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DATA COMMUNICATION LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT #2: Packet Tracer Introduction Lab. Part 2-Learning to Use Packet Tracer

Objectives:

Develop an understanding of the basic functions of Packet Tracer.


Observe ARP broadcasts and pings (ICMP packets).
Configure switch and router.

Procedure A: View ARP Tables on each PC

a) Open the Ethernet network configured in experiment 1. Replace the hub by a generic
switch but do not wire it with the PCs. Drag the cursor to the generic switch and observe
the Port Status Summary Table.

Diagram A-1. Port Status Summary Table

The Port Status Summary Table also contains IP address and MAC address unlike that of
a Hubs Port Status Summary Table.

b) Select the switch and chose the Physical tab and then add two modules. You may choose
any modules to be added. Again, drag the cursor into the generic switch and observe
the changes in the Port Status Summary Table

Diagram A-2. Port Status Summary Table

Two ports has been added to the Port Status Summary Table
c) Wire the generic switch to the PCs thru FastEthernet 0/1 up to 0/2.

Diagram A-3. Switch connected to two generic End-system

Since switch is a full duplex, end stations are set to full duplex

d) Repeat procedure C of experiment 1. Observe the simulation on the work space and in
the Event List.

Diagram A-4. Event List

First, the switch does a multicast. It broadcasts the ARP to all end stations. Then once
the ARP reaches its rightful destination it keeps it to its ARP table for a short period of
time. The switch will then do a unicast. The ICMP from PC-A will go directly to PC-C.
Observations:
1. Compare the Port Status Summary Table of hub to the switch. Why does the switch
have a MAC address on each port?

Diagram A-I. Port Status Summary Table of Hub

Diagram A-II. Port Status Summary Table of Hub

o The purpose of a switch keeping MAC addresses in its table is for the direction
of traffic. Initially, a switch creates an entry in its MAC address table. This is
performed by flooding. As the information flows again to the switch, it will
create a new entry in its MAC address table and will perform a unicast for the
succeeding transmissions.
2. Compare how the envelope travels from one PC into another using a switch. Compare
it to a hub.
o HUB: when using a Hub, the envelope is always broadcasted regardless of the
situation. Even when the ARP table of the destination has been updated, it will
still perform multicast.
o SWITCH: A switch will initially perform a multicast. This is to create entries in its
Mac address table. Once this is done, a switch will be able to perform unicast in
its succeeding transmission.
Procedure B: Adding and configuring routers

a) In the Network Component Box, click on the router. Select an 1841 router. Drag the
cursor to the router and observe the Port Status Summary Table.
b) Click on the router to bring up the Configuration Window. This window has three modes:
Physical, Config, and CLI (Physical is the default mode).

Diagram B-1. Configuration Window of Router

c) In the Physical mode, click on the router power switch to turn the device off. Select the
WIC-2T module and drag it to Slot 0 on the router. Then drag a WIC Cover to Slot 1.
Power the device back on.
NOTE:
Slot 0 is the one near to the switch button of the router.

Diagram B-2. Configuration Window of Router


d) Click on the Network Component Box and select Connections. Then select a Copper
Straight-through connection to connect the router to the switch. Click on the switch
and choose FastEthernet 0/3. Then click on the router and choose interface
FastEthernet 0/0.

Diagram B-3. Network connections

e) Click on the Config mode tab of Router0 to begin configuring the device. After the device
has finished booting, change the display name of the router to CISCO_1. Changing the
display name does not affect the configuration.
NOTE:
If the device hangs up in the booting process, save the activity. Then close the
application and reopen the file.

Diagram B-4. Configuration mode tab of CISCO_1


f) Click on the Hostname field and type CISCO_1, then press the TAB key. Note the
equivalent IOS command is entered in the lower portion of the window.

Diagram B-5. Configuration mode tab of CISCO_1

g) Click on interface FastEthernet 0/0 and assign the IP address 192.168.1.1, then press
the TAB key. Click on the Port Status to On to enable the port (no shutdown).

