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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

National Institute of Technology Calicut

(2002 Admission onwards)

1

Semester III

*********NA************

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Electrical measurements-characteristics-Measurement of power ,energy, resistance,

inductance, magnetic field measurements, transformers, construction, principle of operation,

single phase autotransformer, electromagnetic energy conversion, types of machines,

construction, rotating magnetic field, principle of operation, electric machines, DC generator,

DC motors, load characteristics, speed control, applications, Alternators, synchronous motors,

three phase induction motors, principle, types, starting, load characteristics, speed control,

applications, connections and applications of single phase motors.

Text Books:

2. I.J.Nagrath, D.P.Kothari: Electrical Machines, Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing

Company Limited-New Delhi, 1997

3. Golding and Widdis: Electrical measurements & measuring instruments, Wheeler

Books.

References Books:

Delhi, 1984.

2. Vincent Del Toro: Electrical Machines and Power Systems, Prentice Hall, 1988

3. S. J. Chapman: Electric Machines and Power Systems, McGraw Hill, 1999

4. M.G. Say: Alternating Current Machines, Pittman, 1983

5. Verinott C.C: Fractional and Sub-fractional Horse-Power Electric Motors,

McGraw Hill, New York, 1978

6 Electrical & Electronic Measurements and instrumentation, A. K. Sawhney,

Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 1996

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Network topologies - graph theoretic methods to formation of network equations - Review of

network theorems - step response and impulse response of first and second order circuits

Module II (10 Hours)

Laplace transform method of network characterisation - impulse response and transfer

function- poles and zeros - causality and stability

Module III (10 Hours)

Two port networks - relationships among parameter sets –T and equivalent of a two port

network – constant k and m-derived filter sections

Module IV ( 9 Hours)

Network synthesis - Foster and Cauer forms of RC and RL networks

Text Books

2

2. Van Valkenberg: Network Analysis, Prentice Hall of India

3. D. Roy Choudhury: Networks and Systems, New Age International Pubs.

4.

Reference Books:

1. Franklin F. Kuo: Network Analysis and Synthesis, John Wiley and sons

2. Valkenberg M E: Introduction to Modern Networks Synthesis, Wiely Eastern

3. Desoer C A & kuh E S: Basic Circuit Theory, McGraw Hill

4. Edminister: Electric circuits - Schaum’s Outline Series , 3/e, McGraw Hill

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I

Crystal structure of solids - Energy band theory – semiconductor statistics – equilibrium

properties of semiconductors.

Module II

Intrinsic and semiconductors – scattering mechanisms – drift and diffusion processes – excess

carrier phenomena in semiconductors

Module III

p-n junctions – I/V characteristics – breakdown mechanisms – metal semiconductor junctions

– tunnel diodes

Module IV

Bipolar junction transistors – non ideal effects – BJT models – HBTs – JFETs – MOSFETs

Text Books:

References :

2. ‘Semiconductor physical electronics’, Sheng. S.Li, plenum press, 1993

3.‘Physics of semiconductor devices’, S.M.Sze, McGraw Hill, 2nd edn

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (8 Hours)

Review of number systems and Boolean algebra – Simplification methods - Combinational

logic design– Arithmetic circuits

Module II (12 Hours)

Sequential circuits –Design and analysis of sequential circuits –Analysis of sequential

networks – sequential network design

Module III (8 Hours)

Memory, CPLD and FPGAs - Architecture

Module IV (11 Hours)

Logic families - TTL and CMOS - Interfacing BJT and CMOS gates

Text Books

2.Roth C H: Fundamentals of Logic Design, Jaico Pub

3.Morris Mano: Digital Logic and Computer Design, PHI

3

4.Taub B & Schilling: Digital Integrated Electronics, McGraw Hill

Reference Books:

2.Lewin D & Protheroe D: Design of Logic Systems, Chapman & Hall

3.Karz R H: Contemporary Logic Design, Benjamin / Cummings Pub

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I

Signals and systems – Operations on signals- Properties of - Impulse response -

Representation of LTI systems

Module II (12 hours)

Fourier representation of continuous time signals - Frequency response of LTI systems -

Sampling and reconstruction.

Module III (11 hours)

Fourier representation of discrete time signals - Laplace transform analysis of systems -

Causality and stability - Inverse system.

Module IV (10 hours)

Z Transform - Analysis of LTI systems - Determining the frequency response from poles and

zeros.

Text books

2. Oppenheim A.V., Willsky A.S. & Nawab S.H., Signals and Systems, 2e, 2002 Pearson

Education

3. Taylor F.H., Principles of Signals & Systems, McGraw Hill

Reference books

1. Lathi B.P., Modern Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Oxford University Press

2. Haykin S., Communication Systems, John Wiley

3. Bracewell R.N., Fourier Transform & Its Applications, McGraw Hill

4. Papoulis A., Fourier Integral & Its Applications, McGraw Hill

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

1. Electronics Workshop - I

2. Electronics Workshop - II

3. Electronics Workshop - III

4. Diode & Zener diode characteristics - dc and dynamic resistance

5. Clipping and Clamping circuits.

6. Zener diode regulator - regulation curves

7. Half wave rectifier with C, LC & CRC filters

8. Full wave rectifiers with C, LC & CRC filters

9. CB configuration - determination of h parameters

4

10. CE configuration - determination of h parameters

11. JFET Characteristics.

12. UJT Characteristics and Relaxation Oscillator.

13. Series resonant and parallel resonant circuits - voltage and current amplification

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

**NA****

5

SEMESTER IV

MA202T MATHEMATICS IV

*********NA************

EC213T ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Mod.1: Electrostatics (10 hours): Coulomb’s law, electric field, flux and Gauss’s law, curl

and divergence of electrostatic fields, electric potential, Poisson’s equation, Laplace’s

equation, solutions to electrostatic boundary problems, method of images, work and energy in

electrostatics, induced dipoles and polarization, field inside a dielectric, electric displacement,

concepts of susceptibility, permittivity and dielectric constant, boundary condit ions,

capacitors, surface charge and induced charge on conductors.

Mod.2: Magnetostatics (9 hours): Lorentz force, Biot-Savart law, magnetic flux density,

divergence and curl of flux density, Ampere’s law, magnetic vector potential, magnetization,

torque and force on magnetic dipoles, boundary conditions, magnetic susceptibility and

permeability

Mod.3: Electrodynamics (9 hours): Electromagnetic induction, inductance, displacement

current, Maxwell’s equations, boundary conditions, Poynting’s theorm, energy and

momentum in electromagnetic field

Mod.4: Electromagnetic Waves (11 hours): EM waves in vacuum and in matter,

monochromatic plane waves, refection and transmission at interfaces, scalar and vector

potentials, Lorentz gauge, retarded potentials. Transmission lines: Quasi-TEM analysis,

characteristic impedance, standing wave ratio, matching techniques

Reference :

1. David J Griffiths: Introduction to Electrodynamics, Third edition, PHI.

2. Nannapaneni Narayana Rao: Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Fourth edition,

PHI.

3. David Cheng: "Field and Wave Electromagnetics", Second edition.

4. Sadiku: Elements of Electromagnetics, Third Edition, Oxford University Press.

5. J D Krauss: Electromagnetics, Fourth edition, MGH.

6. J D Jackson: Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, John Wiley.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module 1 (10 hours)

RC circuit as integrator and differentiator – Compensated attenuators – Pulse transformer-

Switching characteristics of a BJT – BJT switches with inductive and capacitive loads –

emitter follower with capacitive loading - Switching characteristics of a MOS inverter –

resistive load & active load configurations – CMOS inverter – dynamic power dissipation

Module 2 (10 hours)

Bistable, monostable and astable multivibrators – collector coupled monoshot – emitter

coupled monoshot – triggering the monoshot – collector coupled and emitter coupled astable

multivibrator - Astable, monostable and bistable operations using negative resistance devices

Module 3 (9 hours)

General features of a time base signal and exponential sweep circuits - voltage and current

time base generators –Miller & bootstrap sweep generator configurations – methods to

6

improve linearity Digital Phase Locked Loops – Parameters of PLL - Phase detectors ( XOR

& phase frequency detectors) – Loop filter - Analysis of PLL - typical applications of PLL

Module 4 (10 hours)

Digital to analog converters – Accuracy, resolution, conversion speed, offset error, gain error,

integral and differential nonlinearity of data converters - R-2R ladder, binary weighted,

current steering, charge scaling, cyclic & pipeline DACs Analog to digital converters – track

and hold operation - flash converter, two step flash, pipeline, integrating, staircase converter,

successive approximation converter, dual slope & oversampling ADCs – Principle of Sigma-

delta ADC.

