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10/11/2017 Hindu astrology - Wikipedia

Hindu astrology
Jyotisha (or Jyotishyam from Sanskrit jyotia, from jytis- "light, heavenly body") is the traditional Hindu system of astrology, also known as Hindu
astrology, Indian astrology, and more recently Vedic astrology. The term Hindu astrology has been in use as the English equivalent of Jyotia since the early
19th century, whereas Vedic astrology is a relatively recent term, entering common usage in the 1980s with self-help publications on yurveda or Yoga. Vedanga
Jyotisha is one of the earliest texts about astronomy within the Vedas.[1][2][3] However, some authors have claimed that the horoscopic astrology in the Indian
subcontinent came from Hellenistic influences, post-dating the Vedic period.[4] In epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, only electional astrology, omens, dreams
and physiognomy are used.

Following a judgement of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in 2001, which favoured astrology, some Indian universities offer advanced degrees in Hindu
astrology.

Astrology is rejected by the scientific community as pseudoscience.[5][6][7][8][9]

Contents
1 History
2 Modern Hindu astrology
2.1 Status of astrology
3 Elements
3.1 Ri zodiacal signs
3.2 Nakatras - lunar mansions
3.3 Da-s planetary periods
3.4 Grahas planets
3.5 Gocharas transits
3.5.1 Yogas planetary combinations
3.6 Bhvas houses
3.7 Dis aspects
4 Science
4.1 Testing astrology
5 See also
6 References
7 Bibliography
8 External links

History
Jyotia is one of the Vedga, the six auxiliary disciplines used to support Vedic rituals.[10]:376 Early jyotia is concerned with the preparation of a calendar to
fix the date of sacrificial rituals.[10]:377 Nothing is written on planets.[10]:377 There are mentions of eclipse causing "demons" in the Atharvaveda and
Chndogya Upaniad, the Chndogya mentioning Rhu.[10]:382 In fact the term graha, which is now taken to mean planet, originally meant demon.[10]:381 The
igveda also mentions an eclipse causing demon, Svarbhnu, however the specific term of "graha" becomes applied to Svarbhnu in the later Mahbhrata and
Rmyaa.[10]:382

The foundation of Hindu astrology is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas, (scriptures), which is the connection between the microcosm and the macrocosm.
Practice relies primarily on the sidereal zodiac, which is different from the tropical zodiac used in Western (Hellenistic) astrology in that an ayana
adjustment is made for the gradual precession of the vernal equinox. Hindu astrology includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and prediction with
elements not found in Hellenistic astrology, such as its system of lunar mansions (Nakatra). It was only after the transmission of Hellenistic astrology that the
order of planets in India was fixed in that of the seven-day week.[10]:383[11] Hellenistic astrology and astronomy also transmitted the twelve zodiacal signs
beginning with Aries and the twelve astrological places beginning with the ascendant.[10]:384 The first evidence of the introduction of Greek astrology to India is
the Yavanajtaka which dates to the early centuries CE.[10]:383 The Yavanajtaka ("Sayings of the Greeks") was translated from Greek to Sanskrit by
Yavanevara during the 2nd century CE, under the patronage of the Western Satrap Saka king Rudradaman I, and is considered the first Indian astrological
treatise in the Sanskrit language.[12] However the only version that survives is the later verse version of Sphujidhvaja which dates to AD 270.[10]:383 The first
Indian astronomical text to define the weekday was the ryabhaya of ryabhaa (born AD 476).[10]:383

According to Michio Yano, Indian astronomers must have been occupied with the task of Indianizing and Sanskritizing Greek astronomy during the 300 or so
years between the first Yavanajataka and the ryabhaya.[10]:388 The astronomical texts of these 300 years are lost.[10]:388 The later Pacasiddhntik of
Varhamihira summarizes the five known Indian astronomical schools of the sixth century.[10]:388 It is interesting to note that Indian astronomy preserved some
of the older pre-Ptolemaic elements of Greek astronomy.[10]:389

The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are early medieval compilations, notably the Bhat Parara Horstra, and Srval by
Kalyavarma. The Horshastra is a composite work of 71 chapters, of which the first part (chapters 151) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second
part (chapters 5271) to the later 8th century. The Srval likewise dates to around 800 CE.[13] English translations of these texts were published by N.N.
Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961, respectively.

