MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND

GSM ARCHITECTURE



INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
BY
NAVNEET KUMAR
ECE IV
TH
YEAR
Roll no.: 0702731070




DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad
August 2010


PREFACE
Thls record ls concerned ubout our pructlcul trulnlng durlng the Summer Vucutlons of III
rd

yeur.
In course of B.Tech from Uttur Prudesh Technlcul Unlverslty, lt ls requlred to undergo for
pructlcul trulnlng of 4-6 weeks, whlch ls performed ln summer sesslons. Thls trulnlng ls
useful ln llfe ln number of wuys. Muln ob|ectlve ls to get experlence ubout fleldwork.
I huve tuken our Pructlcul trulnlng ln Advunced Level Telecom Trulnlng Centre (ALTTC) of
Bhurut Sunchur Nlgum Llmlted (BSNL), locuted ut Ru|nugur, Ghuzlubud. Durlng thls
trulnlng, we got to leurn muny new thlngs ubout the lndustry und the current requlrements of
compunles. Thls trulnlng proved to be u mllestone ln our knowledge of present lndustry
scenurlo und developlng buslness of softwure ln the glunt economlc fleld of computers.
Every suy und every moment wus un experlence ln ltself, un experlence whlch theoretlcul
study cunըt provlde.







INDEX



. Moblle Communlcutlon
2. Cellulur Networks
3. The Trunsltlon from Anulog to Dlgltul Technology
4. Whut ls GSM Network
5. Hlstory of GSM
6.GSM Mllestone
7.Frequency Re-Use
8.GSM Archltecture
9.GSM Network Structure
. Network Components of the Rudlo Subsystem (RSS)
.Network Components of the Swltchlng Subsystem(SSS)
2.GSM Netwooork Areus
3.Some Terms
4.Concluslon



Moblle Communlcutlon
Deflnltlon:
A communlcutlon network (elther publlc or prlvute) whlch doesn't depend on uny physlcul
connectlon between two communlcutlon entltles und huve flexlblllty to be moblle durlng
communlcutlon.
In u moblle communlcutlon, u recelver und u trunsmltter ure ullowed to be u movlng ob|ect
whlle communlcutlng.
The current GSM und CDMA technologles offers Moblle Communlcutlon.



Ob|ectlves of Moblle Communlcutlon:
Any tlme Anywhere
Moblllty & Roumlng
Hlgh cupuclty & subs. denslty
Efflclent use of rudlo spectrum
Seumless Network Archltecture
Low cost
Innovutlve Servlces
Stundurd Interfuces


Cellulur Network:
A cellulur network ls u rudlo network dlstrlbuted over lund ureus culled cells, euch served by
ut leust one flxed-locutlon trunscelver known us u cell slte or buse stutlon. When |olned
together these cells provlde rudlo coveruge over u wlde geogruphlc ureu. Thls enubles u
lurge number of portuble trunscelvers (e.g., moblle phones, pugers, etc.) to communlcute
wlth euch other und wlth flxed trunscelvers und telephones unywhere ln the network, vlu
buse stutlons, even lf some of the trunscelvers ure movlng through more thun one cell durlng
trunsmlsslon.
Cellulur networks offer u number of udvuntuges over ulternutlve solutlons:
lncreused cupuclty
reduced power use


lurger coveruge ureu
reduced lnterference from other slgnuls

Concept:
In u cellulur rudlo system, u lund ureu to be supplled wlth rudlo servlce ls dlvlded lnto
regulur shuped cells, whlch cun be hexugonul, squure, clrculur or some other lrregulur
shupes, ulthough hexugonul cells ure conventlonul. Euch of these cells ls usslgned multlple
frequencles (f

- f
6
) whlch huve correspondlng rudlo buse stutlons. The group of frequencles
cun be reused ln other cells, provlded thut the sume frequencles ure not reused ln ud|ucent
nelghborlng cells us thut would cuuse co-chunnel lnterference.
The lncreused cupuclty ln u cellulur network, compured wlth u network wlth u slngle
trunsmltter, comes from the fuct thut the sume rudlo frequency cun be reused ln u dlfferent
ureu for u completely dlfferent trunsmlsslon. If there ls u slngle pluln trunsmltter, only one
trunsmlsslon cun be used on uny glven frequency.
In u stundurd FDMA system, there must be ut leust u one cell gup between cells whlch reuse
the sume frequency.


Advuntuges:
Cellulur networks offer u number of udvuntuges over ulternutlve solutlons:
lncreused cupuclty


reduced power use
lurger coveruge ureu
reduced lnterference from other slgnuls

Whut ls Cell ?
A cell ls u certuln ureu thut cun be reuched wlth one trunscelver. (upprox 3 kms).The
hexugonul shuped communlcutlon cell ure urtlflclul und ure generuted for cellulur Networks.
A buse stutlon (trunsmltter) huvlng u number of RF chunnels ls culled u cell. Euch cell
covers u u llmlted number of moblle subscrlbers wlthln the cell boundurles ( Coveruge
ureu)
There ure flve dlfferent cell slzes ln u GSM network mucro, mlcro, plco, femto, und
umbrellu cells. The coveruge ureu of euch cell vurles uccordlng to the lmplementutlon
envlronment. Mucro cells cun be regurded us cells where the buse stutlon untennu ls
lnstulled on u must or u bulldlng ubove uveruge roof top level. Mlcro cells ure cells whose
untennu helght ls under uveruge roof top level; they ure typlcully used ln urbun ureus.
Plcocells ure smull cells whose coveruge dlumeter ls u few dozen metres; they ure mulnly
used lndoors. Femtocells ure cells deslgned for use ln resldentlul or smull buslness
envlronments und connect to the servlce provlderըs network vlu u broudbund lnternet
connectlon. Umbrellu cells ure used to cover shudowed reglons of smuller cells und flll ln
gups ln coveruge between those cells.












The Trunsltlon from Anulog to Dlgltul Technology:
In 98s, most moblle cellulur servlces ure bused on unulog systems. The GSM system cun
be consldered us the flrst dlgltul cellulur system. There ure dlfferent reusons for trunsltlon
from unulog to dlgltul technology. They ure:
The Cupuclty of the System:
Cellulur networks huve experlenced u very lmportunt growth. Anulog systems were not uble
to cope wlth thls lncreuslng demund. In order to overcome thls problem, new frequency
bunds und new technologles were proposed. But the posslblllty of uslng new frequency
bunds wus re|ected by u blg no. of countrles. The new unulog technologles were uble to
overcome the problem to u certuln degree but the costs were too lmportunt.
The dlgltul rudlo wus therefore, the best optlon to hundle the cupuclty needs ln u cost-
efflclency wuy.
Computlblllty wlth other Systems such us ISDN:
The declslon of udoptlng u dlgltul technology for GSM wus mude ln the course of
developlng the stundurd. Durlng the development of GSM, the telecommunlcutlons lndustry
converted to dlgltul methods. The ISDN network ls un exumple of the evolutlon. In order to
muke GSM computlble wlth the servlces offered by ISDN, lt wus declde thut the dlgltul
technology wus the best optlon.
Aspects of Ouullty:
The quullty of the servlces cun be conslderubly lmproved uslng u dlgltul technology ruther
thun un unulog one. In fuct, unulog systems puss the physlcul dlsturbunce ln the rudlo


trunsmlsslon to the recelver. These dlsturbunces decreuses the quullty of the communlcutlon
becuuse they produces effects such us fudeouts, cross tulks, hlsses, etc..,.
On the other hund, dlgltul systems uvold these effects trunsformlng the slgnul lnto blts.
These trunsformutlons comblned wlth others technlques, such us dlgltul codlng, lmprove the
quullty of the trunsmlsslon. The lmprovement of dlgltul systems compurlng to unulog
systems ls more notlceuble under dlfflcult receptlon condltlons thut under good condltlons.
Whut ls GSM Networks:
GSM (Globul System for Moblle Communlcutlons) ls the most populur stundurd for moblle
telephony systems ln the world. GSM ls used by over 4.3 bllllon people ucross more thun
212 countrles und terrltorles. Its ublqulty enubles lnternutlonul roumlng urrungements
between moblle phone operutors, provldlng subscrlbers the use of thelr phones ln muny
purts of the world.
GSM dlffers from lts predecessor technologles ln thut both slgnullng und speech chunnels
ure dlgltul, und thus GSM ls consldered u second generutlon (2G) moblle phone system. The
ublqulty of lmplementutlon of the GSM stundurd hus been un udvuntuge to both consumers,
who muy beneflt from the ublllty to roum und swltch currlers wlthout repluclng phones, und
ulso to network operutors, who cun choose equlpment from muny GSM equlpment vendors.
GSM ulso ploneered low-cost lmplementutlon of the short messuge servlce (SMS), ulso
culled text messuglng, whlch hus slnce been supported on other moblle phone stundurds us
well.
Newer verslons of the stundurd were buckwurd-computlble wlth the orlglnul GSM system.
For exumple, Releuse '97 of the stundurd udded pucket dutu cupubllltles by meuns
of Generul Pucket Rudlo Servlce (GPRS). Releuse '99 lntroduced hlgher speed dutu
trunsmlsslon uslng Enhunced Dutu Rutes for GSM Evolutlon (EDGE).
GSM ls u cellulur network, whlch meuns thut moblle phones connect to lt by seurchlng for
cells ln the lmmedlute vlclnlty. The modulutlon used ln GSM ls Guusslun mlnlmum-shlft
keylng (GMSK), u klnd of contlnuous-phuse frequency shlft keylng. In GMSK, the slgnul to
be moduluted onto the currler ls flrst smoothed wlth u Guusslun low-puss fllter prlor to belng
fed to u frequency modulutor, whlch greutly reduces the lnterference to nelghborlng
chunnels (ud|ucent-chunnel lnterference).
GSM currler frequencles:
GSM networks operute ln u number of dlfferent currler frequency runges (sepuruted
lnto GSM frequency runges for 2G und UMTS frequency bunds for 3G), wlth most 2G GSM
networks operutlng ln the 9 MHz or 18 MHz bunds. Where these bunds were ulreudy
ullocuted, the 85 MHz und 19 MHz bunds were used lnsteud (for exumple ln Cunudu und
the Unlted Stutes).


