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B.Tech. [Electronics and Communication Engineering]

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
National Institute of Technology Calicut
(2002 Admission onwards)

Semester III




LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Electrical measurements-characteristics-Measurement of power ,energy, resistance,
inductance, magnetic field measurements, transformers, construction, principle of operation,
single phase autotransformer, electromagnetic energy conversion, types of machines,
construction, rotating magnetic field, principle of operation, electric machines, DC generator,
DC motors, load characteristics, speed control, applications, Alternators, synchronous motors,
three phase induction motors, principle, types, starting, load characteristics, speed control,
applications, connections and applications of single phase motors.

Text Books:

1. Hughes.E: Electrical Technology, E.L.B.S., 1996.

2. I.J.Nagrath, D.P.Kothari: Electrical Machines, Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing
Company Limited-New Delhi, 1997
3. Golding and Widdis: Electrical measurements & measuring instruments, Wheeler

References Books:

1. Cotton H: Advanced Electrical Technology, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New

Delhi, 1984.
2. Vincent Del Toro: Electrical Machines and Power Systems, Prentice Hall, 1988
3. S. J. Chapman: Electric Machines and Power Systems, McGraw Hill, 1999
4. M.G. Say: Alternating Current Machines, Pittman, 1983
5. Verinott C.C: Fractional and Sub-fractional Horse-Power Electric Motors,
McGraw Hill, New York, 1978
6 Electrical & Electronic Measurements and instrumentation, A. K. Sawhney,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 1996


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (10 Hours)

Network topologies - graph theoretic methods to formation of network equations - Review of
network theorems - step response and impulse response of first and second order circuits
Module II (10 Hours)
Laplace transform method of network characterisation - impulse response and transfer
function- poles and zeros - causality and stability
Module III (10 Hours)
Two port networks - relationships among parameter sets –T and equivalent of a two port
network – constant k and m-derived filter sections
Module IV ( 9 Hours)
Network synthesis - Foster and Cauer forms of RC and RL networks

Text Books

1. Gupta B.R & Singhal V: Fundementals of Electrical Networks, Wheeler Pubs.

2. Van Valkenberg: Network Analysis, Prentice Hall of India
3. D. Roy Choudhury: Networks and Systems, New Age International Pubs.
Reference Books:

1. Franklin F. Kuo: Network Analysis and Synthesis, John Wiley and sons
2. Valkenberg M E: Introduction to Modern Networks Synthesis, Wiely Eastern
3. Desoer C A & kuh E S: Basic Circuit Theory, McGraw Hill
4. Edminister: Electric circuits - Schaum’s Outline Series , 3/e, McGraw Hill


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I
Crystal structure of solids - Energy band theory – semiconductor statistics – equilibrium
properties of semiconductors.
Module II
Intrinsic and semiconductors – scattering mechanisms – drift and diffusion processes – excess
carrier phenomena in semiconductors
Module III
p-n junctions – I/V characteristics – breakdown mechanisms – metal semiconductor junctions
– tunnel diodes
Module IV
Bipolar junction transistors – non ideal effects – BJT models – HBTs – JFETs – MOSFETs

Text Books:

1.‘Solid state devices’, Ben G Streetman , 5e, 2002, Pearson Education

References :

1.‘Semiconductor physics and devices’, Donald A Neaman, McGraw Hill, 2003

2. ‘Semiconductor physical electronics’, Sheng. S.Li, plenum press, 1993
3.‘Physics of semiconductor devices’, S.M.Sze, McGraw Hill, 2nd edn


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (8 Hours)
Review of number systems and Boolean algebra – Simplification methods - Combinational
logic design– Arithmetic circuits
Module II (12 Hours)
Sequential circuits –Design and analysis of sequential circuits –Analysis of sequential
networks – sequential network design
Module III (8 Hours)
Memory, CPLD and FPGAs - Architecture
Module IV (11 Hours)
Logic families - TTL and CMOS - Interfacing BJT and CMOS gates

Text Books

1.John F. Wakerly: Digital Design Principles and Practices, Pearson Education

2.Roth C H: Fundamentals of Logic Design, Jaico Pub
3.Morris Mano: Digital Logic and Computer Design, PHI

4.Taub B & Schilling: Digital Integrated Electronics, McGraw Hill

Reference Books:

1.Morris R KL: Design with TTL Integrated Circuits, McGraw Hill

2.Lewin D & Protheroe D: Design of Logic Systems, Chapman & Hall
3.Karz R H: Contemporary Logic Design, Benjamin / Cummings Pub


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I
Signals and systems – Operations on signals- Properties of - Impulse response -
Representation of LTI systems
Module II (12 hours)
Fourier representation of continuous time signals - Frequency response of LTI systems -
Sampling and reconstruction.
Module III (11 hours)
Fourier representation of discrete time signals - Laplace transform analysis of systems -
Causality and stability - Inverse system.
Module IV (10 hours)
Z Transform - Analysis of LTI systems - Determining the frequency response from poles and

Text books

1. Haykin S. & Veen B.V., Signals & Systems, John Wiley

2. Oppenheim A.V., Willsky A.S. & Nawab S.H., Signals and Systems, 2e, 2002 Pearson
3. Taylor F.H., Principles of Signals & Systems, McGraw Hill

Reference books

1. Lathi B.P., Modern Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Oxford University Press
2. Haykin S., Communication Systems, John Wiley
3. Bracewell R.N., Fourier Transform & Its Applications, McGraw Hill
4. Papoulis A., Fourier Integral & Its Applications, McGraw Hill


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
1. Electronics Workshop - I
2. Electronics Workshop - II
3. Electronics Workshop - III
4. Diode & Zener diode characteristics - dc and dynamic resistance
5. Clipping and Clamping circuits.
6. Zener diode regulator - regulation curves
7. Half wave rectifier with C, LC & CRC filters
8. Full wave rectifiers with C, LC & CRC filters
9. CB configuration - determination of h parameters

10. CE configuration - determination of h parameters
11. JFET Characteristics.
12. UJT Characteristics and Relaxation Oscillator.
13. Series resonant and parallel resonant circuits - voltage and current amplification


LGDP: Cr 0003:1

LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Mod.1: Electrostatics (10 hours): Coulomb’s law, electric field, flux and Gauss’s law, curl
and divergence of electrostatic fields, electric potential, Poisson’s equation, Laplace’s
equation, solutions to electrostatic boundary problems, method of images, work and energy in
electrostatics, induced dipoles and polarization, field inside a dielectric, electric displacement,
concepts of susceptibility, permittivity and dielectric constant, boundary condit ions,
capacitors, surface charge and induced charge on conductors.
Mod.2: Magnetostatics (9 hours): Lorentz force, Biot-Savart law, magnetic flux density,
divergence and curl of flux density, Ampere’s law, magnetic vector potential, magnetization,
torque and force on magnetic dipoles, boundary conditions, magnetic susceptibility and
Mod.3: Electrodynamics (9 hours): Electromagnetic induction, inductance, displacement
current, Maxwell’s equations, boundary conditions, Poynting’s theorm, energy and
momentum in electromagnetic field
Mod.4: Electromagnetic Waves (11 hours): EM waves in vacuum and in matter,
monochromatic plane waves, refection and transmission at interfaces, scalar and vector
potentials, Lorentz gauge, retarded potentials. Transmission lines: Quasi-TEM analysis,
characteristic impedance, standing wave ratio, matching techniques
Reference :
1. David J Griffiths: Introduction to Electrodynamics, Third edition, PHI.
2. Nannapaneni Narayana Rao: Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Fourth edition,
3. David Cheng: "Field and Wave Electromagnetics", Second edition.
4. Sadiku: Elements of Electromagnetics, Third Edition, Oxford University Press.
5. J D Krauss: Electromagnetics, Fourth edition, MGH.
6. J D Jackson: Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, John Wiley.


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module 1 (10 hours)
RC circuit as integrator and differentiator – Compensated attenuators – Pulse transformer-
Switching characteristics of a BJT – BJT switches with inductive and capacitive loads –
emitter follower with capacitive loading - Switching characteristics of a MOS inverter –
resistive load & active load configurations – CMOS inverter – dynamic power dissipation
Module 2 (10 hours)
Bistable, monostable and astable multivibrators – collector coupled monoshot – emitter

coupled monoshot – triggering the monoshot – collector coupled and emitter coupled astable

multivibrator - Astable, monostable and bistable operations using negative resistance devices

– Multivibrators with 555 IC timer

Module 3 (9 hours)
General features of a time base signal and exponential sweep circuits - voltage and current
time base generators –Miller & bootstrap sweep generator configurations – methods to

improve linearity Digital Phase Locked Loops – Parameters of PLL - Phase detectors ( XOR
& phase frequency detectors) – Loop filter - Analysis of PLL - typical applications of PLL
Module 4 (10 hours)
Digital to analog converters – Accuracy, resolution, conversion speed, offset error, gain error,
integral and differential nonlinearity of data converters - R-2R ladder, binary weighted,
current steering, charge scaling, cyclic & pipeline DACs Analog to digital converters – track
and hold operation - flash converter, two step flash, pipeline, integrating, staircase converter,
successive approximation converter, dual slope & oversampling ADCs – Principle of Sigma-
delta ADC.
Text books :
1. Jacob Millman & Herbert Taub: Pulse, Digital & Switching Waveforms, TMGH
2. R Jacob Baker et al: CMOS – Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, PHI
Reference books
1. Taub & Schilling: Digital Integrated Electronics, MGH.
2. A S Sedra & K C Smith: Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press
3. Bell David A: Solid State Pulse Crcuits, Reston Publishing Company, PHI.


