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Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444

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Analysis of the parameters affecting energy consumption of a rotary
kiln in cement industry
Adem Atmaca*, Recep Yumrutaş
University of Gaziantep, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 27310 Gaziantep, Turkey

h i g h l i g h t s 

We analyzed a rotary kiln and investigated the first law and second law efficiency values. 
Performance assessment of a kiln indicates that the burning process involves energy and exergy losses. 
The anzast layer affect the efficiency and production capacity of the kiln. 
The specific energy consumption for clinker production is determined.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this study, the effects of refractory bricks and formation of anzast layer on the specific energy con-
Received 22 August 2013 sumption of a rotary kiln are investigated. Thermodynamic analysis of the kiln is performed to achieve
Accepted 15 February 2014 effective and efficient energy management scheme. Actual data, which are taken from a cement plant
Available online 25 February 2014
located in Gaziantep, Turkey, are used in numerical calculations to obtain energy balance for the system.
It is calculated that 12.5 MW of energy is lost from the surface of the kiln which accounts for the 11.3% of
the total energy input to the unit. The specific energy consumption for clinker production is determined
to be 3735.45 kJ/kg clinker. The formation of anzast layer and the use of high quality magnesia spinel and
Rotary kiln
Specific energy consumption
high alumina refractory bricks provide 7.27% reduction in energy consumption corresponding to a saving
Energy of 271.78 MJ per ton of clinker production. It is recognized that the anzast layer has an important role for
Exergy durability of the refractory bricks and heat transfer out of the kiln. The applications prevent the emission
of 1614.48 tons of CO2 per year to the atmosphere.
Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction production in the world is about 3.6 billion ton per year [4]. About
2% of the electricity produced in the whole world is used during the
Cement industry is one of the most energy intensive industries grinding process of raw materials [5]. Total electrical energy con-
in the world. It is essential to investigate the feasibility of reducing sumption for cement production is about 110 kWh/t of cement,
coal consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the rotary kilns roughly two thirds of this energy is used for particle size reduction
in the industry. In comparison to the other industrial sectors, [6]. Because of high energy consumption rates and high environ-
cement industry has been consuming the highest proportion of mental impact of the process, the manufacturing process has been
energy. A typical well-equipped plant consumes about 4 GJ energy considered by the investigators for many years. Schuer et al. [7]
to produce one ton of cement. At the same time, this sector is one of studied energy consumption data and focused on the energy
the worst pollutant sector [1], which emits an increasing amount of saving methods for German cement industry considering electrical
greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, chloro- and thermal energy saving methods. Saxena et al. [8] investigated
fluorocarbons and methane. For each ton of clinker produced, an energy efficiency of a cement plant in India. Worell et al. [9] dealt
equivalent amount of greenhouse gases are emitted [2,3]. Cement with energy analysis in the U.S. cement industry for the years 1970
and 1997. Engin and Ari [10] analyzed a dry type rotary kiln system
with a kiln capacity of 600 t clinker per day. They found that about
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ90 342 317 1734; fax: þ90 342 360 1170.
40% of the total input energy was lost through hot flue gas, cooler
E-mail addresses:, (A. Atmaca), stack and kiln shell. The study indicates that for a dry type cement (R. Yumrutaş). production process, the carbon dioxide emission intensity for kiln
1359-4311/Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

pre- calcination gets started in the pre-heaters. The general energy balance can be expressed as: Clinker production in rotary kiln system is the most energy intensive stage in cement production. It is inclined at an angle of 3. the semi product of cement is produced. The effects values are used. and this paper can contribute to a assumed to be ideal gases. [12] analyzed a pyroprocessing unit of a typical dry process cement plant. The refractory In this study. After the combustion and the reactions inside the kiln. The process includes five is expressed as: main stages: (a) mining and grinding of raw materials into fine powder. In order to enhance the energy performance The rotary kiln is heart and the most energy consuming part of a of the unit. R. Energy and exergy analyses for the thermal energy savings of 42.5 million tons.5 . . temperatures are constant throughout the period of the study. grinding the clinker in a cement mill. temperature. and the rate of irreversibility in a steady state flow process. input and and exergy analysis on a pyroprocessing unit in Turkey. we waited for the appropriate time. accounting for about 90% of X X total thermal energy use [8]. Specific heat capacity. Clinker is rapidly cooled in cooling unit after the rotary kiln. (3) the gases inside the kiln are is limited in number and scope. Application of waste heat recovery steam generator and system is performed in this section to achieve effective and energy secondary kiln shell were suggested. Four stage cyclone type pre-heater is used to pre-calcinate the raw material before it enters the kiln. Turkey. (5) the ambient