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Steel Pipelines Crossing

Railroads and Highways

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1 102
SIXTH EDITION, APRIL 1993

American Petroleum Institute
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Washington, D.C. 20005

11’
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Steel Pipelines Crossing
Railroads and Highways

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department
API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102
SIXTH EDITION, APRIL 1993

American
Petroleum
Institute

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API RP*LL02 93 9 0732290 0509030 4 L b

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FACTURERS, OR SUPPLIERS TO WARN AND PROPERLY TRAIN AND EQUIP
THEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND
SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS
UNDER LOCAL,STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS.
3. INFORMATION CONCERNING SAFETY AND HEALTH RISKS AND PROPER
PRECAUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR MATERIALS AND CONDI-
TIONS SHOULD BE OBTAINED FROMTHE EMPLOYER, THE MANUFACTURER
OR SUPPLIER OF THAT MATERIAL, ORTHE MATERIAL SAFETYDATA SHEET.
4. NOTHING CONTAINEDIN ANY API PUBLICATION IS
TO BE CONSTRUED AS
GRANTING ANY RIGHT, BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE, FORTHE MANU-
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Copyright O 1993 American Petroleum Institute

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A P I RP+3302 93 0732290 0509033 352

FOREWORD

The need for an industry-recommended practice to address installation of pipeline cross-
ings under railroads was first recognized by the publication of American Petroleum Institute
(API) Code 26 in 1934.This code represented an understanding betweenthe pipeline and
railroad industries regarding the installation of the relatively small-diameter lines then
prevalent.
The rapid growthof pipeline systems after 1946 usinglarge-diameter pipe led to the re-
evaluation and revision of API Code 26 to include pipeline design criteria. A series of
changes was made between 1949 and 1952, culminating in the establishment in 1952 of
Recommended Practice 1102. The scope of Recommended Practice 1102 (1952) included
crossings of highways in anticipation of the cost savings that would accrue to the use of
thin-wall casings in conjunction with the pending construction of the Defense Interstate
Highway System.
Recommended Practice 1102 (1968) incorporated the knowledge gained from known
data on uncased carrier pipes and casing design and fromthe performance of uncased car-
rier pipes under dead and live loads, as well as under internal pressures. Extensive computer
analysis was performed using Spangler's Iowa Formula [ 11 to determine the stress in un-
cased carrier pipes and the wall thickness of casing pipes in instances where cased are pipes
required inan installation.
The performance of carrier pipes in uncasedcrossings and casings installed since 1934,
and operated in accordance with APICode 26 and RecommendedPractice 11 02, has been
excellent. There is no known occurrence in the petroleum industry a structural
of failuredue
to imposed earth and live loads on a carrier pipe or casing under a railroad or highway.
Pipeline company reports to the U.S. Department of Transportation in compliance with 49
Code of Federal RegulationsPart 195 corroborate this record.
The excellent performance record of uncasedcarrier pipes and casings may in partbe due
to the design process used to determine the required wall thickness. Measurements of actual
installed casings and carrier pipes using previous Recommended Practice 1102 design cri-
teria demonstrate that the past design methods are conservative. In 1985, theGas Research
Institute (GRI) began funding a research project at Cornel1 University to develop an im-
proved methodologyfor the design of uncased carrier pipelines crossing beneath railroads
and highways.The research scope included state-of-the-art reviews of railroad and highway
crossing practices and performance records [2,3], three-dimensional finite element mod-
eling of uncased carrier pipes beneath railroads and highways, and extensive field testing
on full-scale instrumented pipelines. The results of this research are the basis for the new
methodology for uncased carrier pipe design given in this edition of Recommended Prac-
tice 1102. The GR1 summary report, Technical Summary undDatubase for Guidelinesfor
Pipelines Crossing Railrouds and Highways by Ingraffea et al. [4], includes the results of
the numerical modeling, the full derivationsof the design curvesused in this recommended
practice, and the data base of the field measurements made on the experimental test
pipelines.
This recommended practice contains tabular values for the wall thickness of casings
where they are required in an installation. The loading values that were employed are
Cooper E-80 with 175% impactfor railroads and10,OOO pounds (44.5kilonewtons) per tan-
dem wheel with 150% impact for highways. Due notice should be taken of the fact that ex-
ternal loads on flexible pipes can cause failure by buckling. Buckling occurs when the
vertical diameterhas undergone 18% to 22% deflection. Failure by buckling does not result
in rupture of the pipe wall, although the metal may bestressed far beyond its elastic limit.
Recommended Practice 1102 (1993) recognizes this performance of a properly installed
flexible casing pipe, as opposed to heavy wall rigidstructures, and has based its design cri-
teria on a maximum vertical deflection of 3% of the vertical diameter. Measurementof ac-
tual installed casing pipe using Recommended Practice 1102 (198 1) design criteria

iii

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65% or less of the vertical diameter. state. or guarantee in connection with this pub- lication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for lossor damage re- sulting from its use or forthe violation of any federal. or municipal regulation with which this publication may conflict. D. Distributionand Marketing Department. API appreciatively acknowledges their contributions. the Institute makes no representation. operation. Every effort has been made by the Instituteto assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them.C. however.W. Recommended Practice1102 has beenrevised and improvedrepeatedly using the latest research and experience in measuring actual performance of externally loadeduncased pipelines under various environmental conditions and using new materials and construction techniques developed since the recommended practice was last revised. 20005. APIrecognizes the contributions to this recommended practice made by GRI and acknowledges its cooperation in providing the latest pipelinedesign technology. warranty. 1220 L Street.and maintenance of the nation's petroleum pipelines. Suggested revisions are invited and shouldbe submitted to the directorof the Manufac- turing. The current Rec- ommended Practice1102 ( 1 9 3 ) is the sixth edition and reflects the most recent design cri- teria and technology. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.. The sixth edition of Recommended Practice 1102 (1993)has been reviewedby the A P I Central Committee on Pipeline Transportationand its Committee on Design and Construc- tion utilizingthe extensive knowledge and experiences of qualified engineers responsible for design. construction. N. Washington. and in most instances. . 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. COPYRIGHT 2002. American Petroleum Institute. A P I RPULL02 9 3 ' 1 0732290 0509032 299 m demonstrates that the Iowa Formula is very conservative. User=. the mea- sured long-term vertical deflection hasbem 0. A P I publications may be used by anyone desiring to doso.

.....4.................................................................. 21 SECTION 5"CASED CROSSINGS 5.............................................................................................................................................................................9 Orientation of Longitudinal Welds at Railroad and Highway Crossings ...............................3 Mechanical Protection ........................................................ User=... 23 COPYRIGHT 2002..................... 4 4................. 21 5.......... 23 5....7 Stresses ..............................................................................4...... 5 4.................................................................1Check for Allowable Stresses ....8 Installation ...........8 Limits of Calculated Stresses ............................... 4 4. 2...........................................7Cover .4... 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584................................................ 22 5......................... 1.........3 Stresses Due to Internal Load ....... 21 5.........................4.......................................2 External Loads ................... 22 5............. 22 5......... 1................. 2................4.......................................................................................................................................... 23 5..................................................... 7 4..................... .................... 5 4.....................................7........................................ American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.....................................1Railroad Crossings ......................................................................................... 15 4.................1 General ......................7.............................................. 5 4................................................. SECTION 2"SYMBOLS........................................................................4 Provisions for Public Safety ............................................3InternalLoad .......................................................1 General ..................................................6...1 Typeof Crossing .5Approval for Crossings ...............................3 Location andAlignment ..................................................................... AND DEFINITIONS 2.....................3 Mechanical Protection ....................................... EQUATIONS.... ......2Highway Crossings ...................................5 Design .........................................7.....................................................................1 Railroad Crossings ................. TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1-SCOPE 1....................................................................................................................................... 17 4............................. 4 4.......................................................................................... 5 4..........3 Minimum Internal Diameter of Casing .. 17 4........................................................................10 Location of Girth Welds at Railroad Crossings .............................................. 4 4..............9 Casing Seals .......................... 1.............. 5 4...................................................................... SECTION 3-PROVISIONS FOR SAFETY ...........1 General .......6 Location andAlignment ................................................ 21 5...............................................................................................................................................................4 Wall Thickness .....8...............................2Checkfor Fatigue .............3Type of Pipeline ..........2 Equations ............................... 7 4...2 Stresses Due to External Loads .................................................................................................................................7........2OpenTrenched Crossings ..................... 21 5..................... 22 5...............3 Definitions .. 5 4.... SECTION 4-UNCASED CROSSINGS 4............... 21 5.................6 Loads ..............................6...................................1 Symbols ......................8............................................................... 4 4.........................7..................4 Cover ............................. 21 4...2 Casings for Crossings ............2 General .............................................1Bored Crossings ..............................2Highway Crossings .........................................................................................................................................................................5 General .............. 18 4................ 21 5........................................................... 7 4........................6..................... 1.................2 Application ..................................................... 7 4. 21 5................................................................................................7.......................1 Carrier Pipe Installed Within a Casing ....

.............. 23 5.......................3 Temporary Bypasses ... 26 7.... 39 Figures 1-Examples of Uncased Crossing Installations .......................................3 Surface Restoration ........................................... ...... KLr ......................................................................KHe .......................2InspectionandTesting ............................................3 General ................................................................3................................. 25 6..6CathodicProtection ....................11 Insulators ............................................ 24 6...............3 Excavation ......... 10 7-Recommended Impact Factor Versus Depth ...................... 9 &Single and Tandem Wheel Loads................. 23 SECTION 6”INSTALLATION 6........................ 4 2-Flow Diagram of Design Procedurefor Uncased Crossings of Railroads and Highways ...................................2......................... 29 APPENDIX C-CASING WALL THICKNESSES ....................3......................... 26 7.........................................................................4PressureTesting .3 AdjustmentsofPipelinesRequiringInterruptionofService .........4 Backfilling .............................. 23 5........................................ 25 7...................3.............................. KHr ................................... User=............................................ American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. 25 6...................... 25 6.......................................................................... 25 6...........................G......... 24 6........................................ 12 11-Railroad Stiffness Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress.... 37 APPENDIX D-UNIT CONVERSIONS ...................2 Open Cut or Trenched Installation ........ 24 6..........1 Lowering Operations ...3............................. P........................................E.................. 13 vi COPYRIGHT 2002.......................................................................................3..................1................................................4Protection of PipelinesDuringHighway or RailroadConstruction .. 24 6.... 11 8-Railroad Stiffness Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress..........3... or Tunneling ......................Jacking......................... ...............5PipelineMarkersandSigns .. 24 6.............................................................................................................................. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584....................... 25 7.10 Casing Vents ............... 24 6.....................................................B. 24 6.................. 6 3-Stiffness Factor for Earth Load Circumferential Stress................................................7Pipe Coatings ...... 25 SECTION 7-RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS CROSSING EXISTING PIPELINES 7........................1 General ..........1.......................1Adjustment of PipelinesatCrossings ........................... 26 SECTION 8-REFERENCES ........................................................ ............................................. 12 10-Railroad Double Track Factorfor Cyclic Circumferential Stress.............................2.............................................................................................2 Backfill .............2..............................................3 Welding ........................................................................................................2........................ 24 6........... A P I RPt1102 93 m 0732290 0509034 Ob1 m 5.............................................. 23 6........................................... 27 APPENDIXB-UNCASEDDESIGN EXAMPLE PROBLEMS ...1GeneralConditions .......................... and P....................... 8 &Burial Factor for Earth Load Circumferential Stress...............................................................3......1............... ............................... 23 6..........................2Adjustment of In-ServicePipelines ...................... 25 7...............2.......... 25 7................................12 Inspection and Testing .................................. .2 Split Casings ..........................................2......2Boring........................... 25 6................................................ 23 6.......................1 Trenchless Installation . 26 APPENDIX A-SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND UNCASED CROSSING DESIGNVALUES .......1... 11 9-Railroad Geometry Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress........1ConstructionSupervision ....................... 8 5-Excavation Factor for Earth Load Circumferential Stress.............NH .

