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RECTIFIERS

- Convert AC voltage to DC voltage. - Transformers can either increase (step-up) or reduce


(stepdown) voltage.
- Found in all dc power supplies that operate from an
ac power source.
RECTIFIER

AC SUPPLY - Converts the AC input voltage to a pulsating DC


voltage.
- The voltage (and current) alternates between
positive and negative over time and the resulting wave
form is a sine wave.
- It can be either a half-wave rectifier or a full-wave
rectifier.
- In the case of the UK mains supply, the frequency of
this sine wave is 50 Hz, or 50 cycles per second.
FILTER
- Eliminates the fluctuations in the rectified voltage
DC SUPPLY and produces a relatively smooth DC voltage.
- Stays at a fixed regular voltage, all of the time like
the voltage from a battery.
REGULATOR
- Circuit that maintains a constant DC voltage for
- Needed by most circuits as a constant reference variations in the input line voltage or in the load.
voltage. Also some components would be damaged
by the negative half cycles of an AC supply.

- The DC power supply converts the standard 220 V,


60 Hz AC available source at wall outlets into a
constant DC voltage.

TRANSFORMER
- The DC voltage produced by the power supply is
used to power all types of electronics circuits, such as - Device consisting of two or more coils that are used
TV receivers, stereo systems, CD players, computers, to couple electric energy from one circuit to another
etc. circuit, yet maintain electrical isolation between them.

BASIC PARTS OF A DC POWER SUPPLY AIR-CORE & FERRITE-CORE TRANSFORMER


- It is used for high frequency (HF) applications and
consist of windings on air insulating shell core

IRON-CORE TRANSFORMER
- It is used for audio frequency (AF) and power
applications and consist of windings or a core
constructed from laminated sheets of ferromagnetic
material insulated from each other.
TRANSFORMERS
- Used to convert electricity from one voltage to
another with minimal power loss. TRANSFORMER

DELOS REYES, KING JHONZON A. ICE-3101 MIDTERMS: ECE - 301


- The transformer has the primary winding LP - MUTUAL INDUCTANCE is the property of inducing
connected to a voltage source that produces voltage in one circuit by varying the current in another
alternating current, while the secondary winding LS is circuit.
connected to a load RLOAD.

- The primary and secondary winding are not


physically connected to each other, power in primary
is coupled into the secondary by the magnetic field.

- INDUCTANCE is the characteristic of an electrical


circuit that opposes a change in current. The reaction
(opposition) is caused by the creation or destruction of
a magnetic field.. When current starts to flow,
Magnetic lines of force are created. These lines of
force cut the conductor inducing a counter emf in a
direction that opposes current.

- These two circuits are positioned so that the energy


is transferred by magnetic linkage.

- This coupling between circuits is also sometimes


called inductive coupling.

VOLTAGE-TURNS RELATIONSHIP

- The transformer is used to provide power for the load


resistance RLOAD, instead of connecting RLOAD, directly
across the generator, whenever the load requires an
AC voltage higher or lower than the generator voltage.

Where
VS is the secondary voltage
VP is the primary voltage

NS is the number of turns in the secondary winding


NP is the number of turns in the primary winding

TURNS RATIO
- Is the ration of the secondary turns to the primary
MUTUAL INDUCTION turns.

DELOS REYES, KING JHONZON A. ICE-3101 MIDTERMS: ECE - 301


Where
Where ZS is the impedence of the load connected in the
secondary winding
a is the turns ratio
ZP is the impedence of the load connected in the
NS is the number of turns in the secondary winding primary winding
NP is the number of turns in the primary winding NS is the number of turns in the secondary winding
NP is the number of turns in the primary winding
CURRENT TURNS RELATIONSHIP

TRANSFORMER EFFICCIENCY

Where

Is is the secondary current Where


Ip is the primary current n is the transformer effiency
NS is the number of turns in the secondary winding POUT is the power delivered to the secondary winding
NP is the number of turns in the primary winding PIN is the power delivered to the primary winding

IMPEDENCE TURNS RELATIONSHIP

DELOS REYES, KING JHONZON A. ICE-3101 MIDTERMS: ECE - 301