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can be against us?

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Vector Addition: Computing for the

METRIC SYSTEM

resulting or net magnitude of vector

Makes use of the base ten place value system

quantities

Convert from one metric measure to another by

Upward and Right motion

multiplying or dividing be ten or moving a

indicates positive (+) sign

decimal place.

Downward and Left motion

indicates negative (-) sign

Prefixes used in the Metric System:

Meter basic unit for length (Km)

Grams basic unit for mass (cg) 5 () + 5 () = 10 ()

Liters basic unit for volume (mL) 5 () + 5 () = 0

5 () + 10 (--) = 15 (----)

Prefix Symbol Numeral Form Scientific 5 () + -10 (--) = -5 ()

notation 5 () + -15 (----) = -10 (--)

nano n 0.000000001 1 x 10-9

micro 0.000001 1 x 10-6

milli m 0.001 1 x 10-3 Example: A care moves 20 km north, then 10 km

-2 south. What is the displacement of the car?

centi c 0.01 1 x 10

deci d 0.1 1 x 10-1

Solution: 20 km + 10 km northward (since the

deka da 10 1 x 10 resultant has positive sign it indicates a direction

hecto h 100 1 x 102 towards north)

kilo k 1000 1 x 103

PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM: to determine the result of

The SI Units of Measurement adding ONLY TWO vectors that make a RIGHT ANGLE to

each other.

English-Metric Metric-English Length a2 + b2 = c2

1 in 2.54 cm 1 cm 0.3937 in 12 in 1 ft

1 ft 0.3048 m 1 m 3.281 ft 3 ft 1 yd

1 yd 0.9144 m 1 m 10.94 yd 5280 ft 1 mile c

1 mile 1.609 km 1 km 0.6214 mi Weight a b

1 qt 0.946 L 1 L 1.057 qts 16 ou 1 lb

1 gal 3.785 L 1 L 0.2642 gal 200 lbs 1 ton

1 ou 28.35 g 1 g 0.0353 ou Volume

1 lb 453.59 g 1 g 0.0022 lb 2 cups 1 pt a

4 qt 1 gal

Example: James leaves the base camp and hikes 11 km,

SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES QRUWKDQGWKHQKLNHVNPHDVW'HWHUPLQH-DPHV

1. SCALAR: Quantities signifying magnitude only resulting displacement.

Ex: Mass, charge, length, temperature, Solution: The result (resultant) of walking 11 km

speed north and 11 km east is a vector directed northeast

as shown in the diagram to the right. Since the

2. VECTOR: Quantities signifying magnitude and northward displacement and the eastward

direction displacement are right angles to each other, the

Ex: Weight, displacement, Velocity, Pythgorean theorem can be used to determine the

Acceleration, Momentum resultant.

11 km, E

11 km, N

11 km, N

11 km, E scale is half your weight. Then

+ =

R the sum of the scale readings

will balance your weight and

the net force on you will be

zero. If you lean more on one

112 + 112 = R2 scale than the other, more

242 = R2 than half your weight will be

156 = R read on that scale but less on

The result of adding 11 km north plus 11 km east is a the other, so they will still add

vector with a magnitude of 15.6 km. up to your weight.

NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION net force acting on an object is not equal to zero,

1. FIRST LAW: Every object continues in its state of rest, the object will accelerate.

or of uniform motion with constant speed in a straight

line, unless acted upon by unbalanced external forces

impressed upon where F force in Newtons

F = ma m mass in Kg

Inertia Net Force Normal Force a acceleration in m/s2

The property of The vector sum of The force equal in

things to resist forces that act on magnitude but Acceleration is directly proportional to force

changes in an object opposite in (as one increases, the other increases) but

motion direction of the inversely proportional to mass (as one increases,

gravitational force the other decreases)

Weight The force due to gravity on an object

Newtons The SI unit of force. One newton (N)

is the force that will give an object of

mass 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s2

Volume The quantity of space an object

occupies

Example:

Mechanical Equilibrium state of an object 1. Find the acceleration of a 3.0 kg object when a

which there are no changes in motion net force of 30N acts on it?

If at rest, the state of rest persists F = ma

If moving, motion continues without 30N = 3.0 kg x a

change a = 30N/ 3.0 kg

Objects at equilibrium have net force of ZERO. a= 10 m/s2

(In the diagram above, the second example is in

mechanical equilibrium) 2. A 3 kg object requires 10N of force to accelerate it

at a certain speed. How much force will a 6 kg

Example: object require to accelerate it at the same speed?

1. What is the net force on a bathroom scale when a Since the mass is directly proportional to

50-kg person stands on it? force, as mass increases the force required

2. Suppose you stand on two bathroom scales with also increases. The 6 kg object has twice mass

your weight evenly divided between the two scales. from that of the 3 kg object so it would

What will each scale read? What happens when you require twice as much force to achieve the

stand with more of your weight on one foot than the same acceleration. Twice 10N is 20N.

other?

3. THIRD LAW OF MOTION: To every action there is

Answer: always an opposed equal reaction.

Gravitational force is equal to the support force! Whenever one object exerts a force on a second

1. Zero, as evidenced by the scale remaining at rest. object, the second object exerts an equal and

The scale reads the support force, which has the opposite force on the first.

same magnitude as weight- not the net force.

Example: While driving down the road, a firefly strikes an object which increased as temperature

the windshield of a bus and makes a mess in front of the increases

bus. The firefly hit the bus and the bus hits the firefly. Heat/ Thermal Energy Energy produced as

Which of the two forces is greater: the force on the heat is transferred from object with higher

firefly or the force on the bus? temperature to that with lower temperature until

it reaches equilibrium.

Answer: The forces on the fly and on the bus are

EQUAL. Methods of Heat Transfer:

1. Conduction: transmission of heat from two

Uniformly Accelerate Motion objects with DIRECT contact

Distance How far one object moves from 2. Convection: heat transfer through AIR and water

location to another currents

Displacement Distance with direction 3. Radiation: heat transfer through RAYS or WAVES

Speed Distance traveled per unit of time; emitted by a very hot object.

measures how fast an object changes

position Temperature: measure of the average translational

Velocity Speed of an object with direction kinetic energy per molecule in a substance, measured in

Acceleration Rate at which velocity changes with degrees Celsius, Fahrenheit or Kelvin

time, in magnitude or direction

Celsius to Fahrenheit = (oC x ) + 32

Speed =

Fahrenheit to Celsius = (oF - 32) x

Average speed =

Celsius to Kelvin = oC + 273.15

Acceleration =

that a substance may have

Newtons Law of Cooling: rate of loss of heat

ENERGY, WORK, POWER from an object is proportional to the

2. Energy Property of a system that enable it to do temperature difference between object and its

work. surroundings

Potential Energy: Energy at rest; Energy that

something possesses because of its position

weight x height = (m)(g)(h)

mass x speed2

position of something or the movement of

something

Conservation of Energy: Energy cannot be

created or destroyed, only transformed from one

form into another, but total amount of energy

never changes.

3. Work Product of force and the distance moved;

unit of work is joule

Work = force (f) x distance (d)

4. Power Rate at which energy is expended; unit of

power is joule/sec.

Power = work done (W)/time (t)

transformation to different forms of energy.

Internal Energy: Energy produced from the

attractive and repulsive forces of molecules in

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