa)113
4 .tendons with itendOn = 32.0m AP - 0.0414m x 190 x
x 103 x 0.46m x 1.10m
106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 3 2 . 0 m
VRd = 261.4kN < VSd,eff: transverse reinforcement is
= 34.4kN/tendon needed
8 tendons with ' t e n d o n = 42.7m AP = 0.0414m
x 190 x Shear with transverse reinforcement:
106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 42.7m Considering vertical stirrups (a = 90):
= 25.81<N/tendon
Stress increase per unit width of slab Asw Vsd
S fyd z cote)
BP = [10 x 37.31(N + 4 x 34.4kN + 8 x 25.81c1V9.6m
= 74.7kN/m. considering z = 0.9d and 8 =35:
A5w 4 4 8 . 9 k N
Ordinary reinforcement over the column in x-direction- 104

point B s - 348 x 10 3 kP a x 0.9 x 0.46 x 1 .43

MSdx = -399kNm/m = 21.8CM2/M
nSd = Crcpx x 050m = -361kN/m
SP = 74.7kN/m. 608/0.125m
AS = 21.6cm2/m025/0.20m Shear without Check for the maximum resistance:
transverse reinforcement:
Vsd (PSd ) 5_ fccnz sin 8

B4.2 Shear -- fcd2 = 0.60 x 20 = 10.56MPa
In this section the ultimate limit state of shear resistance is
checked on a solid strip and on a rib, sections D and E (Fig 962.1kN < 10.56 x 103kPa x 0.9 x 0.46 x 0.57
B4), respectively. As a simplification, the compression due 2507.6kN OK!
to prestress is neglected and it is assumed that the concrete
is cracked by bending. Check for the longitudinal tensile reinforcement:
a- 0 A s f syd VSd (PSd' P) cot8
B4.2.1 Shear in the ribs along y-direction - IMSd (Nth P)i P(z - Zs) 2
section E z z
lisd(psd, P) = 51.5kN (2820kN/m2 x 1.1m x 0.5m) x (0.9 x 0.46m - 0.21m)
0.9 x 0.46m)
Vsd, eff = Vsd(Psd, - VOp = 51.5kN
+ x 1.43
with Vop = 0 (simplifying assumpticn) 2
Shear without transverse reinforcement: 936.9kN
A >
VRd = 0.12(1 + 000/d)(100pf ck )1 / 3bd 348 x 10 kPa quired

A5(012/0.20 over 1.15m) = 5.65cm2/m x 1.15m = 6.5cm2 s s ( e x 104 = 26.9cm2

p = 6.5 x 10-4m2/(0.35m x 0.46m) = 4.0 x 10 -3
< A &provided (6025) = 29.45cm2 OK!
VRd =0.12(1 + V200/460)(100 x 4.0 x 10 -3 x 30MPa)1/3
x 0.46m x 0.35m x 10 3 B41.3. Punching.
The ultimate limit state of punching resistance is checked
VRd = 73.41cN > VSd at the interior column F. In the following the effect of the
compression due to prestress is neglected.
B4.2.2 Shear in the solid strip along y-direction
- section D
Effective punching force
The effective punching force is given by
b =1.10m, h= 0.50m PSd.eff = P[Psd(psd)+Psd(P)1- Ppo
Vsd(G, Q, P) = 448.9kN
Msd(G, Q, P) = 571.4kNm 571.4kNm
Y d 0.9 x 0.46m

42 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

with PRd.max = 0.5fcd2 ud > Psd(Psd)
PSd (P) = PSd (Phyperstatic) EPtga
f = 10.56MPa
where, from the table of reactions (Fig B4),
Lt. = 4 x 0.7m = 2.80m
Psd(Psd) = 2446kN
PRd.max = 0.5 x 10.56 x 103kPa x 2.80m x 0.46m
= 6800kN
PSd (Phyperstatic) - 355 .8kN
Effective punching force without prestress:
neglecting the compression effect
Psd (psd) = 2446kN
Ppc, = 0 PPsd(Vsd) = 1.50 x 2446kN = 3669kN < OK!
The transverse equivalent load of 10 strands on the y-
direction and 18 strands on the x-direction, from half span
up to d12 each side of the column, was added for the
B4.4 Progressive collapse
quantification of the transverse effect of the prestress:
EPtga = 832.0kN For the resistance to progressive collapse due to punching
Therefore failure the bottom reinforcement crossing the column in
the x- and y-directions and the monostrands crossing the
Psd(P) = -355.8kN - 832.OkN = -1187.8kN
column, 10 in each direction are considered.
and, neglecting P po, Asfytd + Aspfptd PSd (PSd
Psd(Psd, = 2446.OkN - 1187.8kN = 1258.2kN A5(2 x 016/0.15 in 0.70m) = 32.8cm2/m x 0.7m x 2
The eccentricity of the punching force may be obtained = 37.6cm2
m the reactions given in the table of Fig B4:
Asp = 2 x (10 + 10) x 1.40cm2 = 56cm2
MSd.x (PSdI P) = 874.5kNm
37.6 x 10-4m2 x 348 x 10-3kPa +.56 x 10-4m2
ey 874.5kNm/1258.2kN = 0.695m
x 1800 x 10-3kPa/1:15 = 10 074kN > 2446kN
MSdic (PS41, ,P) = 173.9kNm
ex = 173.9kNm/1258.2kN = 0.138m
The control perimeter (Fig A9) is defined at a distance 2d B5 Serviceability Limit States
from the column faces, and its dimensions are: Deflection and cracking control are considered for the
u1 = 4 x 0.7 + 4 x 0.457r = 8.58m verification of serviceability limit states.