.... 14 14-Highway Stiffness Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress....... 39 COPYRIGHT 2002... 28 Tables l-Critical Axle Configurations for Design WheelLoads of P.. 37 D..............5 Meters) but Less Than 10 Feet (3............... 27 A-3-Typical Steel Properties .......................... 15 15-Highway Geometry Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress.... 15 3-Fatigue Endurance Limits...0 Meters) .............RF..................................................................... 13 13-Railroad Double Track Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress...... 17 18-A-Longitudinal Stress Reduction Factor................ User=........... 21 C-1-Minimum Nominal WallThickness for Flexible Casing in Bored Crossings .. K H h ........................................ 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584........................ SF. L ...................0 Meters) .. and Sm..............1-Typical Values for Modulus of Soil Reaction............. G H h ..... American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001......................... 16 16-Highway Stiffness Factor for cyclic Longitudinal Stress....................RF......R...............for LCGreater Than or Equal to 10 Feet (3......... 19 18-B-Longitudinal Stress Reduction Factor.......... and Axle Configuration Factors..... &h ..... for Various Steel Grades .... = 12 Kips (53......... 20 19-Examples of Cased Crossing Installations ........ E’ ................ G.................... = 10 Kips (44...............5 Kilonewtons) .....4 Kilonewtons) and P................................ 18 A.... .... 10 2-Highway Pavement Type Factors......... A P I RP*1102 93 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0509035 T T 4 m 12-Railroad Geometry Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress..... 27 A-2-Typical Values for Resilient Modulus............................................................................. 16 17-Highway Geometry Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress...... for LG Greater Than or Equal to 5 Feet (1............................. .................. E............ .........I-Unit Conversion .................................................. GLr ........... IVL .............. 22 A-l-Critical Case Decision Basisfor Whether Single or Tandem Axle Configuration Will Govern Design ..

municipal. Requirements for abnormal or unusual the pipeline. from rail load. of engineering and construction provided.6]. Resilient modulus of soil. Excavation factor for circumferential stress Stiffness factor for cyclic circumferential from earth load. Design factor chosen in accordance with Stiffness factor for cyclic longitudinal stress standard practice or code requirement. Young’s modulus of steel. Geometry factor for cyclic circumferential Contact areafor application of wheelload. in stress from highwayvehicular load. This practice should not be applied retroactively. Longitudinaljoint factor. Neither shouldit apply to pipelines under con- 1. arrange- ments should be made with theauthorized agent of the facil- ity to be crossed. in inches or mil. The applicable regulations of federal [5. installation. Geometry factorfor cyclic longitudinalstress Burial factor for circumferential stress from from highway vehicular load. square inches or square meters. Itcovers the design. in pounds per Stiffness factor for cyclic longitudinal stress square inch or kilopascals. shall be observed during the design and construction of the tion of pipelines crossing under railroads and highways and pipeline. from railload. Prior to the construction of a pipeline crossing. Steel Pipelines Crossing This practice applies to welded steel pipelines. stress from rail load. 1 COPYRIGHT 2002.1 Fi Impact factor. The provisions of for safety under conditions normally encountered in the this practice are formulated to protect thefacility crossed by pipeline industry. stress from highway vehicular load. AND DEFINITIONS 2. Modulus of soil reaction. SECTION 2”SYMBOLS. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.state. Depth to top of pipe. Highly volatile liquid. from highway vehicular load.2 Application institutions havingjurisdiction over the facility to be crossed The provisions herein should be applicable to the construc. in inches or mil. Neither should it be applied to directionally drilled crossings or to pipelines installedin utility tunnels.gives primary emphasis to provi- sions for public safety. User=. Geometry factor for cyclic circumferential Bored diameter of crossing. Geometry factorfor cyclic longitudinalstress External diameter of pipe.4ProvisionsforPublicSafety steel pipelines under railroads and highways. in kips per square Stiffness factor for cyclic circumferential inch or megapascals. The provisions The provisions give primary emphasis to public safety. and testing required to ensure safe crossingsof 1. and regulatory 1. stress from rail load. in- spection.3TypeofPipeline This recommended practice.1 1. Railroads and Highways. in feet or meters. A P I RP*LL02 93 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 0 9 0 3 b 934 m a Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways SECTION 1 4 C O P E General 1.5ApprovalforCrossings 0 tract for construction onor prior to the effective date of this edition. in kips per square Stiffness factor for circumferential stress inch or megapascals. limeters. to the adjustmentof existing pipelines crossedby railroad or highway construction. apply to thedesignandconstruction of weldedsteel The provisions set forth in this practice adequately provide pipelines under railroads and highways. as well as to provide adequate design for safe conditions are not specifically discussed. earth load. EQUATIONS. from earth load. limeters. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. . nor are all details installation and operation of the pipeline.

. Poisson's ratio of steel. in pounds or kilo.SHi (Barlow) = pD/2 r. Single axle wheel load. in pounds Circumferential: per square inch or kilopascals.2 Equations Tandem axle wheel load. in pounds per square inch or track. in SHi = p ( D . Applied design surface pressure. " " ~~.=~~[(sl-~~)~+(s. in ASLh =KLh GLh R L Fi W pounds per square inch or kilopascals. SHe = KHe Be YD Longitudinal stress reduction factor for fa- tigue.-s3)~+(s3-s. S3= maximum radial stress. in pounds or kilo- newtons. Temperatures (OF or "C).T I )+ + SHi) per square inch or kilopascals. in pounds per Liquids: square inch or kilopascals: SI= maximum [SHi(Barlow) = pD/2 f. S. gases. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Principal stresses in pipe. Longitudinal: Pipe wall thickness. &Hh =KHh GHh R L Fi W Circumferential stress from earth load. Earth Load: Highway pavement type factor. MLr= Kb CLrNL Fi W Fatigue resistance of longitudinal weld. kilopascals. API RPtLL02 93 0732290 0509037 870 m 2 API PRACTICE RECOMMENDED 1102 _-. per "F or S. v. Circumferentialstress from internal pressure Natural gas: calculated using the Barlow formula. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. 2. in inchesor millimeters. User=. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals. pounds per square inch or kilopascals. pounds per square inch or kilopascals. 5 SMYS x F COPYRIGHT 2002. Wheel load. & . = maximum longi- tudinal stress. in pounds persquare inch or kilopascals. Double track factor for cyclic longitudinal ASLr Cyclic longitudinal stress from rail load. kilopascals. Unit weightof soil. in pounds per square inch or kilopas.f. in pounds per square inch or stress.] I F X E x T x SMYS pounds per square inch or kilopascals. Live Load: Total effective stress. pounds per square inch or kilopascals. in [. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals. Maximum allowable operating pressure for ASHr Cyclic circumferential stress from railload. newtons. ~. h Cyclic circumferential stress from highway Distance of girth weld from centerline of vehicular load. in stress.] I F x E X SMYS circumferential stress. &h Cyclic longitudinal stress fromhighwayve- Double track factor for cyclic circumferential hicular load. Limits of Calculated Stresses: Specified minimum yield strength. &Hr = K H r Gm NH Fi W Fatigue resistance of girth weld.)~] Cyclic circumferential stress. in pounds persquare inch or kilopascals.&%(T2 . inch or kilopascals. in pounds per Maximum operating pressure for liquids. Number of tracksat railroad crossing. in feet or meters. cals.)/2 r. A& Cycliclongitudinalstress. in pounds per square W = P/A. = -P = -MAOP or -MOP per "C.. . Note: All stresses below have units of pounds per square inch or kilopascals. Radial: Coefficient of thermal expansion. ~~ Highway axleconfiguration factor. S. in pounds per cubic inch or kilonewtons per cubic meter. in square inch or kilopascals. Circumferential stress from internal pressure Internal Load: calculated using the average diameter. S1 = S H e + &H + SHi Temperature derating factor. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals. in pounds S2 = ML. Equation Internal pipe pressure. in poundsor kilonewtons.

or segments thereof. 2.1 O Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) or maximum operating pressure (MOP) is the maximum pressure at which a pipeline or segment of a pipeline may be operated. for installing pipelines by subsurface excavation without the use of open trenching.1 The applicable regulations of federal.4 Flexible casing is casing that may undergo perma- ifies them for operation. and bar- such as posting flagpersons to direct traffic and equipment ricades should be provided and maintained. material. pipeline or the facility to be crossed shall be observed during the installation of a crossing. The following definitions of terms apply to this practice: 2. " 2. 2. 3.3.3. Highway surfaces shouldbe kept free of dirt.1 A carrier pipe is a steel pipe for transporting gas or method for pipeline crossingsin which the excavation is per- liquids.3. 2. warning signs.4 The movement of vehicles.3. uninterrupted test may be placed. which qual- 2. ported across a railroad track at any location other than a or otherregulatingbodieshavingjurisdictionover the public or private thoroughfare.3. 2. is trans- agent of the railroad company before any equipment ruck. Steel pipe is an example of a flexible casing. formed by a continuous auger as sections of pipe are welded 2.5 Flexible pavement is a highway surface madeof vis- motives or propelled by self-contained motors. and flares persons) should ity.3.3.3 Permission should be obtained from an authorized tural damage. of specified time duration and pressureof the completed pipeline or piping systems. 2. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1 7 Trenchless construction is any construction method square inch absolute (276 kilopascals) at 100°F (373°C). with the of appropriate the jurisdictional author- be posted. should be placed.2 Casedpipeline or casedpipe is a carrier pipe inside and then jacked simultaneously behind the front of the ad- a casing that crosses beneath a railroad or highway.3.9 Longitudinal weld is a full penetration groove weld running lengthwise along the pipe made during fabrication of the pipe. vancing auger.3. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.16 Split casing is a casing made of a pipe that is cut 2. SECTION 3-PROVISIONS FOR SAFETY 3.3.14 Railroad refers to rails fixed to ties laid on a roadbed providing a track for rolling stock drawn by loco- 2.6 A girth weld is a full circumferential butt weld join- made of Portland cement concrete. and personnel across a highway should be in strict compliance 3'2 As to the hazards guards (watch. with limits as determined by applicable design codes and regulations.3 Casing is a conduit through which the carrier pipe 2. equipment.3.1 8 Uncased pipeline or uncased pipe is carrier pipe hicular traffk.1 3 Pressure testing is a continuous. and preparatory procedureSshould be used. or other debris that present an unsafe condition.fences. oil.3. 2. movement and protecting the highway from surface or struc- 3. cous asphaltic materials. A P I RPxLL02 9 3 W 0732290 0509038 707 m STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 3 .7 Highly volatile liquid (HVL) is a hazardous liquid longitudinally and rewelded around thecarrier pipe.3. mud. 2.3.3.11 Percussivemoling is a constructionmethod in which a percussive moling device is used to advance a hole 2. User=. and temporary walkways. . municipal. lights. nent deformation or change of shape without fracture of the wall.12 Pipe jacking with auger boring is a construction 2. COPYRIGHT 2002.8 Highway is any road or driveway that is used fre- quently as a thoroughfare andis subject to self-propelledve. ing twoadjacent sections of pipe.3.3. without a casing that crosses beneath a railroad or highway.3 Definitions as sections of pipe are jacked simultaneously into place be- hind the advancing instrument. that will forma vapor cloudwhen released to the atmosphere and that has a vapor pressure exceeding 40 pounds per 2. state.3. 2.15 Rigidpavement is a highway surface or subsurface 2.

4 Cover 4.3 Vertical and horizontal clearances between the pipeline 4. and where deep cuts steel pipelines underrailroads and highways.1 RAILROAD CROSSINGS mize the void betweenthe pipe and theadjacent soil.3 The carrier pipe shall be welded in accordance with minimum of cover. are required.4.1 The carrier pipe should be as straight as practicable and should have uniform soil support for the entire length of the crossing. the crossing.2.1 Type of Crossing of Pipelines and Related Facilities[7]. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.3. 3. Inno case should it be less formations imposed atrailroad and highwaycrossings. 4. or make unsafeto ditches should be maintained to avoid flooding or erosion of operate.3. 4. A P I RP*lL02 9 3 0732290 0509039 643 m 4 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 3.6 Thefunctioning of railroadand highway drainage ing a crossing shouldnot cause damage to. any structure or facility intercepted by or adjacent to the roadbed or adjacent properties.8 [8. shouldbe avoided where practicable.1 The angle of intersection between a pipeline cross- This section focuses specifically on the design of uncased ing and the railroad or highway to be crossed should be as carrier pipelines to accommodate safely the stresses and de. .4 or B3 1. 4.3. The decision to use an uncased crossing must be predi- cated on careful consideration of the stresses imposed onun. and ASME B31. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 4. Carrier pipe under railroads should be installed with a 4.2. as well asthepotentialdifficulties associated with protecting cased pipelines from corrosion. The than 30 degrees. provisions apply to the design and construction of welded 4. as measured fromthe top of the pipe to the latest approved editions of M I Standard 1104.Welding the base of the rail.2 Crossings in wet or rock terrain. 4. as follows (see Figure 1): G E Minimum depth Railroad7 I I [belowbottom of rail Minimum depth below ditch m l \ \ Minimum depth below ground\ LUncased carrier pipe RAILROAD CROSSING Minimum depth f r Highway1 f rDrainaae ditch Uncased carrier pipe 1 L Minimum depth below surface of pavement HIGHWAY CROSSING Figure 1-Examples of Uncased Crossing Installations COPYRIGHT 2002. near to 90 degrees as practicable.2.2 General and a structureor facility in place mustbe sufficientto permit maintenance of the pipeline and the structure or facility.5 Equipmentusedandproceduresfollowed in construct. whichever is applicable. 4. SECTION 4-UNCASED CROSSINGS 4.2 The carrier pipe should be installed so as to mini. User=.3 LocationandAlignment casedpipelines. 91.

