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# GEOGRAPHY

## L-3, The Changing Face of the earth

Q1. How can you say that the earth is highly dynamic or an active planet?
Ans1. Earth is undergoing changes and movements internally through endogenetic forces and externally
through exogenetic forces, therefore it can be said that the earth is an active planet.

## Q2. Write a note on the theory of plate tectonics?

Ans2. The Lithosphere is broken into a number of pieces called called tectonic or lithospheric plates.
These plates float on asthenosphere and are always moving due to convections cells in the mantle.
The plates converge, diverge or have a transverse movement.

## Q3. Describe the plate boundaries of the earth

The lines where the tectonic plates meet are called plate boundaries. There are three main types of
plate boundaries:
a. Convergent plate boundaries
b. Divergent plate boundaries
c. Transform plate boundaries

Q4. Explain the forces responsible for building block and fold mountains?
Ans4. When the tectonic plates move away from each other they create fault lines. If two fault lines are
formed near each other the land between them may rise to form a horst or block mountain. When
tectonic plates move towards each other they get compressed and the crust gets crumpled or folded
resulting in Fold Mountains

## Q5. What is an earthquake? How is it caused?

Ans5. Earthquakes are vibrations that move through the earth and over its surface. Disturbances that
originate inside the earth like rupture of rocks or collision of plates causes shock waves which travel to
the surface.

Q6. Define focus and epicenter. Also mention the different types of seismic waves?
Ans6. The point where the disturbance originates in the interior of the earth is called Seismic focus. The
two different waves are:
Surface waves Which travel across the surface
Body waves Which travel through the earth.
They are of two types:
a) Primary (P) Waves
b) Secondary (S) Waves

## Q7. How can we reduce the impact of earthquakes?

Ans7. Impact of earthquakes can be reduced if:
a. People are well prepared
b. Building rules are strict
c. Buildings in earthquake zones are made of strong but lightweight materials

## Q8. What are the effects of earthquakes?

Ans8. The magnitude of an earthquake is indicated by a number on the Richter scale. Earthquakes cause
loss of life and material. They cause the surface of the earth to shake, crack open or subside in place.
Earthquakes under the sea can cause tsunamis.
a. Mild tremor Measure below 4 on Richter scale
b. Moderate tremor Measures between 4-6 on Richter scale
c. Severe earthquake Measures more than 6 on Richter scale

## Q9. What is a volcano? Describe different types of volcanoes?

Ans9. A volcano is a vent in the earths surface through which hot lava, ash and gases escape from the
magma chamber in asthenosphere. The different types of mountains are:
i. Active Volcanoes which have erupted recently.
ii. Dormant Volcanoes which have been quiet for a long time but show signs of activity
iii. Extinct Volcanoes which show no indication of future eruption

## Q10. How is weathering different from erosion

Weathering Erosion
Weathering is the breaking up of rock material due The disintegration and removal of weathered
to exposure to atmosphere material by agents of gradation is called erosion

## Q11. Describe the courses/stages of a rivers life

Ans11. Nearly all rivers have an upper, middle, and lower course.
i. The upper course: River starts its flow from mountains (source) as a stream. The river has a
rapid, tumbling flow, erosion is the main activity and narrow gorges or v-shaped valleys are
formed.
ii. The middle course: River is joined by tributaries increasing its volume. Erosion and
deposition is balanced. River transports eroded materials during this stage.
iii. The lower course: River flows very slowly. It meanders over flat plains as it nears the sea.
Alluvium is deposited along the banks of the river. The end of the river is called the mouth.
Q12. Mention the features caused the sea waves or wave action of the sea?
Ans12. The following features are formed by the wave action of the sea.
a. Sea Caves These are formed when strong waves break and erode materials along the coast
forming hollow caves.
b. Sea Arches These are formed when sea cave walls continue to erode and only two pillar
remain which support the roof.
c. Stacks These are formed when sea arches further erode and only two pillars are remaining.
d. Sea Cliffs Vertical and steep rock faces along the shore are called sea cliffs.
e. Wave-cut platforms Gently sloping surfaces formed at the foot of sea cliffs when sea cliffs are
eroded
f. Beaches-These are formed when sea deposits eroded materials like sand, pebbles and boulders
along the coast.

## Q13. Differentiate between mountain and continental glacier

Continental Glacier Mountain Glacier
(i) they are confined to Polar Regions like (i) Mountain Glaciers are confined to high
Antarctica and Greenland altitudes, i.e., the Mountains.
(iii) They are extensive and cover a large area and (ii) They are shorter in length (not exceeding 100
may extend up to 50,000 km. km.).
(iii)Continental glaciers are thicker (iii)Mountain glaciers are thinner and can be
viewed as rivers of ice

## Q14. Explain the following key terms:

i. Seismic focus - The point where the disturbance originates in the interior of the earth is
called Seismic focus
ii. Epicenter - A point on earths surface which is perpendicular to the seismic focus.
iii. Seismograph An instrument that detects and records the intensity of seismic waves.
iv. Richter scale An instrument to measure the magnitude of an earthquake.
v. Calderas Lakes formed in craters of extinct volcanoes
vi. Gradation Change in the level of earths surface
vii. Meanders A loop made by a river in its lower course
viii. Levee Rivers flowing through flood plains
ix. Mesa An area of resistant rock left after wind erosion
x. Barchan When dunes form a crescent shape due to steep slope on leeward side
xi. Loess plain When fine sand particles are deposited over very large areas
xii. Cirque Armchair like depression caused by glacial erosion
xiii. Moraine Eroded rock debris deposited on floor of valleys and mountains by glaciers