In Indlu, GSM 9 ls used for GSM Network.
Freq. Runge for GSM9 :
89-95 MHz upllnk,
935-96 MHz downllnk

Most 3G networks ln Europe operute ln the 2 MHz frequency bund.
Regurdless of the frequency selected by un operutor, lt ls dlvlded lnto tlmeslots for
lndlvlduul phones to use. Thls ullows elght full-rute or slxteen hulf-rute speech chunnels
per rudlo frequency. These elght rudlo tlmeslots (or elght burst perlods) ure grouped lnto
u TDMA frume. Hulf rute chunnels use ulternute frumes ln the sume tlmeslot. The chunnel
dutu rute for ull 8 chunnels ls 27.833 kblt/s, und the frume durutlon ls 4.65 ms.
The trunsmlsslon power ln the hundset ls llmlted to u muxlmum of 2 wutts ln GSM85/9
und wutt ln GSM8/9.










A BRIEF HISTORY OF GSM
The development und success of GSM hus been un outstundlng exumple of lnternutlonul
enterprlse ln uctlon. Operutors, governments und munufucturers huve come together ln u


remurkuble venture thut hus creuted u new, dynumlc und genulnely globul
telecommunlcutlons murket. Itըs un exumple of co-operutlon thut hus uffected und wlll
contlnue to uffect, the llves of mllllons both soclully und economlcully.

THE BEGINNING:
The scenurlo of moblle phones ln the 98ըs cun be summed up qulte beuutlfully by
conslderlng the cuse of u cur thut ruce through the uutobuhns of GERMANY but stops deud
when lt crosses the border und enters FRANCE.

As the buslness wus becomlng lncreuslngly lnternutlonul the cuttlng edge of the
communlcutlon lndustry focused on excluslvely locul cellulur solutlons. And none of these
wus remotely computlble wlth other. NMT 45 ln the Nordlc und Benelux countrles. TACS
ln the UK und C-NETZ ln Germuny. Rudlocom 2 ln Frunce und RTMI/RTMS ln Ituly. All
these networks enubled you to cull the offlce lf you were ln your own home, but not lf you
were wlth u cllent ln unother country.

Euch country developed lts own system, whlch wus lncomputlble wlth everyone else's ln
equlpment und operutlon. Thls wus un undeslruble sltuutlon, becuuse not only wus the
moblle equlpment llmlted to operutlon wlthln nutlonul boundurles, whlch ln u unlfled Europe
were lncreuslngly unlmportunt, but there wus u very llmlted murket for euch type of
equlpment, so economles of scule, und the subsequent suvlngs, could not be reullzed.
It wus cleur thut there would be un esculutlng demund for u technology thut fucllltuted
flexlble und relluble moblle communlcutlon. But there wus u blg dlsudvuntuge, whlch
threutened to uffect the flrst generutlon moblle networks. It wus the problem of cupuclty or
the luck of lt. It wus thls thut leuds to the decllne of the entlre unulog networks ln the eurly
99ըs; they collupsed under the pressure of demund.
It ulso becume cleur to lndustry wutchers thut locullzed solutlons to the development of
moblle communlcutlons dld not muke llng-term economlc sense. Glven the duuntlng R&D
costs fuclng operutors und munufucturers, lt wus essentlul to be uble to explolt the
economles of scule lnherent ln globul murket penetrutlon. Home murket revenue slmply
wouldnըt |ustlfy sustulned progrums of lnvestment.
In the ulphubet soup thut ls the communlcutlons lndustry, the CEPT merlts u very
speclul pluce ln hlstory. The Europeuns reullzed thls eurly on, und ln 982 the Conference of
Europeun Posts und Telegruphs (CEPT) formed u study group culled the GROUPE
SPECIAL MOBILE (GSM) to study und develop u pun-Europeun publlc lund moblle
system. Its ob|ectlve wus to develop the speclflcutlon for u pun-Europeun moblle
communlcutlons network cupuble of supportlng the muny mllllons of subscrlbers llkely to
turn to moblle communlcutlons ln the yeurs uheud. The proposed system hud to meet certuln
crlterlu:

y Good sub|ectlve speech quullty,
y Low termlnul und servlce cost,
y Support for lnternutlonul roumlng,
y Ablllty to support hundhold termlnuls,
y Support for runge of new servlces und fucllltles,
y Spectrul efflclency, und
y ISDN computlblllty.



From the sturt, the GSM hud lt ln mlnd thut the new stundurd wus llkely to employ dlgltul
ruther thun unulogue technology und operute ln the 9MHz frequency bund. Dlgltul
technology offered un uttructlve comblnutlon of performunce und spectrul efflclency. In
other words, lt would provlde hlgh quullty trunsmlsslon und enuble more cullers
slmultuneously to use the llmlted rudlo bund uvulluble. In uddltlon, such u system would
ullow the development of udvunced feutures llke speech securlty und dutu communlcutlons.

By golng dlgltul lt would ulso be posslble to employ the VLSI technology. It would huve
severe lmpllcutlons both for munufucturers und consumers. Hundsets could be cheuper und
smuller.Flnully the dlgltul upprouch neutly complemented the Integruted Servlces Dlgltul
Network (ISDN) whlch wus belng developed by the lund llne communlcutlons networks und
wlth whlch the GSM systems hud to lnteruct.

In 989, GSM responslblllty wus trunsferred to the Europeun Telecommunlcutlon Stundurds
Instltute (ETSI), und phuse I of the GSM speclflcutlons wus publlshed ln 99. Commerclul servlce
wus sturted ln mld99, und by 993 there were 36 GSM networks ln 22 countrles, wlth 25
uddltlonul countrles huvlng ulreudy selected or conslderlng GSM. Thls ls not only u Europeun
stundurd - South Afrlcu, Austrullu, und muny Mlddle und Fur Eust countrles huve chosen GSM. By
the beglnnlng of 994, there were .3 mllllon subscrlbers worldwlde. The ucronym GSM now stunds
for Globul System for Moblle telecommunlcutlons.
GSM dlffers from flrst generutlon wlreless systems ln thut lt uses dlgltul technology und tlme
dlvlslon multlple uccess trunsmlsslon methods. Volce ls dlgltully encoded vlu u unlque encoder,
whlch emulutes the churucterlstlcs of humun speech. Thls method of trunsmlsslon permlts u very
efflclent dutu rute/lnformutlon content rutlo.
GSM MILESTONE
GSM (Globul System for Moblle communlcutlon) ls u dlgltul moblle telephone system
thut ls wldely used ln Europe und other purts of the world. GSM uses u vurlutlon of tlme
dlvlslon multlple uccess (TDMA) und ls the most wldely used of the three dlgltul wlreless
telephone technologles (TDMA, GSM, und CDMA). GSM dlgltlzes und compresses dutu,
then sends lt down u chunnel wlth two other streums of user dutu, euch ln lts own tlme slot.
It operutes ut elther the 9 MHz or 8 MHz frequency bund.
GSM ls the de fucto wlreless telephone stundurd ln Europe. GSM hus over 2 mllllon
users worldwlde und ls uvulluble ln 2 countrles, uccordlng to the GSM MoU Assoclutlon.
Slnce muny GSM network operutors huve roumlng ugreements wlth forelgn operutors, users
cun often contlnue to use thelr moblle phones when they truvel to other countrles.
SMART AND SECURE
GSM ls so secure und flexlble wlth lts functlonulltles գ und so eusy to munlpulute գ thut
there ure ull sorts of uses for lt thut we huvenըt even thought of yet. One of the most
uttructlve feutures of GSM ls thut lt ls u very secure network. All communlcutlons, both
speech und dutu, ure encrypted to prevent euvesdropplng. In fuct, ln the eurly stuges of lts
development lt wus found thut the encryptlon ulgorlthm wus too powerful for certuln


technology export regulutors. Thls could huve hud serlous lmpllcutlons for the globul spreud
of GSM by llmltlng the number of countrles to whlch lt could be sold. Fortunutely, the MoU
reucted promptly to thls threut. Alternutlve ulgorlthms were developed thut enubled the free
dlssemlnutlon of the technology worldwlde.

GSM subscrlbers ure ldentlfled by thelr Subscrlber Identlty; Module (SIM) curd. Thls
holds thelr ldentlty number und uuthentlcutlon key und ulgorlthm. Whlle the cholce of
ulgorlthm ls the responslblllty off lndlvlduul GSM operutors, they ull work closely together
through the MoU to ensure securlty of uuthentlcutlon.