2. above.. the scope of this recommended practice.. in the circumferen. Use the Barlow formula to calculate the circumferential describe how pipelinestresses can be influencedby longitu- stress due to internal pressure. in. [4] b. due to live load.6. sional organizations [ 11.8 meters) 2. 4. S. Pipe stresses induced by Figure 2.2 Other loads may be present as a result of temper- ature fluctuations caused by changes in season. W .1. as would be applied on either track shown in COPYRIGHT 2002.8. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 3.1 GENERAL a.2. as follows: adopted in practice for ditch conduits [ 101. 4. Such procedures 1. several figures give design curves for specific 4. Fi. local instability. SHi(Barlow).2 HIGHWAY CROSSINGS material properties or geometric conditions. a single train. evaluated on a site-specific basis and. in the longitudinaldirection.9 meter) Recommended methodsfor performing the steps in Items c.5 Design tension due to end effects. Calculate the cyclic circumferential stress. as follows (see Figure 1): Location Minimum Cover 4.as measured from the top of the pipe to thetop of the surface. If the minimumcoverage set forth in 4.~ I . For pipelines transporting HVL 4 feet (1.3MECHANICALPROTECTION load. mechanical protection shall be installed. ated with specialized equipment..2.6. longitudinal 4. Calculate the external live load. are described in 4. and the cyclic longitudinal stress.6. Under all other surfaces 4.4.6 Loads 4. Check girth weld fatigue by comparing A& against the It is assumed that the pipeline is subjected to the load from girth weld fatigue limit.9 meter) jected to both internal load from pressurization and external c. Calculate the circumferential stress due to internal pres. Calculate the circumferential stress due to earth load. 2. dinal bends and tees in the vicinityof the crossing.6 through 4. Allother loads are a. Under all Location structure proper other surfaces Minimum Cover 6 feet (1. 131. i.6.6. x F..1.1 Earth Load e. The earth sure.For pipelines transporting HVL 4 feet (1. S. and determine the ap.1 A carrier pipe at an uncased crossing will be sub- within the right-of-way 3 feet (0.2. User=. 4. Calculate the effective stress. as follows: l. nearby blasting. Calculate the principal stresses. If any check fails. An impact factor should be applied to the live 4. Loads of this nature must be ameter approaching the crossing. load is calculatedaccordingtotheprocedures widely g. 4. and they low) against the maximum allowable value. ~ . modify thedesignconditions in Itema appropriately and repeat thesteps in Itemsb through h. Serf. . 12.4. In 4. S. SHi.2EXTERNALLOADS propriate impact factor. The earth load isthe force resulting from the weight of the f.6. A S H .6 through 4. The soils. Check SHi(Bar.1 Railroad Crossing h. Check by comparing S. Check effective stress. Interpolations between the design curves may be done. against the allowable stress. S. are outside construction. Underhighway surface proper 4 feet ( 1. and ground deformations cased pipeline must be accounted for comprehensively.8.2 meters) b.2 meters) b through h. and un- recommended design procedure is shown schematically in dermining by adjacent excavations. soil. overlying soil that is conveyed to the top of pipe. therefore. and S3 in the been included in specifications adopted by various profes- radial direction. have been used in pipeline design for many years and have tial direction.4. 1 l a. S. Under track b. Determine the pipe. such as shrinking and swelling cluding both circumferential and longitudinal stresses. Recommended methods for calculating these loads and impact factors are described in the following subsections.2 meters) loads from earth forces (dead load) and or train highway traf- fic (live load).2 LiveLoad SMYS x F. within the right-of-way or from the bottom of ditches 3 feet (0.6.1 and 4. It consists of the following steps: temperature fluctuationscan be included. Extrapolations be- Carrier pipe under highways should be installed with min- yond the design curvelimits are not recommended. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. and operational characteristics.2can- not be provided. A P I RP+LL02 9 3 D 0732290 0509040 3b5 m STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 5 . fluctuations associated with pipeline operating conditions. d. a result of special conditions. x F. Check longitudinal weld fatigue by comparing ASH against thelongitudinal weld fatigue limit. imum cover. Check welds for fatigue. c. give equations to evaluate such effects.4. A S L . 4. arising from various sources. Ingraffea et al. &. frost heave. Begin with the wall thickness for the pipelineof given di. the stresses affecting the un. unusual surface loads associ- To ensure safe operation.

.2. and 5 Calculate cyclic longitudinal AS..10. or Figures 14 and 15 Fiaures 3. &. Calculate the circumferential Earth load and calculate 6 : Figure 7 stress dueto internal pressure using the Barlow formula. and 10. Figures 8.. or Equation 17 Fails fatiaue check - Check for fatiguein longitudinal weld: Table 3. . Equation 3 or 5. Equation 4 or6.. stress dueto earth load. S. 4. Begin Pipe.e: Equation 1.: stress due to live load.2.Flow Diagram of Design Procedure for Uncased Crossingsof Railroads and Highways COPYRIGHT 2002. check Check for allowableSefi: 4 Equation 13 1 Check for fatiguein girth weld: Table 3. Figure 18. Equation 19. and site characteristics - * d External - Calculate W: Section 4.7.. 12. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. 11 Calculate effective stress.: stress due to live load. APIRPx3302 93 m 0732290 05090432T3 6 API RECOMMENDEO PRACTICE 1102 . f + h S.: Equation 7 * + t Calculate the principal stresses..9.. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. or Equation20 Design complete Figure 2.¡ (Barlow): Equation 8a or 8b Calculate cyclic circumferential Calculate circumferential AS..1 .. Sefi: Equation 12 Fails S. operational.and S. installation. User=. Equation 15 or 16.Figures 11. or Figures 16 and 17 stress due to internal pressure. Calculate the circumferential and 13. S. S$ Equations 9.

(pounds per square inch or kilopascals). should be assumed equalto 1.B. for various soilcondi- 4. struction and new structures constructed over existing pipelines.at the surface of the crossing.. This D = pipe outside diameter. equivalent single wheel loadsP . KH. The excavation factor. Recommended proce.2. value is justified on the basis of field or laboratory data. tJ D .7 Stresses bored installations. p .3INTERNALLOAD tions in Figure 4. should be used in thedesign.load. S.W . ferential stress are used.5 kips per square inch (3.8 megapascals). embankment-type crossing.7. type of orientation generally is preferred in new pipeline It is recommended that ybe taken as 120 pounds per cubic construction and is likely to result in pipeline stresses larger foot (18. Itis recommended thatE' be cho- shown inFigure 1. is due to the wheel earth load.1 SurfaceLiveLoads dures for calculating each component of these stresses The live. stress in. For design. is presentedas a function of the 4. For trenched con- stresses. W . it is recommended Bd that be taken pounds per square inch or kilopascals. E.7.7. This is the load resulting from the uniform distribution of four 80-kip (356-kilonewton) axles over an area 20 feet by 8 4. accounts for the inter- action between the soil and pipe and depends on the pipe It is assumed that the pipeline is subjected to the loads wall thickness to diameter ratio. User=. MAOP. Figure 6 KH. recognizing that soil compaction in the trench would lead to higher E' values than those for auger 4.2HighwayCrossing The earth load stiffness factor..The maximum allow. and new structures constructed over existing pipelines... such that there action. P. This type of orientation generally is pre. The design wheel load should beeither the maximum &e = KHe Be YD (1) wheel load from a truck's single axle. in Figure 5. applied follow. and P. E. as a are twosets of tandem or single axles inline with each other. 4.7.6. [4]. For example.2 Stresses Due to Live Load External loading on the carrier pipe will produce bothcir- cumferential and longitudinal stresses.. For simultaneous loading of both tracks. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. sen as 0. B. termined as follows: only the loadfrom one of the wheel sets needs to beconsid- ered. P. E. as D + 2 inches (5 1 millimeters).9 pounds per square inch (96 kilo- resisted by a vertical reaction distributed across a 90 degree pascals) be used. in inches or meters. unless a ferred in new pipeline construction and is likely to result in higher value is judged more appropriate by the designer. = excavation factor for earth load. 4. external rail loadis the vehicular load. E'. ~~ Figure l. function of t. see Ingraffea et al. arc centered on thepipe invert. Values of E' appropriate for auger borer The crossing is assumed be to oriented at90 degrees with re. a truck COPYRIGHT 2002.1StressesDue to Earth Load feet (6. or maximum operating pres. or the maximum Where: wheel load from a truck's tandem axle set.2.069 than those associated with pipelinescrossing at oblique an- pounds per cubic inch) for most soil types unless a higher gles to the railroad. . as illustrated in Figure l . unless the loads are known to be greater.4 megapascals). P . The crossing is assumed to be y = soil unit weight. = burial factor for earth load. Figure 3 shows KHerplotted for various E'. construction may range from0.O. The circumferentialstress at thepipeline invert causedby The live external highway load.Bd ID. is presented as a function of the ratio of pipe depthto bored diameter. For trenched construction able operating pressure.4. D can be assumed. E. can be assumedequal to 1. applied at the surface of the roadway. STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 7 .1 GENERAL ratio of bored diameter to pipe diameter.. For detailed information on the methods usedto develop If the bored diameter is unknown or uncertain at thetime of the design approaches and design curves for determining design. Bd = sure.2. = stiffness factor for circumferential stress from shows the methods by which axle loads are converted into earth load. If the bored diameter is unknown or uncer- The internal load is produced by internal pressure..1 in AppendixA gives typical values for E'. and modulusof soil re- from two trucks traveling in adjacent lanes. in tain at the time of design.2 STRESSES DUE TO EXTERNAL LOADS 4. crossing at oblique angles to the highway.HIB.4 meters).9 kilonewtons per cubic meter) (equivalent to 0.0 kips per square inch spect to the highway and is an embankment-type crossing. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. Itis recommended that Cooper tically across a 90 degree arc centered on the pipe crown and E-80 loading of W = 13. The burial factor.6. is de. in pounds per cubic inch or kilo- oriented at 90 degrees with respectto the railroad and is an newtons percubic meter.4 to 13.as (1. It is assumed that all external loads are conveyed ver.2 to 2.1 meters by 2.lD.2..O.7. crement factorsfor the cyclic longitudinal and cyclic circum. MOP.2. pipeline stresses larger than those associated with pipelines Table A.2.

04 0. H/& Figure 4-Burial Factor for Earth Load Circumferential Stress. soft clays and silts Dense to very dense sands and gravels. API RPxLL02 9 3 0732290 0509043 074 8 API RECOMMENDED 1102 PRACTICE 12000 ‘ \ I I 1 F \ E‘. B.02 0. Figure 3-Stiffness Factor for Earth Load Circumferential Stress. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. K.LID Note: See Table A-1 for soil descriptions. COPYRIGHT 2002.5 I I I I I I I I I I E T ? Soil Description TVDe Loose to medium dense sands and gravels. User=.08 Wall thickness to diameter ratio.06 0. ksi (MPa) O 0. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. 1. medium to very stiff Depth to bored diameter ratio.. .

of P .of newtons) and P.4kilonewtons) and P.4pounds per square inch axle wheel load recommended for design isP . then is determined as follows: below 5 feet (1. has no pavement.. = 10 kips (44. Where: For the recommended design loads of P .3RailroadCyclicStresses Where: 4.. more critical depends on the carrier pipe diameter.10 1.or the design load. = 12 kips (53. PS.7. or ahas rigid pavement.5kilonewtons). 1 per meter)of depth inch or kilonewtons).O5 1.5meters) until the impact factor equals1 . may be tandem wheel load. . the critical the carrier pipeline at the crossing. and pipe diameters are given in Tablel. The impact factors are1.4kilonewtons). referto Appendix A.7.O. User=.Fi. Single axle loading:W = 83. (pounds per square inch or kilopascals). = 10 kips (44.3.5kilonewtons). = 12 kips = KW = railroad stiffness factor for cycliccircumferential 12. 7. and a truck with a tandem axle load of 40 kips a.OOO stress.H.5kilonewtons).3 pounds per square inch (574 (177. = 10 kips = 10. in pounds (kilonewtons). the depth of burial.15 1.5kilonewtons).9kilonewtons) would havea design tandem wheel load kilopascals).7. = 12 kips (53. each decreasing by 0.4kilo- pact factor. the applied design surface pres- have a design single wheel load of P. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. 6 d l D Figure 5-Excavation Factor for Earth Load Circumferential Stress. (2) 4.000pounds (53. W (pounds per square ways.Pt.2. is taken as 144 squareinches (0. Tandem axle loading: W = 69.03per foot(O. COPYRIGHT 2002.4kilo.5 for high- The applied design surface pressure. railroad and highway crossings is shown graphically in Figure burial depths. D. H.1 The cyclic circumferential stress due to rail P = either the design single wheel load. 1. A S H .2.2.8 kilonewtons) would pounds (44. = 12 kips (479kilopascals).75 for railroads and 1.20 1. sures are as follows: newtons). For design wheel loads different from the recommended The decision as to whether single or tandem axle loading is maximums. A P I R P * L L 0 2 73 O 0732290 0509044 T O O O STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 9 ". The maximum tandem axle wheel load recommended fordesign is P.2ImpactFactor ble pavement.2.For It is recommended that the live load be increased by im-an the recommended design loads of P. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.25 1 . and whether the roadsurface has a flexi. calculated as follows: A. (53. The impact factor for both axle configuration cases for the various pavement types.2.which isa function of the depth ofburial. W = PfA.m Ratio of bored diameterto pipe diameter. = 10 kips (44.2. A. 4.093square meters). with a single axle loadof 24 kips (106. Themaximum single b.o0 1. = the contact area overwhich the wheel load is ap- ASHr = KHr G W NH Fi W (3) plied.

