J. Almeida, Portugal
J. Appleton, Portugal T. Friedrich,
Switzerland H. Ganz, Switzerland M.
Jartoux, France (FIP Commission 2)
V. Liicio, Portugal
M. Miehlbradt, Switzerland
L. Sc hu be rt, G e r man y
K. Schiitt, Germany (FIP Commission 4)
P. Regan, UK (CEB)
All rights, including translation, reserved. Except for fair copying, no part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the FIP Managing Editor, Institution of Structural
Engineers.
Although the Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte does its best to ensure that any information it may give
is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence) is accepted in this respect by
the Federation, its members, its servants or agents.
Julio Appleton
Chairman
FIP Commission on Practical Design
FI P De s i gn of po s t - t en s io ned s la bs an d f ou nd a ti on ra f ts 5
1 General
1.1 Introduction Beam-and-slab system
A slab which is supported by beams in one or more
These recommendations present a guide to the design of
directions or a slab in which beams are monolithical with
post-tensioned one-way and two-way slab systems and
the slab in one or more directions to act compositely with
foundation rafts using unbonded or bonded prestressing
tendons. They are intended for slabs used typically in the slab.
building applications and other structures, but are not
intended for use in bridges. Flat slab
The choice of bonded or unbonded tendons is primarily
A slab directly supported on columns.
a matter of preference. If properly designed, both systems
will lead to safe and durable structures.
Advantages claimed for the use of unbonded tendons
include:
Waffle slab
A slab in which recesses are formed in the soffit such as to
very low friction coefficients create a series of ribs in two directions.
tendons fully protected against corrosion during con-
struction
Transfer plate
small and flexible tendons for maximum tendon eccen- A slab which transfers loads from one vertical structural
tricity and small radius of curvature system above to another vertical structural system below
simple and fast placement of tendons the slab for which the vertical structural systems do not
.10 grouting operation align.
On the other hand, advantages of bonded tendons may
include:
Foundation raft (mat foundation)
full exploitation of the yield strength of the prestressing
steel A continuous footing supporting an array of columns and/
or walls in several rows in each direction, having a slab-like
. improved cracking behaviour by activation of bond
forces shape with or without depressions or openings.
. provision of alternate anchorage through bond in case of
loss of a mechanical anchorage or tendon rupture at Prestressing anchorage
some section. A mechanical device which transfers the prestressing force
1.2 Design basis from a tendon into the concrete structure. Anchorages are
distinguished as per their use into stressing anchorages,
As far as feasible this document follows the principles set
non-stressing or dead-end anchorages, couplers (fixed or
out in the CEB/FIP Model Code 1990.
movable), intermediate anchorages, etc. Instead of a
mechanical device, a dead-end anchorage may be provided
by bond between tendon and concrete.
Prestressing duct
3 Definitions A tube which forms a continuous cavity inside the concrete
structure to allow placing and free movement of the tendon
during stressing. Prestressing ducts are corrugated for
bonded tendons, but may be smooth for unbonded
Bonded tendon tendons. Ducts may be made of steel or plastics (high
A tendon that is bonded to :the concrete by grouting or density polyethylene or polypropylene). The specified type
other approved means, and therefore is not free to move of duct should be compatible with its intended use.
relative to the concrete. Installation methods and friction characteristics may vary
with type of duct.
Unbonded tendon
A tendon in which the prestressing steel is permanently
free to move between anchorages relative to the concrete Growing compound
to which it is applying prestressing force. A compound which is used to fill the prestressing duct after
final tendon stressing. It provides permanent corrosion
One-way-slab protection of the prestressing steel. Grouting compounds
A slab which is supported such that under load it curves in may be rigid or flexible. Rigid compounds also provide
predominantly one direction. bond between the prestressing steel and a corrugated duct/
concrete structure. The most usual types of grouting
Two-way-slab compounds are cement grout and grease or wax for
A slab which is supported such that under load it curves in bonded and unbonded tendons respectively.
more than one direction.
2.1 Concrete strength classes Table 1 Characteristic strengths for concrete grades
Design should be based on a strength class of concrete Concrete grade C25 C30 C35 C40
which corresponds to a specified value of the characteristic
fck [MPa]
compressive strength, L k, with respect to cylinders, in fct, [MPa]
accordance with ISO 1920, ISO 2736/2 and ISO 4012. The Luc 0.05 [MPa]
characteristic strength is defined as that strength below fctk 0.95 [MPa]
which 5% of all possible measurements for the specified EE [GPa]
concrete may be expected to fall. 25 30 35 40
The characteristic compressive strength and the corre- 2.6 2.9 3.5
sponding tensile strengths for some currently used concrete 1.7 2.0 1.1 2.4
grades are presented in Table 1. The E-modulus values 3.4 3.8 4.3 4.7
27 29 30 31
indicated correspond to the reduced modulus of elasticity,
to account for the initial plastic strain, to be used where
only an elastic analysis of the structure is carried out. 23.4 Protection of unbonded tendons
For the evaluation of other parameters, e.g. shrinkage
Corrosion protection materials for unbonded tendons
and creep values, appropriate National or International
should comply with the requirements of the FIP Recom-
Standards should be used.
mendations Corrosion protection of unbonded tendons.
