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Magic of Words Summaries, Doc.

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TheRecurringDream

Whatdoyouthinkisthereasonsomepeoplehaverecurringdreams?

InmyopinionIthinkthereasonforsomepeoplehaverecurringdream
istiredness,workload,psychologicalormentalproblemoritmaybe
thecontinuousthinkingaboutthesamethingsorcharactersordream.

WhydoyouthinkKimhasthisdream?

Kimworksatanofficewheredailythereislotsofworkloadwhich
createstirednessormentalpressure.Soduetothis,Kimmighthave
hadthisdream.

ItsaysinthestorythatKimsimplygoesintothehouseinherdream,
butitdoesntsayhowsheenters.Howdoyouthinksheenters?
(Remembertheendingofthestory)

Inherdream,Kimsspiritisactivatedandspiritdoesntneedany
entrancetogoanywhere.Thusinthisway,Kimcouldhaveenteredthe
room.Accordingtotheendingofthestory,Kimisaghost.

Inyouropinion,whydoesKimwakeupeachtimeshetriestospeak
tothemaninherdream?

Kimwakesupeachtimeshetriestospeaktotheoldmaninherdream
becauseherbodyandspiritisinterconnected.

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WhydoesJanetwanttotakeKimtoherparentsfarmforafewdays?

JanetwantstotakeKimtoherparentsfarmforfewdaysinorderto
makehermentallyrefreshedorshemayforgetabouttheterrific
dream.

WhenKimseesacottageliketheoneinherdream,Janetdoesnt
wanthertogoseeit.Why?

WhenKimseesacottageliketheoneinherdream,Janetdoesntwant
hertogoseeitbecauseJanetdoesntbelieveinKimsstory.

WhydoesKimsbodyshakewhensheseesthelittleoldmanatthe
doorofthecottage?

Kimsbodyshakewhensheseesthelittleoldmanatthedoorofthe
cottagebecauseasinherdream,everythingwassamei.e.herdream
cametrue.Shecouldntbelieveit.Shewasverymuchsurprisedasall
thethingsofherdreamcametrue.

WhydoesthelittleoldmanclosethedoorwhenheseesKim?

ThelittleoldmanclosesthedoorwhenheseesKimbecauseaccording
tohimKimisaghostsoheisscaredofher.

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WhydoesKimsaysomethingabouttheFORSALEsign?

WhenKimseestheoldman,sherealizedthatherdreamwastrue.
Everythinghappenedasinherdreamsoshewasabitsurprisedand
alsocuriousaboutit.Shehadnootherideatospeak.Sheanyhow
neededtofindoutthetruthabouttheparticulardream.Soshesaid
somethingaboutFORSALEsign.

Whydoyouthinkthecottageisforsale?

Inmyopinion,Ithinkthehouseishauntedbytheghostsoduetothis
thecottagemightbeforsale.

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Thelostdoll

Whydoyousupposealmosteveryoneinthevillageattended
Carmensfuneral?

Carmenwasveryloveablechild.Thoughshewasnthealthy,shewas
bright,kind,lovelyandbeautifulchild.Shewassoattractivethat
everyonefallsinlovewithher.Sheamazedpeoplewithhercutelittle
actsandbehaviours.Thatswhyeveryoneinthevillagelovedherso
theyattendedCarmensfuneral.

Doyouthinktherewereanyvehiclesinthefuneralprocession?
Explain.

No,Idontthinktherewereanyvehiclesinthefuneralprocession.They
weremakingasinglefileprocession.Itmightbethereculture,tradition
orsoon.

Whydoyousupposethepeoplemarchedsinglefiletothecemetery?

Inmyopinion,Ithinkthatthepeoplemarchedinasinglefile
processiontothecemeterybecausemaybeitwastheirculture,
traditionfollowedbytheirancestorsormaybetheroadorthepath
mighthavebeennarrow.Sothevehiclescouldntgothroughthatpath.

WhatindicationsarethereinthestorythattheSotofamilywaspoor?

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TheSotofamilywasreallypoor.Robertohadtoworkveryhardtofeed
hisfamilyasaresulthehadveryhardhands.Similarly,Carmentheir
daughterwhowasverysicksinceherbirthdiedinaearlyageasthe
Sotoscouldntaffordhermedicaltreatment.

Whydoyouthink,RosagaveCarmensthingstosomeonefrom
anothervillage?(Whydidntshegivethemtoaneighbourorthe
priestofherownvillage?)

Inmyopinion,IthinkduetotheunsuddendeathofCarmen.Her
familywasinagreatshock.Rosadidntwantanyemotionalattachment
withCarmen.ShewantedtoforgetCarmencompletelysoshegave
Carmensthingstosomeonefromanothervillage.

WhydidRobertowanttosaveCarmensthings?

AftertheunsuddendeathofCarmen,Robertostillhadhopedtohave
anotherchild.Eventhoughthedoctortoldthemthatitwasdifficultto
haveababy,hestillhadhope.SohewantedtosaveCarmensthings.

WhydidRosasaythattherewasnoreasontosavethem?

RosabecameverypracticalafterthedeathofCarmen.Shebelievedin
themedicalscienceandexperiments.Asthedoctorstoldthemthat
therewasnohopeafterCarmensdeath.SoRosasaidthattherewas
noreasontosaveCarmensthings.

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Rosasaidtoherhusband,Falsehopeisnotgood.Whendoeshope
becomesfalse?Howcanweknowwhenhopeisfalse?

Hopebecomesfalsewhenitisnotfulfilled.Weknowitwhenwefailto
achievethedesirethingforalongtime.Rosashopewasshatteredas
shecouldntgetanotherchildforfouryearsandheronlychilddied
sick.

WhatdidRosawanttosaywhenshesaidtoherhusband,Youknow
thatinthesefouryears?Finishthesentenceforher.

Rosawantedtosaywhenshesaidtoherhusbandthat,Youknowthat
inthesefouryears,youhadyourhandsfallwithasickchild.

WhydoyouthinkRobertothoughtofCarmensdollwhenhelooked
outthewindowtothebackyard?

WhenRobertolookedoutthewindowtothebackyard,hethoughtof
Carmenandhercutelittleactsthensuddenlyhethoughtofthedoll
thatCarmenhad.Carmenusedtoplaywiththedolleverytime.She
neverleftthedollalone.

Whatmadethemfinallyforgetaboutthelostdoll?

AfteroneyearofCarmensdeath,theSotofamilywelcomedtheir
happiness.Goodnewscamei.e.RosaSotobecamepregnant.This
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madethemveryhappywhichwaslostduetothelossofCarmen.Thus,
duetohappiness,theywerefinallyabletoforgetaboutthelostdoll.

DoyouthinkEvangelinawasagoodnameforthenewbaby?Explain.

Yes,inmyopinion.IthinkEvangelinawasagoodnameforthenew
childbecausethewordEvangelinameantgoodnewsandduetothe
birthofEvangelina,theSotofamilywascomplete.Itbroughtpursuitof
happinessinthefamilywhichwaslostbeforeduetothedeathof
Carmen.

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MyheartleapsupwhenIBehold

WilliamWordsworth

Summary

ThepoemMyheartLeapsupwhenIbeholdiswrittenby
WilliamWordsworthandEnglishpoetandworshipperofnatureand
simplicity.Thepoemisbasedontherecollectionofthepoets
childhoodexperienceandfeelingsthatbearthestampofcontinuity.

Thepoemdealswiththespontaneousoverflowofthosepowerful
feelingsandjoysasfeltbytheheartofthepoetinhischildhoodand
manhoodatthesightofarainbowintheskyandthepoethopestofeel
thesameintheoldage.

