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To facilitate the construction of this transfer plate,

which was located over 30 m (98 ft) above grade; FIGURE 2.3.46 Technician Adjusting a Post-Ten
two-layer construction was used. The bottom lm (3' sioning Tendon for the Full 3.5 m (11' 6") Height
3") thick layer was cast first and designed to carry (P365)
the weight of the upper 2.5 m (8' 2") layer. The com-
bined thickness was designed to resist the loads
from the tower above. As indicated in Fig. 2.3.4-5, the
post-tensioning tendons of both the lower and upper
layers were installed before the lower layer was cast
and stressed. Figure 2.3.4-6 shows a technician se-
curing one of the ducts for the multi-strand tendons
for the 3.5 m (11' 6") transfer plate.

23.5 Mat/Raft Foundation

When the allowable bearing pressure is not ad-
equate to resist peak stresses below walls and col-
umns, but the total area of the soil below the foot-
print of a structure is large enough to resist the total
load, a mat/raft foundation can be a viable solution.

FIGURE 2.3.4-7 Construction View of a Transfer

Plate 1.5 m (5 ft) Thick
(Courtesy FroyssInet Gulf; ADAPT: Jabal Omar, RSA; P366)

A mat foundation is a slab of mostly uniform thick-

ness that often extends over the structure's entire
footprint; its function is to distribute the loads, so
that the soil pressure is reduced to allowable values.
Figure 2.3.5-1 Illustrates the point and the applica-
tion of post-tensioning.

In conventionally reinforced concrete construction,

when the mat/raft thickness is not adequate, the
load from above does not distribute adequately over
the entire mat surface. If the concentration of pres-
sure below the loads exceeds the allowable bearing
FIGURE 2.3.4-5 Transfer Plate Showing Both the
pressure (Fig. 2.3.5-1a), the mat thickness must be
1 In Bottom Layer Tendons and the Full Height
increased to achieve adequate distribution of the
Tendons (P364)