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Mod.1: BJT amplifiers (10 hours) : Biasing schemes, load line concept, bias stabilization,
stability factor, bias compensation, analyses and design of CC, CE and CB configurations, RC
coupled and transformer coupled multistage amplifiers, frequency response of amplifiers –
thermal runaway in BJT amplifiers.
Mod.2: FET amplifiers (10 hours): Biasing of JFET – self bias and fixed bias, biasing of
MOSFETs – feedback biasing and fixed biasing for enhancement and depletion mode
MOSFETs, analyses and design of common source, common drain and common gate
amplifier configurations – thermal runaway in MOS amplifiers.
Mod.3: Feedback (10 hours) – Effect of feedback on amplifier performance, voltage shunt,
voltage series, current series and current shunt feedback configurations, concept of stability,
Nyquist criterion . Oscillators – conditions for oscillations - analysis of RC phase shift,
Colpitts, Hartley and crystal oscillators.
Mod.4: Power amplifiers ( 9 hours) – Class A, B, AB, C, D & S switching power amplifiers
– harmonic distortion, efficiency, relative performance. Wide band amplifiers – Broad
banding techniques, low frequency and high frequency compensation, CC-CE cascade,
cascode amplifier, broadbanding using inductors.
Text Book:
1. Donald A. Neamen, Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition, MCGraw Hill
1. Millman & Halkias : `Integrated Electronics’, MGH.
2. A S Sedra & K C Smith : `Microelectronic Circuits’, Oxford University Press.
3. Robert Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky : `Electronic Devices & Circuit Theory’, PHI.
4. William H Hayt Jr : `Electronic Circuit Analysis & Design’.
5. Theodore F Bogart : `Electronic Devices & Circuits’.
6. Mark N Horenstein : `Microelectronic Circuits & Devices’, PHI.
7. D L Schilling & C Belove : `Electronic Circuits’, Third Ed; MGH.


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (8 hours)
Basic ideas of computer architecture-Design ideology of CPU and control unit-CPU Memory
Interaction-memory address mapping techniques
Module II (12 hours)

Intel 8086 processor- Architecture –– addressing modes – Instruction set – assembly
Language programming – Interrupts Pin configuration of 8086 – Timing diagrams –
Minimum and maximum mode –Interfacing – address decoding – Interfacing chips –
Programmable peripheral interface (8255) Programmable timer (8253)- -serial
communication interface(8253)
Module III (9 hours)
Introduction to 80286 – Memory management unit- descriptors, selectors description tables
and TSS – real and protected mode- Memory paging features of the Pentium processor –
Branch prediction logic - Superscalar architecture.-PCI bus
Module IV (10 hours)
Intel 8051 microcontroller –architecture –ports ,timers, interrupts, serial data transmission
instruction set -programming
Text Books
1. Hall D V , Microprocessors & Interfacing , McGraw Hill
2. Brey B B , The Intel Microprocessors, Architecture , Implementation & Programming ,
McGraw Hill
3. Liu Y C & Gibson G A ,Microcomputer System, The 8086/8088 Family, Prentice
Hall of India
4. Kenneth J Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller, Architecture ,Programming and Applications
,International Thompson Publishing .
Reference Books
1. Intel Data Book Vol.1 , Embedded Microcontrollers and Processors
2. Tribal W A & Singh A., The 8088 and 8086 Microprocessors, McGraw Hill
3. Mohemmed R , Microprocessors & Microcomputer Based System Design, Universal


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module 1 (9 Hours)
Random Process: Review of the theory of Continuous Random variables – Joint distribution
and density functions – conditional distribution functions – Random process – Ensemble
average –Stationarity, Wide sense stationarity – time averages –Ergodicity – Correlation
theory for WSS random process – Power spectral density – Wiener-Khinchie Eiestein
theorem – Response of LTI systems to random process – Guassian random process – Filtered
Guassian random process – White Guassian Noise
Module 2 (8 Hours)
Noise: Sources of noise – thermal noise, shot noise and flicker noise –Filtered White noise –
Narrow band noise – Quadrature representation, envelope and phase representation – Signal
to Noise ratio – Noise equivalent bandwidth – Effective Noise temperature – Noise
calculations for cascaded stages
Module 3 (11 Hours)
Amplitude Modulation: Spectrum of Amplitude Modulated signal – power relations – AM
generation and detection – DSB-SC generation and detection – SSB-SC generation and
detection – VSB modulation – AM transmitter and receiver – TRF and superheterodyne
receivers – Noise analysis of AM receivers – ANR for envelope detection and coherent
detection –SNR in DSB-SC and SSB-SC systems
Module 4 (11 Hours)
Frequency Modulation: Angle modulation – Frequency modulation – Narrow band FM –
Wideband FM – Transmission bandwidth – Generation of FM signals – Direct and Indirect
methods – FM demodulators – Noise in FM reception – Threshold effect – Pre-emphasis and
Textbooks recommended
1. Simon Haykin, “Communication Systems”, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons

2. R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter, “Principles of Communication”, JAICOP Publishing
3. Dennis Roddy, John Coolen, “Electronic Communications”, PHI 1997
1. K. Sam Shanmugam, “Digital and Analog Communication Systems”, John Wiley & Sons
2. Yannic Viniotis, “Probability for Electrical Engineers”, Mc Graw Hill International
3. B.P. Lathi, “Modern Digital and Anaalog Commmunication Systems” 3rd Ed. Oxford
University Press.
4. Tomasi: Electronic communication: Fundamentals through advanced, Pearson Education
5. Couch: Digital and Analog Communication Systems, Pearson Education


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
1. Feed back voltage regulator with short circuit protection.
2. Emitter follower with & without complementary transistors – Frequency and phase
response driving a capacitive load.
3. Single stage BJT/FET amplifier
4. 2 stage RC coupled amplifier – Frequency response
5. Cascode amplifier – Frequency response
6. Phase shift oscillator using BJT/FET.
7. Hartley / Colpitts oscillator using BJT/FET.
8. Power amplifier – Class A & class AB.
9. Crystal oscillator.
10. Tuned amplifier


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
List of experiments
1. Characteristics of TTL gates
2. Code converters and parity circuits using basic gates
3. Combinational logic design using Decoders and MUXs
4. Half and Full adders and subtractors
5. 4 bit adder-substractor IC & BCD adder circuit
6. Flip flop circuit (RS latch, JK and Master Slave) using basic gates
7. Ripple, Johnson and Ring counters
8. Synchronous Counters and pseudorandom sequence generators
9. State machine for sequence detection
10. Astable and Monostable circuits using gates and timer IC
11. DAC Circuits (ladder and weighted resistor) and ICs
12. ADC Circuits (eg. counter ramp ) and ICs





LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (10 hours)

General schematic diagram of control systems - open loop and closed loop systems - concept
of feedback - modeling of continuous time systems - Laplace transform - properties -
application in solution of differential equations - transfer function - block diagrams - signal
flow graph - mason' s gain formula - block diagram reduction using direct techniques and
signal flow graphs - examples - derivation of transfer function of simple systems from
physical relations - low pass RC filter - RLC series network - spring mass damper - low pass
active filter - definitions of poles, zeros, order and type
Module II (10 hours)
Analysis of continuous time systems - time domain solution of first order systems - time
constant - time domain solution of second order systems - determination of response for
standard inputs using transfer functions - steady state error - concept of stability - Routh-
Hurwitz techniques - construction of bode diagrams - phase margin - gain margin -
construction of root locus - polar plots and theory of nyquist criterion - theory of lag - lead
and lag-lead compensators
Module III (10 hours)
Modeling of discrete - time systems - sampling - mathematical derivations for sampling -
sample and hold - Z-transforms-properties - solution of difference equations using Z -
transforms - examples of sampled data systems - mapping between s plane and z plane -
cyclic and multi-rate sampling (definitions only) - analysis of discrete time systems - pulse
transfer function - examples - stability - Jury' s criterion - bilinear transformation - stability
analysis after bilinear transformation - Routh-Hurwitz techniques - construction of bode
diagrams - phase margin - gain margin - digital redesign of continuous time systems

