FORGING PROCESSES – OPEN, IMPRESSION AND CLOSED DIE

FORGING
FORGING DEFINITION:
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized
compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die.
Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to hundreds of metric tons.
Forging has been done by smiths for millennia; the traditional products
were kitchenware, hardware, hand tools, edged weapons, and jewellery.
Since the Industrial Revolution, forged parts are widely used in mechanisms and machines
wherever a component requires high strength; such forgings usually require further processing
(such as machining) to achieve a finished part.
OPEN DIE FORGING
Open die forging is the process of deforming a piece of metal between multiple dies that do
not completely enclose the material.
The metal is altered as the dies “hammer” or “stamp” the material through a series of
movements until the desired shape is achieved.
Products formed through open forging often need secondary machining and refining to
achieve the tolerances required for the finished specifications.
Open die forging is often used for short run forgings of parts that are simple, rather than
complex, in design, such as discs, rings, sleeves, cylinders and shafts.
Custom shapes can also be produced with open die forging.
The repeated working of the material through the deformation process increases the strength
of the grain structure.
Some additional benefits of open die forging include improved fatigue resistance and
strength.
Open die forging also reduces voids.
CLOSED DIE