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(1966).

Contemporary Psychoanalysis 3: 39-54

Language and the Schizophrenic Quandary1
Kenneth L. Artiss, M.D.

Statement of Dilemma
IN A REVIEW, "Sociocultural Factors in the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia," which appeared in the November 1963 issue
of Psychiatry, Mishler and Scotch [6] remind us that reliability in the diagnosis of schizophrenia is so poor that:
In one study, three psychiatrists agreed in only 20 percent of their cases and had a majority agreement in only 48 percent. Another
study revealed that the widest disagreement occurred among the most experienced clinicians.

These authors go on to note that the problem does not end there, for they seem to believe that the psychologist and social
anthropologist cannot agree on how they should study whatever subject it is, and find that most available studies range in value
from questionable to useless:
It is not difficult to criticize the state of the field—few studies are available, concepts and methods are unclear and unstandardized,
findings are inconsistent and speculation abounds in the absence of reliable empirical knowledge.

The authors, having reviewed a wealth of material, conclude with the disappointing note that nothing of really interesting
significance has yet appeared.

1 Expanded from a paper read at a meeting of the Harry Stack Sullivan Society, New York City, March 10, 1964.
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In this sense, then, the conclusion is of a piece with those of all other reviews of etiology which we have been reading all
throughout our professional lives. Whether the author be reviewing biochemical studies, serological studies, anatomical studies,
or whatever, the conclusion is the same—there is no conclusion.
Many will remember the passionate and sarcastic manner in which both Eugen Bleuler and Harry Stack Sullivan2 dealt with
this problem.
Bleuler wrote over 50 years ago:
Our literature is replete with complaints about the chaotic state of the systematics of psychoses and every psychiatrist knows that it is
impossible to come to any common understanding on the basis of the old diagnostic labels.

We might note parenthetically here that Bleuler's annoyance with his predecessors did not save him from the same pitfall of
the label trap.
Bleuler's passion shows through clearly as he goes on:
In a certain hospital there would be a big pot, labelled 'dementia.' Now along comes a new physician who … labels a second pot,
'paranoia' … then carefully proceeds to seize the old inmates of the institution by some vestige of a delusion and puts them, one by
one, in his new pot—and in doing this believes that he is correcting the errors of his predecessors.

Harry Stack Sullivan, a generation later, and only a half-dozen years in psychiatry at the time, echoes these sentiments [8]
with:
The characteristics by which (schizophrenia) is distinguished have not been worked out with precision. Bleuler's formulation, for
example, is unsatisfactory alike in its basis in the old idea—association psychology—and in its contradictory if not actually
incoherent, propositions.

Instead of the ritual accusation of our antecedents of either wrongdoing or stupidity, I propose that they were probably
victimized by the language of their day which caused virtually insurmountable problems in thinking about and dealing with
schizophrenic persons.
Some of us like to think that Sullivan at least glimpsed a way out of the dilemma, but we all must admit that even today,
when experts gather to discuss schizophrenia, disagreement is the only characteristic finding.

2 It is my misfortune to have missed knowing Sullivan, but David McK. Rioch, Dexter Bullard and Janet MacK. Rioch have all kindly discussed him with me at
some length.
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WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in
which it originally appeared. It is illegal to copy, distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever.

