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The maximum bending moment, M* and shear force, V* acting on the slab is determined using

matrix analysis with the assistance of Microsoft Excel. During the analysis, the slab width is taken to

be 1m width between axis 2 and 3. The calculated matrix analysis is then compared with the figures

obtained from Spacegass software. The table below summarizes the loadings calculated before

which is used during matrix analysis.

3.0000

Superimposed Live Load (kN/m)

1.0000

Superimposed Dead Load (kN/m)

3.8400

Slab self-weight (kN/m)

10.3080

Ultimate Limit State Load (kN/m)

6.9400

Service Limit State Load (kN/m)

27000.0000

Elastic Modulus of Slab,E (MPa)

0.0003

Second Moment of Slab,I (m4)

Assumption:

Slab will carry its self-weight, superimposed live load and superimposed dead load

Cantilever length = 0.1m

Secondary beam act as roller, cut in mid-span act as fixed support

Only half span of the slabs is considered for analysis during hand calculation as the structure is

symmetrical.

EI/L^3

Element Length (m) (kN/m)

AB 0.1000 9.2160

BC 2.2667 0.0008

CD 2.2667 0.0008

DE 2.2667 0.0008

EF 2.4000 0.0007

FG 2.4000 0.0007

GH 2.4000 0.0007

Total length 14.1000

2) The equivalent force, {Peq} is calculatedfor each element then the forces in each element

are sum up to find {Pk} for the degree of freedom present only.

3) The element stiffness matrix for each element is generated.

4) The structural Stiffness matrix, K is generated from element stiffness matrix.

5) The displacement, Uu for each degree of freedom is determined using the following

relationship where {Uu}={Pk} x {K}-1

6) The Reaction force for each element is determined then sum together to find the reaction

force in each support then subtract the UDL load acting on the slab.

7) Shear force diagram and Bending moment diagram for slab is generated from the reaction

force calculated.

For hand calculation, the matrix analysis is done in Microsoft Excel as per describe in the step taken

above. The screenshot of the spreadsheet for steps taken can be found in Appendix XX

The shear force diagram and bending moment diagram are shown below in Figure xx and Figure xx

20.0000

15.0000

10.0000

5.0000

0.0000

0.0000 5.0000 10.0000 15.0000 20.0000 25.0000 30.0000

-5.0000

-10.0000

-15.0000

-20.0000

8.0000

6.0000

4.0000

2.0000

0.0000

0.0000 5.0000 10.0000 15.0000 20.0000 25.0000 30.0000

-2.0000

-4.0000

-6.0000

Spacegass result

N* (kN) 14.1304 14.1000

M* (kNm) 5.6002 5.6000

Based on table XX, it is found that both method agrees with each other with minor decimal error due

to rounding off.

The section moment capacity is calculated in accordance to section 5.2 in AS4100.

Where

= Capacity Factor

The effective section modulus is calculated based on the type of section: compact, non-compact or

slender section. To determine which type of section it belongs, the section slenderness is determine

by evaluating the plasticity limit, yield limit and deformation limit based on the criteria in Table 5.2,

AS 4100. It is assumed that the type of section for our beam is compact section where section

slenderness, s < plasticity slenderness, sp .

The equation used to calculate the compact section are as followed:

= min[, 1.5]

Where

The yield stress, Fy has been determined earlier from BHP table based on the type of beam (universal

beam) and its dimension (530UB82.0).

The member capacity of segment is determined by the amount of restraint to resist lateral buckling

when the beam undergo deflection about its major axis. Lateral buckling depends on the shape of

section (b/t), yield stress (fy), beam span (L), boundary condition and cross section type for beam.

The beam design is assumed to have no full lateral restraint as a conservative approach.

