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# CUT-OFF FREQUENCY

Description:

is a boundary in a system's frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be
reduced (attenuated or reflected) rather than passing through.

Equation :

Description:

## is a dimensionless parameter that describes how underdamped an oscillator or resonator is,and

characterizes a resonator's bandwidth relative to its center frequency. It describes the resonance
behavior of an underdamped harmonic oscillator (resonator).

iMPORTANCE TO FILTERS:

Bandwidth: With increasing Q factor or quality factor, so the bandwidth of the tuned circuit filter is
reduced. As losses decrease so the tuned circuit becomes sharper as energy is stored better in the
circuit.

Wide bandwidth: In many RF applications there is a requirement for wide bandwidth operation. Some
forms of modulation require a wide bandwidth, and other applications require fixed filters to provide
wide band coverage. While high rejection of unwanted signals may be required, there is a competing
requirement for wide bandwidths.

Oscillator phase noise: Any oscillator generates what is known as phase noise. This comprises random
shifts in the phase of the signal. This manifests itself as noise that spreads out from the main carrier. As
might be expected, this noise is not wanted and therefore needs to be minimised.
General spurious signals: Tuned circuits and filters are often used to remove spurious signals. The
sharper the filter and the higher the level of Q, the better the circuit will be able to remove the spurious
signals.

Ringing: As the Q of a resonant circuit increases so the losses decrease. This means that any oscillation
set up within the circuit will take longer to die away. In other words the circuit will tend to "ring" more.
This is actually ideal for use within an oscillator circuit because it is easier to set up and maintain an
oscillation as less energy is lost in the tuned circuit.

Equation :

## Q=E_STORED/E_(LOST PER CYCLE)

DAMPING FACTOR

DESCRIPTION:

It gives the ratio of the rated impedance of the loudspeaker to the source impedance. Only the
resistive part of the loudspeaker impedance is used.

iMPORTANCE TO FILTERS:

It is used to exhibit the characteristic response of an active filter circuit by negative feedback action.

Equation :

DF=2-R_1/R_2

DIAGRAM:

## *TECNOLGIES USED IN FILTERS

DescriptioN:

Electronic filters were originally entirely passive consisting of resistance, inductance and capacitance.
Active technology makes design easier and opens up new possibilities in filter specifications.

Digital filters operate on signals represented in digital form. The essence of a digital filter is that it
directly implements a mathematical algorithm, corresponding to the desired filter transfer function, in its
programming or microcode.

Mechanical filters are built out of mechanical components. In the vast majority of cases they are used to
process an electronic signal and transducers are provided to convert this to and from a mechanical
vibration. However, examples do exist of filters that have been designed for operation entirely in the
mechanical domain.

Distributed element filters are constructed out of components made from small pieces of transmission
line or other distributed elements. There are structures in distributed element filters that directly
correspond to the lumped elements of electronic filters, and others that are unique to this class of
technology.

## Waveguide filters consist of waveguide components or components inserted in the waveguide.

Waveguides are a class of transmission line and many structures of distributed element filters, for
instance the stub (electronics), can also be implemented in waveguides.

Crystal filters use quartz crystals as resonators, or some other piezoelectric material.

Acoustic filters

Optical filters were originally developed for purposes other than signal processing such as lighting and
photography. With the rise of optical fiber technology, however, optical filters increasingly find signal
processing applications and signal processing filter terminology, such as longpass and shortpass, are
entering the field.
AUDIO FILTER

DescriptioN:

Is a frequency dependent amplifier circuit, working in the audio frequency range, 0 hz to beyond 20 khz.
Audio filters can amplify ("boost"), pass or attenuate ("cut") some frequency ranges.

## TYPES OF AUDITO FILTER

LOW PASS

which pass through frequencies below their cutoff frequencies, and progressively attenuates frequencies
above the cutoff frequency

HIGH-PASS

passing high frequencies above the cutoff frequency, and progressively attenuating frequencies below
the cutoff frequency.