and kiln average surface affecting its performance. the following assumptions are of the anzast layer and thickness. Thermodynamic analysis of the kiln system. The raw material passes through the rotary kiln towards the  W _ net.436 A.2%. (4) electrical energy produces the shaft better understanding of rotary kiln operation and parameters work in the system. [13e15] have employed energy second laws of thermodynamics. Annual cement production capacity of the plant is 1.88 MWh/y and 5. The rotary burner is a refractory lined tube type kiln flow rate. are used in numerical Many measurements have been taken for about 3 years and average calculations to obtain realistic performance parameters. steady flow fractory bricks on the performance parameters of the kiln are process. The data collected from a thickness of the anzast layer. They determined that 1056. [11] have calculated the enthalpies going into ground together with gypsum and other pozzolans materials and and leaving the rotary kiln in cement industry and the heat losses finally cement is produced.7 MW to 17. (b) blending the farine in homogenization silos prior to X X _ in ¼ m _ out m (1) preheating in four staged cyclone preheaters. cement plant located in Gaziantep. 3. type and composition of re. The average clinker production capacity of the rotary kiln is 65 t/h. Atmaca et al. they considered conservation of heat losses from the conventional cement plant. made: (1) the system is assumed to be steady state. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 feed preparation process is about 5.4 kg CO2 per ton cement pro. The temperature of the pre-heated material is about 1000  C. During the analysis. clinker. 1.3 MW by the application of stant specific heat of the input and output materials are determined insulation to the system. and improves the product quality [9]. System description efficiencies. In order to find heat and work interactions. (2) kinetic and potential energy chances of input and examined.2 m and 59 m length. The cement plant operates on a dry cement where Q_ is the rate of heat transfer. calcination process. (c) increasing the temperature of farine (pre-calcination) in preheating tower with where m_ is the mass flow rate of the kiln. W _ is the rate of work. Cement production is a continuous electricity can be generated by using the waste heat. clinker. Furthermore. Stopping the production process in order to change the emission rates have been reduced by 8. They showed that power and efficient management scheme. m _ is mass process line. Thermodynamic analysis of the rotary kiln Kabir et al. refractories is a long. The literature survey indicates that studies on rotary kiln output materials are negligible. the rate of output mass of each item. The clinker is duced.7 kW of for the operating rotary kiln. exergy analysis of the system is made based on the second law of thermodynamics. The first law (energy or energetic) with a diameter of 4. and annual process. In a typical dry rotary kiln system. In the calcination zone. the following balance equations are applied. (d) burning the prepared mixture of farine in all expressions stand for input and output values of each in a rotary kiln (calcination) after the preheating tower and (e) parameter.out ¼ _ out hout  m _ in hin m (3) energy analysis. Rotary kiln flow diagram. and its rotational speed is 1e2 rpm. Camdali et al. costly and undesirable process. convection and radiation according shown in Fig. silica and ferric oxide with lime take place at about 1500  C. pressure values and con- heat loss is reduced from 22. In order to enter into the rotary kiln and measure the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The mass Cement production is a long process which consumes large balance for an open system operating under steady state conditions amounts of fossil fuels and electricity. Pulverized coal is burnt in the rotary kiln to reach the required reaction temperature. combina- tion of alumina.30 MW can be kiln unit of the cement factory are performed by using the first and achieved respectively. 1. subscripts “in” and “out” flue gases from the kiln. Fast cooling of the clinker enables heat recovery from Fig. thermal performance of the rotary kiln presented bricks of the rotary kiln are changed when they lose their thermal in a cement plant is investigated using energy analysis based the properties. The flow diagram of the rotary kiln is from the system by conduction. Gaziantep cement plant located in the South-east of Turkey is considered as a case study for the thermal X X Q_ net. energy and exergy 2. and approximately one third of the raw material would be pre-calcined at the end of pre-heating. Atmaca. and h is enthalpy. E_ in ¼ E_ out (2) In the present study. to the first law of thermodynamics.

5 Discharge: There is a chamber between the Magnesia-alumina-spinel rotary kiln and the clinker cooler.1 Du ¼ cðTÞdT ¼ cavg ðT2  T1 Þ (8) Tri-calcium silicate 3CaO. which is: P_ Dhin ¼ cavg ðT1  T0 Þ (10) E hI ¼ P _out (4) Dhout ¼ cavg ðT2  T0 Þ (11) Ein The general exergy balance is expressed as: X X X Table 2 _ _ out ¼ _ Ex in  Ex Exdest (5) Kiln zones and refractory materials. a stable coating is essential for extended refractory life. This zone is about the 50% of the burning zone length. The discharge zone is commonly lined with Fig. High wear often occurs at the ring end of the discharge zone.2 Z2 Calcium aluminate 3CaO. 2.3 Lower transition: The lower transition zone Magnesia-alumina-spinel encounters the most severe conditions in the kiln. Al2O3.2 1 Potassium oxide K2O e 2. clinker fluids are also present.SiO2 C2S 13. The subscript zero indicates properties at refractories such as 40e50% alumina the dead state of P0 and T0.2 Sodium oxide Na2O e 1. This zone is about 20% of the burning zone length. .1 Dh ¼ Du þ y DP (9) Magnesium oxide MgO e 1.2 Sintering: Coatings in sintering zone are Magnesia-alumina-spinel usually thick and stable.out þ _ in jin  m _ out jout ¼ m _ Ex dest it is typically lined with coarse Tp aggregate monolithic. temperatures are generally in the region of 1250  C.4 Di-calcium silicate 2CaO. 4. Maximum improvement in the exergy magnesia-chrome or magnesia-spinel as efficiency for a process is obviously achieved when the exergy loss these materials form no eutectics with lime at the temperatures encountered in the “hot” zones. 