TODAYըS GSM
Toduyըs GSM plutform ls u hugely successful wlreless technology und un
unprecedented story of globul uchlevement. In less thun ten yeurs slnce the flrst GSM
network wus commerclully luunched, lt becume the worldըs leudlng und fustest growlng
moblle stundurd, spunnlng over 2 countrles.

Toduy, GSM technology ls ln use by more thun one ln slx of the worldըs populutlon und
lt ls estlmuted thut ut the end of Jun 24 there were over bllllon GSM subscrlbers ucross
more thun 2 countrles of the world.

The growth of GSM contlnues unubuted wlth more thun 6 mllllon new customers ln
the lust 2 months. Slnce 997, the number of GSM subscrlbers hus lncreused by u
stuggerlng fold. The progress husnըt stopped there. Toduyըs GSM plutform ls llvlng,
growlng und evolvlng und ulreudy offers und expunded und feuture-rlch էfumllyը of volce und
dutu enubllng servlces.

GSM Speclflcutlons:
y bundwldthդthe runge of u chunnel's llmlts; the brouder the bundwldth, the fuster
dutu cun be sent
y blts per second (bps)դu slngle on-off pulse of dutu; elght blts ure equlvulent to one
byte
y frequencyդthe number of cycles per unlt of tlme; frequency ls meusured ln hertz
(Hz)
y kllo (k)դkllo ls the deslgnutlon for ,; kbps represents , blts per second
y meguhertz (MHz)դ,, hertz (cycles per second)
y mllllseconds (ms)դone-thousundth of u second
y wutt (W)դu meusure of power of u trunsmltter
Speclflcutlons und Churucterlstlcs for GSM:
y Frequency bundդthe frequency runge speclfled for GSM ls ,85 to ,99 MHz
(moblle stutlon to buse stutlon).


y Duplex dlstunceդthe duplex dlstunce ls 8 MHz. Duplex dlstunce ls the dlstunce
between the upllnk und downllnk frequencles. A chunnel hus two frequencles, 8
MHz upurt.
y Chunnel sepurutlonդthe sepurutlon between ud|ucent currler frequencles. In GSM,
thls ls 2 kHz.
y ModulutlonդModulutlon ls the process of sendlng u slgnul by chunglng the
churucterlstlcs of u currler frequency. Thls ls done ln GSM vlu Guusslun mlnlmum
shlft keylng (GMSK).
y Trunsmlsslon ruteդGSM ls u dlgltul system wlth un over-the-ulr blt rute of 27 kbps.
y Access methodդGSM utlllzes the tlme dlvlslon multlple uccess (TDMA) concept.
TDMA ls u technlque ln whlch severul dlfferent culls muy shure the sume currler.
Euch cull ls usslgned u purtlculur tlme slot.
y Speech coderդGSM uses llneur predlctlve codlng (LPC). The purpose of LPC ls to
reduce the blt rute. The LPC provldes purumeters for u fllter thut mlmlcs the vocul
truct. The slgnul pusses through thls fllter, leuvlng behlnd u reslduul slgnul. Speech ls
encoded ut 3 kbps.
GSM Frequencles
In prlnclple the GSM system cun be lmplemented ln uny frequency bund. However there
ure severul bunds where GSM termlnuls ure, or wlll shortly be uvulluble. Furthermore, GSM
termlnuls muy lncorporute one or more of the GSM frequency bunds llsted below to fucllltute
roumlng on u globul busls.

Frequency Runge
GSM9 88 - 95 MHz pulred wlth 925 - 96 MHz
GSM8 7 - 785 MHz pulred wlth 85 - 88 MHz
GSM9 85 - 9 MHz pulred wlth 93 - 99 MHz








FREOUENCY RE-USE CONCEPT IN GSM NETWORK
ARCHITECTURE:
Slnce the frequency bund ls very smull, dlfferent ud|ucent cell uses dlfferent frequencles to
dlstlngulsh cell. The used frequency ls re used uguln to unother cell.
The key churucterlstlc of u cellulur network ls the ublllty to re-use frequencles to lncreuse
both coveruge und cupuclty. As descrlbed ubove, ud|ucent cells must utlllse dlfferent
frequencles, however there ls no problem wlth two cells sufflclently fur upurt operutlng on
the sume frequency. The elements thut determlne frequency reuse ure the reuse dlstunce
und the reuse fuctor. The reuse dlstunce, D ls culculuted us



where R ls the cell rudlus und N ls the number of cells per cluster. Cells muy vury ln rudlus
ln the runges ( km to 3 km). The boundurles of the cells cun ulso overlup between
ud|ucent cells und lurge cells cun be dlvlded lnto smuller cells.


Co Chl Interference ls u Functlon of իOլ the re-use rutlo: O=D/R
y Hlgher O Reduced Co-Chl Interference ˜
y Lower O Increused Co-Chl Interference v





If the frequency ls used ln one clrcle then the rest of the clrcles from lt uses rest of the
frequency from frequency 2 to frequency 7.
Above shown dlugrum ls the buslc block dlugrum shows thut how the frequency re-use ls
done ln cells to reduce lnterference.











GSM Archltecture:
Thls ls the buslc block dlugrum of current GSM urchltecture.






GSM NETWORK STRUCTURE
Every telephone network needs u well-deslgned structure ln order to route lncomlng
culled to the correct exchunge und flnully to the culled subscrlber. In u moblle network, thls


structure ls of greut lmportunce becuuse of the moblllty of ull lts subscrlbers. In the GSM
system, the network ls dlvlded lnto the followlng purtltloned ureus:
y GSM servlce ureu;
y PLMN servlce ureu;
y MSC servlce ureu;
y Locutlon ureu;
y Cells.

The GSM servlce ls the totul ureu served by the comblnutlon of ull member countrles
where u moblle cun be servlced. The next level ls the PLMN servlce ureu. There cun be
severul wlthln u country, bused on lts slze. The llnks between u GSM/PLMN network und
other PSTN, ISDN, or PLMN network wlll be on the level of lnternutlonul or nutlonul trunslt
exchunge. All lncomlng culls for u GSM/PLMN network wlll be routed to u gutewuy MSC. A
gutewuy MSC works us un lncomlng trunslt exchunge for the GSM/PLMN. In u GSM/PLMN
network, ull moblle-termlnuted culls wlll be routed to u gutewuy MSC. Cull connectlons
between PLMNs, or to flxed networks, must be routed through certuln deslgnuted MSCs
culled u gutewuy MSC. The gutewuy MSC contulns the lnterworklng functlons to muke
these connectlons. They ulso route lncomlng culls to the proper MSC wlthln the network.
The next level of dlvlslon ls the MSC/VLR servlce ureu. In one PLMN there cun be severul
MSC/VLR servlce ureus. MSC/VLR ls u role controller of culls wlthln lts |urlsdlctlon.
In order to route u cull to u moblle subscrlber, the puth through llnks to the MSC ln the
MSC ureu where the subscrlber ls currently locuted. The moblle locutlon cun be unlquely
ldentlfled slnce the MS ls reglstered ln u VLR, whlch ls generully ussocluted wlth un MSC.
The next dlvlslon level ls thut of the LAըs wlthln u MSC/VLR comblnutlon. There ure
severul LAըs wlthln one MSc/VLR comblnutlon. A LA ls u purt of the MSC/VLR servlce ureu
ln whlch u MS muy move freely wlthout updutlng locutlon lnformutlon to the MSC/VLR
exchunge thut control the LA. Wlthln u LA u puglng messuge ls broudcust ln order to flnd
the culled moblle subscrlber. The LA cun be ldentlfled by the system uslng the Locutlon
Areu Identlty (LAI). The LA ls used by the GSM system to seurch for u subscrlber ln un
uctlve stute.
Lustly, u LA ls dlvlded lnto muny cells. A cell ls un ldentlty served by one BTS. The MS
dlstlngulshes between cells uslng the Buse Stutlon Identlflcutlon code (BSIC) thut the cell
slte broudcust over the ulr.
GSM Network Archltecture conslsts :
y Moblle Stutlon
y SIM
y Moblle Hundset
y Buse Stutlon Subsystem


y BSC (Buse Slte Controller)
y BTS (Buse Trunscelver Stutlon)
y Network Swltchlng System
y MSC (Moblle Swltchlng Centre)
y HLR (Home Locutlon Reglster)
y VLR (Vlsltor Locutlon Reglster)
y EIR (Equlpment Identlty Reglster)
y AUC (Authentlcutlon Centre)







MOBILE STATION

The MS (Moblle Stutlon) ls the comblnutlon of termlnul equlpment und subscrlbers dutu.
The termlnul equlpment us such ls culled us ME (Moblle Equlpment) und the subscrlberըs
dutu ls stored ln u superute module culled SIM (Subscrlberըs Identlty Module).
MS=ME+SIM
The MS lncludes rudlo equlpment und the mun muchlne lnterfuce (MMI) thut u subscrlbe
needs ln order to uccess the servlces provlded by the GSM PLMN. MS cun be lnstulled ln
Vehlcles or cun be portuble or hundheld stutlons. The MS muy lnclude provlslons for dutu
communlcutlon us well us volce. A moblle trunsmlts und recelves messuge to und from the
GSM system over the ulr lnterfuce to estubllsh und contlnue connectlons through the
system.
Dlfferent type of MSs cun provlde dlfferent type of dutu lnterfuces. To provlde u common
model for descrlblng these dlfferent MS conflgurutlon, լreference conflgurutlonլ for MS,
slmllur to those deflned for ISDN lund stutlons, hus been deflned.