Text books :

1. Jacob Millman & Herbert Taub: Pulse, Digital & Switching Waveforms, TMGH

2. R Jacob Baker et al: CMOS – Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, PHI

Reference books

1. Taub & Schilling: Digital Integrated Electronics, MGH.

2. A S Sedra & K C Smith: Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press

3. Bell David A: Solid State Pulse Crcuits, Reston Publishing Company, PHI.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Mod.1: BJT amplifiers (10 hours) : Biasing schemes, load line concept, bias stabilization,

stability factor, bias compensation, analyses and design of CC, CE and CB configurations, RC

coupled and transformer coupled multistage amplifiers, frequency response of amplifiers –

thermal runaway in BJT amplifiers.

Mod.2: FET amplifiers (10 hours): Biasing of JFET – self bias and fixed bias, biasing of

MOSFETs – feedback biasing and fixed biasing for enhancement and depletion mode

MOSFETs, analyses and design of common source, common drain and common gate

amplifier configurations – thermal runaway in MOS amplifiers.

Mod.3: Feedback (10 hours) – Effect of feedback on amplifier performance, voltage shunt,

voltage series, current series and current shunt feedback configurations, concept of stability,

Nyquist criterion . Oscillators – conditions for oscillations - analysis of RC phase shift,

Colpitts, Hartley and crystal oscillators.

Mod.4: Power amplifiers ( 9 hours) – Class A, B, AB, C, D & S switching power amplifiers

– harmonic distortion, efficiency, relative performance. Wide band amplifiers – Broad

banding techniques, low frequency and high frequency compensation, CC-CE cascade,

cascode amplifier, broadbanding using inductors.

Text Book:

1. Donald A. Neamen, Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition, MCGraw Hill

Reference:

1. Millman & Halkias : `Integrated Electronics’, MGH.

2. A S Sedra & K C Smith : `Microelectronic Circuits’, Oxford University Press.

3. Robert Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky : `Electronic Devices & Circuit Theory’, PHI.

4. William H Hayt Jr : `Electronic Circuit Analysis & Design’.

5. Theodore F Bogart : `Electronic Devices & Circuits’.

6. Mark N Horenstein : `Microelectronic Circuits & Devices’, PHI.

7. D L Schilling & C Belove : `Electronic Circuits’, Third Ed; MGH.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (8 hours)

Basic ideas of computer architecture-Design ideology of CPU and control unit-CPU Memory

Interaction-memory address mapping techniques

Module II (12 hours)

7

Intel 8086 processor- Architecture –– addressing modes – Instruction set – assembly

Language programming – Interrupts Pin configuration of 8086 – Timing diagrams –

Minimum and maximum mode –Interfacing – address decoding – Interfacing chips –

Programmable peripheral interface (8255) Programmable timer (8253)- -serial

communication interface(8253)

Module III (9 hours)

Introduction to 80286 – Memory management unit- descriptors, selectors description tables

and TSS – real and protected mode- Memory paging features of the Pentium processor –

Branch prediction logic - Superscalar architecture.-PCI bus

Module IV (10 hours)

Intel 8051 microcontroller –architecture –ports ,timers, interrupts, serial data transmission

instruction set -programming

Text Books

1. Hall D V , Microprocessors & Interfacing , McGraw Hill

2. Brey B B , The Intel Microprocessors, Architecture , Implementation & Programming ,

McGraw Hill

3. Liu Y C & Gibson G A ,Microcomputer System, The 8086/8088 Family, Prentice

Hall of India

4. Kenneth J Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller, Architecture ,Programming and Applications

,International Thompson Publishing .

Reference Books

1. Intel Data Book Vol.1 , Embedded Microcontrollers and Processors

2. Tribal W A & Singh A., The 8088 and 8086 Microprocessors, McGraw Hill

3. Mohemmed R , Microprocessors & Microcomputer Based System Design, Universal

Bookstall

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module 1 (9 Hours)

Random Process: Review of the theory of Continuous Random variables – Joint distribution

and density functions – conditional distribution functions – Random process – Ensemble

average –Stationarity, Wide sense stationarity – time averages –Ergodicity – Correlation

theory for WSS random process – Power spectral density – Wiener-Khinchie Eiestein

theorem – Response of LTI systems to random process – Guassian random process – Filtered

Guassian random process – White Guassian Noise

Module 2 (8 Hours)

Noise: Sources of noise – thermal noise, shot noise and flicker noise –Filtered White noise –

Narrow band noise – Quadrature representation, envelope and phase representation – Signal

to Noise ratio – Noise equivalent bandwidth – Effective Noise temperature – Noise

calculations for cascaded stages

Module 3 (11 Hours)

Amplitude Modulation: Spectrum of Amplitude Modulated signal – power relations – AM

generation and detection – DSB-SC generation and detection – SSB-SC generation and

detection – VSB modulation – AM transmitter and receiver – TRF and superheterodyne

receivers – Noise analysis of AM receivers – ANR for envelope detection and coherent

detection –SNR in DSB-SC and SSB-SC systems

Module 4 (11 Hours)

Frequency Modulation: Angle modulation – Frequency modulation – Narrow band FM –

Wideband FM – Transmission bandwidth – Generation of FM signals – Direct and Indirect

methods – FM demodulators – Noise in FM reception – Threshold effect – Pre-emphasis and

De-emphasis

Textbooks recommended

1. Simon Haykin, “Communication Systems”, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons

8

2. R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter, “Principles of Communication”, JAICOP Publishing

House

3. Dennis Roddy, John Coolen, “Electronic Communications”, PHI 1997

References

1. K. Sam Shanmugam, “Digital and Analog Communication Systems”, John Wiley & Sons

2. Yannic Viniotis, “Probability for Electrical Engineers”, Mc Graw Hill International

3. B.P. Lathi, “Modern Digital and Anaalog Commmunication Systems” 3rd Ed. Oxford

University Press.

4. Tomasi: Electronic communication: Fundamentals through advanced, Pearson Education

5. Couch: Digital and Analog Communication Systems, Pearson Education

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

1. Feed back voltage regulator with short circuit protection.

2. Emitter follower with & without complementary transistors – Frequency and phase

response driving a capacitive load.

3. Single stage BJT/FET amplifier

4. 2 stage RC coupled amplifier – Frequency response

5. Cascode amplifier – Frequency response

6. Phase shift oscillator using BJT/FET.

7. Hartley / Colpitts oscillator using BJT/FET.

8. Power amplifier – Class A & class AB.

9. Crystal oscillator.

10. Tuned amplifier

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

List of experiments

1. Characteristics of TTL gates

2. Code converters and parity circuits using basic gates

3. Combinational logic design using Decoders and MUXs

4. Half and Full adders and subtractors

5. 4 bit adder-substractor IC & BCD adder circuit

6. Flip flop circuit (RS latch, JK and Master Slave) using basic gates

7. Ripple, Johnson and Ring counters

8. Synchronous Counters and pseudorandom sequence generators

9. State machine for sequence detection

10. Astable and Monostable circuits using gates and timer IC

11. DAC Circuits (ladder and weighted resistor) and ICs

12. ADC Circuits (eg. counter ramp ) and ICs

9

SEMESTER V

*********NA************

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

General schematic diagram of control systems - open loop and closed loop systems - concept

of feedback - modeling of continuous time systems - Laplace transform - properties -

application in solution of differential equations - transfer function - block diagrams - signal

flow graph - mason' s gain formula - block diagram reduction using direct techniques and

signal flow graphs - examples - derivation of transfer function of simple systems from

physical relations - low pass RC filter - RLC series network - spring mass damper - low pass

active filter - definitions of poles, zeros, order and type

Module II (10 hours)

Analysis of continuous time systems - time domain solution of first order systems - time

constant - time domain solution of second order systems - determination of response for

standard inputs using transfer functions - steady state error - concept of stability - Routh-

Hurwitz techniques - construction of bode diagrams - phase margin - gain margin -

construction of root locus - polar plots and theory of nyquist criterion - theory of lag - lead

and lag-lead compensators

Module III (10 hours)

Modeling of discrete - time systems - sampling - mathematical derivations for sampling -

sample and hold - Z-transforms-properties - solution of difference equations using Z -

transforms - examples of sampled data systems - mapping between s plane and z plane -

cyclic and multi-rate sampling (definitions only) - analysis of discrete time systems - pulse

transfer function - examples - stability - Jury' s criterion - bilinear transformation - stability

analysis after bilinear transformation - Routh-Hurwitz techniques - construction of bode

diagrams - phase margin - gain margin - digital redesign of continuous time systems

Module IV (9 hours)

State variable methods - introduction to the state variable concept - state space models -

physical variable - phase variable and diagonal forms from time domain (up to third order

only) - diagonalisation - solution of state equations - homogenous and non homogenous cases

(up to second order only) - properties of state transition matrix - state space representation of

discrete time systems - solution techniques - relation between transfer function and state space

models for continuous and discrete cases-relation between poles and Eigen values

Reference books

1. Ziemer R.E., Tranter W.H. & Fannin D.R., "Signals and Systems", Pearson Education

Asia

2. Ogata K., "Modern Control Engineering", Prentice Hall India

3. Dorf R.C. & Bishop R.H., "Modern Control Systems", Addison Wesley

4. Kuo B.C., "Digital Control Systems", Oxford University Press

5. Ogata K., “Discrete Time Control Systems", Pearson Education Asia

6. Nagarath I.J. & Gopal M., “Control System Engineering”, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

10

EC320T LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

BJT differential amplifier analysis - concept of CMRR - methods to improve CMRR -

constant current source - active load - current mirror - Darlington pair - differential input

impedance - various stages of an operational amplifier - simplified schematic circuit of op-

amp 741 - need for compensation - lead, lag and lead lag compensation schemes - typical op-

amp parameters - slew rate - power supply rejection ratio - open loop gain - unity gain

bandwidth - offset current & offset voltage.