Modern Hindu astrology

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Astrology remains an important facet in the lives of many Hindus. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally named based on their jyotia charts, and
astrological concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and holidays as well as in many areas of life, such as in making decisions made about
marriage, opening a new business, and moving into a new home. Astrology retains a position among the sciences in modern India.[14] Following a judgement of
the Andhra Pradesh High Court in 2001, some Indian universities offer advanced degrees in astrology.[15][16] (The decision was upheld by the Supreme Court of
India in 2004.[17][18])

Astrology remains an important facet of Hindu folk belief in contemporary India. Many Hindus believe that heavenly bodies, including the planets, have an
influence throughout the life of a human being, and these planetary influences are the "fruit of karma." The Navagraha, planetary deities, are considered
subordinate to Ishvara, i.e., the Supreme Being, in the administration of justice. Thus, these planets can influence earthly life.[19]

Status of astrology

The University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government decided to introduce "Jyotir Vigyan" (i.e. jyotir
vijna) or "Vedic astrology" as a discipline of study in Indian universities, saying that "vedic astrology is not only one of the main subjects of our traditional
and classical knowledge but this is the discipline, which lets us know the events happening in human life and in universe on time scale."[20] The decision was
backed up by the Andhra Pradesh High Court, despite widespread protests from the scientific community in India and Indian scientists working abroad.[21] A
petition sent to the Supreme Court of India stated that the introduction of astrology to university curricula is "a giant leap backwards, undermining whatever
scientific credibility the country has achieved so far", but it refused to intervene in the matter.[20]

In 2004 the Supreme Court dismissed a further petition, concluding that the teaching of astrology did not qualify as the promotion of religion.[22][23] In February
2011, the Bombay High Court referred to the 2004 Supreme Court ruling when it dismissed a case which had challenged astrology's status as a science.[24]
Despite continuing complaints by scientists,[25][26] astrology is still, as of 2014, taught at various universities in India,[23][27] and there is a movement in
progress to establish a national Vedic University to teach astrology together with the study of tantra, mantra, and yoga.[28]

Elements
There are sixteen Varga (Sanskrit: varga, 'part, division'), or divisional, charts used in Hindu astrology:[29]:6164

Ri zodiacal signs

Around 2500 BC many extant texts were written by sages such Agastya and Bhrigu. Each sign was divided into three strata called "charna", similar to the
decanates of Western astrology.

The Nirayana, or sidereal zodiac, is an imaginary belt of 360 degrees, which, like the Syana, or tropical zodiac, is divided into 12 equal parts. Each twelfth part
(of 30 degrees) is called a sign or ri (Sanskrit: 'part'). Vedic (Jyotia) and Western zodiacs differ in the method of measurement. While synchronically, the two
systems are identical, Jyotia uses primarily the sidereal zodiac (in which stars are considered to be the fixed background against which the motion of the planets
is measured), whereas most Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac (the motion of the planets is measured against the position of the Sun on the Spring
equinox). This difference becomes noticeable over time. After two millennia, as a result of the precession of the equinoxes, the origin of the ecliptic longitude
has shifted by about 22 degrees. As a result, the placement of planets in the Jyotia system is consistent with the actual zodiac, while in western astrology the
planets fall into the following sign, as compared to their placement in the sidereal zodiac, about two thirds of the time.

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Ruling
Number Sanskrit[30] Transliteration Representation English Kannada Telugu Tamil Malayalam Element Quality Astrological
Body

Chara
1 Mea ram Aries Fire Mars
(Movable)

Sthira
2 Vabha bull Taurus Earth Venus
(Fixed)

Dvisvabhava
3 Mithuna twins Gemini Air Mercury
(Dual)

Chara
4 Karka crab Cancer Water Moon
(Movable)

Sthira
5 Siha lion Leo Fire Sun
(Fixed)

Dvisvabhava
6 Kany virgin girl Virgo Earth Mercury
(Dual)

Chara
7 Tul balance Libra Air Venus
(Movable)

Sthira
8 Vcika scorpion Scorpio Water Mars
(Fixed)

Dvisvabhava
9 Dhanua bow and arrow Sagittarius Fire Jupiter
(Dual)

Chara
10 Makara mountain goat Capricorn Earth Saturn
(Movable)

Sthira
11 Kumbha water-pourer Aquarius Air Saturn
(Fixed)

Dvisvabhava
12 Mna fishes Pisces Water Jupiter
(Dual)

Nakatras - lunar mansions

A Nakatra or lunar mansion is one of the 27 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, used in
Hindu astrology.[29]:168

Historical (medieval) Hindu astrology enumerated either 27 or 28 nakatras. Today, a rigid system of 27 nakatras
covering 1320 of the ecliptic each is generally used. The missing 28th nakshatra is Abhijeeta. Each nakatra is divided
into quarters or padas of 320. Of the greatest importance is the Abhieka Nakatra which is the King amongst all the
Nakatras and worshipping and propitiating this Nakatra has the power to remedy all the other Nakatras. Remedial
measures are in general the high-water mark of all realistic predictive astrology work and go a long way in mitigating Nakshatras
Karma.