2 meters) and diameter.5 Kilonewtons) Depth of burial. H. H. H. = 12 Kips (53. . Depth. D.C 4 feet (1. P. 10 Single axle load Tandem axle load a Direction of travel a O Equivalent load application area axle Single load load axle Tandem P. User=. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.4 Kilonewtons) and P. and P. = Pt = 2 4 Figure 6-Single and Tandem Wheel Loads.2 meters)and diameter. t 4 feet ( 1.2 meters) for all diameters Pavement vpe Critical Axle Configuration Flexible pavement Tandem axles No pavement Tandem axles Rigid pavement Tandem axles COPYRIGHT 2002.I12 inches (305 millimeters) Pavement Qpe Critical Axle Configuration Flexible pavement Tandem axles No pavement Single axle Rigid pavement Tandem axles Depth. Table 1-Critical Axle Configurations for Design Wheel Loads of P.> 12 inches (305 millimeters). = 10 Kips (44.c 4 feet (1. D.

. 3 15 The single track factor for cyclic circumferential stress is NH % = 1. 300 . d 4.m u) .00. Fi W (4) .02 0.08 Wall thickness to diameter ratio. CHI. Figure 8-Railroad Stiffness Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress.is presented as a func- m c Y tion of pipe diameter. Figure 7-Recommended Impact Factor Versus NL = railroad singleor double track factor for cyclic lon- Depth gitudinal stress.ID Note: See Table A-2 for soil descriptions. in pounds per 5 square inch or kilopascals. H. A P I RP*LL02 9 3 D 0732290 0 5 0 9 0 4 b 883 D STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS i1 Impact factor. - $E =F - S" ES 200 - u æ m o o . = railroad stiffness factor for cyclic longitudinal stress. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. and soil re- 10 silient modulus.06 0. in Figure 8.o = m cc 100 - - O I l I I I I I I I l I I I I I O 0. - . Table A-2 in Appendix A gives typical values for E. tJD. D. W = applied design surface pressure. User=.7.k . 20 A S L r (pounds per square inch or kilopascals). CL. - 0 - -a 5o . The NHfactor for double trackis shown in Figure10.3.KHI COPYRIGHT 2002. Fi= impact factor. in Figure 9... Fi= impact factor. may be calcu- lated as follows: ASLr Kb NL CL. KHrris presented as a function The railroad stiffness factor..2 The cyclic longitudinal stress due to rail load.I.04 0. h 4- m The railroad geometry factor. (Text continued on page 14) . of the pipe wall thickness todiameter ratio. - - o o F$ . .2.(. 400 . E. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5 CH.2.25 Where: KL. O NH = railroad singleor double track factorfor cyclic cir- cumferential stress. = railroad geometry factor for cyclic longitudinal 30 stress. - e2 .= railroad geometryfactor for cyclic circumferential stress. and depth of burial.

User=. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.25 I I I I I I I I I I 1 O I I I I I I I I l l l l l l l l I l l I 24 O 18 6 12 30 36 42 Diameter. A P I RPtLL02 93 m 0732290 05090g7 7 L T m 12 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 (millimeters) O 200 400 lo00 600 800 1. D (inches) G.5 0.5 O 6 24 12 18 30 36 42 Diameter. Figure 9-Railroad Geometry Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress. D (inches) Figure 10-Railroad Double Track Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress.0 I I I I I I I I I o 5 E 62 1. (millimeters) O 200 400 600 800 loo0 2. NH COPYRIGHT 2002. .. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.

Figure 11-Railroad Stiffness Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress. I O 0. API 'RPxLL02 9 3 m 0732290 05090Ll8 656 m CROSSING PIPELINES STEEL RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 13 600 I I I I " I l ~ l l ~ l 500 . User=.Gu COPYRIGHT 2002. 400. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584..- E. E. & (millimeters) O 200 400 800 600 lo00 2. Note: See Table A-2 for soil descriptions.08 tw/D Wall thickness to diameter ratio. ksi (MPa) - -o .04 0. - si2 òf G a S* 83 VE? -.02 0.5 I I 1 I I I I I I I Figure 12-Railroad Geometry Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress. .06 0. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.-E!= 200- 2 100 - O I I I I 1 I I .

American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. tion factor. R. 14 02 (millimeters) O 200 400 600 800 lo00 tc r 14 (4.2. 4.GHh.is presentedas a function The railroad stiffness factor. (pounds per square inch or kilopas. D (inches) Figure 13-Railroad Double Track Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress. Km. pavement types.2 The cyclic longitudinal stress due to highway way vehicular load. and axle configurations.4. tion of D and H in Figure 12. cals).NL W = applied design surface pressure.8) 12 O 6 18 24 42 30 36 Diameter.2.pipe diameter. COPYRIGHT 2002.7.. 4.4Highway Cyclic Stresses 4. Fi= impact factor.jD and E. 4.OO. square inch or kilopascals.2. R = highway pavement type factor.7. and axle configura- square inch or kilopascals.. H. in pounds per The highway pavement type factor. is presented as a func- The single track factor for cyclic longitudinal stress is NL tion of f J D and E.A&. L = highway axle configuration factor.!&.1 The cyclic circumferential stress due to high.2. User=.2.L. stress. . tial stress. The de- KLr. = 1. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals.3) 1 6 (1. depend on the burial depth. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. (pounds per square inch or kilopascals).is presented as a func- D.2. KLh= highway stiffness factor for cyclic longitudinal = highway geometry factor for cyclic circumferen. GLh= highway geometry factor for cyclic longitudinal R = highway pavement type factor. The railroad geometry factor.4. in Figure 11.7.2. The highway geometry factor. Table 2 presents the R and L factors for various H. L = highway axle configuration factor. in pounds per Fi= impact factor. GLr. The NLfactor for double track is shown in Figure 13.2. stress. W = applied design surface pressure.1. W = applied design surface pressure. and design axle configuration (single or tandem). is presentedas a func- tion of D and H in Figure 15. The highway stiffness factor.7. vehicular load.A. R L Fi W (5) Where: Where: KHh= highway stiffnessfactor for cyclic circumferential stress. in Figure 14. may be calculated from the following: may be calculated from the following: AL&h = KHh G. D. cision on the designaxle configuration has been described in of t.

in inches or millimeters.. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals.90 0. < 4 feet (1.o0 Single axle 0. I A P I RP*(]IL02 93 m 0732290 0509050 204 m STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 15 The pavement type factor.7.L 4 feet (1.10 1. and axle configuration fac. (pounds per square inch or kilopascals). = wall thickness.o0 1. p = internal pressure.90 1.10 0. D. User=.90 1. < 4 feet (1. R.is presented as a func- &i = p(D . H. may be calculated tor.2 meters) and diameter. H. in Figure 16.65 Depth. SHi t.02 0. are the same as givenTable in 2.00 Single axle 1. .04 Wall thickness to diameter ratio. Depth.06 0.2 meters) and diameter.o0 Single axle 0. Table 2-Highway Pavement Type Factors. L. in inches or millimeters.o0 axle Single 1.o0 0.I12 inches (305 millimeters) Pavement TypeConfiguration Axle Design R L axle Tandem pavement Flexible 1. from the following: The highway stiffness factor.o0 1.o0 Single axle 1.is presented as a func.65 No pavement Tandem axle 1. The highwaygeometryfactor.65 à I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I l m 0.3 STRESSES DUE TO INTERNAL LOAD D = pipe outside diameter. COPYRIGHT 2002.80 axle Tandem pavement Rigid 0.2 meters) for all diameters Pavement TypeConfiguration Axle Design R L FlexibleTandem pavement axle 1. Where: tion ofD and H in Figure 17.08 Figure 14-Highway Stiff ness Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress.)l2 t.L Depth.65 axleTandem pavement Rigid 0.10 1.. D.90 0. 4.75 axle Tandem No pavement 1.JD 0. taken as the MAOP or MOP. (7) tion of tJD and E. and Axle Configuration Factors. t. H. ” Thecircumferential stress duetointernal pressure.> 12 inches (305 millimeters).20 0. GLh. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.t. Note: See TableA-2 for soil descriptions. KLh.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. R.o0 0.o0 Single axle 1. K.

. .2) Figure 15-Highway Geometry Factor for Cyclic Circumferential Stress. Figure 16-Highway Stiffness Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress. ft (m) /. 3 to 4 (0.04 0. ksi (MPa) t I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 0.08 Wall thickness to diameter ratio... G.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.06 0. User=. A P I RP*kLL02 93 m 0732290 0509051 140 16 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 (millimeters) I I I I I I I I I H.9 to 1. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. KLh COPYRIGHT 2002.twlD Note: See Table A-2 for soil descriptions. t E..02 0.

E = longitudinaljoint factor. ~ . as calculated using the Barlow for.106. .0 I 200 I I I (millimeters) I 600 I l 800 I I 1O00 I H. Principal stresses. F.Es%(T2 . in pounds subsections.The circumferential stress due to in.111 or Part 195. in inches or millimeters. . American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. in pounds persquare inch or kilopascals. against the specified The first is specified by 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part minimum yield strength multiplied by a design factor.2 The second check for the allowable stress is ac- complished by comparing the total effective stress. = maximum longitudinal stress. are calculated from the following: must be less than the factored specified minimum yield strength.S.. taken as the MAOP or MOP.8. ing and fatigue in the pipelineare described in the following SMYS = specified minimum yield strength. lowable values. The stresses calculated in 4. ~ .1 Two checks for the allowable stress are required.. S. and S1(pounds per square inch or ternal pressurization. [SHi (Barlow) =pD/2tw]5 F X E X SMYS ASH = ASH. O 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 Diameter. kilopascals). COPYRIGHT 2002. D (inches) Figure 17-Highway Geometry Factor for Cyclic Longitudinal Stress. = maximum circumferential stress. F = design factor chosen in accordance with 49 S.8. SHi(Barlow) (pounds per square inch or kilopascals). and = A S H h . This check is given by the following: S.1. . in poundsper square inchor kilopascals. 4. S2 = Asl.7 may not exceed certain al. are used to calculate SefPThe principal stresses mula. GLh 4. for Where: highways. in inches or millimeters.1 CHECK FOR ALLOWABLE STRESSES 4. Where: tw = wall thickness. User=. ~ .1. Seff 4. for for liquids and other products (8b) railroads.. . 6 ] . ~ . per square inch or kilopascals. A P I RP*LL02 93 W 0732290 0509052 0 8 7 m STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADSAND HIGHWAYS e O 400 3. and @a) S. ft (m) o ~ . 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals.Tl> + + (lo) D = pipe outside diameter.8 Limits of Calculated Stresses Code of Federal Regulations Part 192. . (pounds per square inch or kilopascals). . = SHe + MH + (9) [&i (Barlow) = pD/2tw]I F X E X T X SMYS Where: for natural gas. ~ . p = internal pressure. 192 or Part 195 [ 5 .8. T = temperature derating factor. The allowable stresses for controlling yield.