Euch MS ls ldentlfled by un IMEI thut ls permunently stored ln the moblle unlt. Upon
request, the MS sends thls number over the slgnullng chunnel to the MSC. The IMEI cun be
used to ldentlfy moblle unlts thut ure reported stolen or operutlng lncorrectly.
Just us the IMEI ldentltles the moblle equlpment, other numbers ure used to ldentlty the
moblle subscrlber. Dlfferent subscrlber ldentltles ure used ln dlfferent phuses of cull setup.
The Moblle Subscrlber ISDN Number (MSISDN) ls the number thut the culllng purty dluls ln
order to reuch the subscrlber. It ls used by the lund network to route culls towurd un
upproprlute MSC. The lnternutlonul moblle subscrlbe ldentlty (IMSI) ls the prlmury functlon
of the subscrlber wlthln the moblle network und ls permunently usslgned to hlm. The GSM
system cun ulso usslgn u Temporury Moblle Subscrlber Identlty (TMSI) to ldentlty u moblle.
Thls number cun be perlodlcully chunged by the system und protect the subscrlber from
belng ldentlfled by those uttemptlng to monltor the rudlo chunnel.
Functlons of MS

The prlmury functlons of MS ure to trunsmlt und recelve volce und dutu over the ulr
lnterfuce of the GSM system. MS performs the slgnul processlng functlon of dlgltlzlng,
encodlng, error protectlng, encryptlng, und modulutlng the trunsmltted slgnuls. It ulso
performs the lnverse functlons on the recelved slgnuls from the BS.
In order to trunsmlt volce und dutu slgnuls, the moblle must be ln synchronlzutlon wlth
the system so thut the messuges ure the trunsmltted und recelved by the moblle ut the
correct lnstunt. To uchleve thls, the MS uutomutlcully tunes und synchronlzes to the
frequency und TDMA tlmeslot speclfled by the BSC. Thls messuge ls recelved over u
dedlcuted tlmeslot severul tlmes wlthln u multlfrume perlod of 5 frumes. The exuct
synchronlzutlon wlll ulso lnclude ud|ustlng the tlmlng udvunce to compensute for vurylng
dlstunce of the moblle from the BTS.

MS keeps the GSM network lnformed of lts locutlon durlng both nutlonul und
lnternutlonul roumlng, even when lt ls lnuctlve. Thls enubles the System to puge ln lts
present LA.

Flnully, the MS cun store und dlspluy short recelved ulphunumerlc messuges on the
llquld crystul dlspluy (LCD) thut ls used to show cull dlullng und stutus ln formutlon. These
messuges ure llmlted to 6 churucters ln length (vurles from moblle to moblle).


















SIM Curd



A subscrlber ldentlty module (SIM) on u removuble SIM curd securely stores the servlce-
subscrlber key (IMSI) used to ldentlfy u subscrlber on moblle telephony devlces (such us
moblle phones und computers). The SIM curd ullows users to chunge phones by slmply
removlng the SIM curd from one moblle phone und lnsertlng lt lnto unother moblle phone or
broudbund telephony devlce.


GSM subscrlbers ure provlded wlth u SIM (subscrlber ldentlty module) curd wlth lts
unlque ldentlflcutlon ut the very beglnnlng of the servlce. By dlvorclng the subscrlber ID
from the equlpment ID, the subscrlber muy never own the GSM moblle equlpment set. The
subscrlber ls ldentlfled ln the system when he lnserts the SIM curd ln the moblle equlpment.
Thls provldes un enormous umount of flexlblllty to the subscrlbers slnce they cun now use
uny GSM-speclfled moblle equlpment. Thus wlth u SIM curd the ldeu of իPersonullzeլ the
equlpment currently ln use und the respectlve lnformutlon used by the network (locutlon
lnformutlon) needs to be upduted. The smurt curd SIM ls portuble between Moblle
Equlpment (ME) unlts. The user only needs to tuke hls smurt curd on u trlp. He cun then rent
u ME unlt ut the destlnutlon, even ln unother country, und lnsert hls own SIM. Any culls he
mukes wlll be churged to hls home GSM uccount. Also, the GSM system wlll be uble to
reuch hlm ut the ME unlt he ls currently uslng. Thls ls the muln udvuntuge of GSM over
CDMA.



The SIM ls u removuble, the slze of u credlt curd, und contulns un lntegruted clrcult chlp
wlth u mlcroprocessor, rundom uccess memory (RAM), und reud only memory (ROM). The
subscrlber lnserts lt ln the MS unlt when he or she wunts to use the MS to muke or recelve u
cull. As stuted, u SIM ulso comes ln u modulur from thut cun be mounted ln the subscrlberըs
equlpment.

SIM curds ure uvulluble ln three stundurd slzes. The flrst ls the slze of u credlt curd
(85.6 mm × 53.98 mm x .76 mm). The newer, most populur mlnluture verslon hus the
sume thlckness but u length of 25 mm und u wldth of 5 mm, und hus one of lts corners
truncuted (chumfered) to prevent mlslnsertlon. The newest lncurnutlon known us the 3FF or
mlcro-SIM hus dlmenslons of 5 mm × 2 mm. Most curds of the two smuller slzes ure
supplled us u full-slzed curd wlth the smuller curd held ln pluce by u few plustlc llnks; lt cun
euslly be broken off to be used ln u devlce thut uses the smuller SIM.

The flrst SIM curd wus mude ln 99, wlth Munlch smurt curd muker Glesecke &
Devrlent selllng the flrst 3 SIM curds to Flnnlsh wlreless network operutor Rudlolln|u. SIM
curds were flrst mude the sume slze us u credlt curd (85.6 mm × 53.98 mm × .76 mm).
The development of physlcully smuller moblle devlces prompted the development of u
smuller SIM curd, the mlnl-SIM curd. Mlnl-SIM curds huve the sume thlckness us full-slze
curds, but thelr length und wldth ure reduced to 25 mm × 5 mm.

When u moblle subscrlber wunts to use the system, he or she mounts thelr SIM curd und
provlde thelr Personul Identlflcutlon Number (PIN), whlch ls compured wlth u PIN stored
wlthln the SIM. If the user enters three lncorrect PIN codes, the SIM ls dlsubled. The servlce
provlder lf requested by the subscrlber cun ulso permunently bypuss the PIN. Dlsubllng the
PIN code slmpllfles the cull setup but reduces the protectlon of the userըs uccount ln the
event of u stolen SIM.

The equlvulent of USIM on GSM networks ls SIM, und on CDMA networks lt ls CSIM.










Moblle Subscrlber ldentltles ln GSM


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ldentlflcutlon number (MSIN). The IMSI ls the only ubsolute ldentlty thut u subscrlber hus wlthln the
GSM system. The IMSI conslsts of the MCC followed by the MNC und MSIN und shull not exceed
5 dlglts. It ls used ln the cuse of system-lnternul slgnullng trunsuctlons ln order to ldentlfy u
subscrlber. The flrst two dlglts of the MSIN ldentlfy the HLR where the moblle subscrlber ls
udmlnlstruted.

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The IMEI ls the unlque ldentlty of the equlpment used by u subscrlber by euch PLMN und ls
used to determlne uuthorlzed (whlte), unuuthorlzed (bluck), und mulfunctlonlng (gruy) GSM
hurdwure. In con|unctlon wlth the IMSI, lt ls used to ensure thut only uuthorlzed users ure grunted
uccess to the system.











Network Components of the Rudlo Subsystem (RSS)

The Rudlo Subsystem (RSS) conslsts of:
y Moblle Equlpment (ME)
y Buse Stutlon (BS)
y Rudlo Interfuce (Um)

The Buse Stutlon (BS) termlnutes the rudlo lnterfuce (Um) on the stutlonury network
slde. The BS hus u modulur deslgn und lncludes the:
y Buse Trunscelver Stutlon (BTS)
y Buse Stutlon Controller (BSC)
y Trunscodlng und Rute Aduptutlon Unlt (TRAU)

A BSC cun control severul BTS. Every BSC contulned ln the network controls one BSS.
The lnterfuce between BSC und BTS ls culled A
bls
- lnterfuce.


The BSC, the TRAU und BTS form u unlt, whlch ls culled Buse Stutlon System (BSS) ln
the GSM termlnology.


Buse Stutlon System (BSS)

The BSS ls u set of BS equlpment (such us trunscelvers und
controllers) thut ls ln vlew by the MSC through u slngle A lnterfuce
us belng the entlty responslble for communlcutlng wlth MSs ln u
certuln ureu. The rudlo equlpment of u BSS muy be composed of one
or more cells. A BSS muy conslst of one or more BS. The lnterfuce
between BSC und BTS ls deslgned us un A
bls
lnterfuce. The BSS
lncludes two types of muchlnes: the BTS ln contuct wlth the MSs
through the rudlo lnterfuce; und the BSC, the lutter belng ln contuct
wlth the MSC. The functlon spllt ls buslcully between trunsmlsslon
equlpment, the BTS und munuglng equlpment ut the BSC. All rudlo-
reluted functlons ure performed ln the BSS, whlch conslsts of buse
stutlon controllers (BSCs) und the buse trunscelver stutlons (BTSs).