b. = by = 2.54m B5.1 Control of deflections

d = 0.46m . column: 0.70 x 0.70m
Section 3.5.1 gives simplified rules for indirect control of
The correction factor is given by deflections, considering that prestress is designed to
balance approximately 70% of the quasi -permanent
= 1 +1.8.0o.695m/2.54m2) + (0.138m/2.54m2) = 1.50 actions and limiting the deflection after installation of
partitions, for frequent loads, to 15mm. Their application
The effective punching force is then given by would lead to a slenderness value of about 1/h =25
= 0.65m). In the present case it was important, for
PSd.eff = 1.50 x 1258.2 = 1887.3kN
functional reasons, to limit the thickness of the slab to
0.50m. The amount of prestress was chosen in order to
balance the maximum deflection due to permanent loads.
In addition, no particular limitations were required for the
Resistant punching force increase of deflections occurring after the installation of
PRd = 0.12(1 = N/200/d)(100pfck)113ud a (mm)
As. = Asy = As(025/0.20) = 24.54cm2/m self-weight 25.6
other permanent loads 1.9
prestressing -23.9
p = ,Vp x p y 7:125.54 x 10/0.46 = 5.3 x 10 -3 > 0.50% OK! full live load 7.3

PRd 0.12(1 + \/200/450)(100 x 5.3 x 10 -3 x 30MPa)1/3 x The following maximum deflection values are obtained
8.58m x 0.46m x 103 (0 = 2.5)
PRd = 1976.2kN > PSd.eff OK!

FIP Design of post -tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

Maximum resistance:
permanent loads: Mfr = (532-.1 470.9) x 0.6 x 143.6 = 147.4kNm
as = (25.6 + 1.9 23.9) x (1 + 2.5) = 12.6mm =1/1300 w .0.051m3
quasi-perm: loads:
= 147.4/0.051 - 2820 = 70kPa 0.1MPa
ate, = (25.6 + 1.9 - 2.39 + 6.4 x 7.3) x (1 -I- 2.5)
The slab remains nearly in compression at the span region.
22.8mm = 1/740
frequent loads:
B5.2.3 Transverse direction - Section B
Aaf < (25.6 - 23.9) x 2.5 + (1.9 + 0.6 x 7.3) x (1 + 2.5)
A small amount of prestressing was also adopted in the
= 26.0mm transverse direction to improve serviceability: The average
concrete stress due to prestress is crcp. = 0.72MPa
To estimate a lower value of 0 could have been used. Aff, = (-350.3 + 211.2) - 0.6 x 91.1 = -193.8kNm/m
B5.2 Cracking control w = (1.0 x 0.52)/6 = 0.042m3/m
The slab behaves mainly as a one-way system in the oc = 193.8/0.042 - 720 = 3893kPa = 3.9MPa
longitudinal direction (1= 16.8m). The average concrete
stress due to prestress is crcpy = 2.82MPa. The value obtained for the tensile stress indicates that
The stresses are calculated for the frequent load the structure may be locally cracked in this region. The
combination, at the column support and at the span stress in the reinforcing steel should be evaluated neglect-
section: ing the concrete tensile resistance.
Considering a= EslEc.15 and the steel reinforcement
B5.2.1 Longitudinal direction - Section A adopted, 025/10.20, a steel stress a s = 130.2MPa ;-
obtained. Such value ensures cracking control (see tat,
Mfr = (-812.6 + 766.3) 7 0.6 x 214.2 = -174.8kNinim section 3.5.2).
w = (1.0 x 0.52)/6 = 0.042m3/rn
(lc = 174.8/0.042 - 2820 = 1375kPa = 1.4MPa
The minimum reinforcement can be evaluated by (eq. B5.2.4 Minimum reinforcement in the ribs (in the
3.46): transverse direction)

As.min = kkcAct(fit.efficrs) = 0.8 x 0.24 x 1290 x (3.0/160) As.rnin = kkcAct (fcLefficrs) = 0.8 x 0.352 x 640 x (3.0/200)
= 4.7cm2 /m < As.prov. = 2.7cm2 per rib <As.prov.(3016)
f et.eff = 3.0MPa fc t . e f f = 3.0MPa
kc = 0.24 Ice = 0.24 + (0.8 - 0.72/3) x 0.16/0.8 = 0.352
Act = (1.0 x 0.25) x 3.0/(3.0 + 2.82) = 0.129m 2/m = Act = (0.2 x 0.399) x 3.0/(3.0 + 0.72) = 0.064m2
160MPa for indirect cracking control o-, = 200MPa for indirect cracking control
(0. = 25mm per table, section 3.5.2) B5.2.2
(0 ma, = 16mm per table, section 3.5.2).
Longitudinal direction - Section C

44 F1P Design of post-tensioned slabs.and foundation rafts