BRITISH SCHOOL O F ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT TWENTY-THIRD YEAR, 1917

PREHISTORIC EGYPT
ILLUSTRATED BY OVER 1,000OBJECTS I N UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON
BY

W. M. F L I N D E R S P E T R I E
HON.
D.C.L., LL.D., D.LIT.,
F.R.S., F.B.A., M.R.I.A.

LONDON BRITISH SCHOOL O F ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, GOWER STREET, W.C.
AND

BERNARD QUARITCH,

11

GRAFTON S T R E E T , NEW BOND STREET, W.
1920

BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT
PATRON:

F+-M. VISCOUNT ALLENBY, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.

GENElr'AZ COMMITTEE (*Executive Mernkrs)
Lord ABERCROMBY HENRY BALPOUR Xev. Dr. T. G. BONNEY Prof. R. C. BOSANQUET Rt. Hon. VISCOUNT BRYCEOF DECHMONT *Prof. J. B. BURY *SOMERS CLARKE CLODD EDWARD Sir W. BOYD DAWKINS Prof. Sir S. DILL *Miss ECKENSTEIN Sir GREGORY FOSTER FRAZER Sir JAMES *Prof. ERNEST GARDNER Prof. PERCY GARDNER Rt. Hon. Sir GEORGE GOLDIE T. Dr. GOWLAND Mrs. J. R. GREEN GRENFELL Rt. Hon. F.-M. LORD Mrs. F. LL. GRIFFITH Dr. A. C. HADDON Dr. JESSEHAWORTH Rev. Dr. A. C. HEADLAM D. G. HOGARTH *BASILHOLMES Sir HENRY HOWORTH H. Baron A. YON HUOEL Prof. A. S. HUNT Mrs. C. H. W. JOHNS Sir HENRY MIERS

J. G. MILNE ROBERT MOND Prof. MONTAGUE WALTER MORRISON *Miss M. A. MURRAY P. E. NEWBERKY F. W. PERCIVAL Dr. PINCHES Dr. G. W. PROTHERO Dr. G. A. REISNER Sir WILLIAM RICHMOND Prof. F. W. RIDGEWAY Mrs. STRONG Lady TIRARD E. TOWRY WHYTE

Honorary Treasurer-*H. SEFTON-JONES Honorary Director-Prof. FLINDERS PETRIE Honorary Secretary-Mrs. H. F. PETRIE

AMERICAN BRANCH

THE EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT
President PH.D. JAMES HENRY BREASTED, PH.D., Sc.D., LL.D. WILLIAM HOLLAND, J. EDMUND JAMES, J. PH.D., LL.D. F. W. SHIPLEY, PH.D. Vice-Presidents CHARLES THWING, F. D.D., LL.D. BENJAMIN WHEELER, IDE PH.D., L.H.D,, LL.D WILLIAM COPLEY TVINSLOW, PH.D., L.H.D., LL.D.

f i n . Secretary Prof. MITCHELL CARROLL, PH.D. Uon. Treasurer Rev. WILLIAM WINSLOW, C. D.D.