The patient tests out the actuality (or reality if you will. with no specific consequences tied to either. for here he is not divorced from reality) of the authority in whatever terms it appears: locked doors. the connotations. we found a remarkably predictable and ubiquitous transaction between patient and staff which I will detail in a moment.42 - the logic of the operation becomes eventually. or at least a continuing. would include the idea that when given a choice. It is illegal to copy. a given schizophrenic person would prefer to entertain a fantastic explanation rather than to know what really happened. so don't argue. but once we had become alerted to it. to the connotations attached to certain significant verbal symbols which I will identify in a moment. At the risk of being over-obvious may I call your attention to the fact that this continued argument or debate is centered upon the meaning of words and more specifically about the connotative or if you will allow me. sick?" Adding the defiant addendum. catatonic. schizo-affective and simple subtypes. as some of you well know. (2) together with certain linguistic phenomena attested to by Sapir and Whorf." Whereupon the patient. "You are sick because we have the social authority to name you as such. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. the response is: "Because you are sick. and occurring frequently in our study. let us briefly note that the denotation of Bleuler's statement includes the idea of a positive preference for fantasy as against reality. enforced medication. the predilection for fantasy as against reality and the inclination to divorce oneself from reality. (autism). I shall further attempt to specify the location of this difficulty as being in our language and to narrow down the problem insofar as I am capable. and the almost completely hidden notion of the absence of some factor which might have made for a happy. marriage with reality. Here I have detailed but a small sampling of the very rich connotative connection matrix which our culture attaches to the meaning of that fragment of the classical Bleuler definition. undifferentiated. I will try to show—(1) with data from our studies in the use of Milieu Therapy [1] for the treatment of schizophrenic soldiers at Walter Reed General Hospital. I shall try to address myself to this issue of disagreement within the profession. the schizophrenic person inclines to separate himself therefrom in an orderly. Now. familiar to us all. Let me explain in some detail first a few of the implications. self-interest. The vast majority of our psychiatric residency training programs continue to teach the Bleuler view of schizophrenia." The debate begins here. Once he has become thoroughly well acquainted with the constraints.41 - or responsibility. (3) added to and related to some provocative speculations which originated with George Herbert Mead in his lectures on social psychology at the University of Chicago early in this century—that there may be both necessary and sufficient reason for our profession-wide difficulty. Early. All our patient-subjects were diagnosed as schizophrenic. it appears safe to assume that the patient quickly recognizes the staff member's verbally unstable situation or stance. We altered our response to the transaction and the phenomenon changed. Rephrased." we say) whereas the connotations of the descriptive language which is used definitely carry us immediately into an ideational field which includes organized deceptive planned evasion of responsibilities as thematically prominent. once having been related to reality. For illustrative purposes only. the social implications of these words. and its connotations. You will recall that Bleuler [2] stated in 1911: The fundamental symptoms consist of disturbances of association and affectivity. of the language in which we so often discuss schizophrenia. and other constraints. deliberate evasion of contract . chronicity. puzzled sometimes. we come to data from our study. and may go on endlessly—even for years. If we had no more material than this to give us direction and deliberately ignored Zinkin's translation problem. loss of interest in the other—and at a second or third order of magnitude in terms of inference—the hint of skullduggery. all of us discovered how easily it could be recognized elsewhere. "There's nothing wrong with me. strikes out against him by demanding an explanation which cannot be provided in any clarifying fashion and thereby forces the staff member to retire in verbal confusion to an authoritarian position in which . he is regrettably all too frequently on the way to a new problem. The transaction is one which occurs soon after the new patient's admission to a hospital ward." Most of you have experienced what comes next. asks "What do you mean. The denotative meaning of "divorce oneself from reality" includes the idea that. angered usually. when he accosts one or many of the staff to inquire "Why am I here?" Conventionally. Our paradoxical position comes into sharper focus when we note that we are compelled by our medical model to think of the person as sick or disabled ("mentally ill. for the first time in this long preamble. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. so that we can later approach the data with advance notice as to where to focus our attention. planned and intended-to-be-final fashion. including a cross-section of paranoid. Common connotations would include the ideas of willfulness. and without past history. . we could still explore right here to considerable depth. unrequested treatment.