4. The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through the mantle of the basic or high alumina refractories [18]. The subscript dest indicates destruction. Coarse aggregate 1  0 Q_ p  W _ net. we use Eq. bricks. Due to negligible pressure change the enthalpy change is equal to the internal energy change. The enthalpy values of the input and output materials can be expressed with reference efficiency is defined as the ratio of energy output to the amount of to ambient conditions: energy input. The clinker and/or mid/high alumina discharges into firing hood. Higher exergy efficiency permits a Clinker composition. R. The second-law (exergy or exergetic) efficiency may generally be 3 Calcining: Higher in temperature than High alumina defined as the rate of exergy output divided by the rate of exergy the chain and pre-heating zones it is input: commonly lined with higher alumina refractory materials. Temperatures here are at the highest and the coating is often unstable and thin.Fe2O3 C4AF 10. rotary kiln. The three sections are commonly determined by different clinker coating conditions. y is specific volume and DP is pressure change.3 Total e e 100 where cavg is average specific heat.1 Upper transition: In the upper transition Magnesia-alumina-spinel zone the coating is usually thin or nonexistent. 4 Burning zone: The eutectic temperature Magnesia-alumina-spinel P_ Ex between the “free” lime in the calcined hII ¼ P _ out (7) feed and alumina-silica materials is in Exin the region of 1100e1300  C. It is generally lined with alkali resistant perature Tp at location p. (6) 2 Preheating: Usually the longest zone as Mid/high alumina the name suggests this section is the where Q_ p is the heat transfer rate through the boundary at tem.SiO2 C3S 60. Kiln zones Refractory materials X T  X X X 1 Chain zone: The “front end” of the kiln. pre-heating section of the kiln. Atmaca. Al2O3 C3A 9. (9) and use exergies of outgoing and with basic refractories such as input materials to the unit. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 437 Table 1 or irreversibility is minimized. that is why the burning section of the kiln is lined In this study. better matching of energy sources and uses [16]. Chemical name Chemical structure Chemical form Percentage (%) Internal energy change and enthalpy change values are: Calcium ferrite 4CaO.5 Sulfur trioxide SO3 e 2. A. 4. About 30% of the length of the burning zone is called as the upper transition zone.

the exergy values of input and output materials in Energy is transferred by mass. Rotary kiln zones. T0 P0 Since the pressures of the input and output materials are equal. Conservation of this heat will Rconv.438 A. Presentation of refractory arrangement and anzast layer in rotary kiln. Atmaca. there will be heat transfer from the kiln to atmosphere. convection and radiation thermal resistance values composition which is taken from the facility laboratory is shown in are determined from the expressions: 1 1 r 1 r Rconv. This heat transfer is considered waste heat. 5. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 where T1 and T2 are the input and output temperatures of the materials and T0 is the ambient air temperature.2  Rrad improve the thermal efficiency of the rotary kiln. convection and radiation equations in a cylindrical structure for the case of constant con- ductivity for steady conduction with no heat generation is applied Djout ¼ Dhout  T0 Dsout (17) (Fig. R. 1.5 and T1 4.2 þ Rrad To obtain the general energy balance of the system. Table 1. Formation energy of the clinker is calculated by Dsin ¼ cp. SiO2 and Fe2O3 percentages in the man- their Ds values are expressed as: ufactured cement has been analyzed to be 3. . heat and work within the rotary the rotary kiln are calculated from the equations. Substantial quantity of calculated from heat is transferred to the atmosphere from the surface. For incompressible substances the entropy change is: T2 s2  s1 ¼ cavg ln (12) T0 For ideal gases the entropy change is: T2 P s2  s1 ¼ cp.3 þ (20) Rconv.1 þ Rcond. CaO. kiln which we choose as the control volume. Fig.avg ln (15) T0 þ 7:646½CaO  5:116½SiO2  After obtaining the entropy and enthalpy values of the input and  0:59½Fe2 O3  (18) output materials. The rate of heat transfer between the control volume and its surroundings is calculated from the following equations: 4.avg ln  R ln 2 (13) Fig. Al2O3. convection and radiation. Rtotal ¼ Rconv.1 ¼ Rcond.5%. 26.76.2 ¼ Rrad ¼ 2pL1 k3 r2 2pr1 L1 h2 2pr1 L1 hrad Fig. The rotary kiln surface temperature zones and brick arrangement.3 ¼ ln 1 Rconv.avg ln (14) using the Zur Strassen equation [17]. the energy consumed during the formation of clinker is calculated. 51.2 ¼ ln 2 2pr4 L1 h1 2pL1 k1 r4 2pL1 k2 r3 (21) 1 r 1 1 Rcond. The heat transfer from the rotary kiln takes place due where Rtotal is the total thermal resistance of the system and to conduction. 3.1 ¼ ln 3 Rcond. MgO.2. respectively. The simplifications of Djin ¼ Dhin  T0 Dsin (16) the one dimensional heat conduction.2 þ Rcond. T0 T2 Formation energy ðkcal=kgÞ ¼ 4:11½Al2 O3  þ 6:48½MgO Dsout ¼ cp. 2). Heat loss calculation of the rotary kiln T  Tout Due to temperature difference between inner surface and Q_ total ¼ in (19) Rtotal ambient air temperature. 4. The clinker Conduction.1 þ Rcond.