Module II (8 hours)

MOS differential amplifier – current mirrors - current source load and cascode loads - wide

swing constant transconductance differential amplifier - CMOS opamp with and without

compensation - cascode input opamp - typical CMOS opamp parameters

Module III (11 hours)

Linear opamp circuits - inverting and noninverting configurations - analysis for closed loop

gain - input and output impedances - virtual short concept - current to voltage and voltage to

current converters - instrumentation amplifier - nonlinear opamp circuits - log and antilog

amplifiers - 4 quadrant multipliers and dividers - phase shift and wein bridge oscillators -

comparators - astable and monostable circuits - linear sweep circuits

Module IV (10 hours)

Butterworth approximation to ideal low pass filter characteristics – features of Chebychev and

Bessel approximations - frequency transformations to obtain HPF, BPF and BEF from

normalized prototype LPF – Realization of LPF & HPF using Sallen-Key configuration - BPF

realization using the Delyannis configuration - BEF using twin T configuration - all pass filter

(first & second orders) realizations - inductance simulation using Antoniou’s gyrator.

Text books

1. Jacob Baker R., Li H.W. & Boyce D.E., ‘CMOS- Circuit Design, Layout & Simulation’,

PHI

2. Sergio Franco, ‘Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits’,

McGraw Hill Book Company

3. Fiore J.M., ‘Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits’, Jaico Publishing

House

4. Gaykward, Operational Amplifiers, Pearson Education

Reference books

1. Gobind Daryanani, ‘Principles of Active Network Synthesis & Design’, John Wiley

2. Sedra A.S. & Smith K.C., “Microelectronic Circuits’, Oxford University Press

3. Coughlin R.F. & Driscoll F.F., ‘Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits’,

Pearson Education

4. Horenstein M.N., ‘Microelectronic Circuits & Devices’, PHI

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (9 hrs.)

Analog Pulse Modulation: Sampling theorem for band-pass signals, Pulse Amplitude

modulation: generation and demodulation, PAM/TDM system, PPM generation and

demodulation, PWM, Spectra of Pulse modulated signals, SNR calculations for pulse

modulation systems.

11

Waveform coding: quantization, PCM, DPCM, Delta modulation, Adaptive delta modulation-

Design of typical systems and performance analysis.

Module II ( 8 hrs.)

Pulse Shaping, Nyquist criterion for zero ISI, Signalling with duobinary pulses, Eye diagram,

Equalizer, Scrambling and descrambling.

Signal space concepts: geometric structure of the signal space, L2 space, distance, norm and

inner product, orthogonality,- Base band pulse data transmission: Matched filter receiver,

Inter symbol interference, Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization Procedure.

Module III (10 hrs)

Review of Gaussian random process, Optimum threshold detection, Optimum Receiver for

AWGN channel, Matched filter and Correlation receivers, Decision Procedure: Maximum a-

posteriori probability detector- Maximum likelihood Detector, Probability of error, Bit error

rate.

Module 4 (12 hrs.)

Digital modulation schemes:

Coherent Binary Schemes : ASK, FSK, PSK, MSK. Coherent M-ary Schemes, Calculation

of average probability of error for different modulation schemes, Power spectra of digitally

modulated signals, Performance comparison of different digital modulation schemes.

Text books:

1. Communication Systems, 3rd ed., Simon Haykin, John Wiley & Sons.

2. Modern Digital and Analog Communication, 3rd Ed., B.P. Lathi, Oxford University

Press.

3. Sklar: Digital Communication, 2E, Pearson Education.

References:

1. Digital and Analog Communication Systems, K.Sam Shanmugham, John Wiley &

Sons

2. Principles of Communications, R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter, JAICO Publishing

House.

3. Principles of Communication Systems, H.Taub and Schilling, TMH

4. Digital Communications, John G.Proakis, McGraw Hill.

5. Fundamental Concepts in Communication, Pierre Lafrance, Prentice Hall India.

6. Couch: Analog and Digital Communication.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Discrete Fourier series - properties of DFS - periodic convolution - DFT - properties - linear

convolution using DFT - computation of DFT - circular convolution - decimation in time and

decimation in frequency algorithms - FFT algorithm for a composite number

Signal flow graph representation - basic filter structures - structures for linear phase - finite

word - length effects in digital filters - quantizer characteristics - saturation overflow -

quantisation in implementing systems - zero Input limit cycles

Module III: Digital filter design (12 hours)

Design of IIR digital filters from analog filters - Butterworth and Chebyshev filters - design

examples -impulse invariant and bilinear transformation methods - spectral transformation of

IIR filters - FIR filter design - linear phase characteristics - window method

Module IV: General and special purpose hardware for DSP (9 hours)

12

Computer architecture for signal processing - hardware architecture - pipelining - hardware

multiplier - accumulator - special instructions - general purpose digital signal processors -

texas instruments - TMS 320 family - motorola DSP 56000 family - analog devices ADSP

2100 family - implementation of DSP algorithm on general purpose digital signal processors

Reference books

1. Oppenheim A.V., Schafer R.W. & Buck J.R., Discrete - Time Signal Processing, Prentice

Hall Signal Processing Series, Pearson Education

2. Mitra S.K., Digital Signal Processing: A Computer Based Approach, Tata McGraw Hill

3. Proakis T.G. & Manolakkis D.G., Digital Signal Processing - Principles, Algorithms and

Applications, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

4. Ludeman L.C., Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing, Harper & Row Publishers

5. Terrel T.J. & Shark L.K., Digital Signal Processing, Macmillan

6. Ifeacher E.C. & Jervis B.W., Digital Signal Processing, A Practical Approach, Addison

Wesley

7. Phi Lapseley, Jeff Bier, Amit Shohan & Lee E.A., “DSP Processor Fundamentals-

Architectures and Features”, IEEE Press

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

1. Assembly language programming of 8086

a) Sorting , code conversion, Pascal’s triangle

b) Matrix multiplication

c) TSR programming [3 classes]

2. Interfacing experiments of 8086

a) Stepper motor interface

b) Display card interface

c) Hex key board interface

d) Parallel port interface

e) ADC/DAC interface [5 classes]

3. Assembly language programming of the 8051 [1 class]

4. Interfacing experiments of 8051

a) Parallel port and serial port interface

b) Counter and Timer interface [2 classes]

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

1. AM generation

2. AM detection with simple and delayed AGC

3. RF Mixer using JFET/BJT

4. FM generation (reactance modulator)

5. FM demodulation

6. PAM generation and demodulation

7. Generation and demodulation of PWM and PPM

8. Implementation of intermediate frequency amplifier

9. PLL characteristics and demodulation using PLL

10. SSB generation and demodulation using integrated circuits

13

Electives

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Basic concepts of measurements & instruments – static characteristics of instruments

– accuracy & precision – sensitivity – reproducibility – errors – Transducers – classification

& selection criteria – principles of piezoelectric, photoelectric, thermoelectric transducers–

resistance temperature transducers (RTD) - thermistors– strain gauge – load cells - LVDT

Module II: (9 hours)

Electronic instruments for measurement – Digital voltmeter - principles of electronic

multimeters- - digital multimeters -– Q meter – Power meter – Electronic LCR meter -

Frequency & time interval counters

Module III: (10 hours)

Electronic instruments for signal generation & analysis – Function generators – Pulse

generators – Frequency synthesiser – Principles & applications of Digital storage

Oscilloscope – Logical analyser - Spectrum analysers – Distortion analysers

Module III: (10 hours)

Microcomputer based instrumentation system – general features – Input / Output

interfacing – simple, polled & interrupt I/O – interfacing of resistive transducers, light

emitting displays, hex keyboard, 8 bit ADC chip, 8 bit DAC chip – signal conditioning – data

acquisition systems - interfacing bus standards – features of IEEE 488 bus (GPIB) – case

study of a microcomputer based instrumentation system (temperature controller)

Text Books

1. Cooper W. - Electronic Instrumentation & Measurement Technique –

Prentice Hall of India.