Thepoetdescribestheinfluenceofarainbowuponhisheart.
Accordingtohiswords,hefeelsthesamejoyandhappinesswhenhe
wasachildandhedoesfeelthesameexperienceinhisoldage.Inthe
absenceofsuchfeelings,thepoetadmitshewillpreferdeathasa
betteralternative.Thepoemendswiththewishofthepoetforhisdays
tobeboundwitheachotherbynaturalpiety.

Thepoemconsistsofawellknownparadoxthechildisfatherof
theman.Itimpliesthatasachildforthefirsttimehefeltthejoywhile
lookingatthenatureintheformofarainbowandeverychilddoes
havesomekindofexperiencebeforeheattainsmanhood.Inthis
regardheisseniortomanandthereforethefatheroftheman.

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SpeakingofChildren

BarbaraHolland

Summary:

Theadvantagesofparentsforhavingonechildarequiteobvious.
Onechildisanappendageanditcanbeoutnumberedbyparents.Itcan
becarriedalongonpleasuretrips.Themostimportantofallisthe
privacy,whichremainsintact.Onthecontrary,pluralchildrenwillbe
theendofadvantagesandthebeginningofdisadvantages.Theywillbe
countercultureinthehouseandtheparentswillbeoutnumbered.
Therewillbenoplaceleftinthelivingroombecauseofthetoysall
over.Longpleasuretripswillbeshortened.Theparentswillbeobliged
toadjustthemselvesaccordingtonewsituation.Firstprioritywillhave
tobegiventothechildrenandtheirmatters.Thehousewillbeatsixes
andsevens.Aboveall,therewillbenoprivacyforthewifeandthe
husband.Theywillbeinterferedandinterruptedbythechildrenat
everypossiblemoment.Surprisinglyenough,duetolackofproximity,
thehusbandandwifewillbereducedtothestageofstrangersunless
somesolutionisfoundouttoendthenewproblem.

Q.Doesthisessayspeakinfavouroragainsthavingmanychildren?
Givereasons.

TheessaySpeakingofChildreniswrittenbyanAmericanwriter,
BarbaraHolland.Itisaninformalpieceofwritingmadelivelyand
effectivethroughthedeviceofconversation.Itexaminesthenegative

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aspectsofhavingmorethanonechild.Hence,itspeaksagainsthaving
manychildren.

Theadvantagesofparentsforhavingonechildarequiteobvious.
Onechildisanappendageanditcanbeoutnumberedbyparents.Itcan
becarriedalongonpleasuretrips.Themostimportantofallisthe
privacy,whichremainsintact.Onthecontrary,pluralchildrenwillbe
theendofadvantagesandthebeginningofdisadvantages.Theywillbe
countercultureinthehouseandtheparentswillbeoutnumbered.
Therewillbenoplaceleftinthelivingroombecauseofthetoysall
over.Longpleasuretripswillbeshortened.Theparentswillbeobliged
toadjustthemselvesaccordingtonewsituation.Firstprioritywillhave
tobegiventothechildrenandtheirmatters.Thehousewillbeatsixes
andsevens.Aboveall,therewillbenoprivacyforthewifeandthe
husband.Theywillbeinterferedandinterruptedbythechildrenat
everypossiblemoment.Surprisinglyenough,duetolackofproximity,
thehusbandandwifewillbereducedtothestageofstrangersunless
somesolutionisfoundouttoendthenewproblem.

Sincethewriterhasfocusedontheenlargementofthe
disadvantagesforhavingpluralchildren,itisclearthatsheisagainst
havingpluralchildren.

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LookataTeacup

PatriciaHampl

Summary

Lookatateacupisacomplicatedessaywithagreatdealsof
hiddenmeaningtobereadinbetweenthelines.Theessayabounds
withrichaswellasvividdescriptionofchinadishesespeciallyteacups
andscatteredinformationaboutthewritersparents,herrelationwith
motherandherviews.

Asfortheteacups,theyweremadeinCzechoslovakiaandbought
in1939byhermother.Thesecupswhichhavebeengiventotheauthor
haveatinyCzechoslovakiastampedonthebottom.Eachpieceisthin
andtransparenthavingthepalestwatergreenshade.Onecanseethin
bandsofgoldaroundtheedgesofthesaucerandcup.Thereisalsoa
bandofgoldontheinnercircleofthesaucer.Insidethecup,flowers
aredepictedindifferentfallingaltitudes.Itseemsthatasifsomeone
hasscatteredabouquetandtheflowersappeartobecaughtinfalling
motion.Onetendstonoticeaspecialsignificanceattachedtothecups
becausefrequentreferencesaremadethroughouttheessay.Inone
place,thewriteradmitsthatthereisslurofrecollectionaboutthe
flowers,somethingimprecise,seductiveandfoggy,butheldtogether
withabrightboltofaccuracyperhapsapiercingglancefromalong
deaduncle,whoseface,allthefeatures,hasotherwisefaded.In
anotheroccasion,shewondersinsomeonewithanimportantblack
umbrellahadconsideredthefutureofteacups.Priortothat,sherefers
toanEnglishpoliticianandhisshakinganationawaywhilefurlinghis
blackumbrella.Furthershealludestothefallingofbodies,bombsand
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countries.Althougheachinformationseemstobeunconnectedwith
oneanother,onecanseeathreadofassociations.Theyindicatethe
degenerationthattookplaceinEuropeingeneralanddisintegrationin
CzechoslovakiainparticularduringtheSecondWorldWar.Theteacups
withthepaintingoffallingflowersarereliesofthedisintegration
processthatbeganinCzechoslovakiawithMunichAgreementsigned
on29thSeptember1938bytheleadersofUK,France,Germanyand
Italy.Underthispact,thecountrywascompelledtosurrenderits
SudetenlandtoGermany.NevilleChamberlain,theprimeministerof
Britainandhispolicyofappeasementfailedtopreventthewar.The
umbrellahecarriedtoMunichwithhimwascalledasthetaintof
Munich.ThewriterseemstosuggestthattheEnglishpoliticianwithan
importantblackumbrellaalsoplayedaroleinthedisintegrationof
Czechoslovakiathatisinthefallofflowersfrombouquet.

Thecloseassociationbetweenthecupsandacountryisobvious
inmanyexpressions.Onecannoticeitinthefollowingexpressionthat,
thecupswerediscontinuedbecauseacountrywasdiscontinuedand
acountrylostitspurescienceofflingingflowersintothesidesof
teacups.Hence,thecupstandsfortherelicandtheevidenceofthe
midcenturybonfirethatisSecondWorldWar.

Thesecondaspectofthestoryisconcernedwiththeunusual
treatmentofmarriage,familyandmotherdaughterrelationship.The
writerissaidtohavebeenmarriedin1939attheoffingoftheSecond
WorldWar.Thishelpedherescapethemagnitudeofhistoryby
retreatingintopragmatism.Hence,thewriterassociatesthemarriage
withthefalloftheflowers.Atoneplaceintheessay,shementionsthat
hermotherscellovoicewasdrownedsomewhereinthesoundof
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fallingflowers,inmamage,inthethoughtofbombsfallingonwomen
withflowers,withteacups.Hermarriagewastheoldbowpulledacross
thecellofollowedbythelonglowmoanofanothergeneration.On
accountofsuchassociation,thewriterusesthewordfallasthe
synonymofmarriageandrefusestomarryatall.Herannouncement
Wedontgetmarriedanymoreindicatesthatsheisnotalonein
havingsuchinterpretation.Likewise,onecanseethesimilartreatment
giventotheconceptoffamilyandmotherdaughterrelationship.For
themother,familyisthemostimportantthingintheworldwhereas
forthedaughter(thewriter)theworkisthemostimportantthing.In
spiteofsuchanopinion,mothersvoicesoundedafarewell,thefirstof
allthosegoodbyesmothersaytotheirdaughters.Sheseemedtoknow
thatfamilyandseparationwouldalwaysgotogether.Mothersand
daughtersareboundtosaygoodbyetooneanother.Theirrelationship
endswithparting.Thewritersmotherillustratesthesamepointby
sayingthattheydidnothaveanyemotionalrelationshipswiththeir
mothers.