Da-s planetary periods

The word Dasha (Devangar: , Sanskrit,da, 'planetary period') means 'state of being' and therefore the Da governs to a large extent the state of being of
a person. The Da system shows which planets may be said to have become particularly active during the period of the Da. The ruling planet (the Dantha
or 'lord of the Da') eclipses the mind of the native, compelling him or her to act as per the nature of the planet.

There are several dasha systems, each with its own utility and area of application. There are Das of Grahas (planets) as well as Das of the Ris (signs). The
primary system used by astrologers is the Viottar Da system, which has been considered universally applicable in the Kaliyuga to all horoscopes.

The first Mah-Da is determined by the position of the natal Moon in a given Nakatra. The lord of the Nakatra governs the Da. Each Mah-D is divided
into sub-periods called bhuktis, or antar-das, which are proportional divisions of the maha-dasa. Further proportional sub-divisions can be made (but error
margin based on accuracy of the birth-time grows exponentially). The next sub-division is called pratyantar-da, which can in turn be divided into sookshma-
antardasa, which can in turn be divided into praana-antarda, which can be sub-divided into deha-antarda. Such sub-divisions also exist in all other Da
systems, some of which have been named above.

Grahas planets

Nine grahas (Navagrahas) are used.[29]:3851 from Graha (Devangar: , Sanskrit: graha, 'seizing, laying hold of, holding')[31]

The Nine Planets of Vedic Astrology or Jyotia are the forces that capture or eclipse the mind and the decision making of the human being-thus the term 'Graha'.
When the Grahas are active in their Das or periodicities they are particularly empowered to direct the affairs of the person or the inanimate being as the case
may be. Even otherwise, Grahas are always busy capturing us in some way or other, for better or for worse.

Gocharas transits

The natal chart shows the position of the grahas at the moment of birth. Since that moment, the grahas have continued to move around the zodiac, interacting
with the natal chart grahas. This period of interaction is called Gochara (Sanskrit: gochara, 'transit').[29]:227

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The study of transits is based not only on the transit of the Moon/ Candra, which spans roughly two days, but also the movement of the slightly faster planets
such as Mercury/Budha and Venus/ ukra. The movement of the slower planets Guru, ani and Rhu-Ketu is always of considerable importance. Astrologers
must study the transit of the Da lord and must also study transits from various reference points in the horoscope.

Yogas planetary combinations

Yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, 'union') is a combination of planets placed in a specific relationship to each other.[29]:265

It is usually advisable to study the underlying theme behind the Yogas rather than attempt to memorize them. Rja Yogas are givers of fame, status and authority
and are formed typically by the association of the Lord of Kedras/ quadrants, when reckoned from the Lagna/ ascendant, and the Lords of the Tkoa/ trines.
The Rja Yogas are culminations of the blessings of Viu and Lakm. Some planets, such as Mars for Leo Lagna, do not need another Graha to create
Rjayoga, but are capable of giving Rjayoga suo-moto due to their own lordship of the 4th Bhva and the 9th Bhva from the Lagna, the two being a Kedra
and Tkoa Bhva respectively.

Dhana Yogas are formed by the association of wealth-giving planets such as the Dhanea or the 2nd Lord and the Lbhea or the 11th Lord from the Lagna.
Dhana Yogas are also formed due to the auspicious placement of the Drpada/ A7, when reckoned from the rha Lagna (AL). The combination of the
Lagnea and the Bhgyea also leads to wealth through the Lakm Yoga.

Sanysa Yogas are formed due to the placement of four or more Grahas, excluding the Sun, in a Kedra Bhva from the Lagna.

There are some overarching Yogas in Jyotia such as Amvasy Doa, Kla Sarpa Yoga-Kla Amta Yoga and Graha Mlika Yoga that can take precedence
oveYamaha yogar planetary placements in the horoscope.

Bhvas houses

The Hindu Jtaka, or Birth Chart, is the Bhva (Sanskrit: 'division') Cakra (Sanskrit: 'wheel'), the complete 360 circle of life, divided into houses, and represents
our way of enacting the influences in the wheel. Each house has associated kraka (Sanskrit: 'significator') planets that can alter the interpretation of a particular
house.[29]:93167Each Bhva spans an arc of 30 degrees and therefore there are twelve Bhvas in any chart of the horoscope. These are a crucial part of any
horoscopic study since the Bhvas, understood as 'state of being' personalize the Ris/ Rashis to the native and each Ri/ Rashi apart from indicating its true
nature reveals its impact on the person based on the Bhva occupied. The best way to study the various facets of Jyotia is to see their role in chart evaluation of
actual persons and how these are construed.

Dis aspects

Drishti (Sanskrit: Di, 'sight') is an aspect to an entire house. Grahas cast only forward aspects, with the furthest aspect being considered the strongest. For
example, Mars aspects the 4th, 7th, and 8th houses from its position, and its 8th house aspect is considered more powerful than its 7th aspect, which is in turn
more powerful than its 4th aspect.[29]:2627

The principle of Dristi (aspect) was devised on the basis of the aspect of an army of planets as deity and demon in a war field.[32][33] Thus the Sun, a Deity King
with only one full aspect, is more powerful than the Demon King Saturn, which has three full aspects.