23.2 Anchorages
Tendon anchorages should comply with the requirements
of the FIP Recommendations for acceptance of post-
tensioning systems. These recommendations stipulate
minimum performance levels for the efficiency of prestres-
sing anchorages, load transfer from anchorages into
concrete structures, and fatigue strength of the tendon
anchorages.
3.2 Prestressing
These recommendations apply to prestress from post-
tensioned tendons, bonded or unbonded. 3.2.3 Effects of prestress
The effects of prestress can in general be considered by
using two equivalent approaches:
3.2.1 Initial prestress (a) treating prestressing, defined by its mean value, as an
The tensile stress in the tendons should not exceed the external action. The remaining contribution of the
following values: prestressing steel may be taken into account by
(a) at the time of tensioning assessing its stress increase for loads applied after
prestressing. This approach can be applied both for
Crpi = 0.80f ptk
SLS and ULS verifications
Crpi = 0.9040 .ik (3.1)
11
(b) considering, for a ULS check, the contribution of the Frame models, such as the equivalent frame model
prestressing steel as a resisting effect. In this case, described in ACI 318/89 and BS 8110, are commonly used
only hyperstatic effects due to prestress may be for the analysis of vertical and horizontal actions, if the
included in the action effects. structural system and the applied loads are sufficiently
The present document specially addresses slabs in build- regular. In quantifying the stiffness of the equivalent
ings. The deflection control is an important consideration, horizontal elements, special care must be taken. This
and the balancing load technique is a very useful method to aspect becomes important when high moments are
analyse these structures. For these reasons prestress is in transferred between the slabs and the columns, as is the
general treated as an action. case in structures under horizontal actions.
In addition to vertical equivalent loads, prestress induces For foundation rafts the soil-structure interaction should
axial forces which can be considered uniformly distributed be adequately considered.
all along the slab, except for regions near anchorages,
where cables are concentrated.
Prestressing involves a shortening of the slab. Such 3.3.2 Design action effects
shortening is not possible without restraints, in general. Values of actions should be chosen in accordance with
Restraints are caused- by adjacent structural elements appropriated National or International Standards. Actions
below and above the slab, such as columns and walls for include applied forces (direct actions), imposed deforma-
slabs and, in addition, by subgrade friction for foundation tions (indirect actions) and environmental attack.
rafts. The designer should check the consequences of such According to the actions' variation in time they are
restraints on the slab and on the adjacent elements classified as:
connected to the slab. . permanent actions (G), including dead loads, prestres-
Subgrade friction between slab and ground is necessary sing, shrinkage, creep
to transfer lateral loads from the superstructure through . variable actions (Q), including imposed loads, tempe-- -
the foundation raft to the ground. ture, wind, snow, earthquake
The shortening of the slab due to temperature variations,
shrinkage and prestress, introduces friction forces at the . accidental actions (A), including fire, explosions, impact.
interface of slab and ground. The friction forces depend on The earthquake action is considered as an accidental
the type of ground, contact pressure between slab and a c tion in so me Nat ion al S tandard s. -
ground, applied shortening, and other parameters. The design value of actions (Fd) is expressed in general
The friction forces will affect the concrete stresses in the terms by:
foundation raft. The subgrade friction is often considered
Fd = YCFk or Fd = "YftliFk (3.5)
as a pure friction problem (subgrade friction = contact
pressure x friction coefficient). As a guide, friction coeffi- where:
cient values between 0.5 and 2.0 have been used in design. "Yt is a partial safety factor (-ye = t for serviceability limit
For relatively short slabs and small applied shortening, states)
elastic deformations of the ground may reduce subgrade
friction considerably.
111 is a coefficient such that APFk represents a frequent,
quasi-permanent or combination value of the action,
3.3 Structural analysis and
Fk may be defined by its characteristic value (upper or
3.3.1 Methods of analysis lower), by its mean value or by a specified value.
The analysis of prestressed slabs may be performed Prestressing can in general be considered as the
applying linear elastic, plastic or non -linear material average value in each span.
models, using finite elements, grid or frame structural Designers should consciously select appropriate lr
models. It should be noted that adequate ductility of the arrangements with due consideration of the type and
reinforcing steel is necessary (see CEB-FIP Model Code of the structure.