2. Douglas V. Hall - Microprocessors & Digital Systems (2nd Edition) –

McGraw Hill

3. N. Kularatna - Modern Electronic Test & Measuring Instruments –

Institution of Electrical Engineers, London

References

1. Oliver B.M. & Cage – Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation -

Tata McGraw Hill

2. A.K. Ghosh - Introduction to Instrumentation & Control – Eastern

Economy Edition

3. George C. Barney - Intelligent Instrumentation – Prentice Hall India

4. Sonde B.S. – Transducers & Display Systems - Tata McGraw Hill

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Computer Systems: System Buses – Bus interconnection – Internal Memory – Cache and

DRAM organization – External Memory – Input/Output – I/O modes – I/O access methods –

Operating System Support

Module 2 (10 Hours)

CPU: Computer arithmetic – Instruction Sets – Characteristics and Functions – Types of

Operands and Operations – Addressing Modes and formats- Processor and Register

Organization – Instruction Cycle and Pipelining – Example of Typical Processors

Module 3 (10 Hours)

14

Advanced CPU Organization: RISC Processors – RISC Architecture _ RISC Pipelining –

Typical RISC Processors – Super scalar Processing – Typical Super scalar Processors –

Control Unit issues – Micro programmed Control

Module 4 (9 Hours)

Parallel Processing: Multiprocessing – Clusters and Network Topologies - Cache Coherence

_ Vector Computation – Parallel Processors

Textbooks Recommended

1. William Stallings, "Computer Organization and Architecture" PHI 4th Ed.. 1999

2. David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, "Computer Organization and Design", Morgan

Kaufmann Publishers, 2nd Ed. 2000

3. P.Pal Choudhuri, "Computer Organization and Design", PHI 2nd Ed. 1999

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module 1 (9 Hours)

Introduction to HDL based Digital Design: – Basic VHDL terminology – basic language

elements – Data objects and types – Behavioural modelling – Process constructs – Complex

signal assignments – Dataflow modelling – delay models – Structural modelling – resolving

signal values

Module 2 (9 Hours)

Advanced VHDL features: Generics and Configurations – Subprograms and Overloading –

Packages and Libraries – Advanced features – simulation semantics – modelling examples –

state machine modelling using VHDL- review of FPGA architectures and design using FPGA

Module 3 (11 Hours)

Digital System Testing: Fault models – fault equivalence – fault location fault dominance –

single and multiple stuck faults – Testing for single stuck faults – Algorithms – random test

generation – Testing for bridging faults

Module 4 (10 Hours)

Design for Testability: Ad-hoc design for testability techniques – Classical scan designs –

Boundary scan standards – Built-in-self-test – Test pattern generation – BIST architecture

examples

Textbooks Recommended

2. J. Bhasker; A VHDL Synthesis Primer, B.S. Publications 2001

3. Miron Abramovici et. al. Digital System Testing and Testable Design, Jaico

Publishing House, 2001

4. Parag K. Lala, Digital Circuit Testing and Testability, Academic Press 1997

5. John F. Wakerly; Digital Design: Principles and Practices, PHI Inc. 2001

6. Charles H. Roth Jr; Digital System Design Using VHDL, PWS Pub. Co., 1998

15

SEMESTER VI

*********NA************

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I: Passive microwave devices (10 hours): Analysis of rectangular and circular

waveguides and resonators, TE and TM modes, Q of the cavity, loss mechanisms, scattering

matrix, directional coupler, waveguide tees, hybrid couplers, Faraday rotation in ferrites,

isolator, circulator. Passive microwave circuits: Microstrip and stripline, filter

implementation with transmission lines and strip lines

Module II: Microwave tube amplifiers (10 hours): Klystron – velocity modulation and

bunching, Travelling wave tube – slow wave structure and Brillouin diagram. Maser –

population inversion, pumping and stimulated emission

Module III: Microwave semiconductor amplifiers (10 hours): BJTs, MESFETs, tunnel

diode, parametric amplifiers – Principle and analysis of amplifier configurations and

parameters like gain, bandwidth, noise figure, dynamic range - Single stage and broad band

transistor amplifier designs - stability

Module IV: Microwave oscillators (9 hours): Reflex klystron, magnetron, Gunn diode,

IMPATT and TRAPPAT diodes, parametric oscillators – Principle and analysis of oscillator

configurations, efficiency, tunability.

Reference:

1. Rajeshwari Chatterji: Microwave, Millimeter wave and sub-millimeter wave vacuum

electron devices, Affiliated East - West Press

2. R E Collin: Foundations for Microwave Engineering, IEEE.

3. David M Pozar: Microwave Engineering, Second edition, John Wiley

4. A S Gilmour: Microwave Tubes, Artech House.

5. P A Rizzi: Microwave Engineering, Prentice Hall.

6. Sigfrid Yngyesson: Microwave Semiconductor Devices, Kluwer Academic.

7. Joseph J. Carr: Microwave and Wireless Communications Technology, IEEE Press

8. Stephen C. C. Harsany: `Principles of Microwave Technology’, IEEE Press

9. Liao S.Y. Microwave Devices and Circuits, PHI

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I

Review of the basics physics and characteristics of MOS transistors –I-V & C-V

characteristics - Short channel and narrow channel effects in MOSFETs - subthrehold

conduction - channel length modulation - drain induced barrier lowering - hot carrier effects -

velocity saturation of charge carriers etc. Scaling in MOSFETs – constant voltage and

constant field scaling - digital MOSFET model - series connection of MOSFETs – body

effect. Scaling issues in interconnects. Latch up in CMOS and methods for preventing latch

up.

Module II

MOS inverters - resistive load - NMOS load - pseudo NMOS and CMOS inverters -

calculation of input high and low and output high and low levels - power dissipation -

16

calculation of delay times for CMOS inverter - CMOS ring oscillator - design of super buffer

- estimation of interconnect parasitics and calculation of interconnect delay. Static CMOS

logic circuits - CMOS NOR, NAND, AOI and OAI gates - full adder - SR and JK latches -

C²MOS latch - Pass transistors and Transmission gates - simple circuits using TG - basic

principles of pass transistor logic - voltage boot strapping -

Module III

Pseudo NMOS – Tri-state circuits – clocked CMOS – Dynamic CMOS circuits – solutions for

charge sharing - DOMINO Logic- NORA – TSPC logic styles – Dual rail logic networks –

Implementation of general VLSI system components such as decoders, encoders, Flip Flops

and Registers. Method of Logical Effort for high speed CMOS design - BiCMOS logic

circuits - BiCMOS inverter with resistive base pull down and active base pull down -

BiCMOS switching transients - simple gates using BiCMOS – Advanced CMOS logic styles

–

Module IV

CMOS clocking styles- clock generation and distribution - Arithmatic Ciruits in CMOS VLSI

- high speed adders, subtractors and multipliers – CMOS Memory structures – SRAM and

DRAM design –Sense amplifier design - Low power design techniques –MT CMOS –

VTCMOS basic ideas of adiabatic logic. Floor planning and Routing – Input and Output

circuits – special CMOS device structures such as SOI, DTMOS, Radiation Hard CMOS, Fin

FETs, etc.

Reference Books:

1. Sung-Mo Kang & Yusuf Leblebici, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits - Analysis &

Design, Second Ed., MGH

2. Jan M Rabaey, Digital Integrated Circuits - A Design Perspective, Prentice Hall

3. Yuan Taur & Tak H Ning, Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices, Cambridge Univ. Press

4. Ken Martin, Digital Integrated Circuit Design, Oxford Univ. Press

5. Jacob Baker R., Harry W Li & David E Boyce, CMOS - Circuit Design, Layout &

Simulation, PHI

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (12 hours)

Information theory - information and entropy - properties of entropy of a binary memoryless

source - extension of a binary memoryless source - source coding theorem - Shannon fano

coding - Huffman coding – Lempel-Ziv coding - binary symmetric channel - mutual

information - properties - channel capacity - channel coding theorem

Module II (9 hours)

Coding - linear block codes - generator matrices - parity check matrices - encoder - syndrome

and error correction - minimum distance - error correction and error detection capabilities -

cyclic codes - coding and decoding

Module III (9 hours)

Introduction to algebra - groups - fields - binary field arithmetic - construction of Galois field

- basic properties - computations - vector spaces - matrices - BCH codes - description -

decoding - Reed Solomon codes

Module 1V (9 hours)

17

Coding - Convolutional codes - encoder - generator matrix - state diagram - distance

properties - maximum likelihood decoding - viterbi decoding - sequential decoding