Diagram B-6. Configuration mode tab of CISCO_1


Observations:
1. What is the function of the Physical, Config, and CLI found in the router?
o Physical is where the components of the router can be seen. This tab allows us
to configure the router physically like adding modules and such. It also contains
the switch of the router.
o Config is where we can access the settings, algorithm settings, routing, switching
and the different ports of the router. In the interface, we can configure the ports
of the router. In here, we can configure the IP and change the duplex.
o The Command Line Interface allows the user to directly execute Cisco IOS
commands to the device where in this case a router.

2. What information does the equivalent IOS command gives?


o Equivalent IOS commands contains commands that can be used as an equivalent
to that of an actual IOS. Using either of the two will result to the same result as
of the other.

Procedure C: Configuring the WAN link and set the default gateway on the PCs

a) Make a copy of the CISCO_1 router and rename it as CISCO_2.

Diagram C-1. CISCO_2 ROUTER

b) Click on the Network Component Box and select Connections. Then select the Serial
DCE connection. Click on the CISCO_1 router and connect to the Serial 0/0/0 interface.
Click on the new router (CISCO_2) and connect to the Serial 0/0/0 interface.

Diagram C-2. CISCO_2 ROUTER


c) Click on the CISCO_1 router and select the Config mode and select interface Serial
0/0/0. Configure the interface Serial 0/0/0 with the IP address 192.168.2.1, then press
the TAB key. Set the clock rate to 56000 and click the Port Status to On to enable the
port (no shutdown).

Diagram C-3. Configuration mode tab of CISCO_1

d) Click on the CISCO_2 and select the Config mode. Change Hostname to CISCO_2 and
then configure the interface Serial 0/0/0 with the IP address 192.168.2.2, then press
the TAB key. Click the Port Status to On to enable the port (no shutdown).
NOTE:
The link lights on the serial link should change from red to green to indicate the link is
active.

Diagram C-4. Configuration mode tab of CISCO_2


e) Click on the CISCO_1 router and select the Config Tab. Click on RIP and add the network
address 192.168.1.0 and 192.168.2.0. Click on the CISCO_2 router and select the
Config tab then click on RIP and add the network address 192.168.2.0.

Diagram C-5. Configuration mode tab of CISCO_2 and CISCO_1


f) Go to each PC and set the Default Gateway to 192.168.1.1 by selecting the PC (i.e., PC-
A, PC-B, PC-C) and accessing the Config tab.

Diagram C-6. Configuration mode tab of PC-A, PC-C, and PC-B

g) Click on the Simulation mode. Select a Simple PDU and click on PC-A as the source,
then click on CISCO_2 as the destination. The ping should be successful.

Diagram C-4. Simulation


Observations:
1. What is the difference in having a copy of the device configured already (i.e.,
procedure C-a) in the workspace to the one drag from the network component box?
o A copied device is an exact copy of the original device. In a sense that, even the
configurations of the original device is copied and is present at the copied device.
Dragging a device from the component box will give the user a new device that
hasnt been configured.
2. Why routing protocol is needed to configured (procedure C-e)?
o It is needed in order for a connection to be establish between the devices and the
router.
3. What is the use of RIP in the network?
o The use of Routing Information Protocol is to prevent routing loops. This is done
by an implementation of a limit on the number of hops that is allowed from a
source to a destination.
4. Is the theoretical analysis on transfer of data between PC-AA and CISCO_2
observable? Why.
o Yes it is. In the simulation, it can be seen how PC-AA transfers a data to CISCO_2.
It is shown that with the help of a router, the data has been transferred to another
router wirelessly.
5. What is the meaning, in example, of /24 in the IP address?
o /24 is a subnet. If the subnetis a /8, /16, /24 and /32, it means that it is classfull
while the remaining ones are classless.