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Notes for Lecture #14

Wednesday, February 4, 2004

Dr. Ian C. Bruce

Room: CRL-229

Phone ext.: 26984

Email: ibruce@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

Because of their widespread use in practice, we

present below several methods for tuning PID

controllers. Actually these methods are quite old and

date back to the 1950s. Nonetheless, they remain in

widespread use today.

In particular, we will study.

Ziegler-Nichols Oscillation Method

Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Method

Cohen-Coon Reaction Curve Method

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

Method

plants and it is carried out through the following

steps

Set the true plant under proportional control, with a

very small gain.

Increase the gain until the loop starts oscillating. Note

that linear oscillation is required and that it should be

detected at the controller output.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

oscillation period of the controller output, Pc.

Adjust the controller parameters according to Table

6.1 (next slide); there is some controversy regarding

the PID parameterization for which the Z-N method

was developed, but the version described here is, to the

best knowledge of the authors, applicable to the

parameterization of standard form PID.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

oscillation method

Kp Tr Td

P 0.50Kc

Pc

PI 0.45Kc

1.2

Pc

PID 0.60Kc 0.5Pc

8

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

General System

If we consider a general plant of the form:

K0e s

G0(s) = ; 0 > 0

0s + 1

then one can obtain the PID settings via Ziegler-

Nichols tuning for different values of and 0. The

next plot shows the resultant closed loop step

responses as a function of the ratio x = .

0

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

loop for different values of the ratio x = 00 .

x=0.1

1.5

Plant response

x=0.5

1

0.5 x=2.0

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time [t/]

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

Numerical Example

Consider a plant with a model given by

1

Go (s) =

(s + 1)3

Z-N oscillation method. Obtain a graph of the

response to a unit step input reference and to a unit

step input disturbance.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

Solution

Applying the procedure we find:

Kc = 8 and c = 3.

Kp = 0.6 Kc = 4.8; Tr = 0.5 Pc 1.81; Td = 0.125 Pc 0.45

reference at t = 0 and a unit step disturbance at t = 10

are shown in the next figure.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

input disturbance

1.5

1

Plant output

0.5

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Time [s]

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

A key issue when applying PID tuning rules (such as

Ziegler-Nichols settings) is that of which PID

structure these settings are applied to.

To obtain an appreciation of these differences we

evaluate the PID control loop for the same plant in

Example 6.1, but with the Z-N settings applied to the

series structure, i.e. in the notation used in (6.2.5),

we have

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

structure (thick line) and conventional

structure (thin line)

2

1.5

Plant output

0.5

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Time [s]

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

Observation

In the above example, it has not made much

difference, to which form of PID the tuning rules are

applied. However, the reader is warned that this can

make a difference in general.

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

A linearized quantitative version of a simple plant

can be obtained with an open loop experiment, using

the following procedure:

1. With the plant in open loop, take the plant manually to a

normal operating point. Say that the plant output settles at

y(t) = y0 for a constant plant input u(t) = u0.

2. At an initial time, t0, apply a step change to the plant

input, from u0 to u (this should be in the range of 10 to

20% of full scale).

Cont/...

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

point. Assume you obtain the curve shown on the next

slide. This curve is known as the process reaction curve.

In Figure 6.6, m.s.t. stands for maximum slope tangent.

4. Compute the parameter model as follows

y yo

Ko = ; o = t1 to ; o = t2 t1

u uo

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

m.s.t.

yo

to t1 t2 Time (sec.)

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

curve

Kp Tr Td

o

P

Ko o

0.9o

PI 3o

Ko o

1.2o

PID 2o 0.5o

Ko o

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

Consider again the general plant:

K0e s

G0( s) =

0s + 1

The next slide shows the closed loop responses

resulting from Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve

tuning for different values of x = .

0

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

control loop

2

x=0.1

1.5

Plant response

x=0.5

x=2.0

0.5

0

0 5 10 15

Time [t/]

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado, Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 6

Observation

We see from the previous slide that the Ziegler-

Nichols reaction curve tuning method is very

sensitive to the ratio of delay to time constant.

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