Text books

2. Shu Lin, Costello D.J., Error Control Coding - Fundamentals and Applications, Prentice

Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs

Reference books

2. Taub & Schilling, Principles of Communication System, Tata McGraw Hill

3. Tomasi, Electronic Communication, Fundamentals Through Advanced, Pearson education

4. Sklar, Digital Communication, Pearson Education

5. T. Cover and Thomas, “Elements of Information Theory”, John Wiley & Sons 1991.

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

1. Measurement of op-amp parameters - CMRR, slew rate, open loop gain, input and output

impedances

2. Inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, integrators and differentiators - frequency

response

3. Instrumentation amplifier - gain, CMRR and input impedance

4. Single op-amp second order LPF and HPF - Sallen-Key configuration

5. Narrow band active BPF - Delyiannis configuration

6. Active notch filter realization using op-amps

7. Wein bridge oscillator with amplitude stabilization

8. RC phase shift oscillator

9. Astable and monostable multivibrators using op-amps

10. Square, triangular and ramp generation using op-amps

11. Astable and monostable multivibrators using IC 555

12. Linear sweep generation using IC 555

13. Design of PLL for given lock and capture ranges & frequency multiplication

14. Precision limiters using op-amps

15. Log and Antilog Amplifiers

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

Microwave and Optical Experiments

1. Klystron characteristics o/p power & frequency versus repeller voltage

2. Slotted line measurements. VSWR & Impedance

3. Antenna radiation pattern measurements

18

4. Directional coupler and isolator

5. Optical fibre experiments. Analog & digital

Hardware Experiments

1. PN and Orthogonal code generators

2. Digital TDM

3. Cyclic encoder and decoder

4. Spreader and de-spreader for CDMA

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

Prior to registration to 7th Semester all students have to complete a Mini Project/Industrial

training. Only one will be credited if a student completes both mini project and industrial

training.

EC390P: Mini Project. The mini project should be on Hardware Design and/or Fabrication

in any of the areas in Electronics and Communication Engineering. Microcontroller/DSP/PLD

based hardware design is also permitted. Project work can be carried out individually or by a

group of maximum of four students under the guidance of a faculty from ECE Department. A

committee of the faculty will evaluate the projects during the sixth semester. This course is

normally engaged by the department at the beginning of sixth semester.

EC390P: Industrial Training. Industrial training shall be as per the institute norms from the

list of firms approved by the department. The duration of the training must not be less than 4

weeks in a stretch. The Department of Training and Placement shall arrange for the same in

consultation with the ECE department to satisfy specific requirements if any. Also the

Department of Training and Placement will conduct evaluation and forward the result to ECE

department.

Electives

EC325T IC TECHNOLOGY

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I

Crystal growth and wafer preparation – Czochralski and Float zone processes – processing

considerations – material properties – defects –electronic properties of defects - Wafer

cleaning – dry and wet cleaning processes – clean rooms –Oxidation growth mechanisms and

kinetics – Deal –Grove model – oxide properties and characterization, effects of dopants

during oxidation induced faults – oxidation techniques and systems – thin and thick oxides

Module II

Epitaxy – Fundamental aspects – conventional and low temperature epitaxy. Evaluation of the

epitaxial layers. Lithography – optical lithography, Electron beam lithography, X ray

lithography and Ion beam lithography – basic principles. Etching – dry and wet etch

mechanisms – isotropic and anisotropic etching - selectivity and profile control- reactive

plasma etching techniques and equipment. Etching induced damages

19

Module III

Film deposition methods– dielectric and poly silicon film deposition – chemical vapor

deposition processes (CVD) – APCVD, LPCVD and PECVD processes –sputter deposition -

other deposition methods – applications of deposited poly silicon , silicon dioxide and silicon

nitride films. Conventional and rapid thermal processes. Metallization – application of

metallization – metal deposition techniques – silicide process – multi level metallization –

reliability

Module IV

Diffusion – models – Ficks law – diffusivity – atomic diffusion mechanisms - measurement

techniques - diffusion enhancement and retardations. Ion Implantation – range theory –

Implantation equipment – annealing – shallow implants – high energy implants. Various

reliability issues in semi conductor fabrication processes – hot carrier injection – stress

migration – oxide break down etc. Process integration – basic process modules and device

considerations for VLSI/ULSI – CMOS, Bipolar and BiCMOS technologies – layout ,

assembly and packaging considerations

References:

2. S.M.Sze, ‘ULSI Technology’, McGraw Hill

3. S.K.Gandhi, ‘VLSI Fabrication principles Si & GaAs’ 2nd edition, John Wiley

4. Stephen A Campbell, ‘The science and engineering of micro electronic

fabrication’, Oxford University Press, 1996

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I : Satellite orbits (9 hours)

Orbital parameters, satellite trajectory, period, geostationary satellites, non-geostationary

constellations. Communication satellites – Space craft subsystems, payload – repeater,

antenna, attitude and control systems, telemetry, tracking and command, power sub system

and thermal control.

Module II : Earth stations (9 hours)

Antenna and feed systems, satellite tracking system, amplifiers, fixed and mobile satellite

service earth stations. Terrestrial: line of sight transmission, relay towers and distance

considerations

Module III : Communication link design (10 hours)

Frequency bands used, antenna parameters, transmission equations, noise considerations, link

design, propagation characteristics of fixed and mobile satellite links, channel modelling, very

small aperture terminals (VSAT), VSAT design issues.

Module IV : Multiple access techniques (11 hours)

Frequency division multiple access, time division multiple access, code division multiple

access.

Reference:

1. M Richharia: ‘Satellite Communication Systems’.(Second Ed.),Macmillan Press Ltd.

2. Robert M Gagliardi: ‘Satellite Communication’, Van Nostrand Reinhold

3. Tri T Ha: ‘Digital Satellite Communication’, MGH

4. Miller, Vucetic and Berry: ‘Satellite Communication Techniques’, Kluwer

5. Ferdo Ivanek (Editor): ‘Terrestrial Digital Microwave Communications’, Artech House

6. George M. Kizer: ‘Microwave Communication’, IEEE Press

7. E. Hund: ‘Microwave Communications’, IEEE Press

8. P.V. Sreekant : Digital Microwave Communication Systems, Universities Press.

20

EC355T MULTIRATE SYSTEMS AND FILTER BANKS

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module 1: Multirate system fundamentals.:

Basic multirate operation – up-sampling and down sampling: Time domain and frequency

domain analysis: Identities fo multirate operations: Interpolator and decimator design: Rate

conversion: Polyphase representation. ( 9 hours)

Module II: Multirate Filter banks:

Maximally decimated filter banks: Quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks – Polyphase

representation: Errors in the QMF bank – Aliasing and Imaging: Method of cancelling

aliasing error: Amplitude and phase distortion: Prefect reconstruction (PR) QMF bank – PR

condition: Design of an alias free QMF bank: Power symmetry in QMF bank (10

hours)

Module III: M-channel perfect reconstruction filter banks:

Filter banks with equal pass band width, filter banks with unequal pass band width -

Errors created by the filter banks system- aliasing and imaging, -Amplitude and phase

distortion, polyphase representation- polyphe matrix. Perfect Reconstruction System-

necessary and sufficient condition for perfect reconstruction , FIR PR Systems. Examples PR

Systems. ( 10 hours)

Module IV: Linear phase perfect reconstruction (LPPR) filter banks: (10 hours)

Necessary conditions for linear phase property: Lattice structures for LPPR FIR QMF

banks- Synthesis, M- channel LPPR filter bank. Quantization Effects: -Types of

quantization effects in filter banks. Implementation- coefficient sensitivity effects, round off

noise and limit cycles, dynamic range and scaling.

Text Books:

1. P.P. Vaidyanathan. “Multirate systems and filter banks.” Prentice Hall. PTR.

1993.

2. N.J. Fliege. “Multirate digital signal processing .” John Wiley 1994.

Reference Books:

McGraw

Hill. 1998.

2. R.E. Crochiere.L.R. “Multirate Digital Signal Processing.” Prentice Hall.

Inc.1983.

3. J.G. Proakis. D.G. Manolakis. “Digital Signal Processing : Principles. Algorithms

and Applications.”. 3rd Edn. Prentice Hall India . 1999.

4. B.Porat. “Digital Signal Processing.” Prentice Hall. 1998.

5. Ali N. Akansu. Richard A. Haddad. “Multiresolution Signal Decomposition:

Transforms. Subbands and Wavelets.” Academic Press 1992.

6. G. Strang T.Q. Nguyen. “ Wavelets and Filter Banks” Wellesley- Cambridge

Press . 1996.

7. M. Vetterli. J. Kovacevic. “Wavelets and Sub band Coding.” Prentice Hall. PTR.

1995.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I Digital image representation: (7 hrs.)

21

Basic functions in digital image processing; Image model; Sampling and quantization; Basic

relationships between pixels; Basic geometric transformations; 2-D function representation;

Separable functions; 2-D convolution; 2-D correlation.

2-D Discrete Fourier transform - properties; Walsh, Hadamard, Discrete Cosine, Haar and

Slant transforms; The Hotelling transform.

