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Programming language:

A computer program/software is a series of instructions that directs a computer to do tasks.

To write a computer program you need a software program for the programming language you will be

Programming: a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks. (to solve problems)
Instructions must be written in a way that a computer could understand.

Many programs + data = Software

(Many, series of instructions in order to create a Software)

Programming language: a set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that allows a programmer to
communicate instructions to a computer.

Types of language:

Low level language p.l that is machine dependent.

- A machine dependent language only runs on one particular type of computer.

- These programs cannot easily be transferred to other computers.

Two types of low-level: Machine language, Assembly language.

Bit: the smallest element that can be represented in computer. Binary digits of 0 and 1.

Byte: a sequence of 8 bits. Used to represent a character (alphabet, number or special character), using
encoding scheme such as ASCII, EBCDIC or Unicode.

Machine language is the first generation of programming language, (1940s During the war)
The instructions use a series of binary digits (1s and 0s)
- difficult to remember the code for various operation.
- lengthy, error prone (due to carelessness, using numbers) (lots of numbers to perform one task)

Assembly Language, uses instruction in the form of mnemonic. (easy to remember) (uses symbolic

- But need to be translated first using a program called assembler into machine language.
High level language: uses closer to English like sentences. (eg: BASIC, Java)

- Easier to understand, self-explanatory.

BUT, the computer cannot directly execute instructions written in high level language. (it doesnt
understand) Compiler is used to translate HLL into machine language.


1. Create a source program: in HLL syntax using a text editor.

2. Compile: verify the program is syntactically correct, then translate into machine language
program called object program.
3. A linker program will link the object program to create the


1. Analyze: study, understand and finding solution for the problem.

2. Design: design database, how is the output?
to design how to solve the problems, using algorithm and flowchart.
3. Coding: concerning writing programs.
4. Testing: avoid errors and debug program, concepts of syntax, logic errors
5. Maintenance: maintain system, improving nonstop.

STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING: using top down approach.

1- Algorithm: set of ordered steps to solve problem

2- Pseudocode: using normal human language statements to describe the logic
3- Flowchart: represents graphically the programming details