1990). For building slabs subjected predominantly to vertical
Linear elastic methods are generally accepted as a
suitable model both for SLS and ULS verifications. loads, the following arrangement of loads are in general
The static theorem of the theory of plasticity may be sufficient:
used for the ULS check. This method is recommended . any two adjacent spans loaded with the design action
since it yields a lower bound for the ultimate load of the loads and other spans loaded with the permanent loads,
system. To this end, a plausible distribution of the internal or all the spans fully loaded
forces is chosen, and the cross-sections or elements of the . alternative spans loaded with the design action loads and
structure are designed accordingly. The assumed distribu- other spans loaded with the permanent loads.
tion of internal forces has to satisfy the conditions of
equilibrium, and should in general not differ too much Prestressed foundation rafts receive loads transmitted by
from the elastic model. the superstructure, by prestressing effects and by the
When using the finite element method for ULS, it is reaction of the soil. In general the fol lowing load
acceptable to use zero torsional stiffness (Dy= 0) in the arrangements are sufficient:
case of ribbed slabs. The same comment applies when the . maximum design load from the superstructure combined
grid model is used for both solid or ribbed slabs. with minimum or maximum design loads applied directly
The kinematic theorem (yield line analysis) may be to the raft foundation
applied to slabs where the failure mechanism is well
known.
FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
12 Non-linear analysis by FEM can be used as a verification
process for complex structures. --
. permanent loads of the slab and superstructure at 3.4 Ultimate Limit States
transfer of prestress.
Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse or
For buildings subjected to lateral loads, the following load with other forms of structure failure. These include:
combinations should also be considered:
. maximum vertical loads combined with unfavourable . loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it,
lateral loads considered as a rigid body
. maximum lateral loads combined with minimum vertical f ailure by excessive deformation, rupture or loss of
loads. stability of the structure or any part of it.
Ultimate Limit States The limit state checks are made by comparing the design
action or action effects (Sd) with the corresponding
The combination of actions or actions effects may be strength of the structure (Rd), i.e. verifying that:
written in the form:
Sd = "Yg Sg -Yp Sp "yo Sq1 + "Yqi Sql (3.6) Sd < Rd (3.10)
Redistributions of forces and moments may occur in a The design strength for concrete is presented in Table 2:
structure because of cracking, time -dependent effects,
Table 2 Concrete design strengths
differential deformations of supports, inelastic deforma -
tions and other factors. Therefore the designer may choose Concrete grade C25 C30 05 C40
not to strictly use the action effects determined with the
theory of elasticity. In fact in the model adopted fed [MPa] 16.7 20.0 23.3 263
fad [MPa] 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7
(equivalent frame, grid, slab) assumptions and simplifica-
tions are made which themselves influence the elastic
results. The simplified diagram given in Fig 1 can be used to
evaluate the resistant action effects under uniaxial com-
pression stress states,
Serviceability Limit States The idealised diagram presented in Fig 2 can in general
The combinations of actions effects (S) may be written in be used for mild steel or steel cold worked by drawing or
the forms: rolling.
Rare combination (Short-term) Fig 3 illustrates recommended stress strain character-
istics of prestressing steel for design purposes.
Si(
G+P+Qi+ (3.7) Fig I. Design stress-strain diagram for concrete
13
. Frequent combination (3.8)
S (G + P 411Q +
i>1
412.1Qi) (3.9)
i>l
In the quasi-permanent combination the situation at
transfer of prestress (final or intermediate construction
-0.002 -0.0035
phases) is to be considered.
The Theory of Elasticity with consideration of time-
dependent effects is in general to be used for SLS
verifications.
E
PUk EP
Bending at edge and corner columns
Moments can be transferred between the slab and an edge
Fig 3. Design stress-strain diagram for prestressing steel or corner column, by bending of a strip of slab with a width
(be ). This width should not be greater than the values
3.4.1 Bending defined in Fig 5.
The design bending moment of this strip must not be
Stress increase in unbonded tendons greater than:
For unbonded prestressing steel no force increase beyond
effective force should be considered without detailed I
Mmax = 0.27bed2fcd (3.15)
calculations. v
i be
At ultimate the possible tendon force increase of _____________________
unbonded tendons is primarily a geometrical problem, Nbe w i al.0_04.4c4+444
and depends essentially on the maximum deflection of the
slab and on the increase of tendon length between
anchorages. The increase of tendon length from the
effective force up to ultimate may be estimated assuming ct
Yield lines elair11.4.1110.
Shear
reinforcement
P (3.22)
r \ zs
(3.35b)
Anchorage zone
(3.36a)
(a)
(b)
= 1 +1.8
17
The lesser of
t1.5d and 0.5c
.
(a) (b)
Punching resistance with shear reinforcement . vibrations which cause discomfort to people, damage to
PRd = 0.09k (100 P fck)1/3uid + 1.5d its,f'd
the building or its contents, or which limits its functional
asin (3.44)
sr Y effectiveness.
where Asv, is the total area of shear reinforcement in a The limit states checks are made by comparing the service
layer around the column, sr is the radial spacing of the values a, with the established allowable limits aadm, i.e.
layers and a is the angle between the shear reinforcement a < aadm (3.46)
and the plane of the slab. The value of f yd shall not be
taken greater than 300MPa. In some cases these checks can be replaced by equivalent
indirect verifications andior detailing provisions.