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AWornPath

EudoraWelty

Summary

ThestoryAwornPathisremarkableforvariousaspects.Oneof
themisthemildhumourconnectedwiththecharacter,Phoenix
Jackson.Besidesbeingstrongandadventuroussheisfoundtohavea
subtlesenseofhumour.Wefinditinherbehaviorwithawhiteman,
whileshewaslyingintheditchthewhitemanpulledheroutofit.
TheresheexplainedthatshewaslyingbacklikeaJuneBugwaitingto
beturnedover.Atthesametimewhenheaskedheraboutherage,she
pointedoutthatshewouldnevertellhimaboutit.

Inadditiontoit,onecanfindoutsomehumourouseventsinthe
story.Theinstanceofpickingthenickelthatfeeloutofthewhitemans
pocketisquitehumourous.Inordertodososhedivertedhisattention
tothefightofthedogs.Beforethatsheinstigatedthatfight.Whenhe
wasawaytoattendthefight,shebentdownwithagreatdifficultyand
caretoliftthecoinfromthere.Oncesheslippedthenickelinherapron
pocketshespokeoutherthoughtloudlythatgodwouldbewatching
herstealthecoin.

Therearemanyothereventswhicharequitehumourous.For
instancewhenshecrossedtheriverbywalkingontheloginperfect
balanceshefeltthatshewasnotasoldasshethought.Thereshe
imaginedalittleboybringingheralittleplatewithasliceofmarble
cakeonit.Althoughitwasherimaginationshetookitastherealityand

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wenttotakeitbysayingthatitwouldbeacceptable.Thiskindof
behavioraddsatouchofhumour.

Atoneoccasion,shemistookascarecrowforaghost.Her
behavioratthedoctorsofficeisequallyhumourours.Itissobecause
sheforgottheveryreasonwhyshewasinthehospital.Anursehadto
remindherinotherwordsshewasremindedofthereasonwhenthe
nurseaskedherabouthergrandsonsthroatinfection.Thusrightfrom
thebeginninguptotheendreaderswillfindthestoryhumourousand
interesting.Itisduetothenarrativeskillofthewriter.

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TheThreeDayBlow

ErnestHemingway

Summary

Thethreedayblowisastorywithananalogybetweenthreeday
blowandthementalordealoftheprotagonistNick.Thestory,whichis
writtenbyanAmericanwritherErnestemingway,tracesamovement
formconflict,throughtheseparationandsufferingtoreconciliation.It
conveysthefullnessofaformalritual.

ItisthestoryofNickWemedgewhointendedtomarryMarjorie.
Inordertogetmarriedwithher,itwasnecessaryforhimtobebackat
hometofindajobandearnmoney.Thatwashisoriginalplaninthe
beginningandlaterhedecidedtostayinCharlevoixallwintersothat
hecouldbenearMarge.HemadeaplantogotoItalywithher,visiting
differentplaceswhilehavingalotoffuntogether.Unfortunatelythey
hadtobreakawayandhisplanswentastray.Allofasudden,their
relationcametoanend.Marjoriesmothercouldberesponsibleforit
becauseshewasregardedasbeingterrible.Nickwasgrievedtorealize
thathehadlosther.Hefelttatshewasgoneandhehadsentheraway.
Hehadnohopetoseeheragain.TheseparationbetweenNickand
MarjorieseemedtohavebeentheoutcomebetweenNickand
Marjoriesmother.Itcausedhimtohaveamentalstrain.

Insuchanagony,hehappenedtovisitthecottageofBillwhen
thefirtstautumnsstormbrokeout.Theterribleweathercondition
reflectedthementalagonyofNick.Beingstruckwithgriefduetothe
separation,hegotintothecottageofBillwithaviewtospendthree

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daysofhistimethereduringtheterriblewindblow.Billwaspleasedto
havehiscompany.Bothofthemgotintoalongpastimeactivitywhile
drinkingwineandhavingconversationofdifferentmattersrangingover
differenttopicssuchasdrinks,baseball,writing,Nicksbreakupwith
Marjorieetc.Billevidentlylookedhappyforhehadnegativeapproach
towardsthemarriedlife.Heheldtheviewthatamanisabsolutely
bitchedanddoneforonceheismarried.HereferredtoNicksbreakup
asawiseact.Nickwasobligedtoconfessthematterwithatragictone.
Incourseoftheconversation,Billcasuallymentionedthepossibilityof
Nicksgettingintoitagain.Nickhadneverthoughtaboutit.Ithad
seemedsoabsolute.Itmadehimfeelbetter.Itbroughtaboutasudden
drasticchangeinhiswayofthinking.Hefoundhimselfonhighspirits.
Hefelthappyandlighter.Accordingtothewriter,nothingwasfinished
andeverlostandalsotherewasalwaysawayout.

Withanewspirit,Nicksuggestedthattheyshouldtaketheguns,
godowntothepointandlookforBillsfather.Soontheywereseen
movingacrossthemeadowtowardstheBillsfather.Nickwasnomore
intragicmoodandthewindbleweverythingoutofhismind.Thisstory
endswithNickbeingreconciledtothelossofhisbeloved.Onecanalso
interpretthehappyendingofthestoryasthehintandhopeof
reconciliationbetweenNickandhisbeloved.

Asfortherhetoricalstrategy,theweatherconditionasdescribed
inthestorypresentsareflectionandanalogyofNickssuffering.The
wholesettingwithstormywindaroundactsasastagewithseparation
atoneendandthereconciliationattheotherend.Beingadramatic
story,itispresentedinasequenceofapproximatelysevenscenes:
drinkingwine,chataboutbaseball,discussionaboutliteraryworks,
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habitofdrinking,activitiesinkitchen,viewaboutmarriageaswellas
NicksloveaffairwithMarjorieandfinallythesceneofreconciliationor
changeofattitude.

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ThePoplarField

W.Cowper

Summary

WilliamCowperinhispoemThepoplarfieldshowsusthelink
betweenhumanhappinesswithnatureandappealsustopreserveitin
ordertokeepourselveshappy.

ThepoplarswhichgrewalongtheriverOusehavenowbeen
choppeddown.Thecoolingshadethetrees,thewhistlingsoundmade
bytheairwhilepassingthroughtheleavesandtheimageofpoplarsin
theriverOusearenolongerthere.Twelveyearsago,whenthepoet
firstvisitedtheplace,heenjoyedthemelodioussongsoftheblackbird
sittingunderthecoldshadeofpoplar.Thepoetisverysadnow
becauseheisntbeingabletohearthesweetsongsofblackburied
anymoreasthebirdhasflownawayinsearchofshelter.Thetrees
whichusedtobeontheriverbankmakingtheentireareabeautiful
thatlentthepoettheircoolshadeonce,arenowlyinglowonthe
ground.Thepoetfeelsthathisdaysoflifearepassingawayhurriedly.
Thepoetthinksthathewilldiesoonandhisbodywillbeburiedunder
thesoilbutthepoetisverysadthathewouldnotbeabletosee
growingupothertreesinplaceofthechoppeddownpoplarsbeforehis
death.Seeingthedestructionofpoplarsthatrepresententirenature,
thepoetrealizesthelinkofnaturewithhumanhappinessashewas
veryhappywhenthepoplarswerethereandheisverysadnowintheir
absence.Althoughhumanliveisveryshort,thepoetfindshuman
happinessandenjoymentshavemuchshorterlifewhichdiemuch
beforeourdeath.
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Tisasighttoengagemeifanythingcan,whatisthesight?How
doesthesightengagethepoet?