through the behavior of the people. then more than ever . serological. that is. it soon becomes apparent that your patient is primarily deficient in social skills. He demonstrates something odd about his use of language which is not adequately described in the classical literature. And this factor of meaning was clearest when it was a linguistic meaning. he is unable to sustain a friendly conversation for three minutes. a method of alerting the staff to problems and furnished material for use in postulating behavioral messages (the potential symbolic content of non-language behavior). in the start of a fire. with a supply of schizophrenic patients. let us return to our theme for a closed inspection. such as: A. to fit himself smoothly into even simple and uncomplicated social groups outside of his family circle. If indeed we are similarly driven to action by language symbols whose only clear "raison d'être" is an authoritarian one." it will tend to be different—careless. and uninvolvement with. residing in the name or the linguistic description commonly applied to the situation." The idiosyncratic behavior will at no time have a unique content. the social environment. He insists upon certain self-defining prerogatives concerning the meaning and use of words. we attempted to locate some single factor about the schizophrenic person which would set him off as unique. When you inspect this phenomenon further from the operational point of view. rather than by the simply observable facts of the case. but the meaning of that situation to people was sometimes a factor. we were able to specify operationally some aspects of patient behavior which have held up reliably in repeated tests. Furthermore. These observations served as multi-observer cumulative behavioral record. Are we not forced. It is illegal to copy. To some degree. freedom of choice in the patients I accepted. since they contain explosive vapor." What do I mean. deficiencies in social skills. he is aware of this problem and can discuss it with you at great length. When we use acceptable social behavior as a reference measure. "simply observable facts of the case"? Only these: attention to the patient rather than to the language reveals that he displays a marked indifference to. a staff information-communication system. he is comparatively deficient in social skills. I had the good fortune to be provided with a ward and a staff to run it. by the paradoxical and uncertain position in which the connotations of our own professional language place us. In fact and simply. The behavior of the schizophrenic person will differ from the . or similarly medical-model-oriented proof of the presence of an illness or defect. He does not accept the WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. Now may I tell you something about the manner in which the basic data for this discussion were accumulated. but the experience sharpened our abilities to observe at the same time that it reduced our excess baggage of presuppositions to a more manageable size. Thus. usually beginning with his concern about being different from others which he often introduces with some note about estrangement. . Leaving that painfully familiar scene. In due course it became evident that not only the physical situation qua physics. freedom of inquiry. while around a storage of what are called "empty gasoline drums. chemical. but will be unique only at certain times and then only in the stylistic aspect of over. to energetically renew our efforts again and again to find some biological. so as to once and for all be rid of our nagging dilemma of the medical model on the one hand and the theme of evasion of responsibilities on the other? Basis for the Language Approach to the Dilemma How we may be driven to this sort of action by our language is suggested by Benjamin Lee Whorf [11] in his remarks in "The Name of the Situation as Affecting Behavior. (This is not to say that a given schizophrenic person may not be able to demonstrate magnificently skillful evasive behavior or even highly skilled social manipulative ability in a family-limited social field. Early. Sapir … in the course of my professional work … analyzing fires and explosions. Yet the "empty" drums are perhaps the more dangerous. By the end of the second year. of course. with little repression of smoking or of tossing cigarette stubs about." I came in touch with an aspect of this problem before I had studied under Dr. he will be found to consistently violate these boundary conditions in a manner which strongly suggests a lack in social regulatory function or. By and large. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever.or under-emphasis.) C. as we came to describe it later.44 - "norms" of society in terms of "too much" or "too little. Some years ago.43 - we can respect the puzzlement with which our patient responds upon being told that he is "schizophrenic. B. and in how long I wished to keep them. the staff and I succeeded in these goals and much of this material is available elswhere. around a storage of what are called "gasoline drums. great care will be exercised. had companion investigators and knowledgeable consultants to aid me in the task of devising a therapeutic milieu for these patients. It was a group experiment from beginning to end and each staff member was required to record his observances concerning the transactions in which he participated. We failed in this objective." behavior will tend to a certain type.