Maximum resistance For prestressed slabs the control of deflections is a main
In any case the maximum load, without considering the concern.
prestress effect, i3 Psd (PSd) must not be greater than:
PRd. max = 0.5 fcd2uod (3.45)
3.5.1 Deformations
where uo is the length of the periphery of the load or
column and fcd2 is defined in 3.27. At corner and edge In establishing the allowable limit values for deformations
the specific requirements of the use of the structure have to
columns the segments of this perimeter normal to slab be considered. As a guide, the following limits may be
edges must not be greater than 1.5d (Fig 13). applied for floors and roofs:
(a) deflection under quasi-permanent combination of
actions, 1/300
3.5 Serviceability Limit States (b) deflection that occurs after installation of partitions,
Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond for frequent loads, 1/500 or I5mm, whichever is V
which specified service requirements are no longer met. lesser.
These include:
The deflection in post-tensioned slabs is primarily influ-
. deformations or deflections which affect the appearance
or effective use of the structure or cause damage to enced by the slenderness of the slab, lfh, by the degree of
finishes or non structural elements prestress and by the magnitude of the loads. In general
deflections do not become critical, for continuous flat slabs
in both directions, if the span/depth ratio is chosen
according to the tables of Fig 14. In using Fig 14, the
a following points may be noted:
. the presented values have been obtained considering
that prestress is designed to balance approximately 70%
of the quasi-permanent actions. More slender slabs may
be possible using higher degrees of prestressing
. for banded waffle flat slabs, permanent load values to be
e 0 4 used (G) should refer to the ribbed zone.
Explicit deflection calculations are necessary for slabs
which lie outside such hypotheses or when deflection limits
other than those referred in 3.5.1 are appropriate. If a
I Sr
significant part of the permanent loads is balanced by
prestressing the deformations can be calculated elastical.
Fig 12. Punching-shear reinforcement In general, concrete will be cracked only locally over the
columns and time dependent effects can be estimated by
considering:
ao(1 + c) (3.47)
Cables concentrated in the column strips are quite
effective in reducing the maximum deflection in the slab.
3.5.2 Cracking
Cracking limits
Appropriate limits, depending on the function and nature
of the structure, should be agreed with the client. In the
absence of specific requirements the following limits may
be assumed, under frequent combination of actions.
Fig 13. Control perimeter for maximum resistance cracking When tendons are self-protected the usual reinforced
of the concrete which is likely to affect concrete crack limits apply.
appearance, durability or water tightness, adversely
we.
(b) limiting bar spacing and/or diameters in ordeir to limit
Exposure classes* Design crack width the crack width.
Normal (1/2) 0.2mm
Severe (3/4/5) decompression
Minimum reinforcement
* Exposure classes according to CEB/FIP Model Code 1990, see section The required minimum reinforcement may be calculated
4.4 later. by:
As. min = kf et. eff kcActicrs (3.48)
Verification of Limit State of cracking ALmin is the area of reinforcement within the tensile zone Act
is the area of concrete which is calculated to be in
Checks may be performed by: tension just before cracking
(a) providing minimum bonded reinforcement in all vs is the maximum stress permitted in reinforcement
immediately after formation of the crack. A value
regions likely to be subjected to significant tension lower than the yield strength of steel may be
due to direct loading or imposed deformations needed to satisfy the crack width limits.
fct,eff is the effective tensile strength of concrete when
cracks may first be expected to occur.
k is the coefficient which allows for the effect of non-
uniform self-equilibrating stresses, k= 0.8 in gen-
eral. 0.5 < k < 0.8 for slabs with h between 0.80m
and 0.30m, respectively (linear interpolation is
possible).
is the coefficient which takes account of the nature
of the stress distribution within section immediately
prior to cracking.
= 1.0 pure tension
= 0.4 bending without axial compression
=0.4 to 0.24 for bending with axial compression.
If the effective prestress is significant the minimum
reinforcement area may be reduced because of the
influence of the favourable effect of the compres-
sion force for bonded and unbonded tendons. The
value of ke may be obtained from Fig 15.
Urn)
ocp represents the average compression in the slab and
should be carefully evaluated.
(g + q)/ g 7.5 10.0 15.0 20.0
The prestressing bonded steel area may be taken into
1.0 45 42 33 27
account as minimum reinforcement, provided that the
2.0 41 34 26 20
different bond behaviour of the tendons is considered. This
3.0 35 29 22 16
may be done by assuming prestressing tendons to be 50%
effective.
kc
0.40
0.24
t(m)
(g + q)/g 10.0 15.0 20.0
1.0 37 . 29 24
2.0 30 22 17
3.0 25 18 14 0.8 2.0 a cp /f ct.eff
Fig 14. Span/depth ratios for interior panels in two - way Fig 15. Influence of the compression stress due to prestress
slabs
19
FT? Design of post - tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
where:
deformations, the bar sizes given in the following table are
not exceeded.