F. X X X TOOLS AND WEAPONS. 43 plates. by GUYBRUNTON. MURRAY. PETRIE. 1g11. FLINDERS PETRIEand J. by W. by K. MACKAY. 24 coloured plates. WALKER. XXII. by W.B. MEYDUM AND MEMPHIS (III). A. lgoo. PETRIE. F. M. ( I n preparation. 25s. by L. 63s. 1 ~ 8 by W.) XX. by F. 1903. F.--. HARAGEH . 1 XXVII. PETRIE. 1901. London. MURRAYand GUROB. 1912. 58 plates. 35 plates. V. GARSTANG. HISTORICAL STUDIES. 35s. HILDA PETRIE. KNOBEL. XXIV. net. WAINWRIGHT. PETRIEand J. 25s. (Out of print. obtainable in joint volume NAQADA AND RA1.) and VIII. (Out of print. LAHUN I. RIQQEH AND MEMPHIS VI. by J. F. 62 plates. F. XXVI. GIZEH AND RIFEH. 25s. photographic). by W. SCARABS AND CYLINDERS. E. net. 1907. lgog. XXVIII. and 25s. M. TARKHAN 1 . F. by W. HELIOPOLIS I AND KAFR AMMAR. (Out of print. F. net. GARSTANG KURT SETHE. 1909. G.) 50s.C. 1909. THE PALACE OF APRIES (MEMPHIS II). at the Edward Library. 1895. P. 1914. XXI. net.) XVII. by J. by J. 1912.) 1 XII. nd. THE PYRAMID. ENGELBACH. 72 plates. by W.M. PETRIE. PETRIE. HYKSOS AND ISRAELITE CITIES. 25s. or Two Guineas for the Two Annual Volumes. by J. XVI. 25s. 25s. ST. PREHISTORIC EGYPT. E. M . net. QUIBELL. ATHRIBIS. 25s.E. J. FLINDERS . 64 plates. 54 plates. EL ARABAH. net. 30s. XI. G. XXV. 1896. 1910. 25s. 39 plates (4 coloured and 20 1 . M. H . GEORGE CAULFEILD. 76 plates. net. 1915.. WALKER. M. F. VI. 16s. 45s. by W. 25s. 23 plates (coloured). net. by W. by W. 56 plates. M. F. FLINDERSPETRIE. 40 plates. ROMAN PORTRAITS (MEMPHIS IV). THE LABYRINTH AND GERZEH. 50s. by W. by W. WALKER E. LOAT. Gower Street. PETRIE. PREHISTORIC POTTERY OF EGYPT. THE TREASURE. 1913.) XXIX. XXXII. where also copirs of the abowr works can be obtained. net. H. (Out of print. 37 plates. ii. 1911 . PETRIE. net. M. 35 plates. QURNEH. net. MAHASNA.) with 109 plates.) 24 IX. P ~ ~ T R I E . . WAINWRIGHT. vol. F. F.) 1 Subscriptions of One Guinea for the Annual Single Volumes. M. E. are received by the Ron. 1916. net. 1913: by W. 20s. . by MARGARET MURRAY. 1906. by J. 1910. H. Secretary. 47 plates. 58 plates. (Out of print. A. M. and W. text by W. by R. PETRIE. E. M. PORTFOLIO OF HAWARA PORTRAITS. by W. GARROW DUNCAN. TEMPLE OF THE KINGS. net. 1904 . QUIBELL. 1902. M. XXXI. (Out of print. ( I n preparation. 32s. FLINDERS PETRIE and J. ENGELBACH. 1917. W. net. MEMPHIS I. XIII.. net. 25s. 1908.PUBLICATIONS OF THE EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT AND BRITISH -- SCHOOL O F ARCHAEOLOGY I N EGYPT I. net. 1897. by A. M. net. PETRIE. by W. 1899. HIERAKONPOLIS 1 . 1. Universily College. QUIBELL. (This latter is out of print. IV. 4 3 plates. F.. (Studies.LAS. H. M. 73 plates. M. net. E and 52 plates 25s.) VII. net. THE RAMESSEUM. (Out of print. 40 plates. PETRIE. net. 53 plates. In double volume XIV. 25s. by W. PETRIE. THE OSIREION. M. M. F. HIERAKONPOLIS I. LAHUN 1 . and XV. X. net. 11. 1898. 35s. . net.) 1 1 EL KAB. M. F. In double volume with 03 plates. F. SAQQARA MASTABAS I. XXIII. net. PETRIE. TARKHAN I AND MEMPHIS V. net. 25 plates. A.by M. XIX. 40 plates. net.( I n prepardtion. SAQQARA MASTABAS 1 . XVIII. 25s. plates. PETRIEand J. WALKER. 16s. BALLAS. GREEN and J. M. M. QUIBELL. bv W. 43 plates. by W. ) -. 25s. 81 plates. by HILDAPETRIE. MACKAY. W .