BANDPASS

passes frequencies between its two cutoff frequencies, while attenuating those outside the range.

ALL-PASS

passes all frequencies, but affects the phase of any given sinusoidal component, according to its
frequency.

## APPLICATION OF AUDIO FILTER

Low-pass filters are used in audio crossovers to remove high-frequency content from signals being sent
to a low-frequency subwoofer system.

A high-pass filter can be used in an audio crossover to remove low-frequency content from a signal
being sent to a tweeter.

Audio filters can be implemented in analog circuitry as analog filters or in DSP code or computer
software as digital filters.
LINE FILTER

DescriptioN:

Is the kind of electronic filter that is placed between an electronic equipment and a line external to
it, to attenuate conducted radio frequencies -- rfi, also known as electromagnetic interference (emi) --
between the line and the equipment.

## A line filter may be mounted on a PCB

An AC line filter may be a stand-alone device, chassis mounted inside the equipment

A facility AC Line Filter is mounted inside a room or cabinet, at the point where the AC power comes in

## The attenuation of Line filters is measured in 2 areas:

Common Mode - attenuation to signals that appear identically on each of the wires going through the
filter

Differential Mode - attenuation to signals that appear on just one of the lines

For each Mode, the attenuation is characterized over the frequency spectrum, and measured in dB

MIPMAPPING

DescriptioN:
Is a standard technique used to save some of the filtering work needed during texture
minification it is also highly beneficial for cache coherency - without it the memory access pattern during
sampling from distant textures will exhibit extremely poor locality, adversely affecting performance even
if no filtering is performed.

texture filtering

DescriptioN:

is the method used to determine the texture color for a texture mapped pixel, using the colors of nearby
texels(pixels of the texture). There are two main categories of texture filtering, magnification filtering
and minification filtering.

## Filtering method in texture filtering:

Nearest-neighbor interpolation

is the simplest and crudest filtering method it simply uses the color of the texel closest to the
pixel center for the pixel color. While simple, this results in a large number of artifacts - texture
'blockiness' during magnification ,and aliasing and shimmering during minification.

## NEAREST- NEIGHBOR WITH MIPMAPPING

This method still uses nearest neighbor interpolation, but adds mipmapping first the nearest
mipmap level is chosen according to distance, then the nearest texel center is sampled to get the pixel
color. This reduces the aliasing and shimmering significantly during minification but does not eliminate it
entirely.

## LINEAR MIPMAP FILTERING

Less commonly used, OpenGL and other APIs support nearest-neighbor sampling from individual
mipmaps whilst linearly interpolating the two nearest mipmaps relevant to the sample.

TRILINEAR FILTERING

is a remedy to a common artifact seen in mipmapped bilinearly filtered images: an abrupt and very
noticeable change in quality at boundaries where the renderer switches from one mipmap level to the
next. Trilinear filtering solves this by doing a texture lookup and bilinear filtering on the two closest
mipmap levels (one higher and one lower quality), and then linearly interpolating the results.

ANISOTROPIC FILTERING

Is the highest quality filtering available in current consumer 3D graphics cards. Simpler, "isotropic"
techniques use only square mipmaps which are then interpolated using bi or trilinear filtering.
PERCENTAGE CLOSER FILTERING

a depth map of the scene is rendered from the light source. During the subsequent rendering of the
scene this depth map is then projected back into the scene from the position of the light and a
comparison is performed between the projective depth coordinate and the fetched texture sample
depth

Wiener filter

Description:

is a filter used to produce an estimate of a desired or target random process by linear time-invariant (LTI)
filtering of an observed noisy process, assuming known stationary signal and noise spectra, and additive
noise. The Wiener filter minimizes the mean square error between the estimated random process and
the desired process.

Application:

The Wiener filter has a variety of applications in signal processing, image processing, control systems,
and digital communications. These applications generally fall into one of four main categories:

## System identification, Deconvolution ,Noise reduction, Signal detection

It is commonly used to denoise audio signals, especially speech, as a preprocessor before speech
recognition.