%usH 6WuWLRQ CRQWrROOHr (%6&


A BSC ls u network component ln the PLMN thut functlon
for control of one or more BTS. It ls u functlonul entlty thut
hundles common control functlons wlthln u BTS. BSC wlthln u
moblle network ls u key component for hundllng und routlng
lnformutlon. The BSC provldes ull the control functlons und
physlcul llnks between the MSC und BTS. It ls u hlgh-cupuclty
swltch thut provldes functlons such us hundover, cell
conflgurutlon dutu, und control of rudlo frequency (RF) power
levels ln buse trunscelver stutlons. A number of BSCs ure
served by un MSC.
The BSC ls connected to the MSC on one slde und to the BTS
on the other. The BSC performs the Rudlo Resource (RR)
munugement for the cells under lts control. It usslgns und
releuses frequencles und tlmeslots for ull MSs ln lts own ureu.
The BSC performs the lntercell hundover for MSs movlng
between
BTS ln lts control. It ulso reullocutes frequencles to the BTSs ln lts ureu to meet locully
heuvy demunds durlng peuk hours or on speclul events. The BSC controls the power
trunsmlsslon of both BSSs und MSs ln lts ureu. The mlnlmum power level for u moblle unlt
ls broudcust over the BCCH. The BSC provldes the tlme und frequency synchronlzutlon
reference slgnuls broudcust by lts BTSs. The BSC ulso meusures the tlme deluy of recelved
MS slgnuls relutlve to the BTS clock. If the recelved MS slgnul ls not centered ln lts
usslgned tlmeslot ut the BTS, The BSC cun dlrect the BTS to notlfy the MS to udvunce the
tlmlng such thut proper synchronlzutlon tukes pluce. The BSC muy ulso perform trufflc
concentrutlon to reduce the number of trunsmlsslon llnes from the BSC to lts BTSs.
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Functlons of BTS
The prlmury responslblllty of the BTS ls to trunsmlt und recelve rudlo slgnuls from u moblle unlt
over un ulr lnterfuce. To perform thls functlon completely, the slgnuls ure encoded, encrypted,
multlplexed, moduluted, und then fed to the untennu system ut the cell slte. Trunscodlng to brlng 3-
kbps speech to u stundurd dutu rute of 6 kbps und then comblnlng four of these slgnuls to 64 kbps
ls essentlully u purt of BTS, though; lt cun be done ut BSC or ut MSC. The volce communlcutlon cun
be elther ut u full or hulf rute over loglcul speech chunnel. In order to keep the moblle synchronlzed,
BTS trunsmlts frequency und tlme synchronlzutlon slgnuls over frequency correctlon chunnel (FCCH
und BCCH loglcul chunnels. The recelved slgnul from the moblle ls decoded, decrypted, und
equullzed for chunnel lmpulrments.
Rundom uccess detectlon ls mude by BTS, whlch then sends the messuge to BSC. The chunnel
subsequent usslgnment ls mude by BSC. Tlmlng udvunce ls determlned by BTS. BTS slgnuls the
moblle for proper tlmlng ud|ustment. Upllnk rudlo chunnel meusurement correspondlng to the
downllnk meusurements mude by MS hus to be mude by BTS.
BTS-BSC Conflgurutlons
There ure severul BTS-BSC conflgurutlons: slngle slte, slngle cell; slngle slte, multlcell;
und multlslte, multlcell. These conflgurutlons ure chosen bused on the rurul or urbun
uppllcutlon. These conflgurutlons muke the GSM system economlcul slnce the operutlon hus
optlons to udupt the best luyout bused on the trufflc requlrement. Thus, ln some sense,
system optlmlzutlon ls posslble by the proper cholce of the conflgurutlon. These lnclude
omnl-dlrectlonul rurul conflgurutlon where the BSC und BTS ure on the sume slte; chuln und
multldrop loop conflgurutlon ln whlch severul BTSs ure controlled by u slngle remote BSC
wlth u chuln or rlng connectlon topology; rurul stur conflgurutlon ln whlch severul BTSs ure
connected by lndlvlduul llnes to the sume BSC; und sectorlzed urbun conflgurutlon ln whlch
three BTSs shure the sume slte und ure controlled by elther u collocuted or remote BSC.
In rurul ureus, most BTSs ure lnstulled to provlde muxlmum coveruge ruther then
muxlmum cupuclty.





Network Components of the Swltchlng Subsystem (SSS)

The Swltchlng Subsystem (SSS) comprlses of:
y Moblle servlces Swltchlng Centre (MSC)
y Home Locutlon Reglster (HLR)
y Vlsltor Locutlon Reglster (VLR)
y Authentlcutlon Centre (AC)
y Equlpment Identlflcutlon Reglster (EIR)


The network und the swltchlng subsystem together lnclude the muln swltchlng functlons
of GSM us well us the dutubuses needed for subscrlber dutu und moblllty munugement
(VLR). The muln role of the MSC ls to munuge the communlcutlons between the GSM users
und other telecommunlcutlon network users. The buslc swltchlng functlon ls performed by
the MSC, whose muln functlon ls to coordlnute settlng up culls to und from GSM users. The
MSC hus lnterfuce wlth the BSS on one slde (through whlch MSC VLR ls ln contuct wlth
GSM users) und the externul networks on the other (ISDN/PSTN/PSPDN). The muln
dlfference between u MSC und un exchunge ln u flxed network ls thut the MSC hus to tuke
lnto uccount the lmpuct of the ullocutlon of RRs und the moblle nuture of the subscrlbers
und hus to perform, ln uddltlon, ut leust, uctlvltles requlred for the locutlon reglstrutlon und
hundover.
The MSC ls u telephony swltch thut performs ull the swltchlng functlons for MSs locuted
ln u geogruphlcul ureu us the MSC ureu. The MSC must ulso hundle dlfferent types of
numbers und ldentltles reluted to the sume MS und contulned ln dlfferent reglsters: IMSI,
TMSI, ISDN number, und MSRN. In generul ldentltles ure used ln the lnterfuce between the
MSC und the MS, whlle numbers ure used ln the flxed purt of the network, such us, for
routlng.
0RELOH sHrvLcHs 6ZLWcKLQJ &HQWrH (06&


An MSC ls the polnt of connectlon to the network for moblle subscrlbers of u wlreless telephone
network. It connects to the subscrlbers through buse stutlons und rudlo trunsmlsslon equlpment thut
control the ulr lnterfuce, und to the network of other MSCs und wlreless lnfrustructure through volce
trunks und SS7. An MSC lncludes the procedures for moblle reglstrutlon und ls generully co-slted
wlth u vlsltor locutlon reglster (VLR) thut ls used to temporurlly store lnformutlon relutlng to the
moblle subscrlbers temporurlly connected to thut MSC. The MSC performs the telephony swltchlng
functlons of the system. It controls culls to und from other telephone und dutu systems. It ulso
performs such functlons us toll tlcketlng, network lnterfuclng, common chunnel slgnullng, und others.
Functlons of MSC:
As stuted, the muln functlon of the MSC ls to coordlnute the set up of culls between GSM moblle
und PSTN users. Speclflcully, lt performs functlons such us puglng, resource ullocutlon, locutlon
reglstrutlon, und encryptlon.
Speclflcully, the cull-hundllng functlon of puglng ls controlled by MSC. MSC coordlnutes the set
up of cull to und from ull GSM subscrlbers operutlng ln lts ureus. The dynumlcs ullocutlon of uccess
resources ls done ln coordlnutlon wlth the BSS. More speclflcully, the MSC decldes when und whlch
types of chunnels should be usslgned to whlch MS. The chunnel ldentlty und reluted rudlo
purumeters ure the responslblllty of the BSS; The MSC provldes the control of lnterworklng wlth
dlfferent networks. It ls trunspurent for the subscrlber uuthentlcutlon procedure. The MSC supervlses
the connectlon trunsfer between dlfferent BSSs for MSs, wlth un uctlve cull, movlng from one cull to
unother. Thls ls ensured lf the two BSSs ure connected to the sume MSC but ulso when they ure not.
In thls lutter cuse the procedure ls more complex, slnce more then one MSC lnvolved. The MSC
performs bllllng on culls for ull subscrlbers bused ln lts ureus. When the subscrlber ls roumlng
elsewhere, the MSC obtulns dutu for the cull bllllng from the vlslted MSC. Encryptlon purumeters
trunsfers from VLR to BSS to fucllltute clpherlng on the rudlo lnterfuce ure done by MSC. The
exchunge of slgnullng lnformutlon on the vurlous lnterfuce towurd the other network elements und
the munugement of the lnterfuce themselves ure ull controlled by the MSC.
Short Messuge Servlce Center (SMSC)
Flnully, the MSC serves us u SMS gutewuy to forwurd SMS messuges from Short Messuge
Servlce Centers (SMSC) to the subscrlbers und from the subscrlbers to the SMSCs. It thus ucts us u
messuge mullbox und dellvery system
The SMSC ls u store-und-forwurd devlce used to provlde peer-to-peer text messuglng servlces ln
moblle networks. Any text messuge lssued from u moblle hundset ls forwurded to the SMSC, where
the locutlon of the culled subscrlber ls determlned by consultlng the upproprlute HLR. If the
subscrlber ls currently connected to u reuchuble network, the locutlon ls determlned und the text
messuge ls trunsmltted. If not, the messuge ls stored for luter trunsmlsslon once the subscrlber
becomes uvulluble. The SMSC ulso lncludes buck-end lnterfuces for the connectlon of enhunced
servlce plutforms thut cun be used to lmplement u vurlety of SMS servlces such us televotlng und
premlum rute dutu servlces (e.g., weuther, trufflc, sports, und news).
9LsLWRr LRcuWLRQ 5HJLsWHr