Steel stresses 0
(MPa) (mm)
160 25
200 16
240 12
280 8
320 6
360 5
400 4
3.5.3 Vibrations
In order to avoid vibrations affecting the serviceability of
the structure, the fundamental frequency of vibration
should be greater than a critical value which depend on
the function of the buildings.
fi> f er (3.49)
Values of the critical frequency for some typical cases
are indicated in CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, as follows:
Type of structure fcr (Hz)
Gymnasia and sport halls 8.0
Dance rooms and concert halls without permanent 7.0
seating
Concert halls with permanent seating 3.4
4.2.1 General
The distribution of the tendons may be analysed in each ers specifications. In general, spacing of supports is in the
particular situation. Depending on the system, it may be order of 1.0m.
more efficient to prestress the beams, the slab or both.
4.2.6 Openings
4.2.2 Tendon distribution tendons can in eneral be deviated to
The tendons can either be concentrated in the column each side of the o enin . The bends should not be close to
strips or they can be partially distributed in one or both t e opsingy tendons are terminated at the ed es offifie
irections (Fig 17). In _general more than 50% of the openings, an ana ysis sht1'';tTdtnacle---i; ensure su cient
"straigthEr groper behaviour. The design model should
tendons should be placed in the column_ strips at least in
provide therequired reinforcement, ordinary steel or fiost-
one direction. At least two cables should cross the columns. leristdiiiiii tendons, to strengthen the edges around open-
The column strip solution is easier to execute. Solution ings.
(b) induces balancing loads in a more uniformly distributed
fashion but, on the other hand, requires careful planning
on the placing sequence since the tendons cross each other.
In many cases options (c) and (d) appears to be a good
compromise of the previous solutions. 4.3 Non-prestressed reinforcement
A slab should have two lower reinforcement meshes and
two upper reinforcement layers over the support lines. The
4.2.3 Tendon spacing given rules apply separately to each layer.
Sanded tendons_can be placed side by side in groups of not (a) (b)
more than four monostrands, leaving a space between the
groups of at least 0.10m. As a general - -idle, for lightly
reinforced slabs, the maximum spacing of tendons or (c) (d)
21
2.4 Minimum radius of curvature of tendons
Minimum radius of curvature of tendons should follow the
post-tensioning supplier's specification. As a guide a
minimum radius of:
)
Rmin (m) = 3 .17 ; (MN); Ptk = Tendon ultimate load
(4.1)
may be used for 713._..AigEallthita_d_QIIS- For single strand
tendons and individually greased and plastic sheathed
tendons minimum radii of 1.5m and 2.5m should be used
for 0.5 inch (13mm) and 0.6 inch (15mm) strand,
respectively.
4.3.2 Partially restrained edges The shear reinforcement may consist of closed stirrups,
shear combs, bent-up bars or any other type of transver-
If the edge of a slab is partially restrained, and this restraint reinforcement which satisfies the resistance and anchor
has not been considered in the analysis, top reinforcement needs for the purpose. Bent-up bars may only be used in
should be at least the minimum prescribed in 3.52. This thick slabs.
reinforcement should extend from the face of the support The stirrups should surround the bars of the top and
over a distance of at least 0.21 (Fig 18). bottom longitudinal reinforcement. In general their slope
to the middle plane of the slab should lie between 45* and
90. The shear combs are composed of vertical bars with
4.3.3 Free edges anchor heads at one end and are welded to a steel strip at
Along the length of a free edge, a slab should contain the other end. The angle of bent-up bars to the horizontal
(Fig 19): should not be less than 30. Bent-up bars and stirrups shall
not be used in slabs thinner than 200mm.
reinforcement parallel to the edge consisting of at least
two bars, one in the top and the other in the bottom
corner
Edge column
reinforcement perpendicular to the edge. The free ends
should extend up to a distance of at least 2 h from the
edge.
?-0.2 t ?-0.2
The spacing of the various layers of shear reinforcement Punching shear reinforcement
should satisfy the condition: The maximum spacing defined in expression 4.2 should be
respected in all radial directions.
s <0.75d (1+ cot a) (4.2)
For punching shear reinforcement consisting of bent-up
where a is the angle of inclination of the shear reinforce- bars account can be taken only of those passing above the
ment. area defined by a contour line located at a distance d/4
The distance between the face support and the nearest away from the contour line of the loaded area (Fig 22).
layer of shear reinforcement should not exceed d/2 as
defined in Fig 21.