Module IV (9 hours)
State variable methods - introduction to the state variable concept - state space models -
physical variable - phase variable and diagonal forms from time domain (up to third order
only) - diagonalisation - solution of state equations - homogenous and non homogenous cases
(up to second order only) - properties of state transition matrix - state space representation of
discrete time systems - solution techniques - relation between transfer function and state space
models for continuous and discrete cases-relation between poles and Eigen values

Reference books

1. Ziemer R.E., Tranter W.H. & Fannin D.R., "Signals and Systems", Pearson Education
2. Ogata K., "Modern Control Engineering", Prentice Hall India
3. Dorf R.C. & Bishop R.H., "Modern Control Systems", Addison Wesley
4. Kuo B.C., "Digital Control Systems", Oxford University Press
5. Ogata K., “Discrete Time Control Systems", Pearson Education Asia
6. Nagarath I.J. & Gopal M., “Control System Engineering”, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (10 hours)

BJT differential amplifier analysis - concept of CMRR - methods to improve CMRR -
constant current source - active load - current mirror - Darlington pair - differential input
impedance - various stages of an operational amplifier - simplified schematic circuit of op-
amp 741 - need for compensation - lead, lag and lead lag compensation schemes - typical op-
amp parameters - slew rate - power supply rejection ratio - open loop gain - unity gain
bandwidth - offset current & offset voltage.
Module II (8 hours)
MOS differential amplifier – current mirrors - current source load and cascode loads - wide
swing constant transconductance differential amplifier - CMOS opamp with and without
compensation - cascode input opamp - typical CMOS opamp parameters
Module III (11 hours)
Linear opamp circuits - inverting and noninverting configurations - analysis for closed loop
gain - input and output impedances - virtual short concept - current to voltage and voltage to
current converters - instrumentation amplifier - nonlinear opamp circuits - log and antilog
amplifiers - 4 quadrant multipliers and dividers - phase shift and wein bridge oscillators -
comparators - astable and monostable circuits - linear sweep circuits
Module IV (10 hours)
Butterworth approximation to ideal low pass filter characteristics – features of Chebychev and
Bessel approximations - frequency transformations to obtain HPF, BPF and BEF from
normalized prototype LPF – Realization of LPF & HPF using Sallen-Key configuration - BPF
realization using the Delyannis configuration - BEF using twin T configuration - all pass filter
(first & second orders) realizations - inductance simulation using Antoniou’s gyrator.

Text books

1. Jacob Baker R., Li H.W. & Boyce D.E., ‘CMOS- Circuit Design, Layout & Simulation’,
2. Sergio Franco, ‘Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits’,
McGraw Hill Book Company
3. Fiore J.M., ‘Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits’, Jaico Publishing
4. Gaykward, Operational Amplifiers, Pearson Education

Reference books

1. Gobind Daryanani, ‘Principles of Active Network Synthesis & Design’, John Wiley
2. Sedra A.S. & Smith K.C., “Microelectronic Circuits’, Oxford University Press
3. Coughlin R.F. & Driscoll F.F., ‘Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits’,
Pearson Education
4. Horenstein M.N., ‘Microelectronic Circuits & Devices’, PHI


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (9 hrs.)
Analog Pulse Modulation: Sampling theorem for band-pass signals, Pulse Amplitude
modulation: generation and demodulation, PAM/TDM system, PPM generation and
demodulation, PWM, Spectra of Pulse modulated signals, SNR calculations for pulse
modulation systems.

Waveform coding: quantization, PCM, DPCM, Delta modulation, Adaptive delta modulation-
Design of typical systems and performance analysis.
Module II ( 8 hrs.)
Pulse Shaping, Nyquist criterion for zero ISI, Signalling with duobinary pulses, Eye diagram,
Equalizer, Scrambling and descrambling.
Signal space concepts: geometric structure of the signal space, L2 space, distance, norm and
inner product, orthogonality,- Base band pulse data transmission: Matched filter receiver,
Inter symbol interference, Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure.
Module III (10 hrs)
Review of Gaussian random process, Optimum threshold detection, Optimum Receiver for
AWGN channel, Matched filter and Correlation receivers, Decision Procedure: Maximum a-
posteriori probability detector- Maximum likelihood Detector, Probability of error, Bit error
Module 4 (12 hrs.)
Digital modulation schemes:
Coherent Binary Schemes : ASK, FSK, PSK, MSK. Coherent M-ary Schemes, Calculation
of average probability of error for different modulation schemes, Power spectra of digitally
modulated signals, Performance comparison of different digital modulation schemes.

Text books:

1. Communication Systems, 3rd ed., Simon Haykin, John Wiley & Sons.
2. Modern Digital and Analog Communication, 3rd Ed., B.P. Lathi, Oxford University
3. Sklar: Digital Communication, 2E, Pearson Education.


1. Digital and Analog Communication Systems, K.Sam Shanmugham, John Wiley &
2. Principles of Communications, R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter, JAICO Publishing
3. Principles of Communication Systems, H.Taub and Schilling, TMH
4. Digital Communications, John G.Proakis, McGraw Hill.
5. Fundamental Concepts in Communication, Pierre Lafrance, Prentice Hall India.
6. Couch: Analog and Digital Communication.


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I: Discrete Fourier transform (10 hours)

Discrete Fourier series - properties of DFS - periodic convolution - DFT - properties - linear
convolution using DFT - computation of DFT - circular convolution - decimation in time and
decimation in frequency algorithms - FFT algorithm for a composite number

Module II : IIR and FIR Filter structures (8 hours)

Signal flow graph representation - basic filter structures - structures for linear phase - finite
word - length effects in digital filters - quantizer characteristics - saturation overflow -
quantisation in implementing systems - zero Input limit cycles
Module III: Digital filter design (12 hours)
Design of IIR digital filters from analog filters - Butterworth and Chebyshev filters - design
examples -impulse invariant and bilinear transformation methods - spectral transformation of
IIR filters - FIR filter design - linear phase characteristics - window method
Module IV: General and special purpose hardware for DSP (9 hours)

Computer architecture for signal processing - hardware architecture - pipelining - hardware
multiplier - accumulator - special instructions - general purpose digital signal processors -
texas instruments - TMS 320 family - motorola DSP 56000 family - analog devices ADSP
2100 family - implementation of DSP algorithm on general purpose digital signal processors

Reference books

1. Oppenheim A.V., Schafer R.W. & Buck J.R., Discrete - Time Signal Processing, Prentice
Hall Signal Processing Series, Pearson Education
2. Mitra S.K., Digital Signal Processing: A Computer Based Approach, Tata McGraw Hill
3. Proakis T.G. & Manolakkis D.G., Digital Signal Processing - Principles, Algorithms and
Applications, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
4. Ludeman L.C., Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing, Harper & Row Publishers
5. Terrel T.J. & Shark L.K., Digital Signal Processing, Macmillan
6. Ifeacher E.C. & Jervis B.W., Digital Signal Processing, A Practical Approach, Addison
7. Phi Lapseley, Jeff Bier, Amit Shohan & Lee E.A., “DSP Processor Fundamentals-
Architectures and Features”, IEEE Press


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
1. Assembly language programming of 8086
a) Sorting , code conversion, Pascal’s triangle
b) Matrix multiplication
c) TSR programming [3 classes]
2. Interfacing experiments of 8086
a) Stepper motor interface
b) Display card interface
c) Hex key board interface
d) Parallel port interface
e) ADC/DAC interface [5 classes]
3. Assembly language programming of the 8051 [1 class]
4. Interfacing experiments of 8051
a) Parallel port and serial port interface
b) Counter and Timer interface [2 classes]


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
1. AM generation
2. AM detection with simple and delayed AGC
3. RF Mixer using JFET/BJT
4. FM generation (reactance modulator)
5. FM demodulation
6. PAM generation and demodulation
7. Generation and demodulation of PWM and PPM
8. Implementation of intermediate frequency amplifier
9. PLL characteristics and demodulation using PLL
10. SSB generation and demodulation using integrated circuits



LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I: (10 hours)

Basic concepts of measurements & instruments – static characteristics of instruments
– accuracy & precision – sensitivity – reproducibility – errors – Transducers – classification
& selection criteria – principles of piezoelectric, photoelectric, thermoelectric transducers–
resistance temperature transducers (RTD) - thermistors– strain gauge – load cells - LVDT
Module II: (9 hours)
Electronic instruments for measurement – Digital voltmeter - principles of electronic
multimeters- - digital multimeters -– Q meter – Power meter – Electronic LCR meter -
Frequency & time interval counters
Module III: (10 hours)
Electronic instruments for signal generation & analysis – Function generators – Pulse
generators – Frequency synthesiser – Principles & applications of Digital storage
Oscilloscope – Logical analyser - Spectrum analysers – Distortion analysers
Module III: (10 hours)
Microcomputer based instrumentation system – general features – Input / Output
interfacing – simple, polled & interrupt I/O – interfacing of resistive transducers, light
emitting displays, hex keyboard, 8 bit ADC chip, 8 bit DAC chip – signal conditioning – data
acquisition systems - interfacing bus standards – features of IEEE 488 bus (GPIB) – case
study of a microcomputer based instrumentation system (temperature controller)