6 39. . CHAPTER V THE WHITE CROSS-LINED POTTERY I . Ivory Date . 34. Date and examples 25. Female figures . 22 22 22 23 . Later style . CHAPTER IV ANIMAL FIGURES 20. CHAPTER I11 HUMAN FIGURES 11. 4. 23. I2 51. . . . Sails 45. . 15. Publications of the prehistoric Publications of early dynastic 3. 13. 10. 7.CONTENTS CHAPTER I THE MATERIALS SECT. . . Carnivora Herbivora Birds . List of animals figured . 7 . Tusk figures 14. . etc. . I . 31. figures . 6. . Basket patterns. Geologic ages . . Details of ships 41. . Squat jars 47. 37. Precision of the dating . Plants . . Axes. 10 CHAPTER VII WEAPONS 21. Birds 46. 29. . List of figures . 48. Ensigns on ships 42. Period of graves . Brush drawing . ships . Disc maces . Number of graves . 3 4 4 5 5 5 CHAPTER VI THE DECORATED POTTERY Length of cycles . Boat models . 12. Rushwork covers 36. The ships . . 17. Sources of spirals . Animals . . . chevrons 26. . Nile deposits . . 30. Copies of stone vases 35. . Flamingoes. 50. The Aloe design . P*CB s=m I 2 2 24. Pear-form maces I3 52. Introduction of types 6 33. Numbers of dated graves CHAPTER I1 THE DATING . . . Decline of types . 44. . 28. etc. 49. 32. 40. Steatopygous figures 19. . 2. . Development of sequences 5. . . Men . Mace handles. . Reptiles. . 38. Figures in boats . 22. Paste figures . Peculiar maces 11 v I . . Cross-hatched triangles 27. . Notable vases 43. 9. 8. 16. 18. Clay figures .

72. Gold. Lance amulets . Model garlic 113. . carton spacers . go. 114. 69. 91. . . 76. Rhombic and rectangular 96. 24 24 24 25 CHAPTER VIII METAL WORE. 83. . PAC= . Stone tags . Tusks. 102. Glazing. 110. Emery objects . . 88. . 1x1. 108. g3. 77. Wood and fibre . Tags. 101. flat . 54. The first civilisation 120. 34 THE PREHISTORIC CIVILISATIONS 35 . . Dates of other products . . Balance beam . - 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 . 49 36 . 85. Magic slates . 95. 79. Fish . 116. 94. CONTENTS PAOE CHAPTER XI SLATE PALETTES 55. 82. 57. .on prehistoric periods 36 INDEX . Association of pieces . Weights of gold unit 65. 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 CHAPTER XI11 THE EPOCHS O F THE PREHISTORIC AGES . 62. and chisels. 46 35 118. Gaming slips and rods . 61. 70. 73. Short combs . . 87. Details of slates . 44 44 45 45 81. . early . 48 35 121. Conical CUPS ~ ~ l i n d r i cjars . Weights of g Qedet unit 67. 100. . Ivory and bone worlc 107. Glazing on quartz. 71. 56. 47 35 119. Liquid measure . 105. 64. . Use of palettes . 84. Long combs . 50 36 NOTE. . 78. Axes. MEASURES AND WEIGHTS 58. Personal objects . Shell. Bone harpoons . . Pottery objects . Men and quadrupeds 92. ai Peculiar forms . 97. . 115. 51 . .vi 53. . lead. sandals . . Spoons . . . silver. Hairpins Armlets. Knives . 74. Copper harpoons . CHAPTER XI1 MINOR ARTICLES . Libyan vases . 75. 89. . 66. The collapse of the old order. Standing vases rearranged Saucers . . Pottery of the first age . . Clay and wood models SECT. . Evidences of changes . 80. Spindle whorls . . : . and entry of 35 the dynastic people . -- I CHAPTER XIV . The Solutrean age . . . Ninepins . . . Stone axes . rings. Weights of Daric unit . 109. . Ivory and horn vases Inscribed objects . 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 99. . 60. Birds and boats . . . . Marbles . . Double bird type . The second civilisation . . CHAPTER I X PERSONAL OBJECTS 68. 98. plain and headed Tusks with lines . . 112. Materials . adzes. Forehead pendants 103. 106. Daggers and lances 59. . . Squat vases Barrel and shoulder vases Tubular vases . CHAPTER X THE STONE VASES . Pottery of the second age 117. Glass . and iron 63. 86. 1-04. . . Arrow heads . Hard-stone palettes SECT. .