43.7 At anchorages
It is necessary to ensure that the anchorage devices are
Zones close to linear supports able to transfer the design strength of the tendon to the
If shear reinforcement is required in accordance with 3.4.2, concrete. An adequate amount of non-prestressed reinfor-
the following conditions must be met: cement, transverse to the prestress force, should be added
. the shear reinforcement shall be at least equal to at anchorages to avoid bursting and splitting of the
concrete. In thin slabs this reinforcement may be combined
< 2d
I 1
s s 0.75d
- 1- --
r I- 1-
1. $
s< 0.75d
111111111111111111111111111111011111111111111
11111
lb, net
MEM
14 1 1 1
.2 o o e
o
. 3 17 18
3.10
402 47.50_, 1 7.50 _ 21_0 7.50 7.50 7.50 47.50 0, 017.500 7.50 0 ft.Oti) e. 80 -ti1
'
7.50
7.50
1
SO
10.00
V 2.90
r Fee Teta-red-1
Fig Al. General arrangement plan design for
area
L- I
0 E
Const. Joint
(tYPical)
50
Pour
uenee
1800mm
(Grid 12)
(Grid C)
Fig Al Representative tendon profiles FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
Special details: Mild reinforcement was added in the
tendon anchorage zone, and at slab discontinuities such as
openings, steps and reentrant corners along the slab edge
to improve ductility and control cracking. restraint and slab discontinuities were assessed and, where
necessary, mitigated with proper details.
29
Correlation of mat design parameters
Tendon spacing
11111111-7171P/A=2MPa
To maximize the benefit from the tendons in resisting shear
under the columns and flexure in the column strip, three
1=1MPa
10
1111 1111
1111
IA
P
0 25
4 50 75 100
y-direction, I space at 0.6m, remaining spaces at 1.6m
Tendons required
46 strands Fig AS. Tendon layout for construction stages 1-3
6 strands/tendon 8(Pbay)(drape)
W b a l a n c e d
choose 7 tendons (6 6) in 66mm 0 ducts (span length)2
(42 strand)( 155kNistrand) 8(42 strands x 155kN/strand)(0.5m)
Precompression =
(0.8m x 9m) (8.5m)2
= 904kPa OK = 360kNim
31
for the first stage were used, but expanded to consider B cr(0.5L) (42 strands x 170kN)(0.5 x
secondary moments, load capacity and overstress at critical 35m) EC7 days (0.8m x 9m)(29 x 106kPa)ES =
span and joint locations. = 0.0006m
Check #1: initial stressing, no load on slab (self weight
Caissons, service pits, grade beams and slab steps
of slab is neglected)
Net stress in slab: potentially impede slab shortening and introduce tension
into the raft. The level of restraint is directly proportional
to the potential displacement of the slab at the location of
(M5d AlPo) Po the restraining item. Locating restraining items closer to
anet
W A the slab's centre, or releasing their connection to the slab,
minimizes their influence on the slab. A smooth transition
MPo = Po(dp h/2) = (24 x 170kN)(0.683m - 0.4m) at steps in the slab soffit reduces subgrade interference. An
optimized concrete placement schedule and prestressing
= 4080kN x 0.283m = 1155kNm sequence, in conjunction with distributed mild reinforcing,
are effective at mitigating restraint problems.
Po (4080kN)
= 567kN/m2;
A (0.80m x 9m) Subgrade friction
vv
This is a concern to the extent that it impedes slab
, = bh2 = (9m)(0.80m)2 = 0.960m3 movement. TestsAl indicate that the slab can shorten up to
6 6
0.5mm on a smooth surface (friction coefficient, z. 0.5),
0 1155kNm567kN/m2)
- or up to 3.0mm on a rough surface (1 1.0), before sliding
net.+ = commences at the interface. Displacements below these
0.960m3 values are essentially unrestrained, being absorbed
= +1203 - 567 = +637kN/m 2 OK deformation of the subgrade.
3 11111 111.11111
of cracking the concrete.
10 20 30 40 50 70 80
Slab movement
1
Slab length (m)
Chart notes
Various actions dimensionally change the concrete mem-
1 P e n = 1 MPa at slab edge
ber. Evaporation of excess mix-water in the concrete 2 P = effective prestressing
causes slab shrinkage. Prestressing forces compress the slab force in center of slab
Restraint
32 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
In general, shrinkage, creep and temperature move- (compare to rough estimate of 1488kNm
ments of the slab, and accompanying subgrade restraint, x 1.451 ULS factor =2160kNm)
can be discounted. Creep of the subgrade typically exceeds
that of the structural concrete. The surrounding earth Peak moment = 269kNm
dampens thermal fluctuations in the raft, and moist earth (2) column strip moment, + MSd
and groundwater permeating into the concrete substan-
tially reduces, or even suppresses, drying shrinkage. Sur- -5 -4 -2 -1 1 2 3 4
111111M111111111111111111/111111
face cracking that may occur is controlled by the
reinforcing grid.