Thesightisofthechoppeddownpoplarswhichmakesthepoet
thinkseriously.

Onrevisitingtheplacewerebeautifulpoplarsweretheretwelve
yearsago,thepoetfindsthatpoplarsarelyingonthegroundasthey
haveindiscriminatelybeenchoppeddown.Intheabsenceofthe
poplars,theplacelooksbarehavingnocharmatallwhichmakesthe
poetfeelverysad.Hethinksthathehimselfhastodieverysoonashis
daysarepassingawayhurriedly.However,thepoetlamentsin
nostalgictonethatitisimpossibleforhimtoseeotherrowsoftrees
thereinplaceofchoppeddownpoplarsmakingthearealookbeautiful
againbeforehisdeath.Although,humanlifeisveryshort,thepoet
findshumanhappinesshasmuchshorterlifethanhumanbeings.As
happinessislinkedwithnature,thepoetappealsustoprotectthe
natureforthesakeofourownhappiness.

Considerthepoemasadefenseofnatureconservation.

Inthepoemthepoplarfield,thepoetpowerfullypresentsthe
threateningtoourenvironmentfromallaroundandsuggeststheneed
toconserveitforthesakeoftheearthanditsinhabitants.Thepoet
appreciatesthepristinewilderness,ruralbeautyandexpresseshis
severegriefontheirdestructionbecauseofunwisehumanactivities.

Thepoet,throughthispoeminspiresustobesincereanddevote
ourselvestoprotectit.Ifwekeepourunwiseactofchoppingdown
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treesindiscriminately,theentireenvironmentwillbeaffectedbadlyby
itjeopardizingthelifeontheplanet.Besidescalamitieslikelandslide,
soilerosion,flood,drought,greenhouseeffectanddesertification,the
livesofhumanbeingsaswellasbirdsandanimalswillbejeopardized.
Birdsandanimalswillescapeawaytootherplacesinsearchofshelters,
riverbankswillbedestroyedmakingtheareasproneoffloodand
enhancingtheriskofwaterpollution.Showingthelinkbetweenhuman
happinesswiththenatureandtheconsequencesofunwiseactivities,
thepoetappealsustoconservethenatureforthesakeofourown
happiness.

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TheNightmareLifewithoutFuel

IsaacAsimov

Summary

IsaacAsimovinhisessaythenightmarelifewithoutfueldepicts
thehorriblestateoftheworldafterthefuelisfinishedfromtheworld.
ShowingthecaseofprosperousAmericawhichturnsintoadarkstate
ofpreindustrialagebecauseoffuelcrisis,thewriterdrawsour
attentiontowardsthevitalneedofpreservationoffueltoavoidfuture
crisis.

Thewriterassumestwentyyearsadvanceintimewhenthefuelis
finishedfromtheworld.Becauseoffuelcrisis,novehiclesareplyingon
theroadmakingitverydifficultforpeopletotransportgoodsandto
movetotheirdestination.Beingdangerous,nuclearfusionandfission
togenerateelectricityisnotbeingmaterialized.Beingtooexpensive,
solarbatteriesandothersourcesofenergyarenotbeingused.

Although,thereisdifficultyeverywherebecauseoffuelcrisis,it
hasthefollowingadvantages:

a. Therewillnosmokefromvehiclesandindustriessotheairwillbe
pollutionfree.
b. Lesspeoplewillsufferfromcoughandcoldbecauseofpollution
freeair.
c. Crimeratewillfalldownbecauseofmutualprotectionincrowd.
d. Duetolackofotherentertainmentfacilities,peoplewillstart
utilizingnaturalsourceofentertainment.

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e. Peoplewilllearntolivenaturallifewithoutfacilitiessuchas
centralheating,showerbathwithhotwateretc.

Thefollowingwillbethedisadvantagesoffuelcrisis:

a. Peoplewillbedeprivedfromfacilitieswhichwillmaketheirlife
complicated.
b. Peoplewillhavetowalkandcarrygoodsbythemselves.
c. Peoplelivinginsuburbswillfaceacuteproblembringingand
storingfood.
d. Highpercentageofpeoplewillhavehealthproblems,evensustain
braindamage
e. Entertainmentandprintingmaterialswillbecurtaileddepriving
peoplefromgettingeveninformationandnews.
f. Therewillbehighdeathrateofinfantsastheirmotherswillgo
dry.

OutsideAmericaandEurope,only20%peoplearebeingabletofeed
themselves.Peoplearedyingbecauseofstarvationandalargenumber
ofpeoplearesufferingfrombraindamage.Accordingtoreport,such
unhealthypeoplearebeingkilledsecretlytosavefood.Thereisahigh
deathrateofinfantsbecausetheirmothershavegonedryduetolack
ofnutritiousfood.Armieshavebeenalmostdisappearedfromthe
worldexceptfewcountrieslikeAmericaandRussia.

Finally,thewriterlamentsnotbeingawareandtakingstepsto
savefuelinthepast.Heexpressesifwestartedsavingit50yearsago,
thecurrentfuelcrisiscouldhavebeenavoided.Inordertoavoidsuch
crisisinfuture,thewriterdrawsourattentiontowardsthisissueand
appealsustostartpreservingfuelwithoutanydelay.
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Explain,TheSuburbswerebornwithauto,livedwithautoandare
dyingwithauto.

Suburbsaretheareasjustoutsidethelargecities.Withrapid
industrializationanddevelopment,thecitiesbecamecrowded.
Thereforepeoplestartedlivinglittleawayfromthecitiesenjoying
equalopportunitiesascities.Becauseofeasyavailabilityof
automobiles(vehicles),thesuburbswerecomeintoexistence.People
livinginthesuburbsarefullydependentonthecitiesforeducational,
medicalfacilities,fortheiremploymentandfortheirdailyprovisions.
Duetoeasyvehicularmovement,theyarelivinghappilyavailing
facilitieslikecities.Nowwiththefuelcrisis,theretoandfrom
movementstothecityandviceversaarerestrictedbecauseofnon
availabilityofvehicles.Therestrictiondeprivesthemfromenjoyingthe
facilitieswhichtheyhavebeenenjoyinguptonow.Therefore,the
peoplelivinginsuburbsarenowfacingextremedifficultiesintheirlife
astheyarenowdyingwithauto.

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UnchoppingaTree

W.S.Merwin

Summary

WSMerwininhisessayUnchoppingaTreedirectsustounchopa
choppeddowntreetomakeusrealizethedifficultyinvolvedinthis
process.Givingpseudodirection,thewritermakesunawarethat
unstoppingachoppeddowntreeisanimpossibletaskthereby
appealingustobewiseandpreservethenature.