. p. No. 38xxxiii.. 7. standing cylinders to xlii. 10 NOS. . nos. 1-12 . v. p p 19-20 . 11-14.. xxi. shouldered. . 34-36 70-74. bowls to cylinders. 8.16. .. Bone and ivory combs. ie Clay and stone figures . xi. 15 . 15 109-139 . X.31-33 41 . 34 . . armlets and rings 24. 17. Libyan.. Clay figures . 20. xiv. iv. 24. pottery xxvii. tubular. Ship and plants . squat shape.. 43 . 13 . p. 140-183 34-36 and men 15. Imitation tuslcs . 18-21 xliii. P. etc.1-15) p. 12. 67-69... . hanging. xii. . P. pp. 32-3. Gamingpieces. 34-36 49-59. . Tuslts . 43. p. nos. XX. nos. p. 14. . 33.30 xxx. . z. . 2. 15 XI. Groups 35-37. . I5 xxxv. . fish. . 66-108 34-36 xxxix. 8. p. 12. 10 xxix. 13. Animals . xvi. 23 Designs on steatopygous figures 8. stone figures of animals. serpents and boats . 49-65 34-36 24-32 . nos.. 1-28 34-36 33-41 . 24 boats and figures . 2 1 xxv..1. 16-48 34-36 13-23 . model weapons .. 8.. 43-44 . 1. 43) .. 24 . xxviii.. P. xix. . p. 41 . 11. 42. . 11. .. 65-103 . 23 Flint and pottery animals . Stone vases. 1 p. . p.. 48-50. 10 xxiv. xxxvii. NO.pp. 7. 16. ix. P. 42-48 15 xxxviii. 10 . barrel shape.. I. 16.. ist dynasty glazed vases. 9 No. 3-8. 6. Disc maces . . clay and wood Nos. .5. . 18-21 xliv. 30 .34 56-7. ist period. 13 . 42 . 10. . xviii. 11. .. 33 Ivory figures . . nos. 60-66. 44. Prehistoric drawings . 8. I5 . 45-46 . Ivory hairpins. 2nd period. 18 . Bone harpoons . 11. 15 . . . p. standing. xiii. .. Animals xli. P. 9 xxiii.16. types 1-57 . Tusks and stones with heads .. 14. 3. nos. 36-41 . photographs I 34-36 White-lined bowls. xxxii. 10 Steatopygous figures . .. p. 25 p. Animals . 22. 5. . 18-21 . P 26 P 4r For others see R s of the Dynasties. 40. 34 41 Tarkhan xxxiv. xxii. 18. I5 xxxvi. Stone axes . 16 Ship designs. 18-21 . viii. 7. 10 xxvi.p. 30-32 xxxi. 40 . 15-17> pp. 14. 29-65 . p.LIST O F PLATES WITH PAGE REFERENCES TO TIIE DESCRIPTIONS iii. p. 14. 1 . .. 47. 36-39 7 2 PADTS 1 PIOES 1 at I> 9 vii . . Slate palettes. Pear-maces and spindle-whorls zz. 184-225 34-36 . (18Amulets Animals : pp. xvii. Birds. 9. 47-48 . 36-39 . p. vi. 10-13 29. 10-14 . xv. 14. vii. Combs and spoons.

12 copper tie and bands. p. . Nos. 42 . 7. 8. 29 . 47-99 P. 11.p. Carvings and copper bands. 13) . Ivory and stone objects . 12 . 1-3. 37-39. LIST OF PLATES PAOX9 Magic slates (p.8. 42. P. 18-20. See Rise of the Dynasties. 42 . P. p. P. 468 P. 13-19. 1-5. Periods of change . p. pp. ' . 28 . p. 43 . see Rise of the Dynasties. p. P. 32 . 39). 29-33. Contents of graves at Gerzeh . p.. Sequence dates of graves 3. 42 . 40. 314 . p. p. Vases and weights NOS. 36. 44-46 li. 419 P 43 xlvii. 4. 11. 40 xlix. 40 . Nos. .p.P. Boats (p. .figures and spacers. 1. 6-10. P. 39 . 43 4 xlvi. 3j4 liii. 10.. 21-22.4 lii. Nos.g. 26-35. p. 44-5. 7 . . 27 . 42) and eels of pottery (p. 25 . ivory vases .viii xlv.. 23-25. 26 . 1-7. P. . 7 . xlviii. 5-16. 31. 41 .