Ez
M1111111111111011111111211111111111111111
0
200
design 688
600 Slab section (m)
800
A5.1 Introduction Total moment for bay width =
The ULSs for the raft are those associated with a structural 2470 kNm 58% of total bay moment
failure of the slab by punching shear and/or flexure. (compare to rough estimate of 2233kNm
Accordingly, the design of the raft was checked for x 1.451 ULS factor = 3241kNm)
sufficient strength to resist the design actions with a Moment in 3m strip under column:
reasonable factor of safety. The factor of safety is achieved
by factoring the design actions (load factors), and by +Msd = (3m)(410kNm) + 0.5(3m)(278kNm) = 1647kNm
reducing the material strengths (material coefficients). Moment in middle strips (6m):
Applicable load factors
Self weight of the structure 1.4 +Msd = 2470kNm 1647kNm = 823kNm
"rmanent loads 1.4
_ve loads 1.6
Resisting moment in the span (in the x-direction):
Applicable material coefficients
concrete 'Yc=1-5 (1) prestressing force, P p , and effective depth, dp
mild reinforcing steel -ys= 1.15
prestressing steel -yp = 1.15 (42 x 00.6" strands) (232.1kN/strand)
1.15(9.0m) 942kN/m
A5.2 Flexure check
The bending moments in the slab can be obtained from a dp = 660mm support 06 duct10mm strand offset
finite element analysis of the slab bearing on an elastic
support. In lieu of such analysis a conservative design inside duct = 683mm
approach assuming uniform bearing pressure under the
column tributary area can be used with the ACI 318 A3 (2) mild steel force, T s , and effective depth, d 5 .
equivalent frame method of analysis or other plate/frame
analysis methods. . T, = (5 x 014 bar/m)(154mm2/014 bar)
A finite element (FE) program was herein used for the x (0.460kN/mm2)/1.15 = 308kN/m
analysis of the raft as a flexible slab on an elastic support. d5 = 800mm 300mm cover (3/2)(014) = 749mm
Twisting moments Mxy and My in the slab, in addition to
bending moments M x and My , were designed for. The (3) depth of compression block,
;sting moments MX,,, calculated by the FE program, were
wdded to the Mx moment and included in the moment a = Pp 942kN/m + 308kN/m = 0.088m
diagrams below. 0.85fcd 0.85 x 16 700kN/m2
(4) resisting moment, MRd
Slab regions in the vicinity of column C12
Mp = P(dp x/2) = 942kN(0.683m 0.044m)
Applied moment (in the x-direction):
602kNm/m
(1) span moment, Msd
M5 = T(d, x/2) = 308kN(0.749m 0.044m)
= 217kNm/m
frillikeiral II IIIMIll
20: MRd = Mp 602kNm + 217kNm
E
z 1001111ME 1111111111fferl = 8l9kNm/m
z Total moment for bay width
E
11.111 .111111111111 = 9m x 819kNm/m = 7372kNm
4
Slab section (m)
11. 33
FM' Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts
Total moment for bay width = 1800kNm
42% of total bay moment
R e s i s t i n g mo me n t ( i n t h e x - d i r e c t i o n ) u n d e r t h e c o l u m n :
(1)
d, = 800mm - 50mm cover - (3/2)(014) = 729mm
Pp
d p = 800mm - 150mm support - 066 duct/2 - 10mm offset
= 607mm.
(2) resistance in 3m strip under the column: Fig A8. Punching shear cone
T, = (30 x 014 bar)(154mm 2/014 bar)
x (0.460kN/mm2)/1.15 Applied moment vs. resisting moment:
(1) Span moment:
= 1848kN total bay moment =1800kNm <MRd=7372kNm OK
P p = (3 tendons)(6 strands/tendon) peak bay moment = 269kNm < MRd =819kNm OK
(232.1kN/00.6" strand)/1.15 ( 2 ) Colu mn strip mo ment:
= 3633kN total bay moment = 2470kNm < M Rd = 7372kNm OK
3m column strip =1647kNm < MRd = 3202kNm OK
Pp + 3633kN + 1848kN 6m middle strip = 823kNm <3f Rd = 4026kNm OK
b(0.85.fed) (3m)(0.85 x 16700kN/m 2)/1.5 =
0.129m
includes the actions of the subgrade and tendons acting in -
Mp = Pp (dp - x/2) = 3633kN(0.607m - 0.064m) control perimeter 112 located a distance half the slab dep.,
= 1973kNm from the column periphery.
Ms = Ts(ds - x/2) = 1848kN(0.729m - 0.0645m) PSd.eff = I3(PSd PSd.cr PSd.p) Ppo
372kNm
1 yo = 1 072kNm (5080kN 204kN - 1781kN) = 1074kN - Resisting
V, = 0.3( Fri +fpc)bod + vp
shear force 0 12 100
PRd = . ( Phic)1131 - 1 1dave
35
200
022e
E
E
0
4SOmm
II_ IT= 014 0 200
E
0
0
co
E CM=
0 E 14
0
co
Fig A13. Detailing at slab opening
180mm
1200mm
A7 References
Al. Post-tensioned foundations, VSL International Ltd.,
Berne, Switzerland, June 1988.
A2 Westergaard, H.M.: 'Stresses in concrete runways of
airports'. Proc. 13th Annual Meeting of the Highway
Research Board, 1939/1940.
A3 American Concrete Institute Standard ACI 318-89
Building Code requirements for reinforced concrete.