in our sample. from the poetic aspect of metaphor. I feel separated off. of language." his singularity. It fits with the language data. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. During this isolated time. his role and his identity. At the point of expulsion the form for verbal statement is "Yes. without the necessity of further assumptions.45 - emphasize tonight was the discovery that we could agree with him in part by concurring that his behavior was indeed different." Quite early in our study. p. "I don't belong any place. "Your name is not what you say it is. The awkward and clumsy social behavior of the schizophrenic person could again result from a relative connotative deficit." I want to emphasize belong and am. The overwhelming sense of difference and estrangement which the schizophrenic person describes could be the resultant of a loss or absence of fine shades of meaning. not yet a patient." He has self-defined the situation and the explanation. In group therapy sessions for example. as it were. The necessary requirements for an escalation theory of schizophrenia are met." These concerns then refer to membership and being or identity. Gradually developing our sensitivity to what the patient was saying after he had been "expelled" and was on a psychiartic ward. my name is Jesus Christ. insists upon abrogating this authority and clashes again and again with the social structure at this precise juncture. We know from his history. Marlowe [4] had described the soldier. according to Marlowe. that he has been ostracized from acculturating play with neighborhood children and has spent most of his non-school time in relative isolation. (I have discussed these phenomena elsewhere under the title of "The Naming Prerogative"). incapabilities and despondency. Furthermore. things like that. all these other people here have false names. Let's take a look at the over-all size of the problem. a patient might be even more specific. the situation should deteriorate in that the to-be-schizophrenic child would appear increasingly deficient to his playmates and by that token increasingly undesirable as a companion. These bids for the "deviant" label. . The first lead we had for the points I wish to . It is illegal to copy. "I don't belong" and second. we were enabled to pick up two distinct themes which were constantly repeated. consist of continuous throwing out of cues to the group … a continuous flow of themes centering around his inabilities. "I am different. The Language Hypothesis about the Schizophrenic Quandary It seems reasonable to entertain such an hypothesis on several grounds. as demonstrating deviant behavior. and the gentleness which can only be expressed in connotative subtlety. It fits with the behavioral data. but also in so doing to obtain a specific label from his associates. still on duty. culture's right to establish.46 - the tenderness. I am different. I am different. Briefly summed up: He will engage in a predictable series of transactions with the group which will end in his expulsion from it." The struggle then would be over his attempt to self-define two things. which by this time would be roughly as follows: The schizophrenic's quandary results from a relative deficit in the connotative aspect of language. It is a part of the plot. This "bidding for deviance" apparently continues steadily or accelerates in pace until the end is achieved—expulsion from the group—via hospital admission. Later he would be found disputing with staff members over definitions or names. apparently in an effort not only to call attention to himself. so as to make him relatively insensitive to others' intentions and insulate him. and define the meaning of its language forms. I don't feel human. let me now state the hypothesis of this paper. from clarity of perception. I don't belong to the human race. teach. the implicit social consequences. For example. . [1]. "My name is not Private So-and-So. often long hours in his room with nothing but a phonograph for company." Not infrequently. I don't believe that name tag you're wearing. It is an attractive hypothesis also because ways should soon be available for us to test it. 140 Apropos of the theme of lack of social regulatory function is that of "bidding for deviance. now you can see it. For WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. First was. They're putting on a play for my benefit. I've never belonged in the group of people that are successful in this world. for example. The behavior which I have described (and that described by others with different emphases) could be explained by it. One can easily imagine that each hour of isolation enlarges the gap in social skills between our subjects and their peers who are spending the same time in acquiring a few additional social nuances. will be ratified. As time passes. I know. from the softness. that hold jobs. one assumes that the other neighborhood children are playing and in other ways acquiring the many thousands of nuances which make for their acculturation. The boundary conditions are to some extent understood already. these themes came forward. maybe I'm a queer or a homosexual. It is to others and to official agencies that he presents these behavioral forms as the instruments through which the "difference. In the hope that I have not obscured the issue by too much condensation of the data.