For member capacity of segment without full lateral restraint, the calculation is done in accordance

to section 5.6, AS4100. Since the segment of our beam has constant cross section, the nominal

member capacity (Mb) is calculated as follows:

=

Where

1.7

= 2.5

[ (2 )2 + (3 )3 + (4 )2 ]

Where

M*m = maximum design bending moment in the segment

M*2, M*4 = design bending moments at the quarter points of the segment

M*3 = design bending moment at the midpoint of the segment

The slenderness reduction factor, s is calculated using the following equation:

2

= 0.6 [[( ) + 3] ( )]

Where

Moa = reference buckling moment

The reference buckling moment, Moa is determined as follows:

2 2

[( 2 ) [ + ( 2 )]

Where

E, G = Elastic moduli

Iy, J, and Iw = section constants

le = effective length (m)

The effective length of a beam depends on the restraint condition in each end whether it has

fully restraint (connections: beam to column), laterally restraint (secondary beam comes

into primary), partially restraint or unrestrained. This will determine the relevant factors and

the length of segment in a beam. The restraint condition at each end is taken to be FF with

no lateral restraint on both end.

The effective length (le) of a segment or sub-segment is determined as follows:

=

where

kt = twist restraint factor

kl = load height factor

kr = lateral rotation restraint factor

l = segment length (m)

During the preliminary stage of beam selection, rules of thumb applies where the span to depth

ratio of the beam (L/d) is used to estimate the size of beam. The slab is continuous and has a

cantilever span, therefore the L/d ratio adopted is 15 (which is in between 28 and 10).

8000

= = 533.3

15

For primary beam 2:

6800

= = 453.3

15

Table XX Results summary for different beam size where Mb needs to be more than M*

There are two design requirement for portal frame: Determine the rafter size and column size.

The value of M* and N* has been calculated earlier using spacegass, the critical load case will be

used to test against the member for rafter and column. There are several assumptions made to ease

the calculation process and they are as followed:

2) Building is effectively sealed and having non-opening windows.

3) Braced frame for portal frame.

4) Pin-support at the bottom.

5) No hunch (as conservative approach).

The primary beam size used after primary beam calculation is 460UB67.1 and this is used to check

against the design action M* and serviceability where the vertical deflection < total length/250.

The deflection limit is as followed: 30.4/250=121.6mm

For serviceability: G+W and G+0.7Q

Where

G = dead load

W= wind load

Q = live load

After checking using spacegass, it is found that the beam size of 460UB67.1 pass the strength check

but failed the deflection check, therefore the size of the beam is revised to 460UB82.1 to meet both

criteria.

Results Summary

Table XX: Results summary for rafter checking

Column design

The column is tested against the design action of N* and M* calculated earlier.

Composite floor comprises of a concrete topping cast onto metal decking. This metal deck will act as

a framework for the concrete, eliminating the need for props and helps mainly in tension

reinforcement for slabs. There are there metal sheeting manufacturers in Australia: Condeck HP,

Bondek II and Conform. Taking a conservative approach, only Condeck HP metal sheeting is

considered as it has the lowest yield point (lowest ysh value). For one way slab, there are 2 important

parameters used to evaluate the composite floor slab which are maximum positive and negative

bending moment. It is then check for serviceability limit state of slab design to ensure deflection of

slab is at acceptable range.

The loads acting on the slab is in the form of uniform distributed load, where superimposed live load

and dead load are 3kn/m and 1kn/m respectively. The self-weight of slab is approximately 3.84

kN/m which leads to a total dead load of 4.84 kN/m. The factored load for ultimate limit state is

calculated to be 10.3kN/m.

The maximum positive and negative bending moment is taken from matrix analysis for continuous

slab, the value is shown in the table below:

Table XX Maximum positive and negative bending moment for composite slab

Bending Moment, M* kNm

Positive 5.6002

Negative 4.0848

Sheeting properties

fsy.sh = 550MPa

hr = 55m

ysh= 12.8mm

Hr = 210kPa

= 0.5

After several iteration in excel for all models, the metal sheeting with thickness of 0.75mm is chosen

for our composite slab design. The properties of condeck hp panel is obtained from Figure xx

The bending moment capacity for ultimate limit state of composite slab (positive bending moment)

is calculated using the following equation:

0.5

(+) =

0.85

Where

= capacity factor

ysh = height at which the sheeting tensile force acts above the bottom of the slab

In this equation, all parameters are predetermined except the tensile force in the sheeting. There

are 3 possibilities for Tsh at failure

a) The sheeting yield: = . flexural failure

b) The concrete crush: = ( ) flexural failure

c) The sheeting slips: = ( ) longitudinal slip failure

Where

Hr = mechanical resistance

= coefficient of friction

The sheeting yield 666.05 kN

The concrete crush 2856.00 kN

The sheeting slips 251.25 kN

After calculation using excel, the critical tensile failure is sheeting slip failure. The positive bending

moment capacity is then calculated using equation xx and it is found that Mu(+ve) = 33.28kNm which

meets the criteria of Mu > M*.