This continued the discussion of the prehistoric. BEFOREdiscussing the prehistoric civilisation of Egypt. from earliest palaeolithic down to the xixth dynasty. 1 . and every group has been reexamined and dated as closely as may be. Diosfiolis Parva (Petrie). 1901. With some small rectification in detail this dating holds good when applied to all later discoveries. He dealt here with all periods. by happy intuition. 1896. 1896. but of very unequal value. later I on. and a full register of the pottery and objects sufficient t o date about 80 grave-groups. the largest store of illustration. the relative dates being assigned to all the types of pottery. There are 540 graves dated within 10 units. and is here followed. now expanded with all subsequent discoveries as the corpus of Prehistorzc Pottery. De Morgan treated the Naqadeh discoveries as being pre-dynastic. supply fresh details . El Amrah alzd Abydos (Randall-MacIver and Mace). discrimination of periods could not then be attempted . The rough classification in periods is not close enough. largely taken from plates of Naqada. EthlzografihiePrbhistorique et Tombeau Royal de NBgadah (I)e Morgan). though without any definite proof. The cemetery at El Amrah supplies 19 plates of material. largely maintained . as yet. Twenty plates of new prehistoric material in tomb-groups. the relative dating was worked out. We are not here concerned with material which merely illustrates in general the style of early Egypt-such belongs to second-grade museums. in very suggestive outline. Apart from a few unique specimens of various kinds. nor any statement of tomb groups. however. even if illustrated. Nine of these refer to ihe protodynastic age. Our concern here is with the relative ages of styles and products. two dozen volumes on the subject having been issued between 1896 and 1915. 1897. L'Age de la Pierre et les Mbtaux (De Morgan) 604 figs. and mostly much closer. These ages of the grave-groups are published in the corpus of Prehistoric Pottery. it seems needful to give some account of the scattered sources of information. This was the first publication of any connected material of this age.PREHISTORIC EGYPT CHAPTER I THE MATERIALS I. In this. 500 graves are fairly dated from this work. 1902. and the way in which they have been utilised. There is much material. The register of the grave-numbers of pottery was. it may be said that no publication is of use unless the object is part of a group from the totality of which some relative date may be assigned. 1902. and some details are given of Am6lineau's opening of the Royal Tombs at Abydos. As the subject was entirely new. The list of dates of graves is given in the corfius of pottery. from that. and it is. The mere publication of an object. the 25 plates of pottery serving till now as the cor9us for subsequent registration of types. the material which teaches the history and evolution of the civilisation. though without any details of relative age in the prehistoric civilisation. The large group of Neithetep's tomb is of the greatest value for the beginning of the ist dynasty. and owing to the bulk of material the publication of separate graves was limited to the most remarkable. The tomb of Neithetep (Queen of Mena ?) is fully described. or part of a comparative series. and are dealt with additionally in the volume on The Rise of the Dylzasties. The methods by which the relative ages are discriminated will be dealt with further on. It will be clearest to take the various publications in their order of date. and therefore it was of little use subsequently. is not necessarily of use. In this the whole range of the prehistoric civilisation was classified as to age. and the other classes of products. Naqada and Ballas (Petrie and Quibell) 86 plates. Hierakonfiolzs 1 (Quibell and Green).