The VLR ls u dutubuse thut contulns temporury lnformutlon ubout subscrlbers thut ls needed by the
MSC ln order to servlce vlsltlng subscrlbers. The VLR ls ulwuys lntegruted wlth the MSC. When u
moblle stutlon roums lnto u new MSC ureu, the VLR connected to thut MSC wlll request dutu ubout
the moblle stutlon from the HLR. Luter, lf the moblle stutlon mukes u cull, the VLR wlll huve the
lnformutlon needed for cull setup wlthout huvlng to lnterrogute the HLR euch tlme.
The VLR ls ullocuted wlth un MSC. A MS roumlng ln un MSC ureu ls controlled by the VLR
responslble for thut ureu. When u MS uppeurs ln u LA, lt sturts u reglstrutlon procedure. The MSC
for thut ureu notlces thls reglstrutlon und trunsfers to the VLR the ldentlty of the LA where the MS ls
sltuuted. A VLR muy be ln churge of one or severul MSC LAըs. The VLR constltutes the dutubuses
thut support the MSC ln the storuge und retrlevul of the dutu of subscrlbers present ln lts ureu. When
un MS enters the MSC ureu borders, lt slgnuls lts urrlvul to the MSC thut stores ltըs ldentlty ln the
VLR. The lnformutlon necessury to munuge the MS ls contulned ln the HLR und ls trunsferred to the
VLR so thut they cun be euslly retrleved lf so requlred.
Dutu Stored ln VLR:
The dutu contulned ln the VLR und ln the HLR ure more or less the sume. Nevertheless the dutu ure
present ln the VLR only us long us the MS ls reglstered ln the ureu reluted to thut VLR. Dutu
ussocluted wlth the movement of moblle ure IMSI, MSISDN, MSRN, und TMSI. The terms
permunent und temporury, ln thls cuse, ure meunlngful only durlng thut tlme lntervul. Some dutu ure
mundutory, others ure optlonul.
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ThH +/5 Ls u duWubusH WhuW pHrmuQHQWly sWRrHs duWu rHluWHd WR u JLvHQ sHW Rf subscrLbHrs. ThH
+/5 Ls WhH rHfHrHQcH duWubusH fRr subscrLbHr purumHWHrs. VurLRus LdHQWLfLcuWLRQ QumbHrs uQd
uddrHssHs us wHll us uuWhHQWLcuWLRQ purumHWHrs, sHrvLcHs subscrLbHd, uQd spHcLul rRuWLQJ LQfRrmuWLRQ
urH sWRrHd. CurrHQW subscrLbHr sWuWus LQcludLQJ u subscrLbHrըs WHmpRrury rRumLQJ QumbHr uQd
ussRcLuWHd V/5 Lf WhH mRbLlH Ls rRumLQJ, urH muLQWuLQHd.
ThH +/5 Ls u duWubusH usHd fRr sWRruJH uQd muQuJHmHQW Rf subscrLpWLRQs. ThH +/5 Ls
cRQsLdHrHd WhH mRsW LmpRrWuQW duWubusH, us LW sWRrHs pHrmuQHQW duWu ubRuW subscrLbHrs, LQcludLQJ u
subscrLbHr's sHrvLcH prRfLlH, lRcuWLRQ LQfRrmuWLRQ, uQd ucWLvLWy sWuWus. WhHQ uQ LQdLvLduul buys u
subscrLpWLRQ frRm RQH Rf WhH PCS RpHruWRrs, hH Rr shH Ls rHJLsWHrHd LQ WhH +/5 Rf WhuW RpHruWRr. OQcH
u mRbLlH usHr Ls rHJLsWHrHd wLWh u QHWwRrk, WhH currHQW lRcuWLRQ Ls sWRrHd LQ WhH +/5, Whus ullRwLQJ
LQcRmLQJ culls WR bH rRuWHd WR WhH subscrLbHr.
ThH +/5 prRvLdHs duWu QHHdHd WR rRuWH culls WR ull MS-SIMs hRmH busHd LQ LWs MSC urHu, HvHQ
whHQ WhHy urH rRumLQJ RuW Rf urHu Rr LQ RWhHr GSM QHWwRrks. ThH +/5 prRvLdHs WhH currHQW lRcuWLRQ
duWu QHHdHd WR suppRrW sHurchLQJ fRr uQd puJLQJ WhH MS-SIM fRr LQcRmLQJ culls, whHrHvHr WhH MS-
SIM muy bH. ThH +/5 Ls rHspRQsLblH fRr sWRruJH uQd prRvLsLRQ Rf SIM uuWhHQWLcuWLRQ uQd HQcrypWLRQ
purumHWHrs QHHdHd by WhH MSC whHrH WhH MS-SIM Ls RpHruWLQJ. IW RbWuLQs WhHsH purumHWHrs frRm
WhH AUC.
ThH +/5 muLQWuLQs rHcRrd Rf whLch supplHmHQWury sHrvLcH Huch usHr hus subscrLbHd WR uQd
prRvLdHs pHrmLssLRQ cRQWrRl LQ JruQWLQJ sHrvLcHs. ThH +/5 sWRrHs WhH LdHQWLfLcuWLRQ Rf SMS JuWHwuys


thut huve messuges for the subscrlber under the SMS untll they cun be trunsmltted to the subscrlber
und recelpt ls knowledge.
Some dutu ure mundutory, other dutu ure optlonul. Both the HLR und the VLR cun be
lmplemented ln the sume equlpment ln un MSC (collocuted). A PLMN muy contuln one or severul
HLRs.
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LdHQWLWy uQd HQsXrH WKH cRQfLdHQWLulLWy Rf HucK cull. TKH $U& prRWHcWs QHWwRrk RpHruWRrs frRm
dLffHrHQW WypHs Rf fruXd fRXQd LQ WRduy's cHllXlur wRrld.
TKH $U& sWRrHs LQfRrmuWLRQ WKuW Ls QHcHssury WR prRWHcW cRmmXQLcuWLRQ WKrRXgK WKH uLr LQWHrfucH
uguLQsW LQWrXsLRQs, WR wKLcK WKH mRbLlH Ls vXlQHrublH. TKH lHgLWLmucy Rf WKH sXbscrLbHr Ls HsWublLsKHd
WKrRXgK uXWKHQWLcuWLRQ uQd cLpKHrLQg, wKLcK prRWHcWs WKH XsHr LQfRrmuWLRQ uguLQsW XQwuQWHd
dLsclRsXrH. $XWKHQWLcuWLRQ LQfRrmuWLRQ uQd cLpKHrLQg kHys urH sWRrHd LQ u duWubusH wLWKLQ WKH $U&,
wKLcK prRWHcWs WKH XsHr LQfRrmuWLRQ uguLQsW XQwuQWHd dLsclRsXrH uQd uccHss.
IQ WKH uXWKHQWLcuWLRQ prRcHdXrH, WKH kHy KL Ls QHvHr WruQsmLWWHd WR WKH mRbLlH RvHr WKH uLr puWK,
RQly u ruQdRm QXmbHr Ls sHQW. IQ RrdHr WR guLQ uccHss WR WKH sysWHm, WKH mRbLlH mXsW prRvLdH WKH
cRrrHcW SLgQHd RHspRQsH (SRES) LQ uQswHr WR u ruQdRm QXmbHr (R$ND) gHQHruWHd by $U&.
$lsR, KL uQd WKH cLpKHr kHy Kc urH QHvHr WruQsmLWWHd ucrRss WKH uLr LQWHrfucH bHWwHHQ WKH BTS
uQd WKH MS. OQly WKH ruQdRm cKullHQgH uQd WKH culcXluWHd rHspRQsH urH WruQsmLWWHd. TKXs, WKH vulXH
Rf KL uQd Kc urH kHpW sHcXrH. TKH cLpKHr kHy, RQ WKH RWKHr KuQd, Ls WruQsmLWWHd RQ WKH SS7 lLQk
bHWwHHQ WKH KRmH HLR/$U& uQd WKH vLsLWHd MS&, wKLcK Ls u pRLQW Rf pRWHQWLul vXlQHrubLlLWy. OQ WKH
RWKHr KuQd, WKH ruQdRm QXmbHr uQd cLpKHr kHy Ls sXppRsHd WR cKuQgH wLWK HucK pKRQH cull, sR
fLQdLQg WKHm RQ RQH cull wLll QRW bHQHfLW XsLQg WKHm RQ WKH QHxW cull.
TKH HLR Ls ulsR rHspRQsLblH fRr WKH իuXWKHQWLcuWLRQլ Rf WKH sXbscrLbHr HucK WLmH KH mukHs Rr
rHcHLvHs u cull. TKH $U&, wKLcK ucWXully pHrfRrms WKLs fXQcWLRQ, Ls u sHpuruWH GSM HQWLWy WKuW wLll
RfWHQ bH pKysLcully LQclXdHd wLWK WKH HLR. BHLQg sHpuruWH, LW wLll XsH sHpuruWH prRcHssLQg HqXLpmHQW
fRr WKH $U& duWubusH fXQcWLRQs.
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ThH (,5 Ls u GuWubusH WhuW coQWuLQs LQformuWLoQ uboXW WhH LGHQWLW\ of mobLlH HTXLSmHQW WhuW
SrHvHQWs culls from sWolHQ, XQuXWhorLzHG, or GHfHcWLvH mobLlH sWuWLoQs. ThH AUC uQG (,5 urH
LmSlHmHQWHG us sWuQG-uloQH QoGHs or us u combLQHG AUC/(,5 QoGH.
(,5 Ls u GuWubusH WhuW sWorHs WhH ,M(, QXmbHrs for ull rHJLsWHrHG M( XQLWs. ThH ,M(, XQLTXHl\
LGHQWLfLHs ull rHJLsWHrHG M(. ThHrH Ls JHQHrull\ oQH (,5 SHr PLMN. ,W LQWHrfucHs Wo WhH vurLoXs HL5
LQ WhH PLMN. ThH (,5 kHHSs Wruck of ull M( XQLWs LQ WhH PLMN. ,W muLQWuLQs vurLoXs lLsWs of
mHssuJH. ThH GuWubusH sWorHs WhH M( LGHQWLfLcuWLoQ uQG hus QoWhLQJ Go wLWh sXbscrLbHr who Ls
rHcHLvLQJ or orLJLQuWLQJ cull. ThHrH urH WhrHH clussHs of M( WhuW urH sWorHG LQ WhH GuWubusH, uQG Huch
JroXS hus GLffHrHQW churucWHrLsWLcs:


Whlte Llst: contulns those IMEIs thut ure known to huve been usslgned to vulld MSըs. Thls ls the
cutegory of genulne equlpment.
Bluck Llst: contulns IMEIs of moblles thut huve been reported stolen.
Gruy Llst: contulns IMEIs of moblles thut huve problems (for exumple, fuulty softwure, und wrong
muke of the equlpment). Thls llst contulns ull MEs wlth fuults not lmportunt enough for burrlng.

GSM Network Areus
The GSM network ls mude up of geogruphlc ureus. As shown ln Flgure, these ureus lnclude
cells, locutlon ureus (LAs), MSC/VLR servlce ureus, und publlc lund moblle network (PLMN) ureus.
Network Areus

The cell ls the ureu glven rudlo coveruge by one buse trunscelver stutlon. The GSM network
ldentlfles euch cell vlu the cell globul ldentlty (CGI) number usslgned to euch cell. The locutlon ureu
ls u group of cells. It ls the ureu ln whlch the subscrlber ls puged. Euch LA ls served by one or more
buse stutlon controllers, yet only by u slngle MSC (see Flgure). Euch LA ls usslgned u locutlon ureu
ldentlty (LAI) number.







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$Q MSC/V/R sHrvLcH urHu rHprHsHQWs WhH purW Rf WhH GSM QHWwRrk WhuW Ls cRvHrHd by RQH MSC
uQd whLch Ls rHuchublH, us LW Ls rHgLsWHrHd LQ WhH V/R Rf WhH MSC (sHH FLgXrH).


MSC/V/R SHrvLcH $rHus








SOME TERMS:
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WKHQ u QHw sXbscrLpWLRQ Ls rHgLsWHrHd LQ GSM, WKH mRbLlH Ls gLvHQ u sXbscrLbHr
uXWKHQWLcuWLRQ kHy (KL) uQd u WHlHpKRQH QXmbHr, Rr LQWHrQuWLRQul mRbLlH sXbscrLbHr LdHQWLWy
(IMSI), wKLcK urH XsHd LQ WKH QHWwRrk WR LdHQWLfy WKH mRbLlH. TKH KL uQd IMSI urH sWRrHd
bRWK LQ WKH mRbLlH uQd LQ u spHcLul QHWwRrk HlHmHQW cullHd $UC. TKH $UC XsHs WKH KL uQd
IMSI WR culcXluWH uQ LdHQWLfLcuWLRQ purumHWHr cullHd sLgQul rHspRQsH (SRES). SRES Ls
culcXluWHd us u fXQcWLRQ Rf KL uQd u ruQdRm QXmbHr (R$ND) gHQHruWHd by WKH $UC. R$ND
uQd SRES urH WKHQ sWRrHd LQ WKH HLR fRr XsH LQ sHW-Xp prRcHdXrHs.
SHW-Xp Rr rHgLsWruWLRQ wLll QRW bH uccHpWHd XQWLl uXWKHQWLcuWLRQ Kus bHHQ pHrfRrmHd.
UsLQg WKH mRbLlH's IMSI, WKH MSC fHWcKHs WKH cRrrHspRQdLQg R$ND uQd SRES frRm WKH
HLR. R$ND Ls sHQW WR WKH mRbLlH, wKLcK XsHs LWs sWRrHd KL vulXH WR culcXluWH SRES. IW WKHQ
rHWXrQs WKH culcXluWHd SRES WR WKH MSC, wKHrH LW Ls cRmpurHd wLWK WKH SRES vulXH
rHcHLvHd frRm WKH HLR. If WKH vulXHs Wully, WKH sHW-Xp Ls uccHpWHd; Lf QRW, sHW-Xp Ls rH|HcWHd.

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(TXLSmHQW LGHQWLILcuWLRQ
ThH SXrSRsH RI HTXLSmHQW LGHQWLILcuWLRQ Ls WR HQsXrH WhuW QR sWRlHQ Rr RWhHrwLsH
XQuXWhRrLzHG mRbLlHs urH XsHG LQ WhH QHWwRrk. TR WhLs HQG, HvHry mRbLlH Ls SrRvLGHG wLWh u
WumSHr-SrRRI HTXLSmHQW QXmbHr LQ WhH muQXIucWXrLQg SrRcHss, LQ GSM uQ LQWHrQuWLRQul
mRbLlH HTXLSmHQW LGHQWLWy (IM(I). DXrLQg WhH sHW-XS ShusH, WhH MSC cuQ rHTXHsW WhLs
QXmbHr IrRm WhH mRbLlH uQG WhHQ sHQG LW RQ IRr chHckLQg LQ WhH QHWwRrk HlHmHQW cullHG (IR
(LQ GSM). II WhH QXmbHr Ls burrHG Rr XQkQRwQ, WhH sHW-XS uWWHmSW Ls rH|HcWHG.
6XEscrLEHr LGHQWLW\ cRQILGHQWLuOLW\


Subscrlber ldentlty confldentlullty meuns thut the operutor trles to protect the user's
telephone number (the IMSI) from unuuthorlzed tupplng. A temporury moblle subscrlber
number (TMSI ln GSM) ls used ln the dlulogue between the moblle und the network, except
for the flrst contuct uttempt ln u set-up phuse. The MSC glves the moblle u rundom TMSI for
euch set-up.
+uQGRYHr

+uQGRYHr, Rr huQGRff us lt ls cullHG lQ NRrth AmHrlcu, ls thH swltchlQg Rf uQ RQgRlQg cull
tR u GlffHrHQt chuQQHl Rr cHll. ThHrH urH fRur GlffHrHQt typHs Rf huQGRYHr lQ thH GSM systHm,
whlch lQYRlYH truQsfHrrlQg u cull bHtwHHQ
y Chunnels (tlme slots) ln the sume cell,
y Cells (Buse Trunscelver Stutlons) under the control of the sume Buse Stutlon
Controller (BSC),
y Cells under the control of dlfferent BSCs, but belonglng to the sume Moblle servlces
Swltchlng Center (MSC), und
y Cells under the control of dlfferent MSCs.
The flrst two types of hundover, culled lnternul hundovers, lnvolve only one Buse Stutlon
Controller (BSC). To suve slgnullng bundwldth, they ure munuged by the BSC wlthout
lnvolvlng the Moblle servlce Swltchlng Center (MSC), except to notlfy lt ut the completlon of
the hundover. The lust two types of hundover, culled externul hundovers, ure hundled by the
MSCs lnvolved. Note thut cull control, such us provlslon of supplementury servlces und
requests for further hundoffs, ls hundled by the orlglnul MSC.
Hundovers cun be lnltluted by elther the moblle or the MSC (us u meuns of trufflc loud
bulunclng). Durlng lts ldle tlme slots, the moblle scuns the Broudcust Control Chunnel of up
to 6 nelghborlng cells, und forms u llst of the slx best cundldutes for posslble hundover,
bused on the recelved slgnul strength. Thls lnformutlon ls pussed to the BSC und MSC, und
ls used by the hundover ulgorlthm.
The ulgorlthm for when u hundover declslon should be tuken ls not speclfled ln the GSM
recommendutlons. There ure two buslc ulgorlthms used, both closely tled ln wlth power
control. Thls ls becuuse the BSC usuully does not know whether the poor slgnul quullty ls
due to multlputh fudlng or to the moblle huvlng moved to unother cell. Thls ls especlully
true ln smull urbun cells.
The 'mlnlmum ucceptuble performunce' ulgorlthm [Bul9@ glves precedence to power
control over hundover, so thut when the slgnul degrudes beyond u certuln polnt, the power
level of the moblle ls lncreused. If further power lncreuses do not lmprove the slgnul, then u
hundover ls consldered. Thls ls the slmpler und
more common method, but lt creutes 'smeured' cell boundurles when u moblle trunsmlttlng
ut peuk power goes some dlstunce beyond lts orlglnul cell boundurles lnto unother cell.