Text Books
1. Cooper W. - Electronic Instrumentation & Measurement Technique –
Prentice Hall of India.
2. Douglas V. Hall - Microprocessors & Digital Systems (2nd Edition) –
McGraw Hill
3. N. Kularatna - Modern Electronic Test & Measuring Instruments –
Institution of Electrical Engineers, London
1. Oliver B.M. & Cage – Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation -
Tata McGraw Hill
2. A.K. Ghosh - Introduction to Instrumentation & Control – Eastern
Economy Edition
3. George C. Barney - Intelligent Instrumentation – Prentice Hall India
4. Sonde B.S. – Transducers & Display Systems - Tata McGraw Hill


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module 1 (10 Hours)

Computer Systems: System Buses – Bus interconnection – Internal Memory – Cache and
DRAM organization – External Memory – Input/Output – I/O modes – I/O access methods –
Operating System Support
Module 2 (10 Hours)
CPU: Computer arithmetic – Instruction Sets – Characteristics and Functions – Types of
Operands and Operations – Addressing Modes and formats- Processor and Register
Organization – Instruction Cycle and Pipelining – Example of Typical Processors
Module 3 (10 Hours)

Advanced CPU Organization: RISC Processors – RISC Architecture _ RISC Pipelining –
Typical RISC Processors – Super scalar Processing – Typical Super scalar Processors –
Control Unit issues – Micro programmed Control
Module 4 (9 Hours)
Parallel Processing: Multiprocessing – Clusters and Network Topologies - Cache Coherence
_ Vector Computation – Parallel Processors

Textbooks Recommended

1. William Stallings, "Computer Organization and Architecture" PHI 4th Ed.. 1999
2. David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, "Computer Organization and Design", Morgan
Kaufmann Publishers, 2nd Ed. 2000
3. P.Pal Choudhuri, "Computer Organization and Design", PHI 2nd Ed. 1999


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module 1 (9 Hours)
Introduction to HDL based Digital Design: – Basic VHDL terminology – basic language
elements – Data objects and types – Behavioural modelling – Process constructs – Complex
signal assignments – Dataflow modelling – delay models – Structural modelling – resolving
signal values
Module 2 (9 Hours)
Advanced VHDL features: Generics and Configurations – Subprograms and Overloading –
Packages and Libraries – Advanced features – simulation semantics – modelling examples –
state machine modelling using VHDL- review of FPGA architectures and design using FPGA
Module 3 (11 Hours)
Digital System Testing: Fault models – fault equivalence – fault location fault dominance –
single and multiple stuck faults – Testing for single stuck faults – Algorithms – random test
generation – Testing for bridging faults
Module 4 (10 Hours)
Design for Testability: Ad-hoc design for testability techniques – Classical scan designs –
Boundary scan standards – Built-in-self-test – Test pattern generation – BIST architecture

Textbooks Recommended

1. J. Bhasker; A VHDL Primer, Addison-Wesley, Third Edition

2. J. Bhasker; A VHDL Synthesis Primer, B.S. Publications 2001
3. Miron Abramovici et. al. Digital System Testing and Testable Design, Jaico
Publishing House, 2001
4. Parag K. Lala, Digital Circuit Testing and Testability, Academic Press 1997
5. John F. Wakerly; Digital Design: Principles and Practices, PHI Inc. 2001
6. Charles H. Roth Jr; Digital System Design Using VHDL, PWS Pub. Co., 1998





LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I: Passive microwave devices (10 hours): Analysis of rectangular and circular
waveguides and resonators, TE and TM modes, Q of the cavity, loss mechanisms, scattering
matrix, directional coupler, waveguide tees, hybrid couplers, Faraday rotation in ferrites,
isolator, circulator. Passive microwave circuits: Microstrip and stripline, filter
implementation with transmission lines and strip lines
Module II: Microwave tube amplifiers (10 hours): Klystron – velocity modulation and
bunching, Travelling wave tube – slow wave structure and Brillouin diagram. Maser –
population inversion, pumping and stimulated emission
Module III: Microwave semiconductor amplifiers (10 hours): BJTs, MESFETs, tunnel
diode, parametric amplifiers – Principle and analysis of amplifier configurations and
parameters like gain, bandwidth, noise figure, dynamic range - Single stage and broad band
transistor amplifier designs - stability
Module IV: Microwave oscillators (9 hours): Reflex klystron, magnetron, Gunn diode,
IMPATT and TRAPPAT diodes, parametric oscillators – Principle and analysis of oscillator
configurations, efficiency, tunability.

1. Rajeshwari Chatterji: Microwave, Millimeter wave and sub-millimeter wave vacuum
electron devices, Affiliated East - West Press
2. R E Collin: Foundations for Microwave Engineering, IEEE.
3. David M Pozar: Microwave Engineering, Second edition, John Wiley
4. A S Gilmour: Microwave Tubes, Artech House.
5. P A Rizzi: Microwave Engineering, Prentice Hall.
6. Sigfrid Yngyesson: Microwave Semiconductor Devices, Kluwer Academic.
7. Joseph J. Carr: Microwave and Wireless Communications Technology, IEEE Press
8. Stephen C. C. Harsany: `Principles of Microwave Technology’, IEEE Press
9. Liao S.Y. Microwave Devices and Circuits, PHI


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I
Review of the basics physics and characteristics of MOS transistors –I-V & C-V
characteristics - Short channel and narrow channel effects in MOSFETs - subthrehold
conduction - channel length modulation - drain induced barrier lowering - hot carrier effects -
velocity saturation of charge carriers etc. Scaling in MOSFETs – constant voltage and
constant field scaling - digital MOSFET model - series connection of MOSFETs – body
effect. Scaling issues in interconnects. Latch up in CMOS and methods for preventing latch
Module II
MOS inverters - resistive load - NMOS load - pseudo NMOS and CMOS inverters -
calculation of input high and low and output high and low levels - power dissipation -

calculation of delay times for CMOS inverter - CMOS ring oscillator - design of super buffer
- estimation of interconnect parasitics and calculation of interconnect delay. Static CMOS
logic circuits - CMOS NOR, NAND, AOI and OAI gates - full adder - SR and JK latches -
C²MOS latch - Pass transistors and Transmission gates - simple circuits using TG - basic
principles of pass transistor logic - voltage boot strapping -
Module III
Pseudo NMOS – Tri-state circuits – clocked CMOS – Dynamic CMOS circuits – solutions for
charge sharing - DOMINO Logic- NORA – TSPC logic styles – Dual rail logic networks –
Implementation of general VLSI system components such as decoders, encoders, Flip Flops
and Registers. Method of Logical Effort for high speed CMOS design - BiCMOS logic
circuits - BiCMOS inverter with resistive base pull down and active base pull down -
BiCMOS switching transients - simple gates using BiCMOS – Advanced CMOS logic styles

Module IV
CMOS clocking styles- clock generation and distribution - Arithmatic Ciruits in CMOS VLSI
- high speed adders, subtractors and multipliers – CMOS Memory structures – SRAM and
DRAM design –Sense amplifier design - Low power design techniques –MT CMOS –
VTCMOS basic ideas of adiabatic logic. Floor planning and Routing – Input and Output
circuits – special CMOS device structures such as SOI, DTMOS, Radiation Hard CMOS, Fin
FETs, etc.

Reference Books:
1. Sung-Mo Kang & Yusuf Leblebici, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits - Analysis &
Design, Second Ed., MGH
2. Jan M Rabaey, Digital Integrated Circuits - A Design Perspective, Prentice Hall
3. Yuan Taur & Tak H Ning, Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices, Cambridge Univ. Press
4. Ken Martin, Digital Integrated Circuit Design, Oxford Univ. Press
5. Jacob Baker R., Harry W Li & David E Boyce, CMOS - Circuit Design, Layout &
Simulation, PHI


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (12 hours)
Information theory - information and entropy - properties of entropy of a binary memoryless
source - extension of a binary memoryless source - source coding theorem - Shannon fano
coding - Huffman coding – Lempel-Ziv coding - binary symmetric channel - mutual
information - properties - channel capacity - channel coding theorem

Module II (9 hours)
Coding - linear block codes - generator matrices - parity check matrices - encoder - syndrome
and error correction - minimum distance - error correction and error detection capabilities -
cyclic codes - coding and decoding
Module III (9 hours)
Introduction to algebra - groups - fields - binary field arithmetic - construction of Galois field
- basic properties - computations - vector spaces - matrices - BCH codes - description -
decoding - Reed Solomon codes
Module 1V (9 hours)

Coding - Convolutional codes - encoder - generator matrix - state diagram - distance
properties - maximum likelihood decoding - viterbi decoding - sequential decoding

Text books

1. Norman Abramson, Information Theory, John Wiley

2. Shu Lin, Costello D.J., Error Control Coding - Fundamentals and Applications, Prentice
Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs

Reference books

1. Simon Haykin, Digital Communications, John Wiley

2. Taub & Schilling, Principles of Communication System, Tata McGraw Hill
3. Tomasi, Electronic Communication, Fundamentals Through Advanced, Pearson education
4. Sklar, Digital Communication, Pearson Education
5. T. Cover and Thomas, “Elements of Information Theory”, John Wiley & Sons 1991.