Atreehasrecentlybeenchoppeddown,sothewriterdirectsusto
indulgeourselvestounchopthetree.Hedirectsustocollecttheleaves,
twigsandputthemtotheiroriginalplaces.Weshouldalsorepairthe
birdnests,spiderwebs,beehivesandneighbouringtreesdamagedby
thefall.Itisverydifficulttokeepthefallentreeuprightwiththehelpof
tacklesandscaffoldings.Evenbeingpayingextremecare,thereis
possibilityofsnappingawaysomeleavesandtwigs.Afterkeepingthe
trunkupright,weshouldputbackallthesplintersscatteredaroundto
theirownplaces.Thewriterdirectsustocollectandputbackallthe
sawdusttotheirformerpositions.Bardustisextremelydifficultto
traceoutasitmixestothesoilveryeasily.Thewriterfinallydirectsus
toremovethetacklesandscaffoldingspiecebypiecesothatthere
wouldbenodamage.Inspiteofalltheseefforts,althoughthetree
finallystandsonitstrunk,itisveryfeebleandagentlepushofbreezeis
sufficienttoblowawaytheleavesandamildtouchofcloudisenough
foritsfallingdownagain.

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Usingpseudodirectiveinstructions,thewriteractuallywantsusto
realizetheimpossibilityofunchoppingachoppeddowntree.Revealing
theextremedifficultyinvolvedinthisprocess,heappealsustobe
sensibleenoughandpreservethenatureratherthandamagingit.

Whatmessagedoesthewriterwanttoconveyusthroughthisessay?
OR
Whatdoestheessaysuggestusaboutconservationofnatureand
aboutdeforestation?
InhisessayUnchoppingaTree,describingvariouscomplications
involvedintheprocessofunchoppingachoppeddowntree,thewriter
stressestheimportanceofpreservationofnature.Pointingtowardsthe
impossibilityofrestoringthepartsofachoppeddowntree,thewriter
makesusawareabouttheneedtopreservenature.Thewriteralso
emphasizesthatmodernscientificinventionsanddevelopmentcannot
replacetheworkofnature.Natureisalwaysoriginaloneandweshould
nottrytoequalizeitwithmanmadeartificialthings.Thisessayisaimed
topromotetoconservenatureandtodiscouragedeforestation.Itis
veryeasytodestroynatureortree,butrestorationofthedamaged
naturetoitsoriginalformisextremelydifficulttaskwhichisalmost
impossible.Thewriterintheessaymakesusrealizethedifficultyin
restoringnaturetoitsoriginalformandappealsusnottodestroythe
natureatall.

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KeepingThingsWhole

MarkStrand

Summary

MarkStrandinhispoemKeepingthingsWholeexpressesthat
humanbeingsalwaysdisturbthenaturewhereasnaturealwaysmakes
abalancetokeepitselfintact.Thepoetappealsforwholenessof
natureagainstitsusualfragmentationwhileperformingdailyactivities
inourlife.

Thepoetsaysthatwhileinthefield,heconsidershimselfas
absenceofthefield;thisisbecausethefieldismissingwhereheis
standing.Whereverheisinthefield,hedisplacesandoccupiesthepart
ofthefieldthatismissing(notvisible).Accordingtothepoet,he
dividestheairwhenhewalks.Inotherwords,hedisturbsthenature.
Whenhemovesforward,theaircomesfromdifferentdirectionsto
coverupthevacantspace.Inordertofulfillthedesire,humanbeings
alwaysdamageanddisturbthenature.However,thenaturealways
makesabalancebyrepairingitself.Thepoettellsusthatwhile
performingvariousactivitiesinlife,weshouldbeverycarefuland
shouldnotdisturbthenatureratherweshouldsupportthewholeness
ofit.Thepoetsaysthatpeoplemayhavedifferentreasonsofmoving,
butthepoetkeepsmovingtoenablethenaturetorepairitbyitselfas
hewantstokeepthenaturewhole.

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ConcreteCat

DorthiCharles

Summary

Usingreducedlanguage,thepoetDorthiCharlesinhispoem
ConcreteCatpresentsapictureofaeatinvictoriousmoodhas
recentlykilledamouse.Oppositetogeneralpoetrythatactivatesthe
readersemotionallywiththehelpofwordsandsentences,thepoet
useswordstocreategeneralappearanceofcat.Inordertogiveperfect
impressionforthevictoriouscat,heusescapitallettersincertain
words.ByusingcapitalAinear,heindicatestheuprightpointedearsof
thecatinalterness.CapitalYineyeshowsthattheeyesareopenand
vigilant.CapitalUinmouthindicatescatstonguewhichislikelytolick
theeatablesinthedish.Leavingspacesbetweenthelettersintail,the
poetwantstosuggestthatthespacesshowtheblackcolourofthetail
whichiswaving.Themousewhichisupsidedownisthelatestkillingof
thecat.Byreplacingdishesandlitterboxesnearthecat,thepoet
indicatesthatthecatisntawildcatbutadomesticone.

Doyouconsiderthisworkofartapoem?

AlthoughConcreteCatdoesntlooklikeapoemasno
meaningfulsentencesaretheretomakeitapoem,itisdifferenttype
ofpoemknownasconcretepoem.Suchpoemsaremeantforoureyes
andnotforourears.Themainmotiveofsuchpoemsistocreate
physicalimageofintendedthemebyplacingthewordsappropriately.It
isnotconcernedwithlinguisticideasandemotion.Thelanguagein
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suchpoemsiscalledreducedlanguagewhichisnotlikeordinaryone
withsyntax.Thearrangementofwordstocreateintendedimageitself
ismainobjectiveofaconcretepoem.

Whatpossiblepun(humour)mightbeseenincatsstripes?

Puniscleverandhumouroususeofwordshavingdouble
meaning.Whilecreatingphysicalimageofacatwiththehelpofwords,
thepoetusesthewordstripeshumourouslybycreatingpun.One
wordisstripeswhichmeanslongbandofcolouralloverthecats
body.Thesecondwordistripeswhichmeansthestomachtissuesof
micewhichthecathaseatenrecently.Thepoetsuccessfullycreatesa
punonthewordstripesinthepoem.

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Oops!WhatsThatAgain

RogerRosenblatt

Summary

RogerRosenblattinhisessayOops!WhatsthatAgainclassifiesthe
mistakespeoplemakewhilespeakinginhumouroustonewith
remarkableexamples.Healsodescribesthereasonsofthesemistakes
fromlinguisticandpsychologicalpointofview.

Broadly,thewriterclassifiesverbalmistakesintofourcategoriesas
under:

a. Slipoftongue:Thistypeofmistakeisverycommon.Insuch
mistake,thespeakertellonethingwhenhemeanstosayanotheror
somethingelse.
b. Fauxpas:Thistypeofmistakeusuallyoccurswhenapersonsays
somethingthathethinksharmless.Butisactuallyhasameaning
whichupsetsthespeakeraswellasthelisteners.
c. Mistranslation:Thistypeofmistakeismadewhenthetextofa
languageisbadlytranslatedintoanotherlanguage.
d. Spoonerism:Thiskindofmistakeismadewhenapersonmixesup
theinitiallettersofthewordsheisspeaking.