Module III Image enhancement: (8 hrs.)

Spatial and frequency domain _filtering methods; Histogram processing; Spatial mask

generation; Colour image processing

Module IV Image restoration: (8 hrs.)

Degradation model; Circulant matrix formulation for complexity reduction; Algebraic

methods; Inverse _filtering; Wiener _filter methods; Constrained least squares method of

restoration.

Module V Image compression: (8 hrs.)

Fundamental concepts of image compression; Compression models; Information theoretic

perspective; Fundamental coding theorem; lossy and lossless compression methods.

Text Books:

2. Anil K. Jain, \Fundamentals of Digital Image processing," Prentice Hall India, 1989.

3. Jae S. Lim, \Two Dimensional Signal and Image Processing," Prentice Hall Inc.,

Englewood Cli_s, New Jersey, 1990.

Reference Books:

edition,1991.

2. Rosenfield and A. C. Kak, \Digital Picture Processing," 2nd edition, Vols. 1 & 2,

Academic Press, New York, 1982.

3. R. J. Schalkoff, \Digital Image Processing and Computer Vision," John Wiley & Sons,

New York, 1989.

22

SEMESTER VII

SH301T ECONOMICS

*********NA************

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module 1 (15 Hrs)

Characteristics of Communication Networks- Traffic characterisation and Services- Circuit

Switched and Packet Switched Networks- Virtual circuit Switched networks- OSI Model-

Protocol Layers and Services- Data Link layer and services-Concept of LAN- Ethernet LAN-

Ethernet frame structure- Address Resolution Protocol- IEEE 802.11 LAN’s- architecture and

media access protocols-Error detection and correction at the Data link layer- Sliding Window

protocols- analysis- Channel accessing protocols- Random accessing protocols.

Module II (12 Hrs)

Net work layer and services- Shortest path length determination- Internet routing principles-

Distance vector routing- Link state protocol- OSPF- - Router basics- Internet Protocol- IPV4

& IPV6- Transport Layer and services- Connectionless Transport- UDP-Services offered by

UDP- Connection oriented Transport- TCP- addressing and multiplexing in TCP- TCP flow

and congestion control.

Broadband services and ATM- Main features of ATM Networks- Statistical multiplexing-

ATM reference model- Admission and Access control in Broadband networks-Analysis of

Leaky Bucket Scheme- Broad band switches for ATM

Multimedia traffic over internet- Quality of Service requirements- Real Time Protocol- Real

Time Control Protocol- Integrated services- Queuing Disciplines- Weighted Fair Queuing-

Random Early Detection- Differentiated Services- Protocols for QOS support- Resource

reservation-RSVP- Multi protocol Label switching- Real Time transport protocol

.

References:

2. Kesav: “An engineering approach to Computer network design”

3. James. F. Kurose and Keith.W. Ross, “Computer Networks, A top-down approach

featuring the Internet”, Addison Wesley, 2001.

4. Jean Walrand and Pravin Varaiya, “High performance Communication Networks”,

Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 2nd edn. 2000.

5. William Stallings: “High speed networks and internets, performance and Quality of

Service” Pearson Education Asia

6. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, “Data Networks”, PHI, 2000.

EC490S SEMINAR

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

Each student shall present a seminar in the seventh semester on a topic relevant to Electronics

and Communication Engineering for about 30 minutes. The topic should not be a replica of

what is contained in the syllabus. The topic shall be approved by the Seminar Evaluation

Committee of the Department. The committee shall evaluate the presentation of students. A

23

seminar report in the prescribed form shall be submitted to the department after the approval

from the committee.

LGDP: Cr 0003:1

Simulation Experiments (using Mathlab/C) – Experiments involving concepts from FFT,

Windowing Techniques, Aliasing Effects, Filter Design, DTMF Generation and Detection,

Adaptive Processing, Multirate Processing and Echo Cancellation, Error Correction Coding,

Modulation and Demodulation and Line Coding with Carrier recovery

Hardware Experiments (using assembly/C/Mathlab interface to DSP kit (TMS 320C6711 or

similar. Application oriented Experiments like FSK, DPSK, Modem and Signal Compression

Algorithms

LGDP: Cr 0003:3

The duration of major project is for two continuous semesters from seventh. The project can

be analytical work, simulation, hardware design or a combination of these in the emerging

areas of Electronics and Communication Engineering under the supervision of a faculty from

the ECE Department. Project work can be carried out individually or by a group of maximum

of four students. The UG evaluation committee of the department shall evaluate the project

during seventh semester for 3 of total of 8 credits assigned for the project.

Electives

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I : Potentials and radiation fields (11 hours): Retarded potentials, Lienard -

Wiechert potentials for a moving charge, fields of a moving point charge, electric dipole

radiation, magnetic dipole radiation, radiation from an arbitrary source, power radiated by a

point charge, radiation reaction

Module II : Antenna parameters (9 hours): Directivity, gain, radiation resistance, beam

width, input impedance, antenna noise and temperature, radiation pattern. Antennas: Dipole

and monopole antennas, linear dipole arrays, loop antenna, helical antenna, Yagi - Uda

antenna, parabolic antenna, Cassegrain antenna

Module III : Design of linear array antennas (8 hours): Dolph - Tchebycheff design,

binomial design, Fourier transform based design

Module II : Propagation (11 hours): Effect of earth’s conductivity on antenna pattern,

effect of earth’s conductivity and shape on surface wave propagation, effect of earth’s

magnetic field on EM waves in ionosphere, plasma and cyclotron frequencies, skip distance,

maximum usable frequency

Reference:

2. J D Krauss: Antennas, MGH

3. David J Griffiths: Introduction to Electrodynamics, Third edition, PHI

4. Jordan and Balmain: Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems, PHI

24

EC425T ANALOG MOS CIRCUITS

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (11 hours)

Analog MOS models - low frequency model - MOS in saturation - high frequency model -

variation of transconductance with frequency - temperature effects in MOST - noise in MOST

(shot, flicker and thermal noise) - MOS resistors and resistor circuits - super MOST

Module II (14 hours)

Current sources and sinks - current mirror - cascode current source - transient response of

simple current mirror - Wilson current mirror - regulated cascode current source/sink - voltage

references - resistor MOSFET and MOSFET only voltage references - band gap references -

various biasing schemes for voltage references

Module III (12 hours)

Common source - common gate and source follower amplifiers - class AB amplifier - active

load configuration - transimpedance amplifier - cascode amplifier - push pull amplifier -

amplifier based signal processing - the differential difference amplifier (DDA) - adder,

multiplier, divider and filters using DDA

Module IV (15 hours)

Mixed signal circuits - CMOS comparator design - pre amplification - decision and post

amplification stages - transient response - clocked comparators - analog multiplier - the

multiplying quad - level shifting in multipliers - dynamic analog circuits - charge injection

and capacitive feed through in MOS switch - sample and hold circuits - switched capacitor

filters - switched capacitor implementation of ladder filters

Reference books

1. Jacob Baker R., Li H.W.& Boyce D.E., `CMOS - Circuit Design, Layout & Simulation’,

PHI

2. Mohammed Ismail & Terri Fiez, Analog VLSI - Signal & Information Processing, MGH

3. Roubik Gregorian & Gabor C Temes, Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal

Processing, John Wiley

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

approximations to ideal low pass filter characteristics – Frequency transformations to obtain

HPF, BPF and BEF from normalized prototype LPF – Delay equalizer

Module II : Active biquad filters (9 hours): Active and passive sensitivities, LPF & HPF

using Sallen-Key configuration, BPF realization using the Deliyannis configuration, BEF

using twin T configuration, all pass filter realizations, KHN and Tow-Thomas configurations,

Inductance simulation, Antoniou’s gyrator, filter realizations with gyrator

Module III : Effect of op-amp non-idealities (10 hours): Pole frequency and Q error

problems – analysis with finite open loop gain of opamp, active and passive compensation,

the Akerberg - Mossberg biquad

Module IV : Higher order filter realization (11 hours): Follow- the-leader structure,

Cascade structure, Leap- frog structure, Circuit implementation and practical design

considerations taking into account the input dynamic range and output signal-to-noise ratio.

Reference:

1. Gobind Daryanani: ‘Principles of Active Network Synthesis & Design’, John Wiley

25

2. A S Sedra and P O Brackett: ‘Filter Theory and Design: Active and Passive’, Matrix

Publishers

3. M E Van Valkenberg: Analog Filter design, Oxford University Press.

4. Rolf Schaumann and M E Van Valkenberg: Active Filter Design, Oxford University

Press.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I : Optical fiber fundamentals (12 hours)

Solution to Maxwell’s equation in a circularly symmetric step index optical fiber, linearly

polarized modes, single mode and multimode fibers, concept of V number, graded index

fibers, total number of guided modes (no derivation), polarization maintaining fibers,

attenuation mechanisms in fibers, dispersion in single mode and multimode fibers, dispersion

shifted and dispersion flattened fibers, attenuation and dispersion limits in fibers, Kerr

nonlinearity, self phase modulation, combined effect of dispersion and self phase modulation,

nonlinear Schrodinger equation (no derivation), fundamental soliton solution

Module II : Optical sources (8 hours)

LED and laser diode, principles of operation, concepts of line width, phase noise, switching

and modulation characteristics – typical LED and LD structures.