= Poisson's ratio of steel... = -p =-MAOPor-MOP (11) Where: 4. and o$. + SHi). and S Hare ~ reflected in S. A P I RP*LL02 93 m 0732290 0509053 TL3 m 18 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 ASL = in pounds per square inch or kilopascals. and F = design factor. The general form of the design checkagainst girth weld fatigue is givenby the following: ASL . stress component normalto a weld in the pipeline against an T2 = maximum or minimum operating temperature. is not directly represented in the equa. in pounds persquare inch or kilopascals. for ASLr. referred to as a fatigue en- "F or "C.895 kilopascals (Ha).000 Where: pounds per square inch (82.3 The total effective stress.2. S.2CHECKFORFATIGUE a.in this recommended practice were check is accomplished by assuring that the live load cyclic derived from finite element analyses. . The design tion for S. E. = coefficient of thermal expansionof steel. in pounds per F = designfactor. con- highways.8.. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals. = A S L h . in poundsper square inch or kilopascals.8..ing is the longitudinal stress due to live load.000 pounds per square inch (82. may be calculated from the following: shown in Table 3 for all steel grades and weld types. (pounds per square 12. for = the factored specified minimum yield strength. in "F or "C. for The designer should use valuesfor the design factor. The fatigue endurance limit of girth welds is takenas 4.(&. sistent with standardpractice or code requirements. SGand S. and lowing equation: = A S L h ..1 Girth Weld S3 = maximum radial stress. v. 4.The Poissoneffect of A S L on S. in allowable value of this stress. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.740 kilopascals). S. (psi) Steel SMYS Tensile Strength Seamless Grade (psi) (psi) ERW SAW and All Welds 25000 A25 45000 12000 21000 12000 A 3oooo 48000 12000 21000 12000 B 35000 6oooO 12000 21000 12000 42000 X42 6oooO 12000 21000 12000 46000 X46 63000 12000 21000 12000 52000 X52 66000 12000 21000 12000 56000 X56 71000 I2000 23000 12000 X60 60000 75000 12000 23000 12000 65000 X65 77000 12000 23000 12000 X70 7 m 82000 12000 25000 13000 goo00 X80 9 m 12000 27000 14000 Note: 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.740 kilopascals).F. The values of A S H and AS. SMYS = specified minimum yield strength. railroads. COPYRIGHT 2002. The check for fatigue is accomplished by comparing a Tl = temperature at time of installation. limit. SFG= fatigue endurance limit of girth weld = 12. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. User=. The cyclic stress that must be checked for potential fatigue in a girth weld located beneath a railroad or highway cross- Note: The Poisson effects from S.. thus they already embody the appro. durance limit.. = Young's modulus of steel. (fatigue strength versus number of load cycles)data [ 14.1.longitudinal stressis less thanthe factored fatigue endurance priate Poisson effects.S (psi) SF. Note: Table A-3 in Appendix A gives typical values forE. the railroads. These limits have beendetermined from S-N v.151. I SMYS X F (13) highways. as inch or kilopascals). Table 3-Fatigue Endurance Limits. as v. per "F or per "C. and the minimumultimate tensile strengths as given in API Specification 5L [ 161.8. for S.. Where: plished by assuring that the totaleffective stress is less than ASL A S L r . in poundsper square inch or kilopascals. usingfol. x F IS ( 14) The check against yielding of the pipeline may be accom. square inch or kilopascals.for Various Steel Grades Ultimate Minimum .

1. Equation 15 is replaced bythe fol- fluenced by whether a single or double track crossing was lowing: selected.o I I I I I I I I I I H=14ft(4.Figure 18-A is uation.0 Meters) COPYRIGHT 2002.2HighwayCrossing ASh = cyclic longitudinal stress determined from Equa- tion 4.D (inches) Note: Lo = distance from railroad centerlineto nearest girthweld. It is overly conservative to assume that all of the applied load RF A S L r / N L ISF.740 kilopascals). but less than 10 feet (3 meters). Longitudinal stress reduction factors to account for girth N L = single or double track factor used in Equation 4 weld locations are not used. the cyclic longitudinal stress RF = longitudinal stress reduction factor for fatigue.2 Equation 15 is applicable to railroad crossings in which a girth weld is located at a distance.8. A S L ~ 5 S.0 m) - - H = 6 ft (1. tigue check is given by the following: Note: NL= 1 . Therefore. Since the value of A S L = A S L r is in- locations of a girth weld. used in the girth weld fatigue check at railroad crossings is based on the live load stress from a single track loading sit- RFis obtained from Figures 18-A and 18-B. (see note). = fatigue endurance limit of girth weld = 12. in pounds persquare inch or kilopascals.000 design curves. this must be accountedfor in thefatigue checks. X F (15) greater than or equal to 10 feet (3. since adjacent truck loadings already are considered in the SF. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. X F (17) D (millimeters) O 200 400 800 600 1O00 1.2.5 Meters) but Less Than10 Feet (3.8. For other girth weld fatigue check.2.3m) H = 10 ft (3.Longitudinal Stress Reduction Factors.8.2. norare double lane factors used./NL5 SF.2. The cyclic longitudinal stress for highway pounds per square inch (82. less than 5 feet (1. Figure 18-A.5 meters) from the centerline of the track.1.5 meters). Where: 4. X F (16) cycles will be those generated by simultaneous loading of Where: both tracks. 0 0 for single track crossings. The resulting equation is givenby the following: for values of & greater than or equal to 5 feet (1.8 m) - O I I I I I l I II l I I I I 36 30 24 O 18 6 12 42 Pipe diameter.8.1 Equation 14 above is the general form of the 4.1.for Greater Than or Equal to 5 Feet (1.1. Figure 18-B is for values of UL.1 Railroad Crossing 4.1. crossings is determined using Equation 6. L G .0 meters). 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. The girth weld fa- F = design factor. . A P I RP*:LL02 93 m 0732290 0509054 95T m I CROSSING PIPELINES STEEL RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 19 I 4. RF. with the train wheel sets alwaysin phase directly above the crossing. User=.1.

and SAW longitudinal welds made in weld fatigue at railroad crossings.0 m) I& 18 I I I I I I 36 I I 1 42 Pipe diameter.2. in pounds per square inch or kilopascals. is as follows: durance limits for X52 grade steel would be used. MHrlNH I Sm X F (19) The general form of the design checkagainst longitudinal weld fatigue is as follows: Where: MHSSKxF (18) ASHr = cyclic circumferential stress determined from Equation 3. load. The resulting equation pounds per square inch (372 megapascals). live load cyclic circumferential stress is less than the factored fatigue endurance limit.2.D (inches) Note: LG = distance from railroad centerlineto nearest girth weld. the cyclic circumferentialstress used in the longitudinal SMYS listed that is lower than the particular intermediate weld fatigue checkat railroad crossingsis the live loadstress value should be used.- c C O O O I 30 l 6 I l 24 12 I I For 10 ft (3. and (see note). The check may be accomplished by assuring that the F = design factor. SFL.1 The cyclic stress that mustbe checked for poten- SFL = fatigue endurance limit of longitudinal weld ob- tial fatigue in a longitudinal weld located beneatha railroad tained from Table 3.0 Meters) 4.2.0m) 3 H = 6 R (1.8 m) .it is overly conservativeto various grade steels. 4. - rt" i O . for NH = single or double track factor used in Equation 3 railroads.for Greater Than or Equal to 10 Feet (3.8. - 8 B E H=lOft(3. For SMYS values intermediate to those use double track cyclic stresses for fatigue purposes.8.8. if the SMYS is 54. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. As described in 4.l .2.o I I I l I I I I I I . 1 dealing with girth for seamless. ERW. 4. - . For example.2Longitudinal Weld A S H h r in pounds per square inch = or kilopascals.is dependent on the type of weld and the minimum ultimate Equation 18 is the general form of the longitudinal weld tensile strength. A P I RP. for highways. . ASH = A S H r . in poundsper square inch or or highway crossing is the circumferential stress due to live kilopascals. the fatigue en.+LLO2 93 m 0732290 0509055 896 20 D (millimeters) O 600 200 400 800 1o00 1.000 from a single track loading situation. There- listed in Table 3.2 RailroadCrossing The fatigue endurance limit of longitudinal welds. User=. Figure 18-B-Longitudinal Stress Reduction Factors.2. Table 3 gives the fatigue endurance limits fatigue check. RF. in pounds persquare inch or kilopas- Where: cals.2.8. COPYRIGHT 2002. the fatigue endurance limits for the closest fore. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.

backtill. If the requirements of 5. these optimal weld locations The cyclic circumferential stress for highway crossings is listed provide an additional margin of safety against longi- determined using Equation5 . if the positioning of highway trafficmakes it impractical to locate design check against longitudinal weld fatigue is satisfac.2. Equations 3 4.4 Wall Thickness thickness in casings under railroads are given by the American Railway Engineering Association[ 111. A P I RP*LL02 93 m 0732290 O509056 7 2 2 m STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING AND HIGHWAYS RAILROADS 21 .2. it may be advantageous to consider the circumferen- kilopascals).7 are fulfilled at open cut or 5. . of at least 10 feet (3 meters) from the are given in Table3. LG. locating the weld at any location is acceptable. The relevant specifications for selecting minimal wall 5. The longitudinal weld fatigue tudinal weld fatigue.3 MinimumInternalDiameter of 5. User=. crossings have been established and used in practice for many years. substantial reductions in the value of ap- 4. The optimal location of all longitudinal welds is at the 45.9. check is as follows: ASH~ISEXF (20) 4. COPYRIGHT 2002. SECTION 5-CASED CROSSINGS 5.. Railroad and Highway Crossings No reduction factor should be taken for the fatigue check when evaluating pipeline crossings beneath twoor more ad- The design checks against longitudinal weld fatigue in jacent tracks.1. No reduction factor should be takenfor the fa- this recommended practice are based on the maximum tigue check associated with highway crossings. A S H . The casing pipe should be at least two nom- Design procedures for casings beneath railroad and highway inal pipe sizes larger than thecarrier pipe.2 OPENTRENCHEDCROSSINGS B3 1. or other accepted methods should be utilized.7 cannot be met. Carrier in AppendixC. How- tained from Table 3. theuse of heavier wall casing pipe.8. and should have a enough to facilitate installation of the carrier pipe. The minimum nominal wall thickness for steel casing pipe vided by the American Society of Civil Engineers [ 131 andthe in bored crossings should equalor exceed the values shown American Society of Mechanical Engineers [8. 135. greater depths. or315 degree position with the crown at the zero degree position. pipe for cased crossings should conform to the material and de- sign requirements of the latest edition of ASME B3 l .1 The casing pipe should be free of internal obstruc- The inside diameterof the casing pipe should be large tions. "" S.1. As indi- cated in 4. The longitudinal weld fatigue endurancelimits is at a distance. and A Casing to prevent transmission of external loads from the casing to the carrier pipe. girth weldsfor minimum cyclic loading effects. 121.3HighwayCrossing and 5 will predict conservative values of cyclic circumfer- ential stress.4 or 5.5.225. 5. If Suitable materials for casings are new or used line pipe. tial orientation of the pipeline welds during construction. to provide uniform bedding for the entire length of the crossing.2.1BORED CROSSINGS suitable for casings beneath railroads and highways are pro. F = design factor. Note: N.10 Location of Girth Welds at Railroad Crossings Double lane factors are not used in the highway fatigue check since the design curves take adjacent truck loadings The optimal location of a girth weld at railroad crossings into account. the requirements of 5. For any of these orientations. or other available steel tubular goods. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.1 CarrierPipeInstalledWithin proper insulation for maintenance of cathodic protection. = fatigue endurance limit of longitudinal weld ob. tory.9 Orientation of Longitudinal Welds at plied cyclic longitudinal stress may be obtained in thiscase.= 1 . and design practices 5.5 General Casing 5. installationof casing at mill reject pipe. centerline of the track for a single track crossing. stabilized cluding longitudinally split casings.8.4. Accordingly. the minimum nominal wall thickness for steel casing for bored crossings in Appendix C may be used.8. in pounds persquare inch or ever.2 CasingsforCrossings trenched installations. Casings may be coated or bare. in.4. should be as straight as practicable. 0 0 for single track crossings. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. Thus. The variable value of the cyclic circumferential stress.

7 meters) drainage ditch.4 meters) 5.t L .1 RAILROAD CROSSINGS 5.-Carrier pipe """""""_"" """""""""_ "- \t \ L sealEnd Lasing Lbelow Minimum depth surface of pavement HIGHWAY CROSSING Figure 19-Examples of Cased Crossing Installations COPYRIGHT 2002. Under track structure proper for secondaryandindustrytracks 4.5.3 Steel casing pipe shouldbe joined completely to en. whichever is the greater (see Figure 19).5 feet (1. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5 feet (1. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.as measured from the top of the pipe to the maintenance of the pipeline and the structure or facility.7. or 3 feet (0. and where deep cuts are required.7. b.3 Crossings in wet or rock terrain. A P I RP*LL02 93 0732290 0509057 669 m 22 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 5. minimum cover. 5.6.2 The angle of intersection between pipelinecrossings c. Under track structure proper.6. For pipelines transporting HVL 4 feet (1. Casing pipe under railroads should be installed with a sure acontinuous casing from end to end.9 meter) beyond the bottom of the tracks 5.9 meter) 30 degrees. In nocase should it be less than bottom of ditches 3 feet (0. minimum of 2 feet (0. as follows (see Figure 19): -. User=. it should extend a a.6.6 LocationandAlignment MinimumLocation Cover 5.2HIGHWAYCROSSINGS 5.2 meters) 5.4 Vertical and horizontal clearances between the pipeline Casing pipe under highways should be installed with a and a structureor facility in place mustbe sufficient to permit minimum cover. 5. .5.2 The casing pipe should be installed with an overbore 5. should be avoided where practicable. Minimum depth Minimum depth below ground Minimumdepth 7\ Railroad 7 7 below bottomof rail below ditch Vent L\-Casing seal End Carrier pipe J RAILROAD CROSSING I I 1 v ~ m " v IeI 'n.7 Cover as small as possible so as to minimize the void between the pipe and the adjacent soil. d.as measured from the top of the pipe to the base of the rail.1 Where casing pipe is installed. Under all other surfaces and the railroad or highway to be crossed should be as near within the right-of-way or from to 90degrees as practicable. top of the surface.6.6 meter) beyond the toe of the slopeor except secondary and industry base grade. as follows (see Figure 19): 5.