His book. then he would experience difficulty in thinking about a language or communicational "field" with. Louis on his attempts to use such a system in the analysis of cultural values. the pronoun. However. moreover. can itself be as readily defined as our earlier examples. apparently he must engage in some creative act of this type in order to avoid being overwhelmed by the "apparent" complexity of the problem. and implications which may be drawn from. it has no habits to unlearn and is just as ready to tackle a problem with ten interacting logics as one with two. up to this point.47 - four-valued or four-dimensional logic has a more unfamiliar quality until we recognize that it is easily achievable in our experience by the addition of a time dimension to the space dimension already so familiar to us. let us say." I do not consider myself presently qualified to discuss such an approach at any great depth. To illustrate: There are. At this point. He can free himself from such habitual conceptual constraints by inventing or creating a "space" or field in which many interacting variables are possible. the computer. Each contingency. all varying to a specifiable extent and yet all interacting to some degree. distances or amounts over which a value may vary in this instance—each of which must be completely specified.48 - to find that our ability to follow the argument was diminishing. despite our reluctance to know it." and so on. a . But the computer is simply a machine. Complication is piling upon complication and our geometrical space image together with our linear language habits are beginning to interfere to such an extent that we withdraw. made possible. The mathematician or the general systems researcher has learned to use the concept of a hyperspace to deal with four or more values and it is part of his professional language. width and depth or use X. at this point. Osgood reported at our 1963 APA convention in St. at this point it becomes more difficult to think of even more dimensions varying at once. Permit me. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever." No great conceptual problem here. No scientist to my knowledge has yet estimated the number of connotative interconnections but a goodly number of mathematicians are approaching language studies with a multivalued logic model. most of us would begin . We are familiar with the three-dimensional logic of space and human vision in which we classify in terms of height. we immediately note that each such possibility is modified. the computer. It is illegal to copy. Generally. The solution to specifying the connotative logic in a language would seem to demand application beyond what could be expected from man and call for machine solution from the outset. However. "you. we have tended to analyze language with the use of four gross dimensions as follows: WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. by hand as it were. If he were conceptually inhibited by a sort of geometrical space notion. is helpful to us in dealing with the complexity of connotations. Measurement of Meanings[7] takes up the issue at some length under the general heading of the "semantic differential. is required to present it with a series of logics—degrees. There are a certain number when several logical systems are all operative at once. The numbers of connotations in an efficient language have been estimated by Van Der Berg [9] to be in the neighborhood of one million. To adequately respond to the size of the language analysis problem. and Z coordinates. Charles E. ten dimensions. Much of the logic of denotative language usage (the language logic of classes) has already been worked out by Russell and Whitehead in Principia Mathematica before the computer could help. when he is interacting with his machine assistant. Terminology such as multivalued logic and hyperspace are infrequently heard in psychiatric groups. only a finite number of definitions for." "she's" "it's. often with a parting disparagement about people who pursue such matters. we could begin by translating multivalued logic to multidimensional logic.000 words as a maximum. . There are a certain number of true or correct values (a truth table is an example) which are allowable in a logic system. in the field." There are a finite number of relationships (symbolized by verbs) in which "I" may engage.example: Acculturated persons have denotative vocabularies ranging from 5. to elaborate further on how the thinking borrowed from the mathematician with his assistant. we can accept that all possible relationships between you and I can be specified. Y. However. When our reluctance is overcome. "I. so a digression in order to explain is in order. and we have only just begun.000 to 50. All it needs is a programmer and mathematician who can mentally allow for a space with no limit on the number of dimensions it may contain or the number of values which may obtain from the intersections among these. I gather that the problem looks no more overwhelming than many other hyperspace problems which may require computer solutions. rendered impossible or deemed necessary by the presence of absence of a host of "he's.000 to 650. There are a finite number of definitions and implications which may be attached to the pronoun. with an almost incredible expenditure of scholarly energy. The mathematician.000 words out of a lexicon size ranging from 100. First.