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
1. Measurement of op-amp parameters - CMRR, slew rate, open loop gain, input and output
2. Inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, integrators and differentiators - frequency
3. Instrumentation amplifier - gain, CMRR and input impedance
4. Single op-amp second order LPF and HPF - Sallen-Key configuration
5. Narrow band active BPF - Delyiannis configuration
6. Active notch filter realization using op-amps
7. Wein bridge oscillator with amplitude stabilization
8. RC phase shift oscillator
9. Astable and monostable multivibrators using op-amps
10. Square, triangular and ramp generation using op-amps
11. Astable and monostable multivibrators using IC 555
12. Linear sweep generation using IC 555
13. Design of PLL for given lock and capture ranges & frequency multiplication
14. Precision limiters using op-amps
15. Log and Antilog Amplifiers


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
Microwave and Optical Experiments
1. Klystron characteristics o/p power & frequency versus repeller voltage
2. Slotted line measurements. VSWR & Impedance
3. Antenna radiation pattern measurements

4. Directional coupler and isolator
5. Optical fibre experiments. Analog & digital

Hardware Experiments
1. PN and Orthogonal code generators
2. Digital TDM
3. Cyclic encoder and decoder
4. Spreader and de-spreader for CDMA


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
Prior to registration to 7th Semester all students have to complete a Mini Project/Industrial
training. Only one will be credited if a student completes both mini project and industrial

EC390P: Mini Project. The mini project should be on Hardware Design and/or Fabrication
in any of the areas in Electronics and Communication Engineering. Microcontroller/DSP/PLD
based hardware design is also permitted. Project work can be carried out individually or by a
group of maximum of four students under the guidance of a faculty from ECE Department. A
committee of the faculty will evaluate the projects during the sixth semester. This course is
normally engaged by the department at the beginning of sixth semester.

EC390P: Industrial Training. Industrial training shall be as per the institute norms from the
list of firms approved by the department. The duration of the training must not be less than 4
weeks in a stretch. The Department of Training and Placement shall arrange for the same in
consultation with the ECE department to satisfy specific requirements if any. Also the
Department of Training and Placement will conduct evaluation and forward the result to ECE


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I
Crystal growth and wafer preparation – Czochralski and Float zone processes – processing
considerations – material properties – defects –electronic properties of defects - Wafer
cleaning – dry and wet cleaning processes – clean rooms –Oxidation growth mechanisms and
kinetics – Deal –Grove model – oxide properties and characterization, effects of dopants
during oxidation induced faults – oxidation techniques and systems – thin and thick oxides
Module II
Epitaxy – Fundamental aspects – conventional and low temperature epitaxy. Evaluation of the
epitaxial layers. Lithography – optical lithography, Electron beam lithography, X ray
lithography and Ion beam lithography – basic principles. Etching – dry and wet etch
mechanisms – isotropic and anisotropic etching - selectivity and profile control- reactive
plasma etching techniques and equipment. Etching induced damages

Module III
Film deposition methods– dielectric and poly silicon film deposition – chemical vapor
deposition processes (CVD) – APCVD, LPCVD and PECVD processes –sputter deposition -
other deposition methods – applications of deposited poly silicon , silicon dioxide and silicon
nitride films. Conventional and rapid thermal processes. Metallization – application of
metallization – metal deposition techniques – silicide process – multi level metallization –
Module IV
Diffusion – models – Ficks law – diffusivity – atomic diffusion mechanisms - measurement
techniques - diffusion enhancement and retardations. Ion Implantation – range theory –
Implantation equipment – annealing – shallow implants – high energy implants. Various
reliability issues in semi conductor fabrication processes – hot carrier injection – stress
migration – oxide break down etc. Process integration – basic process modules and device
considerations for VLSI/ULSI – CMOS, Bipolar and BiCMOS technologies – layout ,
assembly and packaging considerations


1. S.M.Sze, ‘VLSI Technology’, McGraw Hill

2. S.M.Sze, ‘ULSI Technology’, McGraw Hill
3. S.K.Gandhi, ‘VLSI Fabrication principles Si & GaAs’ 2nd edition, John Wiley
4. Stephen A Campbell, ‘The science and engineering of micro electronic
fabrication’, Oxford University Press, 1996


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I : Satellite orbits (9 hours)
Orbital parameters, satellite trajectory, period, geostationary satellites, non-geostationary
constellations. Communication satellites – Space craft subsystems, payload – repeater,
antenna, attitude and control systems, telemetry, tracking and command, power sub system
and thermal control.
Module II : Earth stations (9 hours)
Antenna and feed systems, satellite tracking system, amplifiers, fixed and mobile satellite
service earth stations. Terrestrial: line of sight transmission, relay towers and distance
Module III : Communication link design (10 hours)
Frequency bands used, antenna parameters, transmission equations, noise considerations, link
design, propagation characteristics of fixed and mobile satellite links, channel modelling, very
small aperture terminals (VSAT), VSAT design issues.
Module IV : Multiple access techniques (11 hours)
Frequency division multiple access, time division multiple access, code division multiple

1. M Richharia: ‘Satellite Communication Systems’.(Second Ed.),Macmillan Press Ltd.
2. Robert M Gagliardi: ‘Satellite Communication’, Van Nostrand Reinhold
3. Tri T Ha: ‘Digital Satellite Communication’, MGH
4. Miller, Vucetic and Berry: ‘Satellite Communication Techniques’, Kluwer
5. Ferdo Ivanek (Editor): ‘Terrestrial Digital Microwave Communications’, Artech House
6. George M. Kizer: ‘Microwave Communication’, IEEE Press
7. E. Hund: ‘Microwave Communications’, IEEE Press
8. P.V. Sreekant : Digital Microwave Communication Systems, Universities Press.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module 1: Multirate system fundamentals.:
Basic multirate operation – up-sampling and down sampling: Time domain and frequency
domain analysis: Identities fo multirate operations: Interpolator and decimator design: Rate
conversion: Polyphase representation. ( 9 hours)
Module II: Multirate Filter banks:
Maximally decimated filter banks: Quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks – Polyphase
representation: Errors in the QMF bank – Aliasing and Imaging: Method of cancelling
aliasing error: Amplitude and phase distortion: Prefect reconstruction (PR) QMF bank – PR
condition: Design of an alias free QMF bank: Power symmetry in QMF bank (10
Module III: M-channel perfect reconstruction filter banks:
Filter banks with equal pass band width, filter banks with unequal pass band width -
Errors created by the filter banks system- aliasing and imaging, -Amplitude and phase
distortion, polyphase representation- polyphe matrix. Perfect Reconstruction System-
necessary and sufficient condition for perfect reconstruction , FIR PR Systems. Examples PR
Systems. ( 10 hours)
Module IV: Linear phase perfect reconstruction (LPPR) filter banks: (10 hours)
Necessary conditions for linear phase property: Lattice structures for LPPR FIR QMF
banks- Synthesis, M- channel LPPR filter bank. Quantization Effects: -Types of
quantization effects in filter banks. Implementation- coefficient sensitivity effects, round off
noise and limit cycles, dynamic range and scaling.

Text Books:

1. P.P. Vaidyanathan. “Multirate systems and filter banks.” Prentice Hall. PTR.
2. N.J. Fliege. “Multirate digital signal processing .” John Wiley 1994.

Reference Books:

1. Sanjit K. Mitra. “ Digital Signal Processing: A computer based approach.”

Hill. 1998.
2. R.E. Crochiere.L.R. “Multirate Digital Signal Processing.” Prentice Hall.
3. J.G. Proakis. D.G. Manolakis. “Digital Signal Processing : Principles. Algorithms
and Applications.”. 3rd Edn. Prentice Hall India . 1999.
4. B.Porat. “Digital Signal Processing.” Prentice Hall. 1998.
5. Ali N. Akansu. Richard A. Haddad. “Multiresolution Signal Decomposition:
Transforms. Subbands and Wavelets.” Academic Press 1992.
6. G. Strang T.Q. Nguyen. “ Wavelets and Filter Banks” Wellesley- Cambridge
Press . 1996.
7. M. Vetterli. J. Kovacevic. “Wavelets and Sub band Coding.” Prentice Hall. PTR.


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I Digital image representation: (7 hrs.)

Basic functions in digital image processing; Image model; Sampling and quantization; Basic
relationships between pixels; Basic geometric transformations; 2-D function representation;
Separable functions; 2-D convolution; 2-D correlation.

Module II Image transforms: (8 hrs.)