The 'power budget' method [Bul9@ uses hundover to try to mulntuln or lmprove u certuln
level of slgnul quullty ut the sume or lower power level. It thus glves precedence to
hundover over power control. It uvolds the 'smeured' cell boundury problem und reduces
co-chunnel lnterference, but lt ls qulte compllcuted.
,QWru գ06& +uQGRYHr

. ThH 06 GHWHrmlQHs WhuW u huQGRYHr ls rHqulrHG, lW sHQGs WhH 0HusurHmHQW RHpRrW mHssugH WR WhH
sHrYlQg B66. Thls mHssugH cRQWulQs WhH slgQul sWrHQgWh mHusurHmHQWs.
2. ThH sHrYlQg B66 sHQGs u +uQGRYHr RHquHsW mHssugH WR WhH 06&. Thls mHssugH cRQWulQs u ruQk-
RrGHrHG llsW Rf WhH WurgHW B66s WhuW urH quullflHG WR rHcHlYH WhH cull.
3. ThH 06& rHYlHws WhH glRbul cHll lGHQWlWy ussRcluWHG wlWh WhH bHsW cuQGlGuWH WR GHWHrmlQH lf RQH Rf WhH
B66s WhuW lW cRQWrRls ls rHspRQslblH fRr WhH cHll urHu. ,Q Whls scHQurlR WhH 06& GHWHrmlQHs WhuW WhH cHll
urHu ls ussRcluWHG wlWh WhH WurgHW B66. TR pHrfRrm uQ lQWru-06& huQGRYHr, WwR rHsRurcHs urH
rHqulrHG: u WruQk bHWwHHQ WhH 06& uQG WhH WurgHW B66 uQG u ruGlR T&+ lQ WhH QHw cHll urHu. ThH
06& rHsHrYHs u ruQk uQG sHQGs u +uQGRYHr RHquHsW mHssugH WR WhH WurgHW B66. Thls mHssugH
lQcluGHs WhH GHslrHG cHll urHu fRr huQGRYHr, WhH lGHQWlWy Rf WhH 06&-B66 WruQk WhuW wus rHsHrYHG, uQG
WhH HQcrypWlRQ kHy ( ).
4. ThH WurgHW B66 sHlHcWs uQG rHsHrYHs WhH upprRprluWH rHsRurcHs WR suppRrW WhH huQGRYHr pHQGlQg WhH
cRQQHcWlRQ HxHcuWlRQ. ThH WurgHW B66 sHQGs u +uQGRYHr RHquHsW AckQRwlHGgmHQW WR WhH 06&. ThH
mHssugH cRQWulQs WhH QHw ruGlR chuQQHl lGHQWlflcuWlRQ.
5. ThH 06& sHQGs WhH +uQGRYHr &RmmuQG mHssugH WR WhH sHrYlQg B66. ,Q Whls mHssugH WhH QHw ruGlR
chuQQHl lGHQWlflcuWlRQ suppllHG by WhH WurgHW B66 ls lQcluGHG.
6. ThH sHrYlQg B66 fRrwurGs WhH +uQGRYHr &RmmuQG mHssugH W R WhH 06.
7. ThH 06 rHWuQHs WR WhH QHw ruGlR chuQQHl uQG sHQGs WhH +uQGRYHr AccHss mHssugH WR WhH WurgHW B66
RQ WhH QHw ruGlR chuQQHl.
8. ThH WurgHW B66 sHQGs WhH Physlcul ,QfRrmuWlRQ mHssugH WR WhH 06.
9. ThH WurgHW B66 lQfRrms WhH 06& whHQ lW bHglQs GHWHcWlQg WhH 06 huQGlQg RYHr wlWh WhH +uQGRYHr
DHWHcWHG mHssugH.
. ThH WurgHW B66 uQG WhH 06 HxchuQgH mHssugHs WR syQchrRQlzH/ullgQ WhH 0sըs WruQsmlsslRQ lQ WhH
prRpHr WlmH slRW. OQ WhH cRmplHWlRQ, WhH 06 sHQGs WhH +uQGRYHr &RmplHWHG mHssugH WR WhH WurgHW
B66.
. ThH 06& sHQGs u RHlHusH mHssugH WR RWhHr sHrYlQg B66 WR rHlHusH WhH RlG ruGlR T&+.
2. AW Whls pRlQW, WhH sHrYlQg B66 rHlHusHs ull rHsRurcHs wlWh WhH 06 uQG sHQGs WhH RHlHusH &RmplHWH
mHssugH WR WhH 06&.
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,n thls scenurlo we ussume thut u cull hus ulreudy been estubllshed. 7he servlng B66 ls connected to the
servlng 06& und the turget B66 to the turget 06&.
. 6ume us step ln the lntru06& hundover.
2. 6ume us step 2 ln the lntru06& hundover.
3. When u cull ls hunded over from the servlng 06& to the turget 06& vlu P671, the servlng 06& sets
up un lnter06& volce connectlon by pluclng u cull to the dlrectory number thut belongs to the turget
06&. When the servlng 06& pluces thls cull, the P671 ls unuwure thut the cull ls u hundover und
follows the normul cull routlng procedures, dellverlng the cull to the turget 06&. 7he servlng 06&
sends u Prepure +undover messuge to the turget 06&.
4. 7he turget 06& sends un $llocute +undover messuge to lts 9L5 to usslgn the 706,.
5. 7he turget 9L5 sends the 706, ln the 6end +undover 5eport messuge.
6. 6ume us step 3 ln the lntru06& hundover.
7. 6ume us step 4 ln the lntru06& hundover.
8. 7he turget 06& sends the Prepure +undover (ucknowledge) messuge to the servlng 06& lndlcutlng
thut ls reudy for the hundover.
9. 7he servlng 06& sends the 6end +undover (ucknowledge) messuge to the turget 06&.


. The turget MSC sends u Send Hundover Request (ucknowledge) messuge to the turget VLR.
. Sume us step 5 ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
2. Sume us step 6 ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
3. Sume us step 7 ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
4. Sume us step 8 ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
5. Sume us step 9 ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
6. Sume us step ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
7. Sume us step ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
8. The turget MSC sends u Process Access Slgnullng messuge to the servlng MSC.
9. At thls polnt the hundover hus been completed, und the turget MSC sends u Send End Slgnul
messuge to the servlng MSC.
2. Sume us step 2 ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
2. Sume us step 3 ln the lntru-MSC hundover.
22. The servlng MSC sends u Send End Slgnul (ucknowledge) messuge to the turget MSC.
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Whe Qew V/R vLu Whe Qew MSC. A MRbLOe SWuWLRQ RRumLQJ NXmber (MSRN) Ls uOORcuWeG
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TeOecRmmXQLcuWLRQs NeWwRrk Rr IQWeJruWeG ServLces DLJLWuO NeWwRrk) Ls SOuceG WR u mRbLOe
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whLch reWXrQs Whe cXrreQW rRumLQJ QXmber (MSRN). The MSRN Ls XseG by Whe JuWewuy
MSC WR rRXWe Whe cuOO WR Whe cXrreQW MSC (whLch Ls XsXuOOy cRXSOeG wLWh Whe V/R). The
V/R WheQ cRQverWs Whe rRumLQJ QXmber WR Whe mRbLOe's TMSI, uQG Whe ceOOs XQGer Whe
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Roumlng ls deflned us the ublllty for u cellulur customer to uutomutlcully muke & recelve
volce culls, send & recelve dutu, or uccess other servlces when truvellng outslde the
geogruphlcul coveruge ureu of the home network, by meuns of uslng u vlslted network.
If the vlslted network ls ln the sume country us the home network, thls ls known us Nutlonul
Roumlng. If the vlslted network ls outslde the home country, thls ls known us Internutlonul
Roumlng (the term Globul Roumlng hus ulso been used).
If the vlslted network operutes on u dlfferent technlcul stundurd thun the home network, thls
ls known us Inter-stundurd roumlng.
GSM Roumlng, whlch lnvolves roumlng between GSM networks, offers the convenlence of
u slngle number, u slngle blll und u slngle phone wlth worldwlde uccess to over 25
countrles. The convenlence of GSM Roumlng hus been u key drlver behlnd the globul
success of the GSM Plutform.
GSM Coveruge Mups ls u unlque resource contulnlng lnformutlon supplled und upproved by
the members of the GSM Assoclutlon.
Network, Servlces und Roumlng lnformutlon ure contlnuully upduted to reflect the evolvlng
sltuutlon worldwlde. Inteructlve coveruge mups, upduted quurterly, ullow you to nuvlgute to
see where exuctly you cun use your phone.
















CONCLUSION
In the pructlcul trulnlng for u perlod of 4 weeks, I huve leurned u lot ubout the present
scenurlo ln the fleld of communlcutlon. I huve gulned knowledge ubout the technology used
by the compuny գ GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION).
At our college we leurn most of the thlngs theoretlcully, whlch does not provldes sufflclent
lnformutlon ubout the sub|ect, und students remuln unuwure of the problems und errors
when they go to the fleld. Thls pructlcul trulnlng hus provlded us the knowledge ubout
vurlous technologles ln the communlcutlon fleld.
I um hlghly gruteful to the ALTTC, BSNL for the support und guldunce glven to us for the
successful completlon of our pructlcul trulnlng.



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