Module III : Optical detectors (8 hours)-

Pn detector, pin detector, avalanche photodiode – Principles of operation, concepts of

responsivity, sensitivity and quantum efficiency, noise in detection, typical receiver

configurations (high impedance and transimpedance receivers).

Module IV : Optical amplifiers (11 hours)–

Semiconductor amplifier, rare earth doped fiber amplifier (with special reference to erbium

doped fibers), Raman amplifier, Brillouin amplifier – principles of operation, amplifier noise,

signal to noise ratio, gain, gain bandwidth, gain and noise dependencies, intermodulation

effects, saturation induced crosstalk, wavelength range of operation.

Reference:

1. Leonid Kazovsky, Sergio Benedetto and Alan Willner: `Optical Fiber Communication

Systems’, Artech House.

2. John Senior: `Optical Fiber Communications’, PHI.

3. Silvello Betti, Giancarlo De Marchis and Eugenio Iannone: `Coherent Optical

Communications Systems’, John Wiley.

4. G.P.Agrawal: `Nonlinear Fiber Optics’, Academic Press.

EC455T WAVELETS

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (10 hours)

Fundamentals of signal decomposition - brief overview of Fourier transform and short term

Fourier transform - introduction to wavelets - continuous wavelet transform - definition -

CWT as a correlation - time frequency resolution

Module II (12 hours)

Introduction to the DWT and orthogonal wavelet decomposition - approximation of vectors in

nested linear vector spaces - example of an MRA - orthogonal wavelet decomposition based

on the Haar wavelet - digital filter implementation of the Haar wavelet decomposition

(Mallat’s algorithm)

Module III (15 hours)

Construction of a general orthonormal MRA - formal definition - implication of the dilation

equation and orthogonality - two scale relation for the wavelet function - digital filter

implementation - reconstruction of the signal - introductory concepts of biorthogonal wavelet

26

basis and wavelet packets - two-dimensional wavelet decomposition - regularity - vanishing

moments

Module IV (15 hours)

Applications - image compression - EZW algorithm - audio compression - signal denoising -

edge detection - object isolation - image fusion - medical applications

Text book

Rao R.M. & Bopardikar A.S., ‘Wavelet Transforms-Introduction to Theory and Applications’

Reference books

1. Sidney Burrus, Gopinath R.A. & Haitao Guo, Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet

Transforms”, Prentice Hall International.

2. Chan Y.T., ‘Wavelet Basics’, Kluwer Academic Publishers

3. Goswami J.C. & Chan A.K., ‘Fundamentals of Wavelets - Theory Algorithms and

Applications’

3 LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (15 hours)

Digital models for the speech signal - mechanism of speech production - acoustic theory -

lossless tube models - digital models - linear predictive coding of speech - auto correlation -

formulation of LPC equation - solution of LPC equations - levinson durbin algorithm -

levinson recursion - schur algorithm - lattice formulations and solutions - PARCOR

coefficients

Module II (15 hours)

Spectral analysis of speech - short time fourier analysis - filter bank design - speech coding -

subband coding of speech - transform coding - channel vocoder - formant vocoder - cepstral

vocoder - vector quantizer coder

Module III (12 hours)

Speech synthesis - pitch extraction algorithms - gold rabiner pitch trackers - autocorrelation

pitch trackers - voice/unvoiced detection - homomorphic speech processing - homomorphic

systems for convolution - complex cepstrums - pitch extraction using homomorphic speech

processing

Module IV (10 hours)

Automatic speech recognition systems - isolated word recognition - connected word

recognition - large vocabulary word recognition systems - pattern classification - DTW,

HMM - speaker recognition systems - speaker verification systems - speaker identification

systems

Text books

1. Rabiner L.R. & Schafer R.W., “Digital Processing of Speech Signals”, Prentice Hall Inc.

2. Thomas Parsons, “Voice and Speech Processing”, McGraw Hill Series

3. Saito S. & Nakata K., “Fundamentals of Speech Signal Processing”, Academic Press, Inc.

Reference books

2. Papamichalis P.E., “Practical Approaches to Speech Coding”, Texas Instruments, Prentice

Hall

3. Rabiner L.R. & Gold, “Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Processing”, Prentice

Hall of India

27

SEMESTER VIII

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I

Introduction to Statistical Detection Theory- Binary decisions, single observation- Maximum

likelihood decision criterion, Neymann- Pearson criterion, Minimum probability of error

criterion, Baye’s Risk criterion- Receiver Operating characteristics.

Module II

Binary decisions with multiple observations- Vector observations- Waveform Observation-

Detection of signals in additive Gaussian Noise- The correlation Receiver – The Matched

Filter Receiver- Performance analysis.

Module III

Introduction to Estimation Theory- Mathematical estimation problem- Maximum likelihood

estimation- Minimum Variance unbiased estimator- Baysian Estimators-Mean square

criterion-Linear minimum variance estimator-Least square method- Estimation in the

presence of Gaussian noise.

Module IV

Estimation of waveforms- LMMSE estimation of waveforms-Wiener Filter- Kalman filter-

Non linear Estimation-Concept of sufficient statistics and statistical estimation of parameters.

References:

Detection Theory “ Prentice Hall Inc, 1995.

2. Harry L. Van Trees, “ Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory, Part 1”, John

Wiley & Sons Inc,1968.

LGDP:Cr 0006:5

This is the continuation of project work by the students in the seventh semester. The UG

evaluation committee of the department shall evaluate the project during eighth semester for 5

of total of 8 credits assigned for the project. A report of the project work carried out during

the semester shall be submitted at the end of the semester approved by the HOD and project

guide.

Electives

LGDP:Cr 3100:3

Module I : State space concepts (11 hours):

Ordinary differential equation description of nonlinear state space systems, phase plane

analysis, stable and unstable limit cycles, phase portraits, periodic orbits, Poincare sections,

attractors and aperiodic attractors, KAM theorem, logistic maps and chaos, characterization of

chaotic attractors, Benard-Rayleigh convection, Lorenz system

28

Module II : Concepts of stability (9 hours):

Lyapunov stability for autonomous and nonautonomous systems, the centre manifold theorm,

La Salle theory, regions of attraction, invariance theorems, stability of perturbed systems for

vanishing and nonvanishing perturbations, slowly varying systems, input-output stability.

Module III : Absolute stability (9 hours) –

Circle criterion, Popov criterion, small gain theorm, passivity approach, Input-output stability,

absolute stability. Stability of interconnected systems: Feedback stabilization of nonlinear

systems, exact feedback linearization of nonlinear systems.

Module IV : Nonlinear theory of oscillators (10 hours): Pendulum equation with friction

and nonlinearity, Van der Pol equation, stabilization of oscillations, attractors, basins and

bifurcations of driven oscillators, global topology of the phase space.

Reference:

1. Hassan K Khalil: ‘Nonlinear Systems’, Second edition, Prentice Hall

2. Heinz-Otto Peitgen, Hartmut Jurgens and Dietmar Saupe: ‘Chaos and Fractals- New

Frontiers of Science’, Springer-Verlag

3. Vidyasagar: ‘Nonlinear Systems Analysis’, Second Ed; Prentice-Hall

4. John Guckenheimer and Philip Holmes: ‘Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical Systems,

and Bifurcations of Vector Fields’, Springer-Verlag.