but. ist-iiird dynasty. 1900. I t is difficult to co-ordinate this material.D. etc. 1902. Gerzeh .. The Labyrinth. Turah .2 THE MA7 The first part (1900) does not extend before the early dynastic age. 1907. II (Peet). Royal Tombs I . 77-82. is as follows : Naqada . probably Queen of Mena. lxviii). similar. Lahun. 1902. Naga ed Deiv (Reisner). rgrz. Royal Tombs of the iiird dynasty. The whole of the pottery was dated when found. after reducing Junker's notation to the standard corpus (see Tarkhan I . 1908-9 (Firth). Cemeteries of Abydos. and a fresh corpus of smaller size is used. Large groups from 5 kings' tombs. ~ g oHierakonpolis. Tombeau de Ndgadeh. and the objects being of fine work and abundant. Archaeological Survey of Nubia. Large groups from 7 kings' tombs. Tarkhan I1 Harageh . Taking next a review of the protodynastic material (s. and those of surrounding servants. The list of dates of the graves is given in the corpus of pottery. 1901. Great tomb of ist dynasty. 785 dated graves. the typing is somewhat uncertain. 1909-10 (Firth). Predynastic Cemetery at El Mahasna (Ayrton and Loat) 38 plates. I1 Tarkhan I . Archaeological Survey of Nubia.D. but the scarcity of distinctive types hinders using most of them. Large group of material from the tomb of Neithetep. 1911. A large mass of m a t s z. all levelled. 21 graves dated. Cemeteries of Abydos I. 1913. Royal Tonlbs El Amrah . 1909 . 6 dateable graves. Wainwright). 19x2. This gives a good register of about 38 grave-groups. 1920. the principal sources are the following : 1896. Further pottery. Gizeh and Rifeh. S. 1914. Abydos I . 19x0. 70 graves. 1907-8 (Reisner) 102 plates. 55 graves dated. 1897. About twenty graves might be dateable. 1920. 3. Harageh. 1g12. - 70 - 60 - . 14 dated graves. Abydos I . 1907 . ~ g o o . Lahun -75 S.D. and of the iind dynasty. nor keeps a continuous new register. Archaeological Survey of Nubia. This contains the register of about zo grave-groups sufficiently recorded for dating . 1915. I . and surroundings. about 50-70 s. 1912. 122 graves fairly dated. Royal Tombs II. 1910. and only separate sketches given of each group. 1qo8 . Archaeological Survey of Nubia (Reisner). as the current numbering of types is abandoned. as even the new corpus is abandoned. Turah (Junker). Naqada and Ballas. Tarkhan I.. 1 rich tombs of the ist dynasty. Mahasnah (Ayrton and Loat). 1. 13 graves dated. 2. In this it is possible to date about 24 graves . down to the iiird dynasty. beside 28 grave-groups of the protodynastic age. 296 dated graves. 28 dateable graves. 1911. . Diospolis .3. and thus dated.. Mahasna (Garstang). 20 33 1. 540 500 80 38 70 20 24 . the pottery corpus being followed in registration. and used in the present volume. As there are discrepancies between the drawings and photographs. 1914. . Archaeological Survey of Nubia (Firth). 33 dated graves. by the corpus. so that its ~cientificvalue is largely lost. 1901. Naga ed Deir Nubia. reference is still more difficult.396 296 785 . Mahasna . fairly dated. All these royal tombs are specially valuable for the precise period being fixed. The sum-total of graves fairly fixed in relative age.. Diospolis Parva. Gerzeh. and Mazghuneh (Gerzeh. The other material is later. rial just before Mena. 8 plates of early dynastic pottery from the temple site. of the 1 Royal Tombs. then. The conversion table to reduce this new corpus to the standard is given in the corpus of Prehistoric Pottery. Tarkhan 11. so far as the figures can be reduced to the corpus. About thirty graves are dateable in each of these volumes. and about 70 graves are approximately fixed. In the second part (1902) is the unique painted tomb of the middle of the second prehistoric age. 76 and on) from the start of the dynastic civilisation a century or two before Mena.422 . It is unfortunate that the Nubian survey neither unites with the earlier registration.