Aspects can be cast both by the planets (Graha Di) and by the signs (Ri Di). Planetary aspects are a function of desire, while sign aspects are a function of
awareness and cognizance.

There are some higher aspects of Graha Di (planetary aspects) that are not limited to the Viea Di or the special aspects. Ri Di works based on the
following formulaic structure: all movable signs aspect fixed signs except the one adjacent, and all dual and mutable signs aspect each other without exception.

Science
Astrology has been rejected by the scientific community as having no explanatory power for describing the universe. Scientific testing of astrology has been
conducted, and no evidence has been found to support any of the premises or purported effects outlined in astrological traditions.[34]:424 There is no proposed
mechanism of action by which the positions and motions of stars and planets could affect people and events on Earth that does not contradict well understood,
basic aspects of biology and physics.[35][36]:249

Astrologers in Indian astrology make grand claims without taking adequate controls into consideration. Saturn was in Aries in 1909, 1939 and 1968, yet the
astrologer Bangalore Venkata Raman claimed that "when Saturn was in Aries in 1939 England had to declare war against Germany", ignoring the two other
dates.[37] Astrologers regularly fail in attempts to predict election results in India, and fail to predict major events such as the assassination of Indira Gandhi.
Predictions by the head of the Indian Astrologers Federation about war between India and Pakistan in 1982 also failed.[37]

In 2000, when several planets happened to be close to one another, astrologers predicted that there would be catastrophes, volcanic eruptions and tidal waves.
This caused an entire sea-side village in the Indian state of Gujarat to panic and abandon their houses. Nothing predicted happened and their houses were
burgled.[38]

Testing astrology

In one test, 27 Indian astrologers, with the appropriate horoscopes, failed to determine the intelligence difference between 100 mentally bright and 100 mentally
handicapped children at a rate higher than that determined by chance alone in a double blind test. The astrologers had, on average, 14 years experience. A team
of astrologers from one astrologers institute also performed at chance expectation. The president of the Maharashtra Astrological Society claimed to be able to
predict sex and intelligence 60 per cent of the time each, but he performed no better than chance in double blind conditions.[37]

See also
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Archaeoastronomy and Vedic chronology
Hindu calendar
Hindu cosmology
History of astrology
Indian astronomy
Jyotisha
Jyotia resources
Nadi astrology
Panchanga
Superstition in India
Synoptical astrology
Hindu units of measurement

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Science Foundation. Retrieved 28 July 2012. "About three-fourths
of Americans hold at least one pseudoscientific belief; i.e., they
believed in at least 1 of the 10 survey items[29]" ..." Those 10
items were extrasensory perception (ESP), that houses can be
haunted, ghosts/that spirits of dead people can come back in
certain places/situations, telepathy/communication between minds
without using traditional senses, clairvoyance/the power of the
mind to know the past and predict the future, astrology/that the
position of the stars and planets can affect people's lives, that
people can communicate mentally with someone who has died,
witches, reincarnation/the rebirth of the soul in a new body after
death, and channeling/allowing a "spirit-being" to temporarily
assume control of a body."

Bibliography
Kim Plofker, "South Asian mathematics; The role of astronomy and astrology", Encyclopdia Britannica (online edition, 2008)
David Pingree and Robert Gilbert, "Astrology; Astrology In India; Astrology in modern times", Encyclopdia Britannica (online edition, 2008)
"Hindu Chronology" (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Hindu_Chronology) Encyclopdia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911)
David Pingree, "Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran", Isis Journal of The History of Science Society (1963), 229246.
David Pingree, Jyotistra in J. Gonda (ed.) A History of Indian Literature, Vol VI, Fasc 4, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden (1981).
Ebenezer Burgess, "On the Origin of the Lunar Division of the Zodiac represented in the Nakshatra System of the Hindus", Journal of the American
Oriental Society (1866).
William D. Whitney, "On the Views of Biot and Weber Respecting the Relations of the Hindu and Chinese Systems of Asterisms"", Journal of the
American Oriental Society (1866).
Satish Chandra, "Religion and State in India and Search for Rationality", Social Scientist (2002).
Sanat Kumar Jain, "Astrology a science or myth" highlighting how every principle like signlord, aspect, friendship-enmity, exalted-debilitated, Mool
trikon, dasha, Rahu-Ketu, etc. were framed on the basis of the ancient concept that Sun is nearer than the Moon from the Earth, etc.

External links
Hindu astrology (https://dmoztools.net/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Divination/Astrology/Vedic) at DMOZ

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