logic in our theories is required only to the degree that it promotes cohesiveness and a degree of tautology necessary for a useful technical language. In passing. . law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions. IV. Below. . and therefore. for example. Actually. universals in a sense. Those of us interested in research have lived through a long period of heated dispute about the scientific validity of dynamic-psychiatric theories. poetry and subtlety. II. It is illegal to copy. I dwell at some length on this point because it is both germane to this paper in particular and our profession in general. More definitely stated: Hypothesis implies insufficiency of presently obtainable evidence and. . but is stated in such a fashion as to allow for the possibility of its being proven wrong. will be found upon investigation to be positively correlated. translating these into symbols. theory implies a much greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth. is no hypothesis at all in the scientific sense. WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. For myself—all too frequently in these discussions I found that I "came out the same door wherein I went. through tests to theory. through exhaustive tests to behavioral law.50 - which have been so carefully delineated by the symbolic-logician. therefore. to reestablish the theme. In contrast. (1) that labelled schizophrenic. a tentative explanation. F. it should take us one more step toward what might some day become a theory of behavior. dictionary meaning of words. This specific factor. Morphology—the linguistic or structural analysis of words. It must follow then. and it alone. implicit. symbolic logic and linguistics. critics reminding us that most of them appeared full grown without having been preceded by hypothesis-testing. cannot only be tested eventually. symbolic logic is language logic—a spelling out of exactly what may and may not take place. for example. I might take this opportunity to emphasize that an hypothesis which cannot be put to some test containing the possibility of disproof. If such an hypothesis be verified. we will be interested in trying to determine what role this person is playing in order to explain his arrival at conclusions which differ from ours. explicit. Such languages then.49 - Finally. that any attempt to "validate" a psychodynamic theory (designed for communication purposes only) against the reality of behavior must inevitably fail of its avowed purpose and to a large extent expose our innocence about the necessity for tautological relationships in language 3 Symbolic logic is a series of statements about the intrinsic allowable. our mental operations are likely to be of the highest mathematical precision. serve to symbolize or represent reality and have no other important purpose. III. this hypothesis proposes that a certain type of behavior. and of signal importance. that the schizophrenic's quandary results from a deficit in the connotative aspect of language. In all probability. I. often contextual and colloquial meaning of words. words being symbols for things and events. let us examine how we go about analyzing the situation when we observe that a given person appears not to possess the shadings and nuances of meaning which we would expect. p. These last two dimensions of meaning rely heavily upon George Herbert Mead's concepts [5]. 125 that meaning includes the response of the other in a social field and a relationship of present response to later responses which are in some sense already initiated. Syntax—the ordering and placement of words. Denotative Meaning—the formal. We will be likely to assume a representational field in which we will ask about roles. The normal progress of science is from observation to hypothesis. necessarily tautological sets of relationships between the elements of any symbolic system. but in this instance a "theory" which has scientific rather than communicative function. to include communication of style. allows for the application of scientific method to the analysis of human behavior. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. C. consistent with the latest concepts of set theory or Boolean algebra4 (and in perfect accord with the "new" mathematics our children are being taught. we are going to discover that our psychodynamic theories were formulated only for the purpose of achieving a method (a language) that would serve us in talking about our patients to each other—and that alone." The probable reason for this lack of closure now appears to lie in the realm of this paper's theme. and their prominent connotative aspects. this hypothesis. W-.3 In all probability. for example. using a series of questions about roles. Connotative Meaning—the informal. A language is a system of symbols. Therefore. and (2) a relative connotative deficit in language. he doesn't come to the same conclusions that we do on the basis of similar evidence. Now.

" is the only possible location for the role designation "juvenile delinquent." for example." All logically possible roles can be located in the diagram. For example. We note with great interest that this is the area which satisfies the operational requirements for psychosis (craziness) in a formula as follows: Crazy=outside the allowable sets of social roles. Of course. It is illegal to copy. His "law of thought" states that there is an intrinsic pattern in the way that men think which classifies ideas as belonging to classes and categories. this fits in with our experience. since it is clearly in the field. Set theory quite obviously does not allow us to consider psychosis as nonexistent or mythological." All three factors come together only in (4) combining to form the logical symbol. first Professor of Mathematics at Queen's College. "Foreign juvenile delinquent. The Venn diagram simplifies this task because the areas of overlap in the superimposed circles are used to indicate the simultaneous existence of more than one of the factors being symbolized. . WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. Figure 2 We note that certain combinations of sets are possible and that there is a place in the field where no set applies. for we cannot dismiss the fact that schizophrenic persons are problems ." Location (3) is the only possible place for the co-existence of "foreign" and "wrongdoer" which combine to form "spy. Cork. "Computer Logic and Memory" by David C. not C. 5 An excellent discussion of the practical aspects of the Venn diagram appears in the September 1966 Scientific American in an article entitled. however absent in roles. ." Similarly. distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. not F and not W-. This is referred to as the null set and is diagrammed Figure 3 with the bar above the symbols to indicate "not.51 - child. son of a school teacher but largely self-educated. Figure 1 and eventually superimposing these upon a Venna diagram [10]5 we can proceed to examine all logical possibilities. the shaded overlap area designated (1) is contained within the factor "child" and the factor "foreign" and thus is the only possible place for symbolizing the role designation "foreign 4 George Boole (1815-1864).52 - and that their presentation as "problems" is operationally one of not fitting neatly into the roles which their society has available. Evans. the shaded overlap area (2). is considered the founder of the theory of mathematical logic from which both symbolic logic and the modern-day computer have been derived. being contained within the factor "child" and the factor "wrongdoer.

