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 Formability is the ability of a given metal workpiece to undergo plastic
deformation without being damaged.
 The plastic deformation capacity of metallic materials, however, is limited to a certain
extent, at which point, the material could experience tearing or fracture (breakage).
 Sheet metal may undergo two basic modes of deformation (a) Stretching (b) Drawing
 There are important distinction between these two modes and different parameters
involved in determining formability under these different conditions.


 Anisotropy is an important factor in sheet metal forming. Anisotropy is the directional
variation of mechanical properties.
 In other words, the material will react differently to stress applied in one direction
than it would to the same stress applied in a different direction.
 If a sheet is isotropic, then its properties are the same in any direction.
 Cupping tests can be used to determine anisotropy.
 If the fracture occurring due to the applied force through the round ball is circular,
then the sheet is isotropic.
 If a straight fracture occurs, this means that the sheet is anisotropic.

(b) confined method of explosive bulging of tubes. o Applications of tube-hydroformed parts include automotive exhaust and structural components. long fatigue life and resistance to damage by burrs or sharp edges of the sheet blank. bicycle frames. as shown in the following Figure. the female die is replaced with a rubber pad. o Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die. (b) Example of tube-hydroformed parts. steel or other metal tubing is formed in a die and pressurized by a fluid.  TUBE-HYDROFORMING PROCESS o In tube hydroforming. Automotive exhaust and structural components.  EXPLOSIVE FORMING PROCESS o Explosive energy used as metal forming Sheet-metal blank is clamped over a die Assembly is immersed in a tank with water Rapid conversion of explosive charge into gas generates a shock wave. In bending and embossing sheet metal by the rubber forming method. such as a rubber or polyurethane membrane. o Parts can also be formed with laminated sheets of various nonmetallic material or coatings. one of the dies in a set is made of flexible material. and hydraulic and pneumatic fittings are produced through tube hydroforming. . o The pressure of this wave is sufficient to form sheet metals (a) explosive forming process. o Polyurethanes are used widely because of their resistance to abrasion. (a) Schematic illustration of the tube-hydroforming process. AN INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL FORMING PROCESSES  RUBBER FORMING o In rubber forming . o This procedure can form simple tubes or it can form intricate hollow tubes.