Quotingthemistakesbecauseslipoftongue,thewritermentionsthat
inaRoyalLuncheonisGlasgow;abusinessmanwishedPrinceCharlesa
longandhappyconjugallifewithLadyJaneinsteadofLadyDiana.In
Chicago,thegovernorofIllinoiswasintroducedasmayorofIllinoisand
againasgovernorofAmerica.Whilegivingtheexamplesoffauxpasthe
writermentionsthatonceNancyRegondescribesthevotersasthe
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beautifulwhitepeopleignoringtheblackpeoplepresenttherewhich
putherinverydifficultsituation.TheFrenchprimeministerwhile
condemningabombattackoncesaidthatthebombwasaimedatJews
butitstrucktheinnocentFrenchmen.ItmeantthattheJewsinFrance
werentFrenchmenandtheywerentinnocenteither.Mistranslationis
alsothecauseofverbalerror.PepsisadvertisementComealivewith
PepsiwasmistranslatedintoGermanlanguageasComealiveoutof
thegravewithPepsi.GermanprimeministeronceaskedIndian
presidentWhoareyou?insteadofHowareyou?whilereceiving
himattheairport.SpoonerismbeganwithWilliamArchibaldSpooner
whenhechidedhisstudentsasYouhissedallmymysterylecture,
youvetastedthewholeworm........drain.Hemeanttosayas,Youve
missedallmyhistorylectures,youvewastedthewholeterm...down
train.

Althoughthesemistakesarefunnytous,linguistsandpsychologists
takethesemistakesseriously.VictoriaFromkin,alinguistcallsthe
mistakescluestohowthebrainstoresandarticulateslanguage.Other
linguistssuggestthatthemistakeexpressesthemisspeakersinner
thought.PsychologistLudwigsaystheverbalmistakeoccursbecauseof
humanid,egoandsuperego.

Verbalmistakesalwaystellusaboutthelogicandpossibilitybehind
them.Wealwayslaughwhenpeoplemakemistakes.Sometimes,we
findmistakesfunnybecauseofbeingmean.Butsometimeswelaughat
verbalmistakebecausewefeelsympathyasweallmakemistakes.

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Malini

RabindranathTagore

Summary

RabindranathTagoreinhispoeticplayMalinipresentsastoryof
loveandhatred.Theplaydealswithaconflictbetweenloveandhatred
aswellasselfishwayofthinkingandbroadmindedness.Itisbasedon
theconceptthatloveinitsabsoluteandpureformisallradiance,all
pervading,andallcompassionate.Theplayalsoshowsthatpetty
selfishnessassumesthenameofloveandrulestheworldwithhatred.

Malini,theprincessofaHindukingdomhadhereducationwith
Buddhistmonksandstartedpreachingtheirprinciplesinthekingdom.
Becauseofherpreachingofnewreligion,themajorityofHindu
BrahminswasagitatedandstarteddemandingMalinisbanishment
fromtheplace.Realizingthesufferingofthepeople,Maliniherself
wantedtobebanishedfromthepalaceinordertosolvetheir
problems.AgroupofBrahminsledbyKemankarstarteddemanding
Malinisbanishmentappearinginfrontofthepalace.Supriya,a
memberofthegroupandthebestfriendofKemankardidntagree
withtheviewofthegroupandaccusedthemoftryingtodeterminethe
truthbynumbers.Becauseoffearofrebellionasthearmywasopenly
intheirside,theBrahminsstartedprayingthegoddesstotakehuman
fromtohelpthem.Inthemeanwhile,Maliniappearedthereandthe
Brahminsbelievedthatthegoddessgrantedtheirprayerandtook
humanform.Malinispoketothemwithdivineconfidenceand
persuadedthemthatshewantedtohelpthem.TheBrahminswere
impressedbyherloveandpersonalityandrestoredherbacktothe
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palace.Realizingthethreattohisreligion,Kemankardecidedtogo
abroadtobringsoldiersandtouprootthenewcreed(religion)from
thekingdom.HeaskedhisfriendSupriyatohiminformedaboutthe
situation.ButSupriyabetrayedhisfriendKemankarbyhandingoverhis
lettertothekingtogainMalinisconfidence.Withthehelpoftheletter
thatrevealedKemankarsplan,thekingarrestedKemankar.Theking
offeredSupriyarewardbuthepolitelyrejecteditandrequestedthe
kingnottokillKemankar.Onbeingaskedabouthislastwish,Kemankar
desiredtoseehisfriendSupriya.Kemankararguedthattheonlywayto
solvetheirargumentwastodietogetheratwhichSupriyaagreed.
KemankarthenkilledSupriyabystrikinghimwiththechain.Theking
stoodupwithandswordtokillKemankarbutMalinirequestedtheking
toforgivehim.

CriticismofMalini:

Tagore,theunparallelchampionintheSouthAsianliteraturefascinates
theattentionofthereaderstowardspolitics.Honestly,politicsisnot
ruledbythegoodwillofthepeoplebutitisdrivenwithconspiracy.
Throughthereligion,thewriterdramatizessocalledpolitics.

TheextraordinarycharacterMalininotonlyhauntsherown
traditionbyacceptingthevoiceofthepeoplebutalsoexplodes
modernity,freedomandcivilization.Therealmeaningofdemocracy
cannotbeinterpretedbythepalacebutitcanberedefinedbythe
people.Thereforeitissaidthatthevoiceofthepeopleisthevoiceof
hetgod.

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Theoverallplotofthisplayissimpleandwonderfulbecausethe
writerhasappliedhisuniquetreatmentwhichisalsoquitepopularin
thesouthAsianpolitics.

Thewriterhasinvitedsuccessful,dedicatedanddetermined
characterstodramatizehismissiononeoftheprominentcharacteris
Kemankar,whonotonlyplaysorholdstheleadingresponsibilitybut
alsogivesthelessonoftransformation.Beingtheantagonist,heplays
theroleofprotagonistbywinningtheheartofthepeopleandthe
princessMalini.Hehasconsistencyanddedicationfortheroadmaphe
hasdrawnforthekingdom.Heisthepeculiarpoliticianwhowantsto
destroythepalace.Forthishegoestotheforeignlandtocollectarmies
withweapons.Heknowsthathisownarmiesarentsufficientenough
fortransformation.Unfortunately,hegetsbetrayedbyhisownfriend
Supriya.

Critically,Kemankaristhedashingfigure,welcomedbythewriter
intheplayMalini.Hisheartissomarvelousthatdoesntgetmelted
withtheprovincesorthefaceofthebeautifullady.Therealsonofthe
statedoesntforgethisresponsibility.ThatsthereasonwhyKemankar
supposestochangethetraditionalappearanceofthekingdom.Avery
carefulreaderofliteratureandpoliticsmaydiscoverthespectrumof
personalitiesbythedialogueofKemankar.Heispeculiar,courageous
andthemultidimensionalrebel.AccordingtoMalini,theironchain
doesntshuthispersonality.Anyway,heprovedtobetheprotagonist
althoughhegivesdeathpenaltytohisfriendSupriya.

Inanutshell,RabindraNathTagore,anoutstandingBengali
writer,successivelyphotographsbenevolenceandmalevolenceby

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dramatizingsocalledpolitics.Asalamphastheshadow,similarly,love
isequallypotentialtoreflecthatred.Sofarasthemodernpoliticsis
concerned,itisnotdefinedbytheMonarchybutisinterpretedbythe
people.

DrawthecharactersketchofMalini.

