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Heat Treatment

1. Heat Treatment is possible due to Eutectoid Reaction

2. All Heat Treatment involves transformation of Austenite.
3. Slow Cooling Rates result into Pearlite formation.
4. Rapid Cooling Rates result into Martensite formation.
5. Full Annealing completely stabilizes the ferrite structure.
6. ProCess Annealing improves Cold working characteristics.

a. used in Wire and Sheet industries

b. done at the lower limit of transformation range
c. doesnt involve Phase Change

7. Stress Relieving does not affect Metallurgical structure of Casting [IMP]

8. Stress Relieving temperature is usually 0.3-0.4 times Melting Temperature
9. Hypoeutectoid Steel is the steel having carbon percentage less than 0.8%
10. Hypereutectoid Steel is the steel having carbon percentage more than 0.8%
11. Full Annealing steel is heated till Austenizing temperature and allowed to cool
down slowly in a furnace or a good insulating surface
12. Austenizing Temperature of Hypoeutectoid steel is 723C to 910C
13. Austenizing Temperature of Hypereutectoid steel is 723C to 1130C
14. The holding time depends upon the thickness of diameter ~ 2.3<->3 times per
mm thickness
15. Slow Cooling decomposes Austenite to
a. Pearlite + Ferrite : Hypoeutectoid Steel
b. Pearlite + Cementite : Hypereutectoid Steel
16. Normalizing (Air Quenching) : Steel is heated 40-50C above critical
temperature and cooled down in still air
a. Rate of cooling is faster than Annealing
b. No extended soaking periods
c. Type of structure depends upon the thickness of the cross section
d. Thin sections produce fine grains and vice versa
e. Structure :
i. Pearlite : Eutectoid Steel
ii. Pearlite + Ferrite : Hypoeutectoid Steel
iii. Pearlite + Cementite : Hypereutectoid Steel
17. Hardening : Heat treatment of steel which increases its hardness by Quenching

a. Can only be done for heat treatable steel having carbon percentage more than
0.3%, Graphite and alloy cast iron
b. Best results are obtained for Steel having Carbon Percentage 0.35%-
c. Tools and machine parts are hardened.
d. Procedure
i. Steel is heated 30C to 50C above A3 line
ii. Steel is held Temperature from 15 to 30 mins per 25mm of cross-
iii. Cooled Rapidly or Quenched in suitable medium
18. Adding Alloying elements increases the hardening depth this is because it slows
down the transformation rate.
19. Hardness : Auestenite < Pearlite < Martensite
20. Specific Heat : The heat required to raise the temperature by one degree per unit
21. Quenching :
a. Quenching medium must provide for cooling rate above the critical value to
prevent austenite decomposition into Pearlite
b. Water is used for Plain Carbon Steel. Oil for Alloy Steel
22. Tempering : [imp] :
a. Tempering id one after Quench Hardening process. Because QH produces
Maternsite and retain Austenite. Both cause the steel to be brittle and highly
23. Tempering Procedure :
a. Heat the hardened steel below lower critical temperature
b. Heat it for 3-5 mins for each mm thickness or diameter
c. Cooling the steel either rapidly or slowly depending upon the steel is
susceptible to Temper Brittleness
24. Temper Brittleness :
a. The notch impact inter granular brittleness
b. Some steel by slow cooling above about 600C
c. In tough material between 400C to 550C
25. Tempering Stages :
When fresh Martensite is heated below the lower critical temperature it
becomes softer and more ductile and internal stresses are relieved

a. Stage 1 : 150C - 177C Only a little Change

b. Stage 2 : 177C - 370C Retained Austenite changes to Bainite
o Carbon from Martensite Combines to finely
dispersed particles of cementite
c. Stage 3 : 288C - 700C Structure becomes an aggregate of Cementite +
Ferrite also known as Tempered marten site and
Tempered Bainite

26. Types of Tempering

a. Low Temperature Tempering
i. 150-250C
ii. Cutting Tools of CS, Low Alloy Steel and to Surface hardened and
Carburized steel
b. Medium Temperature Tempering
i. 350-450C
ii. %Elongation increases, hardness/strength decreases
iii. Highest Elastic limit is achieved
iv. Springs, Coils etc
c. High Temperature Tempering
i. 150-250C
ii. Eliminates all internal stresses
iii. High Ductility and Hardness
iv. Shafts, Gears, Rods

Testing of Materials