083 0.21 73 C2S 2CaO 1713.68 1.007 290 320 30.01 38.1 4.63 140.5 1.885 e e e e e 1581 603.1 6.3 CO2 35.86 0.6 Electrical work e e e e e e e 4341.075 0.32 Total e 65.95 4.19 63.72 0.55 20.01 2.18 C3A 3CaO 734.39 3.8 1.82 1.15 S2 93.23 SiO2 7824 0.25 2034.2 5.618 290 1550 778.69 C3S 3CaO 4329. P P Input material Content _ (kg/h) m cp (kJ/kg K) T0 (K) Tin (K) Dh (kJ/kg) Ds (kJ/kg K) _ Dh (kW) m _ Dj (kW) m Farine CaO 75.37 342.18 1.34 Combustion of coal e 7200 1.92 290 320 27. Atmaca.68 1.618 290 1550 778.42 3.21 290 1084 960.6 0.87 Al2O3 1434.14 H2O 739.92 0.64 290 344 304.28 866.45 1579.45 C3S 3CaO 23472 0.97 290 320 149.481 4.72 C3A 3CaO 3260 0.2 0.9 2.6 Primary air N2 7675.16 0.81 10300.5 TOTAL e 211.15 290 920 31655.41 23.55 1177.33 63.01 290 1110 1648.16 2.18 2.41 SiO2 11084 0.6 4.411 0.392 290 1550 493.182.7 2355.369 0.76 Ar 118.311.71 290 1120 589.63 60.61 703.60 9.18 130.36 290 1110 3575.92 4.55 1237.489 4.705 290 710 296.9 1075.3 0.37 290 1110 303.5 110.56 0.78 0.5 4341.16 3.69 C2S 2CaO 6520 0.08 0.9 0.849 0.01 2181.63 Ash 2241.42 4545.61 290 1110 492 0.553.04 5076.05 660.598 290 710 1091.71 290 710 296.28 2.825 1.743 290 1550 936.046 290 1120 1698.7 1.72 1529.921.94 14.13 12.924 290 710 388.577 e e e e e 111.492 e e 36.497.18 290 1110 3427.92 290 344 49.1 0.83 89.47 10.45 55.6 1.96 7.543 0.200 e e e 24.44 Na2O 652 4.33 132.24 CO2 3.2 2.45 0.227.235 Secondary air N2 69639.445 0.63 356.705 0.31 290 1110 3534.2 0.1 1.52 3.14 433.87 Fe2O3 309.15 Coal C2 4788 0.81 Total e 12.46 465.18 1.4 CO2 30035.68 34.511 23.69 290 1110 565.97 290 1120 4125. R.18 290 344 225.25 2882.005 Other 8.41 1.09 2.42 3.93 Hot gas N2 91975.37 SO3 30.33 MgO 717.3 290 710 2226 4.177 290 1084 934.03 290 344 1.93 2914.79 885.091 15.4 Ar 1074.63 2571.18 Ash 1468.95 H2O 26.11 K2O 901.71 12.37 Other 80.56 TOTAL e 211.32 290 344 773.36 0.62 H2O 201.66 1.71 SO3 652 0.705 290 710 296.31 H2 259.85 248.43 5410.9 4.15 0.711 290 1550 5935.1 0.16 340.96 1.4 0.59 Total e 133.4 60.16 2.18 290 320 125.58 2566. A.23 Fe2O3 2934 4.43 Output material Content ṁ (kg/h) cp (kJ/kg K) T0 (K) Tin (K) Dh (kJ/kg) Ds (kJ/kg K) S ṁ Dh (kW) S ṁ Dj (kW) Clinker C4AF 4CaO 1956 0.1 0.2 5.8 1.4 4.24 1.58 H2O 7742.99 3118.089.083 290 1120 898.887 290 1550 1117.91 10.903 0.74 19.86 7.28 1928.05 290 1120 871.14 1339.16 14.2 0.08 0.68 20.23 2290.64 1.2 4.34 1530.51 17599.44 K2O 1304 4.099 0.37 Dust and ash C4AF 4CaO 463.75 191.1 0.09 135.84 Total e 89.08 259.649.81 4.3 290 710 546.001 H2O 3 4.779 290 1550 6021.66 98.18 1.93 1348.1 0.76 7.19 1.38 O2 273.96 120.68 0.29 610.42 4418.004 Total e 9866 87.04 290 344 56.2 1.68 1.83 166.74 6.62 290 1110 492 0.24 5.167 290 1550 2730.102 66.86 Ar 1334.16 290 1110 3411.21 0.81 SiO2 927.49 202.75 0.48 SO2 734.85 290 320 25.80 0.15 14.55 4.61 58.66 Total e 7200 112.64 2.2 0.89 SiO2 18.38 0.93 Al2O3 5145 2.21 7.8 0.2 0.54 8.5 0.86 .924 290 710 388.102.04 290 320 31.012 290 1120 839.3 290 344 70.92 668.19 Total e 105.04 129.62 0.41 124.91 3995.62 1.11 Al2O3 3390.06 Al2O3 438.240.42 48.48 7568.146 290 1084 909.293.16 2.43 1.22 O2 2056.047.60 9.63 1249.028 0.98 1.124.95 53.47 25.103 0.54 2.1 0.46 22965.4 2. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 439 Table 3 Energy and exergy analysis of the kiln unit.61 180.4 2.89 1.00 1.4 0.97 290 1084 3945.6 5.577 e e e e e 62.000 20.81 369.705 290 710 296.39 Fe2O3 2709 4.01 O2 1468.743 290 1550 936.2 14.04 1410.9 1.39 2.43 MgO 1312.6 1.68 4.76 3652.74 O2 18654.074 290 1084 852.57 Al2O3 180.65 62.2 5.83 100.7 1.167 290 1550 2730.72 0.33 54.093 290 1120 907.63 38.94 SiO2 1546.63 807.92 0.79 50.68 1.6 5.63 1.4 290 1084 1905.618 290 1550 778.04 423.45 Other 200.93 9123.63 1087.618 290 1550 778.39 1770.426 290 1550 5576.64 12123.71 Na2O 249.59 290 710 1091.68 63.04 705.05 N2 115.06 2791.99 1.541.22 28.