2-D Discrete Fourier transform - properties; Walsh, Hadamard, Discrete Cosine, Haar and
Slant transforms; The Hotelling transform.
Module III Image enhancement: (8 hrs.)
Spatial and frequency domain _filtering methods; Histogram processing; Spatial mask
generation; Colour image processing
Module IV Image restoration: (8 hrs.)
Degradation model; Circulant matrix formulation for complexity reduction; Algebraic
methods; Inverse _filtering; Wiener _filter methods; Constrained least squares method of
Module V Image compression: (8 hrs.)
Fundamental concepts of image compression; Compression models; Information theoretic
perspective; Fundamental coding theorem; lossy and lossless compression methods.

Text Books:

1. R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods, \Digital Image Processing," Addison Wesley, 1992.

2. Anil K. Jain, \Fundamentals of Digital Image processing," Prentice Hall India, 1989.
3. Jae S. Lim, \Two Dimensional Signal and Image Processing," Prentice Hall Inc.,
Englewood Cli_s, New Jersey, 1990.

Reference Books:

1. William K. Pratt, \Digital Image Processing," Wiley Interscience, New York, 2 nd

2. Rosenfield and A. C. Kak, \Digital Picture Processing," 2nd edition, Vols. 1 & 2,
Academic Press, New York, 1982.
3. R. J. Schalkoff, \Digital Image Processing and Computer Vision," John Wiley & Sons,
New York, 1989.




LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module 1 (15 Hrs)
Characteristics of Communication Networks- Traffic characterisation and Services- Circuit
Switched and Packet Switched Networks- Virtual circuit Switched networks- OSI Model-
Protocol Layers and Services- Data Link layer and services-Concept of LAN- Ethernet LAN-
Ethernet frame structure- Address Resolution Protocol- IEEE 802.11 LAN’s- architecture and
media access protocols-Error detection and correction at the Data link layer- Sliding Window
protocols- analysis- Channel accessing protocols- Random accessing protocols.
Module II (12 Hrs)
Net work layer and services- Shortest path length determination- Internet routing principles-
Distance vector routing- Link state protocol- OSPF- - Router basics- Internet Protocol- IPV4
& IPV6- Transport Layer and services- Connectionless Transport- UDP-Services offered by
UDP- Connection oriented Transport- TCP- addressing and multiplexing in TCP- TCP flow
and congestion control.

Module III (13 Hrs)

Broadband services and ATM- Main features of ATM Networks- Statistical multiplexing-
ATM reference model- Admission and Access control in Broadband networks-Analysis of
Leaky Bucket Scheme- Broad band switches for ATM

Module IV (12 Hrs)

Multimedia traffic over internet- Quality of Service requirements- Real Time Protocol- Real
Time Control Protocol- Integrated services- Queuing Disciplines- Weighted Fair Queuing-
Random Early Detection- Differentiated Services- Protocols for QOS support- Resource
reservation-RSVP- Multi protocol Label switching- Real Time transport protocol

1. Leon Garcia:“Communication networks, principles and architecture”, TMH

2. Kesav: “An engineering approach to Computer network design”
3. James. F. Kurose and Keith.W. Ross, “Computer Networks, A top-down approach
featuring the Internet”, Addison Wesley, 2001.
4. Jean Walrand and Pravin Varaiya, “High performance Communication Networks”,
Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 2nd edn. 2000.
5. William Stallings: “High speed networks and internets, performance and Quality of
Service” Pearson Education Asia
6. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, “Data Networks”, PHI, 2000.

LGDP: Cr 0003:1
Each student shall present a seminar in the seventh semester on a topic relevant to Electronics
and Communication Engineering for about 30 minutes. The topic should not be a replica of
what is contained in the syllabus. The topic shall be approved by the Seminar Evaluation
Committee of the Department. The committee shall evaluate the presentation of students. A

seminar report in the prescribed form shall be submitted to the department after the approval
from the committee.


LGDP: Cr 0003:1
Simulation Experiments (using Mathlab/C) – Experiments involving concepts from FFT,
Windowing Techniques, Aliasing Effects, Filter Design, DTMF Generation and Detection,
Adaptive Processing, Multirate Processing and Echo Cancellation, Error Correction Coding,
Modulation and Demodulation and Line Coding with Carrier recovery
Hardware Experiments (using assembly/C/Mathlab interface to DSP kit (TMS 320C6711 or
similar. Application oriented Experiments like FSK, DPSK, Modem and Signal Compression


LGDP: Cr 0003:3
The duration of major project is for two continuous semesters from seventh. The project can
be analytical work, simulation, hardware design or a combination of these in the emerging
areas of Electronics and Communication Engineering under the supervision of a faculty from
the ECE Department. Project work can be carried out individually or by a group of maximum
of four students. The UG evaluation committee of the department shall evaluate the project
during seventh semester for 3 of total of 8 credits assigned for the project.



LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I : Potentials and radiation fields (11 hours): Retarded potentials, Lienard -
Wiechert potentials for a moving charge, fields of a moving point charge, electric dipole
radiation, magnetic dipole radiation, radiation from an arbitrary source, power radiated by a
point charge, radiation reaction
Module II : Antenna parameters (9 hours): Directivity, gain, radiation resistance, beam
width, input impedance, antenna noise and temperature, radiation pattern. Antennas: Dipole
and monopole antennas, linear dipole arrays, loop antenna, helical antenna, Yagi - Uda
antenna, parabolic antenna, Cassegrain antenna
Module III : Design of linear array antennas (8 hours): Dolph - Tchebycheff design,
binomial design, Fourier transform based design
Module II : Propagation (11 hours): Effect of earth’s conductivity on antenna pattern,
effect of earth’s conductivity and shape on surface wave propagation, effect of earth’s
magnetic field on EM waves in ionosphere, plasma and cyclotron frequencies, skip distance,
maximum usable frequency


1. C A Balanis: Antenna Theory, Harper and Row

2. J D Krauss: Antennas, MGH
3. David J Griffiths: Introduction to Electrodynamics, Third edition, PHI
4. Jordan and Balmain: Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems, PHI

LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (11 hours)
Analog MOS models - low frequency model - MOS in saturation - high frequency model -
variation of transconductance with frequency - temperature effects in MOST - noise in MOST
(shot, flicker and thermal noise) - MOS resistors and resistor circuits - super MOST
Module II (14 hours)
Current sources and sinks - current mirror - cascode current source - transient response of
simple current mirror - Wilson current mirror - regulated cascode current source/sink - voltage
references - resistor MOSFET and MOSFET only voltage references - band gap references -
various biasing schemes for voltage references
Module III (12 hours)
Common source - common gate and source follower amplifiers - class AB amplifier - active
load configuration - transimpedance amplifier - cascode amplifier - push pull amplifier -
amplifier based signal processing - the differential difference amplifier (DDA) - adder,
multiplier, divider and filters using DDA
Module IV (15 hours)
Mixed signal circuits - CMOS comparator design - pre amplification - decision and post
amplification stages - transient response - clocked comparators - analog multiplier - the
multiplying quad - level shifting in multipliers - dynamic analog circuits - charge injection
and capacitive feed through in MOS switch - sample and hold circuits - switched capacitor
filters - switched capacitor implementation of ladder filters

Reference books
1. Jacob Baker R., Li H.W.& Boyce D.E., `CMOS - Circuit Design, Layout & Simulation’,
2. Mohammed Ismail & Terri Fiez, Analog VLSI - Signal & Information Processing, MGH
3. Roubik Gregorian & Gabor C Temes, Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal
Processing, John Wiley


LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I : Filter approximations (9 hours): Butterworth, Chebychev, Bessel and Elliptic

approximations to ideal low pass filter characteristics – Frequency transformations to obtain
HPF, BPF and BEF from normalized prototype LPF – Delay equalizer
Module II : Active biquad filters (9 hours): Active and passive sensitivities, LPF & HPF
using Sallen-Key configuration, BPF realization using the Deliyannis configuration, BEF
using twin T configuration, all pass filter realizations, KHN and Tow-Thomas configurations,
Inductance simulation, Antoniou’s gyrator, filter realizations with gyrator
Module III : Effect of op-amp non-idealities (10 hours): Pole frequency and Q error
problems – analysis with finite open loop gain of opamp, active and passive compensation,
the Akerberg - Mossberg biquad
Module IV : Higher order filter realization (11 hours): Follow- the-leader structure,
Cascade structure, Leap- frog structure, Circuit implementation and practical design
considerations taking into account the input dynamic range and output signal-to-noise ratio.