MaliniistheprincipalcharacterinthepoeticplayMalini.Sheisa
simple,innocent,beautiful,confidentandyoungprincessofaHindu
kingdom.ShehashereducationwithBuddistmonksandstarts
preachingtheirprinciplesinthekingdom.Sheneithercaresthewealth
orthecomfortofthepalace.Sheisdevotedforthecauseofhumanity
assherealizesthesufferingofthepeopleandwantstoservethem,she
hasabroadheartandisreadytoforgiveevenKemankarwhohas
plottedherbanishmentplan.SheunderstandsitclearlythatBrahmins
aredemandingherbanishmentbecauseofhercreedastheythinkthat
hercreedisagreatthreattotheirreligion.Sheherselfisdesiroustobe
banishedsothatshecouldsolvetheproblemsofpeopleoutsidethe
palace.WhenshecomestotheBrahmins,shespeakstothemwith
divineconfidenceandpersuadesthemthatsheactuallyintendstohelp
them.Theagitatingmassissoimpressedbyherpersonality,simplicity
andherwordsthattheyconsiderheraslittlegoddessandrestoreher
backtothepalace.SherequeststhekingtopardonKemankarasshe
considersthatitisbettertowin(conquer)apersonbyloveratherthan
bypunishinghim.

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DrawacharactersketchofSupriyaandshowhowheisdifferentfrom
Kemankar.

SupriyaisoneoftheBrahminswhoaredemandingMalinis
banishment.BothKemankarandSupriyaconsiderthatMaliniscreed
possesagreatthreattotheirreligion.However,fromthevery
beginning,Supriyaopposesthebanishmentplanofaninnocentgirl.He
doesntbelievethatthenumberofpeoplecandeterminethetruth.He
feelsshametoownareligionthatdependsonforceofitsexistence.
AftermeetingwithMalini,Supriyadeclaresthattraditionalreligious
booksarenotbeingabletogivehimtrueknowledgeandconsolationas
heisimpressedbyMaliniswordsandherpersonality.Therefore,in
ordertogetherconfidence,hebetrayshisbestfriendKemankarand
tellsthekingaboutKemankarsplan.

SupriyaisdifferentfromKemankaralthoughtheyaresmuch
closedfriendsfromtheirchildhood.Kemankarisveryfirminhisbelief
andhasunchangingdeterminationwhereasSupriyahasgotachanging
mindandisalwaysdoubtful.Feelingthedangeronhisreligion,when
Kemankargoestoforeignland,Supriyapromisestowaitinthekingdom
andkeepinforminghimaboutthesituation.However,inordertoget
Malinisconfidence,hebetrayshisbestfriendbyhandingoverthe
lettertotheking.However,SupriyaregretshisactwhenKemankaris
arrestedbytheking.

WouldyoucallSupriyaabetrayer?Givereasonsinsupportofyour
answer.

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InthepoetplayMalini,Supriyacanbecalledabetrayer.Inhis
entirelife,SupriyafollowsKemankar.HeregardsKemankarashisbest
friend,guideandteacher.WhenKemankarintendstogotoforeign
countrytobringsoldierstobanishMaliniandtouprootthenewcreed,
heaskedSupriyatoremainthereinthekingdomtoinformhimabout
thesituation.SupriyapromisestoactaccordingtoKemankarswish.
KemankaralsowantsSupriyanottobeimpressedbyanykindof
novelty(newness),falsehoodandheshouldnotignorehispromise.
KemankarwrotealettertoSupriyagivingdetailsabouthisplanfor
uprootingthenewcreed.However,becauseofhisownethics,Supriya
revealsKemankarsplantothekingbyhandingoverhisletter.Theking
arrestedKemankarwiththehelpoftheletter.ThiswaySupriya
deviatesfromhisownpromiseandbetrayshisfriend.Sincehebetrays
hisfriend,hecanbecalledabetrayer.

DrawacharactersketchofKemankar.

Kemankar,theantagonistcharacterinthepoeticplayMaliniis
portrayedasanextremelyorthodoxBrahminandreligiouslyvery
obstinateone.HeisadeeplydevotedHinduBrahminwhosupports
Hinduismveryblindly.WhenMaliniistaughtbyBuddhistmonksand
adoptedBuddhism,KemankarthinksthatMalinistandsagainst
Hinduismwhichisagreatthreattohisreligion.BecauseMalinisnew
creed,BrahminsareagitatedunderKemankarsleadershipdemanding
Malinisbanishmentfromthepalaceaswellasthekingdom.When
MaliniappearsbeforetheBrahminsandtalkstothemwithdivine
confidence,theagitatingBrahminsareconvincedthatMaliniisnot

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againsttheirreligionbutsheintendstohelpthem.Sotheyrestoreher
backattheroyalpalace.WhenalltheBrahminsareimpressedbyher
impressivewordsincludinghisclosefriendSupriya,Kemankardecides
togotoforeigncountryinordertobringforeignsoldierstouproot
BuddhismfromthekingdomandbanishMalini.However,heisarrested
becauseofSupriyasbetrayalashehandedovertheletterwrittenby
Kemankarhavingdetailedplanstoattackthekingdomtotheking.
WhenthekingisabouttokillKemankarforhistreacherytohisown
motherland,Malinirequeststhekingtoforgivehim.

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TheSixMillionDollarMan

HaroldJ.Morowitz

Summary

HaroldJMorowitzinhisessayTheSixMillionDollarMan
examinesthevalueofchemicalspresentinhumanbodyandarrivesat
aconclusionthathumanbodyisindeedinvaluable.

Oncethewriterreceivedabirthdaygreetingscardwhereitwas
writtenthatthematerialvalueofhumanbodywasworthonly97cents.
Beingascientisthimself,thewriterbecomescuriousanddecidedto
examinethestatementwiththehelpofcataloguesgiventohimby
biochemicalcompanies.Hecalculatedvarioushumanbodychemicals
rangingfromthreedollarsto17crore50lakhdollarpergramand
discoveredthattheaveragevalueofhumanbodychemicalwas
$245.54pergram.Furthercalculationbroughtthevalueofhumanbody
chemicalsoversixmilliondollar.Ondiscoveringthisfactthathewasa
sixmilliondollarman,thewriterfeltagreatupgraduationinhisego.
Beingascientist,thewritercalculatedthehumanbodychemicalsinthe
highestinformationalandpurifiedformwhereasinthe97centsfigure
printedonthebirthdaycard,thecalculationwasdoneinthepoorest
informationalstateandforimpurifiedblockofchemicalsonly.

Wemayprocurethehumanbodychemicalsrequiredtoforma
humanbodyfrombiochemistlab.Itisimpossibletoassemblethebody
chemicalsintoacompletehumanform.Thecollectionofbody
chemicalscannotbeequalizedwithhumanbeingasitcannotactand
feellikehumanbeings.Afterdetailedanalysis,finallythewritercomes

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totheconclusionthathumanbodyisreaddlyinvaluableanditis
impropertocomparehumanbeingsintermsofmoney.

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OnThevanityofearthlygreatness

ArthurGuiterman

Summary

Onthevanityofearthlygreatnessisamodernpoemwrittenby
anAmericanpoetArthurGuiterman.Itisaflawlesspoem,whichshows
theremorselessnessoftimeandthevanityofhumangreatness.

Throughthispoem,thepoetannounceshisphilosophyoflifeor
outlookthatallthoseentitiesthatsymbolizeearthlygrandeur,
greatnessandpowersuchasthetusksofmastodons,theswordof
CharlemagnetheJust,thegrizzlybear,greatCaesaretc.willbereduced
incourseoftimeintothingsofnonentity.

Thepresentationofsubjectmatterisquiteironical.Withoutusing
thenegativewords,thepoetturnsthethingsofearthlygreatnessinto
mereshowpieceandnothingness.Eachsentenceiswellbalancedwith
splendidthingsinplaceofsubjectbeinglinkedupwithworthless
objectsattheotherend.Eachsentenceofthepoembringsoutthe
imageofabalance,withagrandfigureonthesideandcipheronthe
otherside.Theironyisobviouswhenthereadersnoticethetusks
transformedintobilliardballs,theswordofCharlemagneintorust,the
grizzlybearintorugetc.