() = . ( ) 1.0

1.7

Where

= capacity factor

The calculation process are as followed for obtaining negative moment capacity:

( )2

= 0.2

Where

fcf = 0.6 x sqrt(fc)

2) Find depth of steel reinforcement, d using the following equation:

=

Assume concrete cover= 25mm and Radius of bar =5mm (Y10)

3) Find Minimum area of steel reinforcement required, Ast.min using the following

equation:

. =

Where

b= Slab thickness

4) Find the area of each bar (Y10), Abar then find out the number of bars required using

the following equation:

.

=

Where

Abar = d2/4 (d = diameter of bar)

Nb = Number of bars

The number of bars calculated is rounded up to the nearest whole number.

5) The Area of reinforcement, Ast.new is recalculated based on number of bars calculated

after rounded up using the following equation:

. =

6) Pnew. is calculated based on Ast.new using the following equation:

.

=

7) Finally, calculate negative moment capacity of slab using equation 1.0.

For negative bending moment check, the contribution of strength from metal sheet to

composite slab is ignored as a conservative approach. A table summary comprising the

calculated parameters to obtain the negative moment capacity is generated below:

Table XX: Table summary of negative moment capacity parameters

pmin 0.0035

Depth of steel reinforcement, d 130.0000 mm

Minimum area of steel reinforcement, Ast.min 460.3003 mm2

Number of bars, Nb (rounded up) 6.0000

New area of steel reinforcement, Ast.new 471.2389 mm2

pnew 0.0036

Negative moment capacity, Mu 21.4662 kNm

Discussion

The calculated negative bending moment, Mu(-ve) and positive bending moment, Mu(-ve) is

higher than the design bending moment, M* which indicate that our design is safe for

ultimate limit state of composite slab. All calculation in this section can be found in

Appendix 9.1 and Appendix 9.2. In the following section 9.3, serviceability check is

conducted for composite slab.

In serviceability check, the span to depth ratio is calculated and needs to be greater than the actual

value of the beam for SLS as per standards, AS3600.

1/3

( )

= 3 4 [ ]

.

Where

= 1.05 for a two-way flat slab with drop panels, which extend at least L/6 in each

direction on each side of a support centre-line and have an overall depth not less

than 1.3D, where D is the slab thickness beyond the drops

b. For continuous slabs, where in adjoining spans the ratio of the longer span

to the shorter span does not exceed 1.2 and where no end span is longer

than an interior span

(i) 2.0 in an end span; or

(ii) 2.4 in interior spans

Fdef = load per metre, including allowance for shrinkage and creep

= (1.0 + kcs)g + (s + kcs 1)q = [2 1.2 ( )] 0.8

Methodology

Based on Table 2.3.2 in AS 3600 /Lef is found to be 1/250 (suitable for all type of member,

deflection considered: total deflection, and deflection limitation is for span)

= 1.05 for a two-way flat slab with drop panels, which extend at least L/6 in each

direction on each side of a support centre-line and have an overall depth not less

than 1.3D, where D is the slab thickness beyond the drops

K4 = the deflection constant, which may be taken as

b. For continuous slabs, where in adjoining spans the ratio of the longer span

to the shorter span does not exceed 1.2 and where no end span is longer

than an interior span

(i) 2.0 in an end span; or

(ii) 2.4 in interior spans

Fdef = load per metre, including allowance for shrinkage and creep

= (1.0 + kcs)g + (s + kcs 1)q = [2 1.2 ( )] 0.8

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