5. D K Arrowsmith and C M Place: ‘An Introduction to Dynamical Systems’, Cambridge

University Press

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (14 hours)

Introduction to high-speed digital design - frequency, time and distance - capacitance and

inductance effects - high speed properties of logic gates - speed and power - measurement

techniques - rise time and bandwidth of oscilloscope probes - self inductance, signal pickup

and loading effects of probes - observing crosstalk

Module II (14 hours)

Transmission line effects and crosstalk - transmission lines - point to point wiring - infinite

uniform transmission lines - effects of source and load impedance - special transmission line

cases - line impedance and propagation delay - ground planes and layer stacking - crosstalk in

solid ground planes, slotted ground planes and cross-hatched ground planes - near and far end

crosstalk

Module III (12 hours)

Terminations and vias - terminations - end, source and middle terminations - AC biasing for

end terminations - resistor selection - crosstalk in terminators - properties of vias - mechanical

properties of vias - capacitance of vias - inductance of vias - return current and its relation to

vias

Module IV (12 hours)

Stable reference voltage and clock distribution - stable voltage reference - distribution of

uniform voltage - choosing a bypass capacitor - clock distribution - clock skew and methods

to reduce skew - controlling crosstalk on clock lines - delay adjustments - clock oscillators

and clock jitter

Text books

1. Howard Johnson & Martin Graham, “High Speed Digital Design: A Handbook of Black

Magic”, Prentice Hall PTR

2. Dally W.S. & Poulton J.W., “Digital Systems Engineering”, Cambridge University Press

3. Masakazu Shoji, “High Speed Digital Circuits”, Addison Wesley Publishing Company

29

EC446T SATELLITE COMMUNICATION

Module I (13 hours)

Satellite orbits - solar day and sidereal day - orbital parameters - satellite trajectory - period,

velocity and position of a satellite - geostationary satellites - non-geostationary constellations

- launching of geostationary satellites - Hohmann transfer - effect of earth’s shape - other

heavenly bodies - atmospheric drag and radiation pressure on the satellite’s orbit

Module II (13 hours)

Communication satellites - spacecraft subsystems - payload - repeater, antenna, attitude and

control systems - telemetry, tracking and command - power sub system and thermal control

Earth stations - antenna and feed systems - satellite tracking system - amplifiers - fixed and

mobile satellite service earth stations

Module III (13 hours)

Communication link design - frequency bands used - antenna parameters - transmission

equations - noise considerations - link design - very small aperture terminals (VSAT) - VSAT

design issues

Module IV (13 hours)

Multiple access techniques - frequency division multiple access - time division multiple

access - code division multiple access - access protocols for data tarffic

Reference books

9. Richharia M., Satellite Communication Systems, Macmillan Press Ltd.

10. Gagliardi R.M., Satellite Communication, CBS

11. Ha T.T., Digital Satellite Communication, MGH

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (12 hours)

Mobile radio propagation - free space propagation model - ground reflection model - large

scale path loss - small scale fading and multipath propagation - impulse response model of a

multipath channel - parameters of a mobile multipath channel - multipath delay spread -

doppler spread - coherence band width - coherence time - time dispersion and frequency

selective fading - frequency dispersion and time selective fading - concepts of level crossing

rate and average fade duration

Module II (14 hours)

Digital communication through fading multipath channels - frequency non selective, slowly

fading channels - frequency selective, slowly fading channels- calculation of error

probabilities - tapped delay line model - the RAKE demodulator performance - diversity

techniques for mobile wireless radio systems concept of diversity branch and signal paths -

combining methods - selective diversity combining - pre-detection and post detection

combining - switched combining - maximal ratio combining- equal gain combining

Module III (12 hours)

Cellular concept - frequency reuse - cochannel interference - adjacent channel interference -

power control for reducing interference - improving capacity in cellular systems - cell

splitting - sectoring - hand off strategies - channel assignment strategies - call blocking in

cellular networks

Module IV (14 hours)

Fundamental concepts of spread spectrum systems - pseudo noise sequence - performance of

direct sequence spread spectrum systems - analysis of direct sequence spread spectrum

systems - the processing gain and anti jamming margin - frequency hopped spread spectrum

systems - time hopped spread spectrum systems - synchronization of spread spectrum systems

Text books

1. Kamilo Feher, ‘Wireless Digital Communications’, PHI

2. Rapport T.S., ‘Wireless Communications, Principles and Practice’, Prentice Hall

3. Lee W.C.Y., ‘Mobile Cellular Telecommunication’, MGH

30

4. Proakis J.G., ‘Digital Communications’, MGH

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (12 hours)

Electronic switching systems: basics of a switching system - electronic space division

switching - stored program control - time division switching - time multiplexed space

switching - time multiplexed time switching - two stage, three stage and N-stage combination

switching

Module II (14 hours)

Digital circuit switching networks: two-stage network - three-stage network - n-stage

network - non-blocking switches - blocking probability analysis of multistage switches - lee

approximation - improved approximate analysis of blocking switch - examples of digital

switching systems - AT & T 5ESS and NTI - DMS 100 switching systems

Module III (14 hours)

Elements of traffic engineering: network traffic load and parameters - grade of service and

blocking probability - incoming traffic and service time characterization - blocking models

and loss estimates - delay systems

Module IV (12 hours)

Signaling: customer line signaling - outband signaling - inband signaling - PCM signaling -

inter register signaling - common channel signaling principles - CCITT signaling system No:

7 - digital customer line signaling

Introduction to ATM switching – Strict sense non block switch – self routing switches –

Bense network – ATM routers – Design of typical switches.

Text books

India Pvt. Ltd.

2. Schwartz M., Telecommunication Networks - Protocols, Modeling and Analysis, Addison

Wesley Publishing Company

Reference books

1. Flood J.E., Telecommunications Switching Traffic and Networks, Pearson Education Pvt.

Ltd.

2. Freeman R.L., Telecommunication System Engineering, Wiley Inter Science Publications

3. Das J., Review of Digital Communication, New Age Internal (P) Ltd., Publishers

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I (14 hours)

Principles of television - image continuity - interlaced scanning - blanking - synchronizing -

video and sound signal modulation - channel bandwidth - vestigial sideband transmission -

VSB correction - positive and negative modulation - transmitter and receiver block diagrams -

CCD camera

Module II (14 hours)

Colour TV - Colour perception - luminance, hue and saturation - colour TV camera and

picture tube - colour signal transmission - bandwidth - modulation - formation of

chrominance signal - principles of NTSC, PAL and SECAM coder and decoder

Module III (14 hours)

Digital TV - composite digital standards - 4 f sc NTSC standard - general specifications -

sampling structure - general concept of video bit reduction - MPEG standard - digital

transmission - cable TV - cable frequencies - co-axial cable for CATV - cable distribution

system - cable decoders - wave traps and scrambling methods

31

Module IV (10 hours)

Radar systems - radar frequencies - radar equation - radar transmitter and receiver (block

diagram approach) - continuous wave radar - frequency modulated CW radar - moving target

indicator radar - tracking radar

Text books

2. Michael Robin & Michael Poulin, Digital Television Fundamentals, McGraw Hill

3. Bernard Grob & Charles E. Herndon, Basic Television and Video Systems, McGraw Hill

International

4. Introduction to Radar Systems, McGraw Hill, Kogakusha Ltd.

Reference books

2. Damacher P., Digital Broadcasting, IEE Telecommunications Series

Pre-requisites: Random Process, Information Theory, Linear Algebra.

LGDP: Cr 3100:3

Module I Review of Information Theory:

Discrete memoryless information source - Redundancy; Discrete information source with

memory – Markov process, The information of a discrete source with memory, Amount of

information of _rst order and higher order Markov chains. The discrete memoryless

information source - Kraft inequality; Optimal codes; Bounds on the optimal code length;

Kraft's inequality foruniquely decodable codes; Source coding theorem; Coding strategies;

Shannon-McMillan theorem; Shannon' s _rst coding theorem; The discrete information source

with memory – Coding aspects; Most probable message; Source coding theorem.

(9 Hours)

Module II Rate distortion theory: Motivation; The discrete rate distortion function R(D);

Properties of R(D); Calculation of R(D); R(D) for the binary source, and the Gaussian source,

Source coding theorem(Rate distortion theorem); Converse source coding theorem (Converse

of the Rate distortion theorem); Information transmission theorem; The continuous Rate

distortion function. (10 Hours)

Module III Signal Compression: Vector quantization - Code book generation - LBG

lgorithm; application to speech and image compression. Parametric coding of of speech -

Linear predictive coding - Levinson recursion – Schur algorithm - Lattice structure

implementation; Code excited linear prediction. (10 Hours)

Module IV (A) Transform coding: Theory and construction of transforms; Karhunen Loeve

transform; Discrete Cosine Transform; Wavelet transform; Application to speech and image

compression. (6 Hours)

(IV. B) Subband coding: speech, audio and image coding. (4 Hours)

Text books:

1.Thomas M. Cover, Joy A. Thomas, \Elements of Information Theory," John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., 1991.

2.David Salomon, \Data Compression," 2nd Edn., Springer, 2000.

3.Khalid Sayood, \Introduction to Data Compression," 2nd Edn.,Addison Wesley, 2000.

Reference books:

1. Toby Berger, \Rate Distortion Theory: A Mathematical Basis for Data Compression,"

Prentice Hall, Inc., 1971.

32

2. K. R. Rao, P. C. Yip, \The Transform and Data Compression Handbook," CRC Press,

2001.

3. R. G. Gallager, \Information Theory and Reliable Communication," John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., 1968.

4. Ali N. Akansu, Richard A. Haddad, \Multiresolution signal decomposition: Transforms,

subbands and wavelets," Academic Press, 1992.

5. Martin Vetterli, Jelena Kovacevic, \Wavelets and subband coding," Prentice Hall Inc.,

1995.

33

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