1. Gobind Daryanani: ‘Principles of Active Network Synthesis & Design’, John Wiley

2. A S Sedra and P O Brackett: ‘Filter Theory and Design: Active and Passive’, Matrix
3. M E Van Valkenberg: Analog Filter design, Oxford University Press.
4. Rolf Schaumann and M E Van Valkenberg: Active Filter Design, Oxford University


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I : Optical fiber fundamentals (12 hours)
Solution to Maxwell’s equation in a circularly symmetric step index optical fiber, linearly
polarized modes, single mode and multimode fibers, concept of V number, graded index
fibers, total number of guided modes (no derivation), polarization maintaining fibers,
attenuation mechanisms in fibers, dispersion in single mode and multimode fibers, dispersion
shifted and dispersion flattened fibers, attenuation and dispersion limits in fibers, Kerr
nonlinearity, self phase modulation, combined effect of dispersion and self phase modulation,
nonlinear Schrodinger equation (no derivation), fundamental soliton solution
Module II : Optical sources (8 hours)
LED and laser diode, principles of operation, concepts of line width, phase noise, switching
and modulation characteristics – typical LED and LD structures.
Module III : Optical detectors (8 hours)-
Pn detector, pin detector, avalanche photodiode – Principles of operation, concepts of
responsivity, sensitivity and quantum efficiency, noise in detection, typical receiver
configurations (high impedance and transimpedance receivers).
Module IV : Optical amplifiers (11 hours)–
Semiconductor amplifier, rare earth doped fiber amplifier (with special reference to erbium
doped fibers), Raman amplifier, Brillouin amplifier – principles of operation, amplifier noise,
signal to noise ratio, gain, gain bandwidth, gain and noise dependencies, intermodulation
effects, saturation induced crosstalk, wavelength range of operation.


1. Leonid Kazovsky, Sergio Benedetto and Alan Willner: `Optical Fiber Communication
Systems’, Artech House.
2. John Senior: `Optical Fiber Communications’, PHI.
3. Silvello Betti, Giancarlo De Marchis and Eugenio Iannone: `Coherent Optical
Communications Systems’, John Wiley.
4. G.P.Agrawal: `Nonlinear Fiber Optics’, Academic Press.


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (10 hours)
Fundamentals of signal decomposition - brief overview of Fourier transform and short term
Fourier transform - introduction to wavelets - continuous wavelet transform - definition -
CWT as a correlation - time frequency resolution
Module II (12 hours)
Introduction to the DWT and orthogonal wavelet decomposition - approximation of vectors in
nested linear vector spaces - example of an MRA - orthogonal wavelet decomposition based
on the Haar wavelet - digital filter implementation of the Haar wavelet decomposition
(Mallat’s algorithm)
Module III (15 hours)
Construction of a general orthonormal MRA - formal definition - implication of the dilation
equation and orthogonality - two scale relation for the wavelet function - digital filter
implementation - reconstruction of the signal - introductory concepts of biorthogonal wavelet

basis and wavelet packets - two-dimensional wavelet decomposition - regularity - vanishing
Module IV (15 hours)
Applications - image compression - EZW algorithm - audio compression - signal denoising -
edge detection - object isolation - image fusion - medical applications

Text book

Rao R.M. & Bopardikar A.S., ‘Wavelet Transforms-Introduction to Theory and Applications’

Reference books

1. Sidney Burrus, Gopinath R.A. & Haitao Guo, Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet
Transforms”, Prentice Hall International.
2. Chan Y.T., ‘Wavelet Basics’, Kluwer Academic Publishers
3. Goswami J.C. & Chan A.K., ‘Fundamentals of Wavelets - Theory Algorithms and


3 LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (15 hours)
Digital models for the speech signal - mechanism of speech production - acoustic theory -
lossless tube models - digital models - linear predictive coding of speech - auto correlation -
formulation of LPC equation - solution of LPC equations - levinson durbin algorithm -
levinson recursion - schur algorithm - lattice formulations and solutions - PARCOR
Module II (15 hours)
Spectral analysis of speech - short time fourier analysis - filter bank design - speech coding -
subband coding of speech - transform coding - channel vocoder - formant vocoder - cepstral
vocoder - vector quantizer coder
Module III (12 hours)
Speech synthesis - pitch extraction algorithms - gold rabiner pitch trackers - autocorrelation
pitch trackers - voice/unvoiced detection - homomorphic speech processing - homomorphic
systems for convolution - complex cepstrums - pitch extraction using homomorphic speech
Module IV (10 hours)
Automatic speech recognition systems - isolated word recognition - connected word
recognition - large vocabulary word recognition systems - pattern classification - DTW,
HMM - speaker recognition systems - speaker verification systems - speaker identification

Text books

1. Rabiner L.R. & Schafer R.W., “Digital Processing of Speech Signals”, Prentice Hall Inc.
2. Thomas Parsons, “Voice and Speech Processing”, McGraw Hill Series
3. Saito S. & Nakata K., “Fundamentals of Speech Signal Processing”, Academic Press, Inc.

Reference books

1. Owens F.J., “Signal Processing of Speech”, Macmillan New Electronics

2. Papamichalis P.E., “Practical Approaches to Speech Coding”, Texas Instruments, Prentice
3. Rabiner L.R. & Gold, “Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Processing”, Prentice
Hall of India



LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I
Introduction to Statistical Detection Theory- Binary decisions, single observation- Maximum
likelihood decision criterion, Neymann- Pearson criterion, Minimum probability of error
criterion, Baye’s Risk criterion- Receiver Operating characteristics.
Module II
Binary decisions with multiple observations- Vector observations- Waveform Observation-
Detection of signals in additive Gaussian Noise- The correlation Receiver – The Matched
Filter Receiver- Performance analysis.
Module III
Introduction to Estimation Theory- Mathematical estimation problem- Maximum likelihood
estimation- Minimum Variance unbiased estimator- Baysian Estimators-Mean square
criterion-Linear minimum variance estimator-Least square method- Estimation in the
presence of Gaussian noise.
Module IV
Estimation of waveforms- LMMSE estimation of waveforms-Wiener Filter- Kalman filter-
Non linear Estimation-Concept of sufficient statistics and statistical estimation of parameters.


1.Steven. M. Kay, “ Statistical Signal Processing: Vol. 1 : Estimation Theory, vol. 2 :

Detection Theory “ Prentice Hall Inc, 1995.
2. Harry L. Van Trees, “ Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory, Part 1”, John
Wiley & Sons Inc,1968.


LGDP:Cr 0006:5
This is the continuation of project work by the students in the seventh semester. The UG
evaluation committee of the department shall evaluate the project during eighth semester for 5
of total of 8 credits assigned for the project. A report of the project work carried out during
the semester shall be submitted at the end of the semester approved by the HOD and project



LGDP:Cr 3100:3
Module I : State space concepts (11 hours):
Ordinary differential equation description of nonlinear state space systems, phase plane
analysis, stable and unstable limit cycles, phase portraits, periodic orbits, Poincare sections,
attractors and aperiodic attractors, KAM theorem, logistic maps and chaos, characterization of
chaotic attractors, Benard-Rayleigh convection, Lorenz system

Module II : Concepts of stability (9 hours):
Lyapunov stability for autonomous and nonautonomous systems, the centre manifold theorm,
La Salle theory, regions of attraction, invariance theorems, stability of perturbed systems for
vanishing and nonvanishing perturbations, slowly varying systems, input-output stability.
Module III : Absolute stability (9 hours) –
Circle criterion, Popov criterion, small gain theorm, passivity approach, Input-output stability,
absolute stability. Stability of interconnected systems: Feedback stabilization of nonlinear
systems, exact feedback linearization of nonlinear systems.
Module IV : Nonlinear theory of oscillators (10 hours): Pendulum equation with friction
and nonlinearity, Van der Pol equation, stabilization of oscillations, attractors, basins and
bifurcations of driven oscillators, global topology of the phase space.
1. Hassan K Khalil: ‘Nonlinear Systems’, Second edition, Prentice Hall
2. Heinz-Otto Peitgen, Hartmut Jurgens and Dietmar Saupe: ‘Chaos and Fractals- New
Frontiers of Science’, Springer-Verlag
3. Vidyasagar: ‘Nonlinear Systems Analysis’, Second Ed; Prentice-Hall
4. John Guckenheimer and Philip Holmes: ‘Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical Systems,
and Bifurcations of Vector Fields’, Springer-Verlag.
5. D K Arrowsmith and C M Place: ‘An Introduction to Dynamical Systems’, Cambridge
University Press


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (14 hours)
Introduction to high-speed digital design - frequency, time and distance - capacitance and
inductance effects - high speed properties of logic gates - speed and power - measurement
techniques - rise time and bandwidth of oscilloscope probes - self inductance, signal pickup
and loading effects of probes - observing crosstalk
Module II (14 hours)
Transmission line effects and crosstalk - transmission lines - point to point wiring - infinite
uniform transmission lines - effects of source and load impedance - special transmission line
cases - line impedance and propagation delay - ground planes and layer stacking - crosstalk in
solid ground planes, slotted ground planes and cross-hatched ground planes - near and far end
Module III (12 hours)
Terminations and vias - terminations - end, source and middle terminations - AC biasing for
end terminations - resistor selection - crosstalk in terminators - properties of vias - mechanical
properties of vias - capacitance of vias - inductance of vias - return current and its relation to
Module IV (12 hours)
Stable reference voltage and clock distribution - stable voltage reference - distribution of
uniform voltage - choosing a bypass capacitor - clock distribution - clock skew and methods
to reduce skew - controlling crosstalk on clock lines - delay adjustments - clock oscillators
and clock jitter