B2 Design concept
A slab with a 16.8m span could only be conceived B3 Design information
economically as a prestressed slab. The combination of a The flat slab of an underground floor presented in Figs B2
ribbed solution with prestressing reduces the weight of the and B3 was chosen to illustrate this example. For that slab
structure and controls deflections in an effective way. earthquake effects are not significant.
R U U R R
111111111MMR111111
I
vimami
"" 11111111M1111111111111111
RIM
MEM
RU
RIM
RIM
OMNI
1111111111
11
11
11
11
111
11
1.0
111
111.-
- _________ lit -t i
Nurimunt!"-
110111111111111111111.111111111
111
11111111111111111111111/11111
111111111MRIMMII11
MI113
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIMMIll
11111111111111111111111111111
MIRE
11111111111111111M1111
11111111111=11111111111111111
1111111=11111111MI RR
111111111M111111111111111
IMMIIIMIEM111111111
1111111111MIIMMI
IIIMIIIRI1MR111111
111111
Fig BI. General layout of the slab
3 anchorages
18anchorages
10 strands"-
3 anchorages
8.40
3 anchorages
3 anchorages
A'
8.40
8.40 16.80
0
0.20
.20
..
-... :. -...
I eA
ir-5_,F9
r
4
r0.80
. wl 4 0.35 0.40 1.10
0.80
11, W 0.80
I 0.35
Id It
0 A = 0.255m2
4
= 0.313m
1 = 0.00591 m ysup = 0.187m
Section 2- 2' (see Fig. 81)
0 A = 0.61m 2 yid = 0.27m
1 = 0.0137m4 ysup = 0.23m
Fig B3. Geometry of representative sections
The prestressing layout and reinforcing steel details are P= (6 x 8 4- 26) x 160kN = 11 840kN
- 1-1:80kN / (8.4 x 0.5)m 2 = 2820kPa
shown in Fig B5 for representative sections of the slab. " om
(b) along
Total prestress in a strip: .
P = (18 +4) x 160kN=3520kN
B4 Ultimate limit states crcpx = 3520IN I [(2.0 + 8.4 0.65) x 0.5jm2 -
Reactions
Point Dead load Prestress Live load
F Mx My F Mx M,, F Mr My
(kN) (kNm) (kNm) (kN) (kNm) (kNm) (kN) (kNm) (kNm)
F 1398.3 1282.7 - 96.3 -355.8 - 1332.6 -11.0 372.2 317.0 - 21.9
. . 8 strands
[ 40 2 , 18 strands r 4012
012 ito2o
-025110.20
4
Section 1 -1'
012110.20 012110.20
30
B4.2 Shear -- fcd2 = 0.60 x 20 = 10.56MPa
In this section the ultimate limit state of shear resistance is
checked on a solid strip and on a rib, sections D and E (Fig 962.1kN < 10.56 x 103kPa x 0.9 x 0.46 x 0.57
B4), respectively. As a simplification, the compression due 2507.6kN OK!
to prestress is neglected and it is assumed that the concrete
is cracked by bending. Check for the longitudinal tensile reinforcement:
a- 0 A s f syd VSd (PSd' P) cot8
B4.2.1 Shear in the ribs along y-direction - IMSd (Nth P)i P(z - Zs) 2
section E z z
lisd(psd, P) = 51.5kN (2820kN/m2 x 1.1m x 0.5m) x (0.9 x 0.46m - 0.21m)
0.9 x 0.46m)
Vsd, eff = Vsd(Psd, - VOp = 51.5kN
448.9kN
+ x 1.43
with Vop = 0 (simplifying assumpticn) 2
Shear without transverse reinforcement: 936.9kN
A >
VRd = 0.12(1 + 000/d)(100pf ck )1 / 3bd 348 x 10 kPa quired
3
PRd 0.12(1 + \/200/450)(100 x 5.3 x 10 -3 x 30MPa)1/3 x The following maximum deflection values are obtained
8.58m x 0.46m x 103 (0 = 2.5)
PRd = 1976.2kN > PSd.eff OK!
43
As.min = kkcAct(fit.efficrs) = 0.8 x 0.24 x 1290 x (3.0/160) As.rnin = kkcAct (fcLefficrs) = 0.8 x 0.352 x 640 x (3.0/200)
= 4.7cm2 /m < As.prov. = 2.7cm2 per rib <As.prov.(3016)
f et.eff = 3.0MPa fc t . e f f = 3.0MPa
kc = 0.24 Ice = 0.24 + (0.8 - 0.72/3) x 0.16/0.8 = 0.352
Act = (1.0 x 0.25) x 3.0/(3.0 + 2.82) = 0.129m 2/m = Act = (0.2 x 0.399) x 3.0/(3.0 + 0.72) = 0.064m2
160MPa for indirect cracking control o-, = 200MPa for indirect cracking control
(0. = 25mm per table, section 3.5.2) B5.2.2
(0 ma, = 16mm per table, section 3.5.2).
Longitudinal direction - Section C