as well as the from the promote minimal bearing pressure between the insulator and casing pipe. By means of Figure of the casing.2 meters) 5. can substantially re- COPYRIGHT 2002.9 meter) vent pipe should be not less than 2 inches (5 1 millimeters) in c. right-of-way the 3 feet (0. suchas reducing 5 .7.10.7. . the designer can account for the influence of the bored the auger size and fitting the pipeor casing withstops to pre- hole diameter. i SECTION 6-INSTALLATION i 6. shouldbe welded to the casing.12InspectionandTesting The casing shouldbe fitted with end seals at both ends to Supervision and inspection should be provided during con- reduce theintrusion of water andfines from thesurrounding struction of the crossing. All girth welds shouldbe inspected by radiographic or should be anticipated.1 Auger boring for a pipeline crossing often is per- millimeters) in diameter. Bd.11 Insulators 5.1 0. OR TUNNELING roads and highways.2 5. rier pipe used at the crossing should be inspected visually for sible under field conditions. of the casing pipe by properlydesigned supports. It should be recognized thata water-tight sealis notpos. 5. Under all other surfaces within 5.1TrenchlessInstallation When the auger is adjusted to excavate a hole equalin size to the pipe. Before installation. Modificatiodsof the method. on the earth load transmitted to the pipe.S.3 Vent pipe should extend not less than 4 feet (1. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. Under highway surface proper 4 feet (1. This also may be accom. formed with anauger that is a fraction of an inch to as much niques that excavate an oversized hole relative to the size of as 2 inches (5 1 millimeters) larger in diameter thanthe pipe. For trenchless construction tech.. After a cased crossing is in- ible material that will inhibit the formation of a waterway stalled. The stipulations in the ing by providing a circular enclosure that prevents direct above paragraph should apply. 5.4 Two vent pipes may be installed tofacilitate filling or other devices. and should project through the groundsurface at the right-of-way line or fence 5. or by a concrete jacket.2 meters) diameter. or special needs are encountered. Percussive moling also is used but is re- stricted to small pipelines. practice of pipeline installation beneath rail- 6. The insulator shouldbe designed to be insulated from other carrier pipes. or when percussive moling or a similar insertion 6.9CasingSeals 5.8 Installation meters) above the ground surface. they should be uniformly spaced and securely fastened to the carrier pipe. the pipe. 5.2 can.7.1 Carrier pipe installedin a casing should be held clear be fitted with suitable weather caps. 5.8. B.2 One or two vent pipes may be installed. Bd= D. the designer should assume that the bored diameter is equal to the pipe diameter.10CasingVents a. tors are used.3 MECHANICALPROTECTION line (see Figure 19). The seal should be formed with a flex.8. and installed so that no external load will be the casing witha “casing filler” by connecting the ventpipe transmitted to the carrier pipe. other nondestructive methods. A hole throughthe casing not less than If the minimum coverage set forth in 5.1 2. For pipelines transporting HVL 4 feet (1. If used. carrier coating. A P I RP*LL02 93 m 073229005090585T5 m CROSSING PIPELINES STEEL RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 23 . the section of car- soil.1. Insulators electricallyisolate the carrier pipe from the cas- ties. insulators. needs to be under circumstances in which theauger is advanced in front known or specified before construction.1. andeach carrier pipe should contact between the two. a test shouldbe performed to determine that the carrier through thecasing. Where manufactured insula. at the low end of the casing to the bottom of the casing and plished by building up a ring of layers of coating and outer connecting the vent pipe at the high end ofthe casing to the wrap. User=. and thatsome water infiltration defects.1 and 5.2BORING.1 GENERAL method is used.1 Vents are not required on casings. the diameter of the bored hole. structural difficul. b.10. MinimumLocation Cover 5. mechanical protection shall be installed.2 Multiple carrier pipes may be installed withone cas- ing pipe where restricted working areas. ing the casing vent over it. typically less than 6 inches (150 6. pipe is electrically isolated from the casing pipe. top of the casing. The tops of vents should 5.JACKING. one-half the vent pipediameter must be made prior to weld- not be provided. vent the auger from leading the pipe. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.10. ‘ Pipe jacking with an auger borer is the predominant means in U.

3. should be placedin layers of 12 inches(305 millimeters) or c. or tunneled hole. that reductions in overcutting generally will in.Reduction inthe amount ofoverexca. 6.3SURFACERESTORATION The pipe is jacked from an excavation. therefore. This. jacked. to require track- mounted equipment in the launching pit with a suitable end 6.1 through 6.1. the trench shall be bearing wall so that adequate jacking forces can be mobi. may decompose and increase the drainage ditches should be maintained to avoid flooding or chance of local corrosion. In tunneled installations. outside diameter of the carrier pipe (including coating). Precaution- sand-filled bags or other suitable means should be used to ary measures shouldbe taken when transporting construction firmly support the carrier pipe adjacent to the crossing prior equipment across railroads and highways. Backfill will not bedetrimental to the facilityto be crossed. highway facilities should be protected at all times.3 EXCAVATION 6. Both the launching and receiving pits should be exca. Railroad and to backfill.2. The diameter ofthe hole for bored or jacked installations provide the pipewith uniform bedding throughout the length should not exceed by more than2 inches (51 millimeters) the of the crossing.1. erosion of the roadbed andadjacent properties. installation referred to in 6. but is not limited to. restoration of road surface should bescheduled to minimize crease frictional and adhesive resistance to the advance of interruption of traffic. referred to as a receiving The surface of pavement that has beencut should be re- pit. The pipe as slurry to lubricate the jacked pipe may be helpful.1 CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION the settlement of the carrier pipe adjacent to the crossing.2.3.1GENERALCONDITIONS of earth load imposed on the pipe.2.1. jacked. laid should be centered in the ditch so as to provide equal clearance on both sides between the pipe and the sides of the 6.4 BACKFILLING ply to trenchless and opencut pipeline installation. to oversee the weldingof line pipe and thetypes of pipeline Good backfillingpractice includes. referred to as a launching pit.2.2. COPYRIGHT 2002. It may be necessary. the use of bentonite Health Administration (OSHA) requirements. re. .2 The following provisions apply to bored.7 ap- 6. ditch.2 Open Cut or Trenched Installation vation willdecrease the chances of disturbing the surround- ing soil and overlying facility and can diminish the amount 6. b.1.1. If too large a hole results or if it is necessary to abandon less (uncompacted thickness) and compacted thoroughly a bored.1 and 6. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. or railroad authority’s specifications. tions to ensure the safety of construction personnel and to protect the adjacent railroad or highway.2.2. into an excavation. jacking. or tunneled crossings: 6. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. in turn. the pipe.2 Where an open cut is used. 6.1 Work on all trenched crossings from ditching to however.2 BACKFILL of the pipe and the tunnel should be held to a minimum.3 General The considerationslisted below in6. or Backfill should be compacted sufficientlyto prevent set- tunneling operations should be conducted in a manner that tlement detrimental to the facility to be crossed.3.1. andclose communication should be maintained carrier pipe and placingfill compacted in sufficiently small between constructionsupervisors in the field and authorized lifts to achieve a dense bedding for the carrier. sloped or shoredin accordance with Occupational Safety and lized. stored promptlyin accordance with the appropriate highway vated and supported in accordance with applicable regula. Earth. User=. Support materials subject to biological attack. prompt remedial measures around the sides and over the pipe to densities consistent should be taken to provide adequate support for the facility with that of thesurrounding soil. For long or sensitive crossings. A P I RPr1102 93 M 0732290 0509059 431 M 24 PRACTICE API RECOMMENDED 1102 duce overexcavation.the annular space between the outside 6. 6.2. Where unstable soil conditions exist. irrespec- tive of uncased or cased crossings. Carefully placing and compacting the backfill under the carrier pipe in thelaunching and receiving pits helps reduce 6.or agents of the railroador highway to be crossed. fill (or a substituted backfill material) must be capable of producing the required compaction.3 The bottom of the trench should be prepared to a. boring. Trench soil used for back- to be crossed. and such as wooden blocking. The work should be moving remolded anddisturbed soil from the bedding of the coordinated. 6. decreases the bendingstress in the carrier pipe Construction should be supervised by personnel qualified where it enters the backfilled launching and receiving pits.It should be recognized.

3. rier pipe may be uniformly lowered to fit the ditch at the siderations outside the scope of this recommended practice required depth by natural sag. 6. corrosion inhibitor. pipe coating prior to installation. nate the effectiveness of cathodic protection. Nondestructive provided at each cased crossing.3. In areas where damage to the protective coatingis pipeline markers andsigns should be installed as set forth likely. of Transportation's required maximumoperating pressures. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.3.other con.3.3. no ficient distance on either side of the crossing so that the car- adjustment of the pipeline is necessary. the section of carrier pipe should be reviewed carefully. Before installation.4 -~~ PRESSURE ~ TESTING ~~ Pipeline coatings should be selected with due considera- The carrier pipe section & pressuretested before tion of the construction technique and the abrasion and con- startup in accordance with Department of Transportation tact forces associated with pipeline installation. in accordance with the latest approved edition of API Recommended Practice 1117. This method @ quired. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. mally willbe required for girth welds within a horizontal dis- This problem may be minimized by filling the casing with a tance of 50 feet (15 meters) from either the outside or inside This high dielectric casing filler. testing in accordance with the aforementioned specification 6.6. rail andfrom either the outside or inside highway pavement is most easily accomplished immediately after construction. replaced. Casings may reduce or elimi- used at the crossing shouldbe inspected visually for defects. Lowering Zn-Service If an existing pipeline at a proposed railroad or highway Pipelines [18]. consideration should be given-to applying an addi- in the latest approvededition of API Recommended Practice tional protective coating. the pipeline crossing should be low. Marking Liquid Petroleum Pipeline Facilities[17]. the same applies for welds within 50 feet (15 meters) of the end seals of the casing. reconditioned.2. troleum pipelines should comply with the US. nondestructive testing nor- the casing and moisture condensation inthe casing annulus. For cased crossings.6CATHODICPROTECTION Inspection should be provided during the construction of 6.1 Adjustment of Pipelinesat the lowering operation to prevent undue stress on the Crossings pipeline. leads attached to the carrier pipe and casing pipe shouldbe ing of Pipelines und Related Facilities [7]. and cathodic disbond- 6. User=.3. 7. The introduc- tion of a casing creates a more complicatedelectrical system 6. SECTION 7-RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS CROSSING EXISTING PIPELINES 7. However.Department justments are required. The pipeline should be uncovered for a suf- crossing complies with the requirements of this practice.1 LOWERING OPERATIONS way necessitates casing of a pipeline. ered.2 Adjustment of In-Service Pipelines Where stress due to external loads of the railroad or high- 7.3 WELDING than would prevail for uncased crossings. moisture adsorption. At uncased crossings.1 Cathodic protection systems at cased crossings the crossing. so there may be Carrier pipe at railroad or highway crossings should be difficulties in securing and interpreting cathodic protection welded with welding procedures developed in accordance measurements at cased crossings. stalled by using the split casing method. care should be exercised duringthe design phase and provides for cutting the casing into two longitudinal seg- COPYRIGHT 2002. over the carrier 1109.3. line. accordance with this practice.2. the casing may be in- If lowering of the pipeline at a crossing in place is re. All movements ofliquid pe- may necessitate an adjustment to an existing pipeline. There are a (DOT) requirements.2 SPLIT CASINGS 7. Test stations with test with the latest approved edition APIof Standard 1104. repaired.6. or inert gas. A P IR P * L 1 0 2 93 W 0732290 0507060 L 5 3 W STEEL PIPELINES RAILROADS CROSSING AND HIGHWAYS 25 6.2 A cased carrier pipe canbe exposed to atmospheric is required for all girth welds beneath or adjacent to the corrosion as a result ofair circulation through vents attached to crossing.5 PIPELINE MARKERS AND SIGNS ment. such as concrete. .Weld.7 PIPE COATINGS 6. variety of coatings that are tough andexhibit good resistance to surface stress. If ad.3. or relocated in as contained in49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 195 [6].2 INSPECTION AND TESTING 6.