energy and exergy values of the raw materials.21].8 Hot gas 133. where h is the convection coefficient.200 24. the first law efficiency of the kiln Fig.13 20. r1  r2 gives the thickness of the steel mantle. 6.74 32.67  108 W/m2 K4.5 MW which accounts without addition of water. Tin is the inner Mass and energy balance of the unit. For that reason.3% of the total energy input to the unit.240. The results obtained are presented as Refs.63 32. component of the input and output materials are taken from rameters are obtained. The results of the energy and exergy analysis for the rotary kiln    unit are presented in Table 3. The work transfer due to electricity and heat lost values are calculated.83 100 consumed and the combustion of pulverized lignite coal.492 36. to find performance parameters of the kiln such as heat losses. [20.537.9 Total 211. 3). r1. r2  r3 is Pulvarized coal 7200 112. output (Tout) temperatures.18 MW.577 111. thermodynamic analysis was performed tices upon the Kirchhoff law [19].1 rotary kiln. and they are discussed in this chapter.65 56. enthalpy (Dh) and entropy (Ds) changes.311. R. Output materials ṁ (kg/h) S E_ out (kW) Percentage (%) 5.94 21.00 2 2 þ Tout Tout. .511 23. 4.9 surface temperature values.1 the thickness of the refractory bricks and r4 is the average radius of Primary air 9866 87. determined from.4 to energy output for the steady state operation. heat loss and hot gas leaving from the kiln.885 1581. Based on the five zones (Table 2 and Fig. Total energy input to the kiln is calculated to be 111. temperature of the rotary kiln and Tsurf is the surface temperature Input materials ṁ (kg/h) S E_ in (kW) Percentage (%) of the mantle of the kiln. r2. The constants of each data are used in numerical calculations.83 100 terials used are presented in Fig. The relevant data and constants are hrad ¼ 3 s Tout. Energy balance of the RK. 5. c and d are the constants for raw material.47 18. Tables and figures.6 0. constant pressure specific heats (cp).9 Clinker 65. Results obtained from a and hrad is the radiation heat transfer coefficient and its value is case study can be given to explain energy analysis for the kiln. the raw ingredients are prepared and stored lost from the surface of the kiln is equal to 12.577 111.1. k is the thermal conductivity. Energy and exergy analysis of the kiln Formation of clinker e 36. efficiency and SEC.3 to the kiln consists of energy entering by raw materials. _ input (Tin) and constant as 5.293. The The effects of the refractory bricks and formation of anzast layer specific heat capacity of the each input and output material has on specific energy consumption (SEC) of the kiln are investigated in been calculated using the empiric correlation below which prac- this study.440 A. Total energy input Heat transfer from the kiln e 12. and T system by considering their interactions with each other.1 the anzast layer. Secondary air 89.542.48 0. first law (hI) and second law (hII) efficiencies.182. The refractory brick arrangement and calculated values given in Table 3. Atmaca.089. Results and discussion and average ambient air temperature (T0) are given in Table 3.182. and s is StefaneBoltzman calculated values including mass flow rates ðmÞ. The material and energy balance for the unit is presented in Table 4.6 Energy balance for the kiln is defined that energy input is equal Dust and ash 12.5 3.9 The surface of the kiln is divided into 4 sections with different Electrical work e 4341. b. Actual represents temperature of each material. electricity Total 211. and the kiln is commonly divided into for the 11. r3 and r4 are the inner radiuses of the Farine 105. The energy and exergy calculations are done Cp ¼ a þ bT þ cT 2 þ dT 3 (23) using MS Excel Professional Plus 2013 which is a commercial software. and the performance pa. Total energy output consists of the energy absorbed by raw materials.51 11.000 þ Tout (22) obtained from on site measurements. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 Table 4 anzast layer in rotary kiln are presented in Fig. The type and length of refractory ma- Combustion of coal e 63. Heat In dry process.227. The given and where 3 is the emissivity of the surface. 5. a. The software makes it possible to analyze the whole Here.

