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Control System Design

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Notes for Lecture #8

Wednesday, January 21, 2004

Dr. Ian C. Bruce

Room: CRL-229

Phone ext.: 26984

Email: ibruce@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Loops

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Topics to be covered

For a given controller and plant connected in

feedback we ask and answer the following questions:

Is the loop stable?

What are the sensitivities to various disturbances?

What is the impact of linear modeling errors?

How do small nonlinearities impact on the loop?

Root locus

Nyquist stability analysis

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Feedback Structures

We will see that feedback can have many desirable

properties such as the capacity to reduce the effect of

disturbances, to decrease sensitivity to model errors

or to stabilize an unstable system. We will also see,

however, that ill-applied feedback can make a

previously stable system unstable, add oscillatory

behaviour into a previously smooth response or

result in high sensitivity to measurement noise.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Di (s) xo Do (s)

C(s) Go (s)

+ + +

+

Ym (s) +

Dm (s)

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

functions and Laplace transforms to describe the

relationships between signals in the loop. In

particular, C(s) and G0(s) denote the transfer

functions of the controller and the nominal plant

model respectively, which can be represented in

fractional form as:

P (s)

C(s) =

L(s)

Bo (s)

Go (s) =

Ao (s)

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Input and Output

C(s) f (s, xo )

U (s) = R(s) Dm (s) Do (s) Go (s)Di (s)

1 + Go (s)C(s) A(s)

and

1 f(s, xo )

Y (s) = Go (s)C(s)(R(s) Dm (s)) + Do (s) + Go (s)Di (s) +

1 + Go (s)C(s) A(s)

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Di (s) xo Do (s)

H(s) C(s) Go (s)

+ + +

+

Ym (s)

+

Dm (s)

Go (s)C(s)H(s) 1 f (s, xo )

Y (s) = R(s) + Do (s) +

1 + Go (s)C(s) 1 + Go (s)C(s) Ao (s)

Go (s) Go (s)C(s)

+ Di (s) Dm (s)

1 + Go (s)C(s) 1 + Go (s)C(s)

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

4 Go (s)C (s) B o(s)P (s)

To (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C (s) A o(s)L(s) + Bo(s)P (s)

4 1 Ao (s)L(s)

So (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C (s) A o(s)L(s) + Bo(s)P (s)

4 Go (s) Bo (s)L(s)

Sio (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C (s) A o(s)L(s) + Bo(s)P (s)

4 C (s) A o(s)P (s)

Suo (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C (s) A o(s)L(s) + Bo(s)P (s)

T0(s) : Nominal complementary sensitivity

S0(t) : Nominal sensitivity

Si0(s) : Nominal input disturbance sensitivity

Su0(s) : Nominal control sensitivity

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

So (s) + To (s) = 1

To (s)

Sio (s) = So (s)Go (s) =

C(s)

To (s)

Suo (s) = So (s)C(s) =

Go (s)

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Internal Stability

nominal loop is internally stable if and only if all eight

transfer functions in the equation below are stable.

Go (s)C(s) Go (s) 1 Go (s)C(s) H(s)R(s)

Yo (s) C(s) Go (s)C(s) C(s) C(s) Di (s)

=

Uo (s) 1 + Go (s)C(s) Do (s)

Dm (s)

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Lemma 5.1 (Nominal internal stability)

Consider the nominal closed loop depicted in Figure

5.2. Then the nominal closed loop is internally stable

if and only if the roots of the nominal closed loop

characteristic equation

Ao (s)L(s) + Bo (s)P (s) = 0

all lie in the open left half plane. We call A0L + B0P

the nominal closed-loop characteristic polynomial.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Consider a polynomial of the following form:

p(s) = sn + an1 sn1 + . . . + a1 s + a0

whether that polynomial has any root with

nonnegative real part. Obviously, this equation can

be answered by computing the n roots of p(s).

However, in many applications it is of special

interest to study the interplay between the location of

the roots and certain polynomial coefficients.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Special Interest

Property 1: The coefficient an-1 satisfies

n

an1 = i

i=1

n

a0 = (1)n i

i=1

necessary that ai > 0, i {0, 1, , n-1}.

(negative or zero), then, one or more of the roots have

parts.

nonnegative real plant.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Rouths Algorithm

n

p(s) = a i si

i=0

numerical array:

sn 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 ...

sn1 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 ...

sn2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 ...

sn3 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 ...

sn4 4,1 4,2 4,,3 4,4 ...

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

s2 n2,1 n2,2

s1 n1,1

s0 n,1

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 5

Where

0,i = an+22i ; i = 1, 2, . . . , m0 and 1,i = an+12i ; i = 1, 2, . . . , m1

m0 for n odd. Note that the elements 0,i and 1,i are

the coefficients of the polynomials arranged in

alternated form. Furthermore

k1,1 k2,j+1 k2,1 k1,j+1

k,j = ; k = 2, . . . , n j = 1, 2, . . . , mj

k1,1

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