the decorated pottery with red painted designs. Next it was seen that a large part of the gravegroups were of pottery unlike that found with the wavy-handled series. from the fullness of material in the loyal tombs of various sites. then any changes in order would be more likely to scatter the examples of any type than to concentrate them. from a globular to a narrow cylindrical type. The Rise o f the Dynasties. Thus the result is reached of having 4. These likely is it to have had a long range of use. oval. and catalogue of forms of pottery vases in University College. the red pottery with white line designs . boats. patterns and materials prevailed throughout. Therefore the more the range of each type can be reduced by changes of order of the graves. If we had a series of graves certainly in their original order. the black pottery with incised designs . and the arrangement of the material is helpful. and examined at Naqadeh. the graves arranged in order of community of types with the wavy-handled are in inverse order of community of types with the white-lined pottery. Such The latter class is. the larger was the proportion of whitelined designs. Further. and the cor+us of pottery belonging to that period. baked partly in ashes . WHEN the first great mass of graves was the shortest total of ranges of all the types. This shows that there were not isolated and warring tribes. the red polished pottery. rule over all Egypt and Nubia. the more likely are we to approach the original order. that they should be distinctive. and leave no doubt as to which class an example belongs. and the same is true of the earlier prehistoric times for more than 300 miles from Gerzeh to Naqadeh. but baked in flame . reference should also be made to Capart's Primitive Art in Egy+t. . will contain all the material which is characteristic of that movement. resolving the confused mass of hundreds of graves into rational order. Though most of the illustrations duplicate those in the volumes just named. down to the ist dynasty. which prevented intercourse and trade. Moreover zoo miles farther south in Nubia the styles of this age are perfectly continuous. the subject will be divided in three volumes. square. Then it was seen that.THE RELATIVE DATING 3 were classed apart as Late Pottery. and the rough brown pottery. animals. but rather a peaceful. From Gizeh and Turah for 350 miles to Naqadeh there is no difference in the protodynastic work . Thus the white-lined pottery was the furthest removed from the wavy-handled. deals with every class of object (except flint-work) down to the beginning of the dynastic influence. Prehistoric Egypt. These were then classed according to the proportion of types which belonged to the wavy-handled series. it was seen that there had this is the more roba able order. A third volume. ideas. the fewer types were in common with the wavyhandled. The present. if not a united. Thus for over 500 miles the prehistoric civilisation seems to have been so well organized and unified that the same tastes. When a general view could be taken of the whole material it appeared evident that the wavy-handled pottery gave a long series of gradual changes of form. where no new motive arose. there are also many objects in museums hitherto unpublished. The striking feature of this material is its uniformity of styles over a long range of country. This provided a first means of subdividing the general mass of pottery. the fancy forms. as certain types of a type is-such as singular decoration-the less pottery were manifestly decadent in style. CHAPTER I1 and the graves containing them were shifted nearer THE DATING together. specially needed for registration of graves during excavation. The more peculiar been an earlier and a later period. Such is the basis of the gradation by age. and with the tables of conversion of different register numbers. The earlier pottery was divided into eight entirely different classes of work and material : the black-topped pottery. These classes fulfil the first need of classifying. With this is the volume of the corpus of Prehistoric Pottery and Palettes. however. and the tables of dates of the published graves. Owing to the mass of material. so long as other types were not scattered THE RELATIVE DATING by the changes. double. Beside the publications of discoveries. by far the richer. which were not concentric . For this purpose the earlier and later examples of each type were sought. similar. the wavy-handled pottery with two ledge handles . and continuous subjects.. although mixed with other types which belong to Nubia. etc. Another method next comes into play.

I t is quite futile to compare the number of known graves with the population at any period. I. Yet it is probable that there was considerable variation in the number of burials in each century. THE LENGTH OF THE PERIOD 6. and see how much range of uncertainty is left on using the scale of 50 parts. the ranges of date of the richest graves run thus: S. For instance in El Amrah. in making up the cor$us of forms now published. each containing not less than five different types of pottery. These ranges are of 7. I. If we took account of all the known graves of the historic ages. The scale of 50 parts is therefore none too fine.D. 47. when placed in their most probable order or sequence. 79 is the beginning of the ist dynasty. or time. Now it is the first principle of scientific measurement. The practical method was to use for each grave a slip of card # x 7 inches. For permanent reference the whole 900 graves. The number of graves thus taken into account was goo. The greater part of the people were poor and had no distinctive burial of objects with them. and these were numbered 30 to 80. 41-46. This numbering does not at all imply equal intervals of time . rhese slips could be quickly arranged and shifted on boards. 52-53> 44-50. 5. 35-41. So far we have only been dealing with the relative ages of graves. it had not been flagrantly exhausted by recent plundering. I t fortunately happens that Naqadeh alone covers every period of the prehistoric that has yet been found in Egypt . 3 and 7 divisions. 48-50. and the years comprised in the period of the prehistoric graves. How closely then does the scale of 50 divisions serve to distinguish the detail of dating the graves ? Take any cemetery with rich graves containing plenty of dating material. 7. we could not account for a hundredth of the population that we know to have existed. each holding about 50 cards in a column of 18 inches high. in the order of their age. each of these having at least half a dozen dated types for fixing the limits. is the present question. marked as S. 2. ruled with columns for the several kinds of pottery : in each column were entered the numbers of the types found in the grave. 32-41> 46. and any coarser series of divisions would be a waste of good material. 41-43. and it has been termed " a very minute subdivision " .4 THE DATING are the principles of the gradation of a long series of graves. that the means of registration shall be sufficiently detailed not to lose any possible accuracy of result. 30 are left for any future discoveries of earlier material. There is enough ground there to prevent merely picking out one period . The numbers before S. 4-8. before we went over it . Hence the earlier numbers of Sequence Dates probably cover more years than the later numbers. Any much coarser scale would certainly cause a loss of accuracy in the results. The details can be seen in more detail in Diospolis. pp. I t has since been found that S. 10. nor are there any burials that can be placed earlier.D. The best is the group of cemeteries extending over about eight miles recorded in Diospolis. 37-43. Unfortunately there are no cemeteries sufficiently recorded of all periods together to give a satisfactory comparison. it means only equal numbers of burials in the cemeteries of Naqadeh and Diospolis.D. accordingly different authors have lapsed on to a few broad divisions instead. and the extent of range of each type. as shown by the order of them expressed in Sequence Dates.D. and many graves being fixed to one single division. The total period we shall consider further on. There is no pretension to fictitious accuracy in using it. The division into fifty parts has been felt by some persons to be too minute for the precision obtainable. and they are likely to have been more numerous as population and wealth increased. 6. 3. 48. the whole of it was completely searched. I. there is no gap in the series. 38. In a series of physical measurements an instrument must show at least one place of figures farther than the range of variation. were divided in 51 equal sections. and such numbers termed Sequence Dates. weight. of space. All that have been found and 450 graves-have been published since-about further taken into account. The only possible due is the proportion of graves of the prehistoric to those of the historic ages. and the range of time covers all . I. Thus some hundreds of graves could be searched over and considered in one single view. the average range of uncertainty being only 4 divisions. The timevalues of these Sequence Dates. and we may remember that-where there is sufficient material-it means on an average an uncertainty of two or three divisions on each side of any single number that is stated.