Onecantraceoutthesignofvanityinthelastcouplewherethe
poetadmitsthathedoesntfeelsowellhimselfinthepresenceof
GreatCaesarsbustontheshelf.Thisimpliesthateventhepoetisnot
anexceptionbecausetosomeextenthealsoseemstosufferfrom
vanitycomplexofgreatness.
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Thegardener

RudyardKipling

Summary

Thegardeneristhestorytobereadinbetweenlines.Itiswritten
byRudyardKipling.Itwellwrittenstorywithsuchagreat
craftsmanshipandsurpriseendingthatthereadersfinditnecessaryto
gothroughthesecondreadingandmakereadjustmentintherelation
betweenoneandtheothercharacter.Inotherwords,theendofthe
storyactsasaswitchbacktothebeginningofthestoryforthere
reading.

ThestorydealswiththelifeofMichaelwhoissaidtohavebeen
thechildofunmarriedcoupleGeorgeTurell,aninspectorofIndian
policeandthedaughterofaretirednoncommissionedofficer.Itissaid
thatGeorgeTurelldiedofafallfromahorseinIndiaafewweeks
beforeMichaelwasborn.Afterthat,asadmittedbyGeorgessister
MissHelenTurell,whohadbeentosouthofFranceforherlungtrouble
tookthechargeofthechild.Thebabywasbroughttoherhometown
fromIndia.Latershetookthewholeresponsibilityonhershouldersby
cuttingalltheconnectionwiththemotherandthenoncommissioned
officer.Thesewerethedetailsknowntoallincludingthepublicfor
Helenwasquitefrank.Accordingtoher,scandalswouldonlyincreaseif
onetriedtohushthemup.Shevowedthattheboyresembledhis
fatherGeorgeallover.Shealsoexplainedtothepublicthattheboy
couldcallherMummyifitdelightedhim.Michaelwasprovokedto
seethethingsmadepublicanddeclaredthathewoulddiesoon.

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Howevertheywereinstantlyreconciledwithtearsastheirattachment
wasnotskindeep.

Althoughhewasdisturbedtoknowthathisstatuswasnotregular
duetohisbirth,herecoveredthebalance.Hedecidednottotalkofit
withHelenanymoreforitwouldmakehercry.Laterthewarbegan
andhewasdirectlyenlistedinthearmy,whichwasagreatshockto
Helen.InthebattlefieldwhilewrithingalettertoHelen,hewaskilled
byaShellSplinterandhisbodylaycoveredbyabarnwallthatwaslaid
downbyanothershell.Withhisdeath,herworldstoodstillhavingno
concerntoher.LatershegotanofficialintimationaboutMichaels
bodybeingfound,identifiedandreinterredinHagenzeelethird
Militarycemetery.

Shesetforthecemetery.Onthewayastolid,plainfeatured
Englishwomanvolunteeredtocomewithher.Thewoman,Mrs.
Scarsforth,wasvisitingtheplacefortheninthtime.Shewouldvisit
manygraveswhichwerecommissions.YetsheconfessedtoHelenthat
shehadcometheretovisitaparticulargrave.AfterthatHelenlooked
forthetombofMichael.Agardenercametohelpforwhilelookingat
herwithinfinitecompassion.Tothesurpriseofthereaders,hetoldher
thathewouldshowherwherehersonwaslying.

Themysteriouspresenceofthegardenerinthegraveyard
remindsreadersofJesusChristandmakesthemfeelthatitwashim.
Hiswordsinducethereadersforthesecondreadingandhelpthemfind
outthatagreatdealofinformationaboutMichaelwassuppliedby
Helen,forwhichtherewasnoevidence.HersocalledvisittoFrance,
deathofherbrotherwithasonbeingborninIndia,herdeep

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attachmentwithMichaelandaboveall,herattemptstooverexpose
theirrelationthrowthelightonthehiddenaspectofthestory.Inthe
end,readersfindHelenemergingasanotherMadonna,themotherof
JesusChrist.

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Onesentencesummaries

MyheartleapsupwhenIbehold:

ThepoemmyhearleapsupwhenIbeholdisaboutthejoythe
poetfeelsatthesightofarainbowwhichhasbeensourceofhis
ecstasysincehischildhoodandwillcontinuetobesotillhisoldage.

Speakingofchildren

Onechildisanappendageandtheparentscanhaveprivacyand
properguidanceofthechildwhereasthepluralchildrenistheendof
privacyandthebeginningoftheobligations.

Lookatateacup

Thewriterwhohasdecidedtoremainunmarriedfearing
disintegration,inheritschinacupsfromhermotherwhichwerebought
in1939andtheyhavethepicturesoffallingflowers,whichare
significantandsymbolical.

Awornpath

AwornpathisthestoryofanoldNegrowoman,phoenix
Jackson,whoundertakesalonghazardousjourneyuptothetownto
fetchmedicineforhergrandsonsufferingfromthroatinfection.

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Thepoplarfield

ThepoemThepoplarfieldisthelamentationofthepoetover
thedestructionofthepoplarfieldthatonceprovidedshade,
whisperingsound,coolwindandmelodyofbirds.

Thenightmarelifewithoutfuel

Theessaythenightmarelifewithoutfuelisahypothetical
situationinAmericaduringthelate1990swhendwindlingfuel
resourceshavepushedthedevelopednationtowardsthepreindustrial
stateof1800s.

UnchoppingaTree

Howeverhardwetryandsucceedinunchoppingatreebyusing
tackleandscaffholding,itwillnotbeasstronglyheldasitusedtobe
beforechoppingthetreeandrestoringthingstotheirformerstateis
literallyimpossible.

Keepingthingswhole

Inspiteofthefacethatthepresenceofonethingintheabsence
ofotherisanunavoidablesituation,thepoetisdeterminedtomovefor
keepingthingswhole.

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Concretecat

ThepoemConcreteCat,beinganexampleofaconcretepoem
presentsthewordpictureofastripedcatwithraisedtail,upsidedown
mousebyrearfeetandwhiskeraroundthemouthshowingitscatness
inaction.

Thegardener

Thegardeneristhestorydealingwiththedualrelationship
betweenHelenTurellandMichaelTurellasauntandnephewonthe
onehandandontheotherhandtheunmarriedmotherandillegitimate
sonwhogetskilledinthebattlefield.

Onthevanityofearthlygreatness

ThroughthepoemOnthevanityofEarthlyGreatness,thepoem
announceshisoutlookbysayingthatallthethingsofearthlygrandeur
andpowerwillbereducedintheendintothingsofnonentity.

Malini

Beingthestoryofloveandhatred,thepoeticplayMalini
presentsthecharacterMalini,theembodimentoflovewhowinsthe
hearsofpeopledemandingforherbanishmentincontrasttoother
characterKemankar,theconservativemanofhatredwhorewardshis
wellwisherSupriyawithdeath.

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Oops!Howsthatagain

Theessayoopshowsthatagaingivesahumourousaccountof
tongueslips,spoonerismsandmistranslationwithpsychological
explanationsforsuchmistakesandthereasonforourlaughtertohear
them.

Thesixmilliondollarman

TheessayThesixmilliondollarmanisaninterestingand
scientificevaluationofeachhumanbeingasinfinitelypreciousand
pricelessalthoughthedryweightofthehumanbodycosts245.54
dollarsagramandsixmilliondollarsforthepersonhaving24,436
gramsofdryweight.

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