79 April 5098. electricity. combustion process has the greatest contribution of input energy and input exergy.076 45. and the average accounts for 20.96 kW/93151.89 kW/116614. Thus. (7) to temperature values.568 3636.076 45. Silica has an abrasive effect on the bricks.230.230.880 43. The formation of an anzast layer inside the kiln has important effects on energy and exergy efficiency of the unit.44 kW ¼ 0.076 44.5%.880 43. Therefore.24 3. Months Coal Electricity Clinker SEC consumptiona consumption production (kJ/kg clinker) (kg/month) (kWh/month) (kg/month) January 5493. SEC value is calculated from. The energy band diagram (Sankey) of the rotary kiln.Reduces the deformations on the bricks due to hot clinker flow.1%. Table 5 Monthly SEC of the rotary kiln under standard conditions.1. The SEC of the unit is found to be 3441.2 3. 8.9% and precalcined farine accounts for 18.8 3.125.65 kW of energy by the combustion of pulverized lignite coal. .7%.3% in the unit.13 3. the first law efficiency of the kiln is the formation of clinker. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 441 32. The .78 June 5212.431 or 43. The accounts for 11.926 39.200 3742.36 2.85 Average 5305.89 3648.8 3813. This corresponds to an . The experienced staff have an important process.14 February 4791. Heat loss from the surface of the kiln calculated to be 69419.5%) and the precalcined farine (11.56 3. the factory consumes 4341.6% of the output energies (Table 4).49 kW ¼ 0.9% contribution while inlet air layer is measured in each section of the kiln. be 34. R. and raw materials.67 kJ/kg clinker. the average SEC is (63.125.2 kW ¼ 0. In order to maintain appropriate anzast layer inside the kiln. The exergy band diagram (Grassmann) of the rotary kiln.090. Atmaca.37 July 5364.38 December 5475.384 3768.795.65 þ 4341.880 44.81 August 5386.8 3.1% of the thickness of the layer is found to be 450 mm. The exergy flow diagram in Fig.076 44. (4) to be 62. percentages of energy flows and losses while Fig.8 44.26 kJ/kg clinker.230.076 44.9%) followed by the exergy of primary and secondary air streams (13. 7 shows a Sankey diagram indicating magnitudes and . The thickness of the anzast pulverized lignite coal with a 56.649 MW/89. 8). The output includes thermal energies con.640 3777.45 kJ/kg clinker.979.230.021.8 3800.560 3797.3% of the all output exergies (Fig. The input energy is dominated by the combustion of role to maintain the desired conditions. 32.387 or 38.595 or 59.706. and thermal energies of burning coal easy sintering. In this way. A.2 3650. the Operation of the system involves thermal energy inputs in the silicate module of the farine has kept as low as possible to provide form of hot gas. 7. After obtaining the total energy input (Fig. Specific energy consumption (SEC) of the kiln The specific energy consumption (SEC) of the system is calcu- lated by using the data taken from the factory area for one year (Table 5). Effect of anzast layer on the efficiency of the kiln Fig.8%).An anzast layer protects the refractory bricks against high second law efficiency of the rotary kiln is calculated from Eq. 8 shows a Grassmann diagram with the corresponding data for exergy. 6).311.788.157.230.84 3.8%. Some advan- tages of the anzast layer formation are summarized below: is calculated from Eq. 8 shows that most of the exergy input to the system is due to combustion of fuel (69.10 MW/111.99 kJ/s  3600/66450 kg/h ¼ 3562.558 or 55.684 42.2% of the inlet energy. The specific combustion energy of the coal is calculated to be 31.2.02 September 5199.87 3735.6 3. An examination of output exergies shows that exergy loss is responsible for 61.9% of the input energy is lost during thickness of the anzast layer.076 45.61 November 5320.39 March 5501. The energy lost account to 44.45 a Fig.125.200 ¼ 3735.384 3690.5 kW of electricity and 63.788.21 3.22 October 5424.804 3702. leaking dust and ash and the energy consumed during the the materials containing higher silica were able to melt easily under formation of clinker which are the unavoidable waste of burning lower temperature values.Supports bricks during continuous rotation of the kiln.86 May 5399. For the production of 65.230. the amount of free silica has been decreased by using iron oxide tained in clinker and hot gas as well as energy losses with heat minerals instead of sand during production of farine. Fig. As a result. 5.230. losses.100 kJ/kg coal.200 kg/h clinker. exergy loss of 61.84 3.71 3.88 3.3% and hot gas leaving the system accounts for second law efficiency of the rotary kiln is calculated to be 40215.481.2. 5.311. .5)*3600/65.8 3810.076 45.150. 65760.Reduces the heat transfer rate and coal consumption.18 MW ¼ 0.

