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Conor Fitzpatrick

File Formats and Applications:

There are many different types of file formats and applications in digital media and I will be
looking at formats such as JPEGs, RAW files, Tiffs and PSD files as well as applications such
as Illustrator and Photoshop.

JPEG JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group who created the standard JPEG
files, there are 2 sub-formats with JPEGS which are JPG/Exif which are mostly used in
cameras and photographic equipment and then there are JPG/JFIF which are predominantly
used on the internet.

RAW File A raw image format is an image that is as seen by the cameras sensor meaning
it contains minimally processed data and rather than allowing the camera to convert it for
you such as a JPEG it allows you to process the image however you want and are not ready
to be printed.

Examples of RAW and JPEG

Source: https://www.the-amateur-
Conor Fitzpatrick

TIFF FILES TIFF stands for Tag Image File Format and is used for exchanging raster graphics images
between application programmes. It is also supported by scanning, faxing, word processing, optical
character recognition, and image manipulation. It is often used for desktop publishing like magazines
and graphic designs.

RASTER FILES A Raster graphic file format are images stored in several formats. It shows rectangular
grid of pixels or points of colour, this is referred to as The Dot Matric Data Structure. Once zoomed
in on the image you can see it on the grid of pixels. The individual pixels appear as squares and when
zoomed in closer, the image can be analysed with their colours constructed by red, green and blue
and the values of each.

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Conor Fitzpatrick

VECTOR FILES Vector files are editable meaning you can open them again in illustrator and edit the
text as well as other elements of the file. Unlike Raster files, Vectors use source files like logos, icons,
and charts. Or anything with a hard-edged graphic.

These specific graphics are based on vectors which use different locations called control nodes.
Vector files are usually clearer than raster files.

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AI FILES An AI is an extension for a Vector graphic file in Adobe Illustrator which is a vector
graphics based drawing program. The format is a subset of EPS and the AI stands for Adobe

PSD FILES - A PSD file is an image file thats layered and used in Adobe Photoshop. PSD stands for
Photoshop Document which means its the format that Photoshop uses for saving data. It allows the
user to work with individual layers of the images even after the files has been saved.

When the image is complete Photoshop allows the you to flatten the layers and convert the image
into a JPEG, TIFF, or GIF as well as other non-propriety file formats so it can be shared but once
converted it cannot be reversed back to a PSD

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Conor Fitzpatrick

ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR: Adobe illustrator is a program mainly aimed at artists and graphic designers
to create vector images. The images can then be used for uses such as company logos, personal
work, or even for promotional uses and can be in both print and digital form.

Other uses for Illustrator are:


Example of work on Adobe Illustrator:

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PHOTOSHOP Adobe Photoshop is the most popular photo editing and manipulation software
available where you can create intricate digital paintings and drawings as well as using a range of
featured editing techniques and editing large batches of photos at once. Photoshop is the best way
to alter images such as photos, downloaded icons and scanned artwork. When altering it allows you
to do such things as changing the colours within an image, modifying the size and scale of an image,
or putting one picture Within another. Alteration also includes changing the image compression
form one type to another and even changing the number of bits used per pixel.

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Pixel A pixel is a unit of colour on a computer display or in a computer image. The

physical size of a pixel varies depending on how the resolution is set on your display screen.
Then there are Bitmaps which shows a colour for each pixel along a horizontal axis and a
colour for a vertical axis. A way of describing this would be that a Graphics interchange
format file contains a bitmap of an image along with other data. (Research source: )
Conor Fitzpatrick

As well as altering images, Photoshop has many tools that help you create images from
nothing. There are so many tools on the program that allow you to do even more things with
the product, some of the tools used are:

Selection tools. (For example: Rectangular marquee, Lasso, Quick selection and
magic wand.)
Crop and slice tools.
Measuring tools such as the Eye dropper or the Colour sampler.
Retouching tools, like the Spot healing brush and the Clone stamp.
Painting tools.
Drawing and type tools.
Navigation tools.
Photoshop is a powerful application which is even used by professional photgraphers and
designers where you can do almost anything when it comes to image editing such as
touching up photos and creating graphics.

Example of a PSD

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