Text books

1. Howard Johnson & Martin Graham, “High Speed Digital Design: A Handbook of Black
Magic”, Prentice Hall PTR
2. Dally W.S. & Poulton J.W., “Digital Systems Engineering”, Cambridge University Press
3. Masakazu Shoji, “High Speed Digital Circuits”, Addison Wesley Publishing Company

Module I (13 hours)
Satellite orbits - solar day and sidereal day - orbital parameters - satellite trajectory - period,
velocity and position of a satellite - geostationary satellites - non-geostationary constellations
- launching of geostationary satellites - Hohmann transfer - effect of earth’s shape - other
heavenly bodies - atmospheric drag and radiation pressure on the satellite’s orbit
Module II (13 hours)
Communication satellites - spacecraft subsystems - payload - repeater, antenna, attitude and
control systems - telemetry, tracking and command - power sub system and thermal control
Earth stations - antenna and feed systems - satellite tracking system - amplifiers - fixed and
mobile satellite service earth stations
Module III (13 hours)
Communication link design - frequency bands used - antenna parameters - transmission
equations - noise considerations - link design - very small aperture terminals (VSAT) - VSAT
design issues
Module IV (13 hours)
Multiple access techniques - frequency division multiple access - time division multiple
access - code division multiple access - access protocols for data tarffic

Reference books
9. Richharia M., Satellite Communication Systems, Macmillan Press Ltd.
10. Gagliardi R.M., Satellite Communication, CBS
11. Ha T.T., Digital Satellite Communication, MGH


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (12 hours)
Mobile radio propagation - free space propagation model - ground reflection model - large
scale path loss - small scale fading and multipath propagation - impulse response model of a
multipath channel - parameters of a mobile multipath channel - multipath delay spread -
doppler spread - coherence band width - coherence time - time dispersion and frequency
selective fading - frequency dispersion and time selective fading - concepts of level crossing
rate and average fade duration
Module II (14 hours)
Digital communication through fading multipath channels - frequency non selective, slowly
fading channels - frequency selective, slowly fading channels- calculation of error
probabilities - tapped delay line model - the RAKE demodulator performance - diversity
techniques for mobile wireless radio systems concept of diversity branch and signal paths -
combining methods - selective diversity combining - pre-detection and post detection
combining - switched combining - maximal ratio combining- equal gain combining
Module III (12 hours)
Cellular concept - frequency reuse - cochannel interference - adjacent channel interference -
power control for reducing interference - improving capacity in cellular systems - cell
splitting - sectoring - hand off strategies - channel assignment strategies - call blocking in
cellular networks
Module IV (14 hours)
Fundamental concepts of spread spectrum systems - pseudo noise sequence - performance of
direct sequence spread spectrum systems - analysis of direct sequence spread spectrum
systems - the processing gain and anti jamming margin - frequency hopped spread spectrum
systems - time hopped spread spectrum systems - synchronization of spread spectrum systems

Text books
1. Kamilo Feher, ‘Wireless Digital Communications’, PHI
2. Rapport T.S., ‘Wireless Communications, Principles and Practice’, Prentice Hall
3. Lee W.C.Y., ‘Mobile Cellular Telecommunication’, MGH

4. Proakis J.G., ‘Digital Communications’, MGH


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (12 hours)
Electronic switching systems: basics of a switching system - electronic space division
switching - stored program control - time division switching - time multiplexed space
switching - time multiplexed time switching - two stage, three stage and N-stage combination
Module II (14 hours)
Digital circuit switching networks: two-stage network - three-stage network - n-stage
network - non-blocking switches - blocking probability analysis of multistage switches - lee
approximation - improved approximate analysis of blocking switch - examples of digital
switching systems - AT & T 5ESS and NTI - DMS 100 switching systems
Module III (14 hours)
Elements of traffic engineering: network traffic load and parameters - grade of service and
blocking probability - incoming traffic and service time characterization - blocking models
and loss estimates - delay systems
Module IV (12 hours)
Signaling: customer line signaling - outband signaling - inband signaling - PCM signaling -
inter register signaling - common channel signaling principles - CCITT signaling system No:
7 - digital customer line signaling
Introduction to ATM switching – Strict sense non block switch – self routing switches –
Bense network – ATM routers – Design of typical switches.

Text books

1. Viswanathan T., Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks, Prentice Hall of

India Pvt. Ltd.
2. Schwartz M., Telecommunication Networks - Protocols, Modeling and Analysis, Addison
Wesley Publishing Company
Reference books

1. Flood J.E., Telecommunications Switching Traffic and Networks, Pearson Education Pvt.
2. Freeman R.L., Telecommunication System Engineering, Wiley Inter Science Publications
3. Das J., Review of Digital Communication, New Age Internal (P) Ltd., Publishers


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I (14 hours)
Principles of television - image continuity - interlaced scanning - blanking - synchronizing -
video and sound signal modulation - channel bandwidth - vestigial sideband transmission -
VSB correction - positive and negative modulation - transmitter and receiver block diagrams -
CCD camera
Module II (14 hours)
Colour TV - Colour perception - luminance, hue and saturation - colour TV camera and
picture tube - colour signal transmission - bandwidth - modulation - formation of
chrominance signal - principles of NTSC, PAL and SECAM coder and decoder
Module III (14 hours)
Digital TV - composite digital standards - 4 f sc NTSC standard - general specifications -
sampling structure - general concept of video bit reduction - MPEG standard - digital
transmission - cable TV - cable frequencies - co-axial cable for CATV - cable distribution
system - cable decoders - wave traps and scrambling methods

Module IV (10 hours)
Radar systems - radar frequencies - radar equation - radar transmitter and receiver (block
diagram approach) - continuous wave radar - frequency modulated CW radar - moving target
indicator radar - tracking radar
Text books

1. Gulati R.R., Modern Television Engineering, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

2. Michael Robin & Michael Poulin, Digital Television Fundamentals, McGraw Hill
3. Bernard Grob & Charles E. Herndon, Basic Television and Video Systems, McGraw Hill
4. Introduction to Radar Systems, McGraw Hill, Kogakusha Ltd.

Reference books

1. Dhake A.M., Television Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill

2. Damacher P., Digital Broadcasting, IEE Telecommunications Series
Pre-requisites: Random Process, Information Theory, Linear Algebra.


LGDP: Cr 3100:3
Module I Review of Information Theory:
Discrete memoryless information source - Redundancy; Discrete information source with
memory – Markov process, The information of a discrete source with memory, Amount of
information of _rst order and higher order Markov chains. The discrete memoryless
information source - Kraft inequality; Optimal codes; Bounds on the optimal code length;
Kraft's inequality foruniquely decodable codes; Source coding theorem; Coding strategies;
Shannon-McMillan theorem; Shannon' s _rst coding theorem; The discrete information source
with memory – Coding aspects; Most probable message; Source coding theorem.
(9 Hours)
Module II Rate distortion theory: Motivation; The discrete rate distortion function R(D);
Properties of R(D); Calculation of R(D); R(D) for the binary source, and the Gaussian source,
Source coding theorem(Rate distortion theorem); Converse source coding theorem (Converse
of the Rate distortion theorem); Information transmission theorem; The continuous Rate
distortion function. (10 Hours)
Module III Signal Compression: Vector quantization - Code book generation - LBG
lgorithm; application to speech and image compression. Parametric coding of of speech -
Linear predictive coding - Levinson recursion – Schur algorithm - Lattice structure
implementation; Code excited linear prediction. (10 Hours)
Module IV (A) Transform coding: Theory and construction of transforms; Karhunen Loeve
transform; Discrete Cosine Transform; Wavelet transform; Application to speech and image
compression. (6 Hours)
(IV. B) Subband coding: speech, audio and image coding. (4 Hours)

Text books:

1.Thomas M. Cover, Joy A. Thomas, \Elements of Information Theory," John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 1991.
2.David Salomon, \Data Compression," 2nd Edn., Springer, 2000.
3.Khalid Sayood, \Introduction to Data Compression," 2nd Edn.,Addison Wesley, 2000.

Reference books:

1. Toby Berger, \Rate Distortion Theory: A Mathematical Basis for Data Compression,"
Prentice Hall, Inc., 1971.

2. K. R. Rao, P. C. Yip, \The Transform and Data Compression Handbook," CRC Press,
3. R. G. Gallager, \Information Theory and Reliable Communication," John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., 1968.
4. Ali N. Akansu, Richard A. Haddad, \Multiresolution signal decomposition: Transforms,
subbands and wavelets," Academic Press, 1992.
5. Martin Vetterli, Jelena Kovacevic, \Wavelets and subband coding," Prentice Hall Inc.,