SEC value is calculated decreased from 63.616 3428.49 CaO (%) 10e16 2e5 e e March 5353.41 3.076 47.5 2.076 47.318.62 8.96 2.44 3.106 59. The ably.230. the heat transfer from the surface on the calculated values in Table 7.8 3.24 (MPa) November 5176.8 3.880.67 a The specific combustion energy of the coal is calculated to be 31. The difference between the mantle of the kiln and the surrounding air is new chrome ore free bricks have resistance against high thermo- lower in summer. 0.36 ly ug ov ne il pt ct n b ay ec ch Hot gas 133.880 45.076 47.04 3.481.2.684 44. and less heat is lost.411.125. The amount of coal from.03 Electrical work e 4341. it is recognized that the thickness of the old bricks are second law efficiencies increase.74 0.75 30.999.95 Fe2O3 (%) e e 4e7 3e6 April 4959 3. 9.41 Apparent porosity (%) 18 17 20 22 June 5068.931.38 3463. 5. Clinker production has been increased at the same time.467.242 43.2 3489. 3700 Input materials ṁ (kg/h) SE_ in (kW) Percentage (%) 3650 SEC (kJ/kg clinker) Farine 105.750 25.360 3465.8 tons of coal in a year.230.442 A.880 46. At the second law efficiency of the rotary kiln is calculated to be end of 2nd year.105. alkali and sulfate attack.612 or 61.100 kJ/kg coal. Emissions reduction consumption of the unit decreased considerably after replacing high quality refractory bricks inside the kiln. Effect of the type and quality of the refractory bricks on the efficiency of the kiln Refractory materials play a critical role in the rotary kiln lin- changes in SEC of the rotary kiln with respect to ambient air tem- ing.230.021.839.076 47.84 25. The saved per year is 1736.230. Content Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 magnesia magnesia high alumina Months Coal Electricity Clinker SEC chromite spinel alumina consumptiona consumption production (kJ/kg clinker) (t/month) (kWh/month) (t/month) Mg0 (%) 65e70 80e84 10e20 12e16 Al2O3 (%) 2e5 10e14 75e80 65e70 January 5349.76 3.230.25 Total 211.65e3. This corresponds to higher rates of reduced by half in some regions of the kiln.66 t/y. The summer can be taken as 5  C and 30  C.2%. 5.4 1.52 3488.59 Standart conditions 3600 Pulvarized coal 6810 106.17 Bulk density (g/cm3) 3.61 Cold crushing strength 55 60 63 61 October 5275.668.46 t/y to 61.71 51.327.230.21 kJ/s  3600/66750 kg/h ¼ 3463.2 3478. R.4 kW/118973.3. the first law efficiency of the kiln and coal consumption of the kiln have been decreased consider- is calculated to be 72838.8 46.1 July 5215. The first and second After obtaining a suitable anzast layer and using better quality law efficiency and SEC of the unit have been evaluated again. The data indicates that at higher alumina.8 3492.5 3.020. the second quality old bricks with poor thermal properties are efficiencies are higher in summer than in winter.683.8 3488. of the unit is lower in summer days.08 3.8 tons.5 3450 Total 211.93 kg [23.427 116. Based refractory bricks inside the kiln.4 19.278. Effect of ambient air temperature on the efficiency of the kiln Nitrogen oxides are formed during fuel combustion in rotary The highest and lowest ambient air temperatures are obtained kilns.080 3420. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 Table 6 Table 8 Properties of new refractory bricks.566.4 3441.47 Months Heat transfer from the kiln e 9597.65 kW/95089. Atmaca.09 After efficiency enhancement studies Primary air 10. The heat transfer losses from the surface of the unit and the coal 5.2 August 5237.62 Cr2O3 (%) 2e4 e e e February 4662. both the first and bricks.2.451 or 45.05e3.44 22.47 Ja Fe pr O Ju Se D M Ju ar A N A M Dust and ash 11.45 3350 Clinker 66. Thus.56 2. respectively.05 3550 Secondary air 89. energy consumption and clinker production of the unit on a month The amount of carbon dioxide emission per kg of coal burned is basis is given in Table 8. Monthly SEC of the rotary kiln after the application of anzast layer and new re- fractory bricks.14 37. 9.150.044 3495.784. 64222.84 3.56 SiO2 (%) 3e5 1e4 2e8 4e10 May 5250.880 46.4 3427.7 100 Fig.6 3.7e2.125.000 22.076 47.8 2.75 1. As a result.926 41. The average air temperatures for winter and only magnesia chromite and alumina bricks inside the kiln. coal consumption mechanical and thermochemical loads with redox conditions. As a result.97 3.24]. Thus. It is seen that.318. .73 3500 Combustion of coal e 59.65 kW ¼ 0.21 Average 5160.1%.56 Thickness (mm) 250 300 350 250 December 5327. While replacing the ambient temperatures (during summer months).5 0. the service life of the bricks are increased considerably.67 kJ/kg clinker.1 2.33 3.675.230.2 3450. the average coal consumption of the unit has 42874.125.076 47.06 Thermal conductivity 3. magnesia and chrome (Table 6). The monthly 3800 Table 7 3750 Mass and energy balance of the unit after installing refractory bricks with better thermal properties. SEC of the rotary kiln with respect to months. 1.480 kg of CO2 emission has been pre- vented by saving 1736.614.69 at 1000  C (W/mK) September 5055.511 29.05 2.076 47.435 1703. The temperature replaced with bricks which have higher Mg and Al content. The NOx emissions result from the oxidation of nitrogen in the from Turkish State Meteorological Service [22].795.9e3. The main contents of these bricks are mainly based on perature are shown in Fig.2.3.427 116278. there is clinker production.7 100 Output materials ṁ (kg/h) SE_ out (kW) Percentage (%) 3400 Formation of clinker e 35.505.68 kW ¼ 0.