1993. ume 9. Volume 23. Cigada. M. 5 . “The Theory of External Loads on Closed October 1968. Precautions should be taken to prevent weldsplatter from the welding operation fromcausing damage to the car- rier pipe coating or the insulating spacers. Ingraffea. January 1964. Alcohols. 49 Code of Federal RegulationsPart 192. ber PL1.VA. T.U. American Petroleum Institute. 10. 1993. E. O’Rourke. 1st edition.. R. Ingraffea. Normung. American Society of Behn. T. SECTION &REFERENCES l .4. New 18.4 Protection of PipelinesDuring Highway or Railroad Construction 7. pp. D. 17th edition. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. and leum Institute. J. D.1930. Celant.. a new separate suitable bridging. The pipeline alignment should be 7. or other mea- crossing generally is constructed. Stewart. pp. American Barry. L. American PetroleumInstitute. State-of-the-Art Review: Practices for Pipeline Cross. This recommended practice should be used When a pipeline cannot be taken out ofservice for more to determine expected stresses on the pipeline. Marston. 1992. J. 1986. O’Rourke. tigue Characteristics for Probabilistic Design of Submarine 91/0285. gegen Innendruck (“Calculation of Wall Thickness for Steel 6.necessw. Stewart. reinforced concrete slabs. . Marking Liquid Pe- 8. stakes. G. C. W. A. 12.Lowering Zn-Service York. Tawfik. Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. 138-170. 1l . 137-154. or other markers Interruption of Service at the crossing. the only sures should be employed to protect the pipeline. Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping ington. Chapter 1. “Roadway andBallast. York. American Society of Civil Engineers. Government Printing Offíce. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. Blewitt. M. and S . DIN 2413. Blewitt. A. and S . 199019 1. C. Gas Association. 621-636. API Specification 5L. API RecommendedPractice 11 17. Technical Summary and Database for Guidelines for 14. A. 1988. T.8.S . “Fa- Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways. Washington. 1992. August ing. Conduits in Light of Latest Experiments. Chicago. L. L. S . andA. Transportation.. 16. troleum Pipeline Facilities. New Pipes. G. 3.Liquid Transportation Systemsfor Hydro.Volume 94. State-of-the-Art PP.Report GRI-88/ 0287. D. R. American Societyof Mechanical Engineers. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. H. Interim Specifcations for the Design of Pipeline 4. D. D. A.C. ASME B31. Gas Research Insti. D.C. R.3 Adjustments of Pipelines Requiring clearly marked with suitable flags. Number 6. Gas ResearchInstitute. 49 Code of Federal RegulationsPart 195.Report GRI. Vol- 2. Crossings of Railroads and Highways. Stewart. Berechnung der Wanddicke von Stahlrohren ton. Washing... 1992. Berlin. Liquid Petroleum Gas. 13. Arlington.S.C. A. O’Rourke.C. Deutsches Institute für Transportation. or fill) by work equipment during the construction of the railroad or highway. H. El-Gharbawy. D.2. “Structural Design of Pipeline Casing Systems. December 1991. New York.”Proceedings. Chicago. R. D. D. Committee on Pipeline Crossings of Railroads and tute. 7. W.C. Review: Practicesfor Pipeline Crossings at Railroads. Welding of Pipelines and Related Fa. COPYRIGHT 2002. Anhydrous Ammonia. New York. D. As than a few hours for a required adjustment. Washington. Highways. Guide for Gas Crossley. Num. M. cilities.S. Venzi.3 TEMPORARYBYPASSES An agreement between the pipeline company and the A temporary bypass utilizing suitable mechanical means party constructing the crossing should be made to protect the to isolate the section to be adjusted maybe installed to avoid pipeline from excessive loads or damage from grading (cut interruption of service. D. In such cases. Washington. R. ings at Highways.Panozzo. American Petro- carbons. G. Spangler. M. 1992. American Railway Engineering Association. Chicago. Wash.C. Gas Research Institute.C. Washington. User=. Panozzo. Vessels. Highway Research Board. Barry.Spec$cationfor Line Pipe. ton. edition.C. Gas Piping Technology Committee. Pipelines. 1-5-1 through 1-5-11. ASME B31. 17.” Manual for Railway Engineer- port GRI-86/0210. 15. Wash- 9..Department of Pipes Against Internal Pressure”). 40th 7. Government Printing Office. G.U. April 1989. Crossley. API RP*1102 93 9 0732290 0509061 09T m 26 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 ments and welding the segments together over the carrier pipe after the coating is repaired andcasing insulators are in- shutdownrequiredis the timenecessary for makingthetie- in connections of the new pipeline to theexisting line. and M. E. T. Tawfik. Re. ington. American Petroleum Institute. Sinigaglio. Washing. 2nd edition.” Corrosion Science. September 1988.” Journal of the Pipeline Division. Department of PP. E. API Recommended Practice 1109. 1983. Ingraffea. H. a stalled. Civil Engineers. D. API Standard 1104.

= 10 kips (44. Description Soil (MPa) Er. If the de- sign P. and P. Poisson's v.1is used todetermine whether single or tandemaxle configurations produce greater carrier pipe live load stresses. E. coor- dinate lies above the line in Figure A-1 for a particular design pavement type. ksi Soft to medium siltsclays and 5 (34) Stiff to verystiff clays and silts. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. .0 gravels Dense andsands dense to very 2. with theresulting critical axle configurations as given in Table 1in the main bodyof this recommendedpractice. a. D. coordinate lies below theline in Figure A-l for a particular design pavement type. gravels and sands densemedium (6.6. 0. loose to medium dense sands gravels and (69) 10 dense very toDense sands and gravels 20 (1 38) Table A-3-Typical Steel Properties ~OPeflY Range Typical Young's modulus. sands loose and gravels 0. per "F (per "C) 6-7x104 (1. If the design P.4 kilonewtons) and P. H .2 (1.0.8) Table A-2-Typical Values for Resilient Modulus.0 (13. A. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. A P I RP+LL02 73 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0507062 T26 m APPENDIX A-SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND UNCASED CROSSING DESIGN VALUES This appendix contains tables and figures on material properties and design values that give supplemental information to that contained in the bodyof this recommended practice.l Tables of TypicalValues Table A-1-Typical Values for Modulus of Soil Reaction.4 kilonewtons) andP. = 12 kips (53. In Figure A-1.4) Soft to mediumclays and silts with lowto medium plasticities. then single axle configurations are morecritical.. 27 COPYRIGHT 2002.9) 1. ksi Soft medium to clays silts with and high plasticities 0. and carrier pipe diameter. = 10 kips (44.5kilonewtons).5 kilonewtons). the critical axle configuration may be dif- ferent than given in Table l . psi (Wal 28 . then tandem axle configurations are more critical.5 (3.25 . burial depth.9-2. and P. Figure A.2CriticalHighwayAxleConfigurations For design wheel loads different from the recommended maximums of P. P Soil Description (MPa) B.30 Coefficient of thermal expansion. User=.1 .1 x lo8) ratio.4) Stiff to very stiffclays and silts.30 x lo6 (1.. = 12 kips (53. 9 ~ A. the plotted points represent the recommended design loads of P. E.

User=. A P I RP*LL02 9 3 m 0732290 0509063 962 m 28 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 H<4ft(1. (305mm) H 2 4 ft (1.(305mm).40 0 .20 NO PAVEMENT h I I o g O 5 10 15 20 Tandem wheelload. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.2)andD>12in. 60 .80 m d 0 15- Typical I O /.2m)and H<4ft(1. . Pl (kips) Figure A-1-Critical Case Decision Basis for Whether Single or Tandem Axle Configuration Will Govern Design COPYRIGHT 2002.2 m) for all D (kilonewtons) (kilonewtons) -77- O 5 15 20 . 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. D I12 in.

250 inch (6. t.000 psi SHi(Barlow) IAllowable? Yes Step c-Circumferential Stress Due to Earth Load c.240 psi T = NIA SMYS = 42.00 Installation temperature. Soil type = Loose sand Modulus of soil reaction. H = 6.3 Type of longitudinal weld = ERW Design wheel loadfrom single axle. The pipe is constructed of Grade X42 steel with ERW welds and willoperate at a maximum pressureof lo00 pounds per square inch (6. User=.72 FxExTxSMYS=N/A E = 1. D = 12.75-inch (324-millimeter) diameter liquid product pipeline with a wall thickness of 0. Ignore anychange in pipe temperature. t.020 KHe = 3. P. = 30. highway live load. E. F = 0.000 psi Design factor.5 ksi 29 COPYRIGHT 2002. A P I RPxL102 93 W 0732290 O509064 8T9 m APPENDIX B-UNCASED DESIGN EXAMPLE PROBLEMS B.4 millimeters) is in- tended to cross a major highway thatis paved with asphaltic concrete.9 megapascals). = 12 kips Design wheel loadfrom tandem axles. Installation and site characteristics: Depth.75 in. P.250 in.000 psi D = 12. E. The soil at the site was determined to be a loose sand with aresilient modulus of 10 kips per square inch (69megapascals). SMYS = 42.00 F x E x SMYS = 30. = NIA Maximum or minimum operating temperature.000 ksi Poisson's ratio. using auger boring construction with a 2-inch(51 -millimeter) overbore.72 Longitudinaljoint factor.5 ksi Resilient modulus. E' = 0. = 0. T = NIA Wall thickness. E = 1.l HighwayCrossingDesign A 12.75 in..30 Coefficient of thermal expansion..0 ft Bored diameter.o00 psi Steel grade = X42 Specified minimum yield strength. = 10 kips Pavement type = Flexible Other pipe steel properties: Young's modulus. Step a-Initial Design Information Pipe and operational characteristics: Outside diameter. p = 1. = 0. T. = 0. .1 Figure 3with: t.069 lblin.lD = 0. = 10 ksi Unit weight. = NIA Temperature derating factor.024 6 = 0.F = 0. = 14. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.B.250 in.. = 6. The pipeline willbe installed without a casingat a design depthof 6 feet(1. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.5 x lo4 per "F Step =heck Allowable Barlow Stress Equation 8b with: p = 1. check whether the proposed design is adequate to withstand theapplied earth load. Using API RecommendedPractice 1102. and internal pressure.8 in. a. Operating pressure. y = 120 lbfft' = 0. v.8 meters).

2.75 in.2.4 psi Step e “cyclic Stresses. = NIA V..lD = 0.4Equation 6: A&h = 1. = 0. = 10 ksi e. = 29. = 30 X lo6 psi cq = 6. 1 Figure 7highways for with: H=6ft Fi = 1.30 g. = NIA T.75 in..5 x lo4 per OF T. = 9.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.3 Table 2 with: R = 1.OOO psi S.3Table 2 with: R = 1.020 psi S.219 psi SHi = 25..S.2 Figure 4 with: HIBd = 4. = -1. 6.75 in.3 E.16 E.2Equation10with: M L h = 1. 1 Cyclic circumferential stress. = 3.069 lblin.486 psi S.3 Figure 5 with: Bd/D = 1.219 psi S. e.. 1.4 1 with: D =in.020 psi Step f-circumferential Stress Due to Internal Pressurization.2. 1 Equation 9 with: S. S. = 1. and A% e. H=6ft e. = 3. AS. E. Step g-Principal Stresses.2 Figure 15 with: D = 12. t. S. Equation 7 with: p = 1. 12.7.12.1 Figurewith: 14 t.2. W Section 4.1: Flexible pavement P.2 Applied design surface pressure.444 psi S. = 25.47 d. = 0.663 psi M H h = 1.1 Figure with:16 t.75 S.2.1.000 psi 8.00 Tandem axles D = 12.2 Figure with: 17 D = 12.3Equation 11with: p = 1.75 in.020 KHh = 14.OOO psi D = 12. ID = 0.. e. M L h e.000 psi COPYRIGHT 2002.00 Tandem axles D =in. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.= 10 kips Critical case: tandem axles W = 69.2 Cyclic longitudinal stress.00 Flexible pavement H=6ft L = 1.3 Step d “Impact Factor. H=6ft e. S.11 Equation c. 1.and Applied Design Surface Pressure. User=.9 B.250 in.020 E.l.75 e.00 Flexible pavement H=6ft L = 1.. .2.2 19 psi y= 120 lb/ft3 = 0.W d.000 psi g. = 1. = 10 ksi e. A P I RP*:LLO2 9 3 m 0732290O509065 735 m 30 API RECOMMENDED PFIACTICE 1102 c. = 3.4Equation 5: e..09 Soil type = Loose sand = A c.

0.72 SMYS = 42.. ISMYS x F? Yes Step h-Check Fatigue h.3 Type of longitudinal weld = ERW COPYRIGHT 2002. Allother design parameters are the same as those used for the highway crossing.Ed = 14.000 psi Equation 17 with: &h = 1.2. Soil type = Loose sand Modulus of soil reaction. Equation 12 with: S.72 Table 3 S..1 RAILROADEXAMPLEPROBLEM Step a-Initial Design Information Pipe and operational characteristics: Outside diameter. Using API Recommended Practice 1102. User=.663 psi S. = N/A Maximum or minimum operating temperature.444 psi ASHhI S.000 psi g.250-inch (6. = 10 ksi Unit weight.069 lb/in. E. SMYS = 42.5 Check allowable effective stress F = 0. = 26.994 psi SMYS x F = 30.00 Installation temperature.000 psi Equation 13 with: S..240 psi S. = -1. y = 120 lb/ft3= 0. ISF.120 psi B. D = 12. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.0 ft Bored diameter.8 in. STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 31 8..1 Girth welds F = 0. H = 6. p = 1. E = 1. and internal pressure.000 psi (ERW) Equation 20 with: &h = 1.994 psi S. X F? Yes SF. Ignore any changes in pipe temperature.000 psi Design factor. Operating pressure. x F? Yes S.F = 0. 8.5 meters) of either track centerline.5 ksi Resilient modulus.OOO psi Steel grade = X42 Specified minimum yield strength. = 0.640 psi h. = 29.2 Longitudinal welds F = 0. = 9.486 psi S.4 Effective stress. Assume thatthere will be a girth weld within 5 feet (1. t.75 in. T2 = N/A Temperature derating factor. check whether the proposed design is adequate to withstand the applied earth load. T . x F = 15.75-inch (324-millimeter) diameter.72 Longitudinaljoint factor.250 in. railroad live load.2 RailroadCrossingDesign The same 12. T = N/A Wall thickness.72 Table 3 S. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4-millimeter)wall thickness liquid product pipeline described in the highwayexample problem now will cross underneath two adjacent railroad tracks. Installation and site characteristics: Depth.8 meters). S.020 psi ASL. = 12. = 26. The depth of the uncasedcarrier is 6 feet (1..E' = 0. . x F = 8. = 21.