1962). Who knows. as symptoms. Symbolic Logic. Thought and Reality ed. Many simplified artificial languages are already in use. Language and the Schizophrenic Quandary. H. Good (New York: Basic Books. Self. can state quite simply: Language may be considered as consisting of symbols (words) arranged according to certain syntactic rules and can become nonsensical if words are either misspelled. that we have failed to consider it as a possible artifact only? And if so. have we failed to locate a more adequate model to include the deficiency concept because—and here I use a colloquial representation only for emphasis—because we have been led by our language to the hole rather than to the doughnut? And in closing.. [8] Sullivan. of Illinois Press. Univ. Society ed. H.(Chicago. Artiss (New York: Grune & Stratton. Gooddr (New York: Basic Books. H. D. Ill. G. J. The Scientists Speculates ed. should this rather disturbing possibility become the case. The Measurement of Meaning (Urbana. of Chicago Press. I. by the language logic itself rather than by the phenomenology? Has this emphasis caused us to attend so vigorously to the fantasy world.54 - Article Citation [Who Cited This?] Artiss. Contemporary Psychoanalysis 3: 39-54 WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. a modern scientist like Kalmus [3]. Psychiatry 26 1963 315-351 [7] Osgood. C. J. What a shaking thought that our children might some day come to know what we today call schizophrenia as something like. Carroll (New York: John Wiley. for example. K. E. as it were. 1959). K. p. much of what our patient tells us today could be thought of as personalized metaphorical allusion to what it feels like to be socially deprived to the degree that one cannot locate a way to remain related to one's fellows and is thereby constantly threatened with becoming "disconnected" from them as a result of one's own linguistic clumsiness. N. 1934-1963). XIV] Mind and the self are without residue social emergents: and language. 1957). L. 1894). The Scientist Speculates ed. G. in talking about analogies of language to life. This manifesto is condensed by Charles W. pp. J. B. and Tennenbaum. Is it possible that we have been led by our models and their associated language into a meaning non sequitur so that by classifying delusions and hallucinations. (London: Macmillan & Co. R. 276 [4] Marlowe. It is illegal to copy. L. A.. Mind. B. J. Milieu Therapy in Schizophrenia (New York: Grune & Stratton. Psychiat. 1962). Schizophrenia: Its Conservative and Malignant Features. H. 58 [10] Venn. p. E. provides the mechanism for their emergence.. Today. p. p. I. K. Morris. maybe the psychologist with these interests can show us a useful method of approach. What I choose to call George Herbert Mead's "manifesto" was made in his lectures on social psychology at the University of Chicago—to which I referred earlier—some 50 years ago. 1949). H. missing or wrongly combined. L. Press. I save what is to me the most attractive and I hope most provocative aspect to the last. [11] Whorf. Suci. Sociocultural Factors in the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia. 99 [5] Mead. [3] Kalmus. ed. So. 1961 [2] Bleuler. may I add that it is not considered foolish these days to think about using the computer to aid in specifying whatever logical system may be present in a language any more than it is to use it as a help to specify the factors which would be required to produce a comprehensive artificial language. J. in the form of the vocal gesture. 1956). P. both encoding and decoding. Zinkin (New York: Int. then Harry Stack Sullivan will indeed be seen as a prophetic figure. Ill. that has perhaps only flowed in to fill up the social-experiential vacuum in the lives of these people. 135 . distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever. Am. 81 1924 77-91 [9] Van Der Berg. Dementia Praecox or the Group of the Schizophrenias transl. W. A. more than any other.: Univ. J.53 - been required to postulate a disease entity. Language. Before we return from this brief detour into mathematics. Surely we will not have to wait too long before the interaction between the linguist and the mathematician begins to open up new approaches for us. C. we have . . E. Was it not he.L. 125 XIV [6] Mishler. 2nd. Morris as follows: [5. The Symptom as Communication to Schizophrenia ed. J. (1966). p.: Univ." If so. and Scotch. "the behavioral syndrome resulting from words wrongly combined and misconstrued. G. S. who pointed out the need for tutoring in the treatment of the psychotic person? REFERENCES [1] Artiss.

distribute or circulate it in any form whatsoever.WARNING! This text is printed for the personal use of the owner of the PEP Archive CD and is copyright to the Journal in which it originally appeared. . It is illegal to copy.