and minimizing air and steam leak by effective sealing are some [5] M.928. 7 (2003) 93e126.8 tons of coal per year has been h1 first law (energy) efficiency (%) saved after the application of anzast layer and new refractory h2 second law (exergy) efficiency (%) bricks.5 MW.5 tons.5 kg of NOx/y emission has been prevented.8% while the second law efficiency is 38. [1] S.It is calculated that 32.1% and 3463. 23 (2009) 1954e1959.46 tons to 61. P pressure (Pa) mation of clinker and 32. kiln and clinker cooler. t ton .Reduction in fuel consumption in a rotary kiln operation can be Kiln Simulator (RoCKS): integrated modeling of pre-heater. Kaustubh. About Atmaca from the University of Gaziantep. Coal consumption of the kiln Greek letters decreased by 2.668. Pahuja.A.614. Sci.72%. Kalk. Ecol. and the process is affected by certain parameters. Minimizing [3] E. Deniz Ozdil and Erkan Demirel from Limak Cement Group. S. sulfur content in ores and in combusted fuel which will vary from plant to plant.C. Correlation of the Blaine value and the size of rameters effecting the system performance and optimization of the cement particle size distribution. van Oss. T temperature (K) respectively. V. The SEC of the kiln increase in winter months References due to lower ambient temperatures. reducing the temperature of [4] World cement production 2012.931. [2] H.894. Atmaca who have died in a terrible traffic accident in 27th of Thus.68% increase in production capacity of W work (kJ) the unit. 62 (2007) 2590e2607. Ranade. A. IMF World gases at the outlet by more effective heat transfer in the unit. Yumrutaş / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 443 fuel as well as in incoming combustion air. The energy lost k thermal conductivity (W/mK) from the system is calculated to be 12.26]. the first and second law efficiency and SEC values of the Ṡ entropy rate (kW) system are calculated as 61. Sulfur dioxide may come from the like to express my deepest appreciation to my parents. Tsibouki. Tsakiridis.G. calciner. 2431. The emission factor for NOx in cement I would first like to thank my mother. R. Nihat factor for SO2 is calculated to be 0. annual clinker T0 ambient temperature.E. Gips 7 (1992) 175e182. Elif and my father Kemal process is 1. With decrease in coal consumption. The authors acknowledge the support provided by the Scientific The properties of the coal are presented in Table 3. and Huseyin Sencan. After the Q_ heat transfer rate (kW) application of anzast layer and new refractory bricks inside the s specific entropy (kJ/kg K) kiln.5 tons to v specific volume (m3/kg) 555. Economic Outlook 2013.With the help of efficiency enhancement studies. World Cem.G. heat losses by effective insulation.4 kg/t coal burned for both dry and wet process kilns.The rotary kiln operates for about 7750 h in a year. annual CO2.6% of the total energy exits with hot gas r radius (m) streams.45 kJ/kg clinker. nological improvements. S. where S is the sulfur content in the fuel in percent [25. Rotary Cement .V. A. Saxena.N. The E_ energy rate (kW) main results of the study can be summarized as follows: _ Ex exergy rate (kW) h specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) or heat convection . Ellerbock. com- bustion temperature.P. A. G. . be the main parameter on the system efficiency.7%. Cement manufacture and the environment part II: According to the results. Padovani.0455 kg SO2/t coal burned. achieved by minimizing various losses occurring in the unit [27]. Build. Conclusions Nomenclature The analysis and performance assessment of the rotary kiln A cross-sectional area (m2) indicate that the clinker formation process involves energy and c specific heat (kJ/kg K) exergy losses.9% of the energy is lost during the for. P.G. The emission factors of dry kilns suggested by US EPA Acknowledgements (US Environmental Protection Agency) is 3. Ẇ work rate or power (kW) . Mehmet Marasli. Mater. Appl.66 tons. its nitrogen content. Stamboltzis.The quality and type of the refractory used inside the kiln affect Q heat transfer (kJ) the performance of the rotary kiln significantly.5 S kg SO2/ton of coal burned. Giannatos. Dr.V. Possible ways of saving energy in cement production. The specific energy L length (m) consumption for clinker production is determined to be m mass (kg) 3735. Energy efficiency through tech- allocation in the system. Use of alternative fuels in the Polish cement industry. Zem. 45. Ganesh Kulkarni.480 kg. increase in combustion efficiency will environmental challenges and opportunities. 6. November 2013. Zem. Mokrzycki.The first law efficiency of the rotary kiln is determined to be coefficient(W/m2 K) 55. M. A. Katsioti. Characteriza- tion of various cement grinding aids and their impact on grindability and measures that can help reduce energy consumption. Marinos. Saxena.67 kJ/kg clinker. H.67  108 W/m2 K4 . Uliasz-Bochen  czyk. Energy 74 (2003) 101e111. The annual y year total coal consumption of the facility has been decreased from 63. The quantity of NOx Special thanks formed depends on the type of fuels. P. Yadav. by region and main countries. R thermal resistance (K/W) .B. 1 (1995) 63e66. ṁ mass flow rate (kg/s) . J. A. The emission Research Unit (GUBAP) of the University of Gaziantep. There is 4. s StefaneBoltzman constant as 5. Constr. studies on the topic may involve the investigation of the pa. A. April 2013.  C or K production of the kiln has been increased from 529.The ambient air conditions affect efficiency and production ca- pacity of the kiln. NOx and 3 emissivity SO2 emissions rates of the facility are decreased by 1. without their continuous support and encour- The emission of SO2 into the atmosphere is known to cause the agement I never would have been able to achieve my goals.-Kalk-Gips 61 (2008) 60e68. Atmaca. Z. I would formation of acid rain and smog. A thermoeconomic analysis of the [7] A. system can also provide significant information indicating cost [8] J.5 kg and 79 kg respectively. [6] K. them for best operation. It appears that the losses (particularly heat losses) increase in winter months. K. Leiman. etc. j flow exergy (kJ/kg) 2431. Tsakalakis. Eng. Mujumdar. Chem. that’s 1736. Further cement performance. J. Sarna. Ind. 79 kg of SO2 emission is prevented yearly. Schuer.2%.

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