= 2 NH 1.75 in. A S r and A&r e.020 KLr= 317 E.3and Figure 13 with: N.000 SHi(Barlow) = 25.2 Cyclic longitudinal stress.024 E' = 0. e.1 Figure with:8 t.4 Equation 4: ASb= 7.2.11 Dwith: Equation 1 c.020 KHe = 3. 1.00 e.75 Sn.7.1 Figure with: 3 t.W d.11 e. 12. t.2 Figure with: 9 D = 12.3 Figure 5 with: = 1.75 in.1: Rail loading = E-80 W = 13.2. = 0.2. = 0.3 Section 4.1.= 10 ksi e.9 B. = 6.75 in. ID = 0. W Section 4. 1.4 Equation 3: ASH. .2.2.98 H=6ft e. 6.2.634 psi e.2.09 Soil type = Loose sand = A Bd/D c.l. 1 Figure 7 for railroads with: H=6ft Fi= 1. ID = 0.069 Iblin.3 Section 4. ID = 0.16 E.7.7. = 8.2 Figure 12 with: D = 12. = 1. User=.1 Figure 11 with: t.427 psi COPYRIGHT 2002.30 Coefficient of thermal expansion.240 psi T=NIA . v.250 in.2. GHr= 0.2 Applied design surface pressure. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.98 H=6ft e.00 F x E x SMYS = 30.000 psi SHi(Barlow) 5 Allowable? Yes Step c-circumferential Stress Dueto Earth Load c.5 ksi c.9 psi Step e-Cyclic Stresses. GG.3 Step d-Impact Factor.3and Figure 10 with: N. = 3. SMYS = 42.2.2 with: Figure 4 H/Bd = 4. & = o ft Number of tracks (1 or 2) =2 Rail loading = E-80 Other pipe steelproperties: Young's modulus.72 d. GLr= 0. 1 Cyclic circumferential stress.72 FxExTxSMYS=NIA E = 1. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.4 =in.020 KHr = 332 Er = 10 ksi e. ASL.000 ksi Poisson's ratio. = 1.219 psi y= 120 lblft3 = 0.2. A P I RP*:LL02 93 m 0732290 O509067 508 m 32 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1102 Distance of girth weld from track centerline.5 x lod per "F Step "Check Allowable Barlow Stress Equation 8b with: p psi = 1. F = 0. A S H r e. = 30. E. and Applied Design Surface Pressure.500 psi D = 12. = 2 NL = 1.

00 Installation temperature.893 psi S.72 SMYS = 42. tw = 0.75 in.2. Equation 7 with: p = 1.000 psi SHi = 25. p = 1. E. .4 Effective stress.. = -1. 5 SMYS X F? NO 8. = NIA T2= NIA V.5 x lod per O F T. Soil type = Loose sand Modulus of soil reaction. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.OOOpsi Steel grade = X42 Specified minimum yield strength. = 3.75 in.Bd = 14. T = NIA Wall thickness.3 Equation 11 with: p = 1.000 psi Design factor. D = 12.219 psi S.OOO psi 8.F = 0.000 psi 8.634 psi SHi= 25.8 in. T.853 psi S.069 1 b h 3 COPYRIGHT 2002. = 0.5 ksi Resilient modulus.5 Check allowable effective stress F = 0. Equation 12 with: S. A P I RPlctLL02 73 m 0732290 0507068 4 4 4 m STEEL PIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 33 Step f-circumferential Stress Due to internal Pressurization.240 psi S.250 in. F = 0.000 psi D = 12. = 30 x lo6 psi ac.000 psi 8. = 36.0 ft Bored diameter..000 psi S. S.. T. Operating pressure.845 psi SMYS x F = 30.893 psi S. = 32. = 6.845 psi S. Step g-Principal Stresses. = NIA Temperature derating factor. = -1. E. = 15. S.219 psi SHi= 25. User=.S. = 36.30 g.72 Longitudinaljoint factor. SMYS = 42. = NIA Maximum or minimum operating temperature. y = 120 lblft3= 0.427 psi S. E = 1.. S. = 3. 1 Equation 9 with: S.000 psi g. = 15. tw= 0..281 in.2 Equation 10 with: ASLr = 7. &. = 32. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.. Installation and site characteristics: Depth.853 psi A& = 8. H = 6. = 10 ksi Unit weight.2 RAILROAD EXAMPLE PROBLEM (REVISED WALL THICKNESS) Step “Revised Design Information Pipe and operational characteristics: Outside diameter.000 psi Equation 13 with: S.

75 in. 1 Figure 7railroads for with: H=6ft Fi = 1.11 Equation c.7.00 F x E x SMYS = 30.2.72 d. twID = 0. . 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.W d.72 FxExTxSMYS=NIA E = 1. = 10 ksi e.022 KHe = 2.7. 1. W Section 4. = 0. = 10 ksi e. = 0. E. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. 1. 1 Figure 3 with: twID = 0. ID = 0. 1 Cyclic circumferential stress. 1 Figure 8 with: .3 Step d-Impact Factor.. F = 0.2 Cyclic longitudinal stress.4 Equation 3: ASw = 8.4Equation 4: ASk = 7.022 KLr= 305 E.661 psi y= 120 lblft3= 0. User=.2.9 psi Step e-Cyclic Stresses. = 1.240 psi T = NIA SMYS = 42.000 psi SHi(Barlow) I Allowable? Yes Step c-circumferential Stress Due to Earth Load c. = 2 NH = 1.2 9 with: D = 12.000 psi SHi (Barlow) = 22.2 Figure with: 12 D = in. 12.2.11 e. A S L r e.2.75 Ch= 0. l.16 E.98 H=6ft e.09 Soil type = Loose sand= A c. F.2.75 S.687 psi D = 12.1 Figure with: 11 t.1: Rail loading = E-80 W = 13.000 ksi Poisson's ratio. = 1.00 e.5 x 10-6 per OF Step L h e c k Allowable Barlow Stress with:Equation 8a p = 1. A S H r e. = 30.7.9 B.2.281 in. LG = o ft Number of tracks (1 or 2) =2 Rail loading = E-80 Other pipe steel properties: Young's modulus.3 Section 4.98 H=6ft e.022 KHr= 320 E.2 Figure 4 with: HIBd = 4.3 Figure 5 with: BdlD = 1. Figure 1.4 1 with: D =in. t.5 ksi c.069 lb/in.3and with:13 Figure N.322 psi e. A P I RP*LLO2 93 m 0732290 0509069 380 m 34 PRACTICE API RECOMMENDED 1102 Type of longitudinal weld = ERW Distance of girth weld from track centerline. v. = 2 NL = 1. and Applied Design Surface Pressure.146 psi COPYRIGHT 2002.12.2 Applied design surface pressure.75 in.30 Coefficient of thermal expansion.2.2. CHr= 0.500 E' = 0. AGrand A% e. = 2.3 and Figure 10 with: N. = 6. a.2.2.3 Section 4.

. I N L = 7.5x lo4 per "F T .640psi h..4 Effective stress.30 g. Step g-Principal Stresses..281in.O00 psi (ERW) Equation 19 with: ASHr = 8. S. = 8. ISMYS x F? Yes Step h-Check Fatigue h.OOO psi 0 g.00 A S L .l. = 29.661psi S.661psi S. = 33. = NIA T2 = NIA V. &.72 Table 3 h. 8 E. = 14.1.OOO psi S3= -1.000psi Equation 13 with: S.. Equation 12 with: S. = 0.OOO psi SHi= 22..322psi AS~.lN.5 Check allowable effective stress F = 0. = 2.600psi SHe= 2.170psi A S H . = -1. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.OOO psi 8. x F = 8.1 Equation 9 with: S. = 33.2 If & 2 5 ft (1.2 Longitudinal welds F = 0.600psi S.75in. = 0.187psi 8. = 7.= 6.322psi SHi= 22.1 If & c 5 ft (1. A P I R P U L L O Z 93 0732290 0509070 O T 2 STEELPIPELINES CROSSING RAILROADS AND HIGHWAYS 0 Step f-circumferential Stress Due to Internal Pressurization.. Equation 7 with: p = 1.72 Table 3 Sm = 21.498psi S.146psi S.240psi Se.3 Equation 11 with: p = 1. S.187psi 8. S.146psi NL = 1.5 m) use: Equation 15 with: A S L r = 7.146psi S.¡ = 22. r. = 30X lo4psi a.2 Equation 10with: ASL..170psi S.72 SMYS = 42. = 7.120psi COPYRIGHT 2002.187psi D = 12..IN~ I Sm X F? Yes NH = 1. X F = 15. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.629psi SMYS x F = 30. = 14. User=. = 29.5 m) use: Figure 18 with: Equation 16 with: h.11 A&.629psi S.1 Girth welds F = 0.

469 o.250 60 0.219 48 0. 134 20 0.719 0. API RP*3302 93 0732290 0509073 T39 APPENDIX C-CASING WALL THICKNESSES Table C-1-Minimum Nominal Wall Thickness for Flexible Casingin Bored Crossings Minimum Nominal Wall Thickness (inches) Nominal Pipe (inches) Diameter Railroads Highways 14 and Under o.625 0.406 o.164 38 0. 164 32 0.134 22 0.250 54 0.531 0. User=. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.438 o.250 37 COPYRIGHT 2002.188 42 0.312 0.562 O.469 o. 188 46 0.750 0.219 O. 164 34 0. .500 0.281 0. 134 16 0.219 50 0. 134 18 0. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.164 30 0.781 0.750 0. 188 44 0.281 0.688 0.375 0.250 58 0.164 26 0. 164 36 0. 164 28 0.594 0.250 56 0.250 O.656 0.250 52 0. 188 O.188 40 0.344 o.594 O.164 24 0.

I I i APPENDIX D-UNIT Table D-1-Unit CONVERSIONS Conversions From To Convert To Bv MultiDlv i I feet (ft) meters (m) 0.OF degrees Celsius."C = ("F .895 meganewtons per square meter(MN/III*) 6.3048 inches (in.8 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) pounds per cubic inch (pci) 0.000579 (actually pounds-force) kilonewtons per cubic meter (Wh3) 0.448 pounds per square inch (psi) kilopascals (kPa) 6. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. User=.895 kips per square inch (ksi) pounds per square inch (psi) loo0 megapascals (MPa) 6.4536 kips (k) pounds (lb) loo0 kilonewtons (m) 4.895 kilonewtons persquare meter w / m 2 ) 6. A P I RP+I.L02 93 m 0732290 0509072 975 m .157 39 COPYRIGHT 2002. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. pounds (lb) kilograms (kg) 0. .895 degrees Fahrenheit.32)/1.) millimeters (mm) 25.4 I.

API RP*llO2 93 m 0732290 0507073 B O L m New Computer Software Available (PERSONAL COMPUTER-~PELINE EVALUATION SOILCROSSING SYSTEM) Since 1985. User=. Sixth Edition.Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways. April 1993. computer software. PA 17013-0086 (800) 795-2340 COPYRIGHT 2002. Box 86 Carlisle. and information for use by pipeline design engineers at natural gas and liquidpe- troleum pipeline companies. Inc. the Gas Research Institute (GRI) has sponsored researchat Cornel1 Universityto develop state-of-the-art design practicesfor uncased pipeline crossings at railroads and highways. Two versions of computer softwareto assist in using this new methodol- ogy have been developed. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. One version is for Natural Gas Pipeline Cross- ings. This research has culminated in the developmentof pipeline crossing guidelines.O. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. . Inc. P. These guidelines have been incorporated into API Recommended Practice 1102. and the other version is for Liquid Petroleum Pipeline Crossings. Each version of this software (PC-PISCES) and supporting documents is avail- able from Stoner Associates. The current price and ordering information for each version may be obtained by contacting: Client Services Engineer-PC PISCES Stoner Associates.

831-11020 1-1400"4/93"1 M (9C) COPYRIGHT 2002. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. A P I RPtLL02 93 0732290 0509074 748 m Order No. . User=.

20005 COPYRIGHT 2002. Northwest ~ ~~ Washington. D. .C. A P I RP*LL02 93 0732290 0507075 684 m American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street. User=. 07/23/2002 01:13:03 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=SEPCS-PETROLIAM/4397000001.