the filling up of the Nile Valley with 600 feet of silt and the washing of it out again. then.ooo B. Provisionally we may say that 8. 562. These rest upon the sandy and rocky bed which was the original Nile valley floor. Thus though we are still rather in air in estimating the range of the prehistoric. following Penck. There is thus a somewhat similar ground for comparison of the prehistoric and historic periods. 578. When rain ceased the current slackened. but poor in the S. Seep.000 B. 7. it may be taken as a fair estimate. and the deposit was probably slight to begin with.D. Yet the scale is not widely different from that of the longer periods. Hence the beginning of the prehistoric civilisation would be put to 11. and we may well put the beginning of that age to 8. rather than under.ooo years for the age of the Solutrean .C. g.. Royal Sac.ooo for the beginning of the Magdalenian.000 or ro. The amount of meteoric nickel in the abysmal red clay would indicate somewhat the same order of quantity. and 850 historic. and it was probably fewer and poorer. We cannot suppose that the prehistoric population was more numerous or richer than that of historic times.000 years to I foot. By simple solution the denudation of chalk in English rainfall is about I foot in 5. Another datum is given by the Nile mud deposits.000 B. Nos. it is unlikely that such results are both far from the truth in one direction.400 years by the impossible chronology of Berlin. p. 50. This is taking the maximum thickness of each stratum . but more remote if the prehistoric people were fewer and less wealthy than the historic. we have the work of more probably over. The resulting number of graves that we recorded is about 1. Recent research on the helium and lead constituents of rocks has given a tolerably consistent view of geologic time. and we may contemplate anything back to about ro. The deposit of about 5 inches a century shows that this mud-bed began between 5.500 years for I foot. it is reasonable to credit an age of 8. coeval with the prehistoric cemeteries of Egypt. (See Proc. 50 feet.000 years. would seem to be quite irreconcilable with the geologic scales of time action. 547. 569.C. its velocity was kept up and no mud fell. while the p~ehistoric range is fairly general.c. 2280. and agriculture became possible.000 years. and crowd the prehistoric into a few centuries before that. much as the historic range is poor in the xixth to xxxth dynasty age.) The broad result is an age of a million years for roo feet thickness of strata. or 3. is the latest date likely for the beginning of the prehistoric graves. roo.000 and 13.c. and that seems too little rather than too much to allow for the changes that have taken place. averaging 3. but the very minute amounts to be detected in these shortest ages of strata are least favonrable to accuracy.C. So long as enough rain filled the Nile. as open to consideration.500 years to Roman times. and the lead gives a maximum age. 20.000 or ro. 487).200 prehistoric. This may be compared with the rate of denudation.). according to varying depths. (or at least 7.000 or ro. We now turn to approach the question from the other end. Taking only the determinations of Tertiary age. and might be much longer.C..THE LENGTH IOF THE PERIOD 5 periods to the xviiith dynasty and Roman graves. only reasonable to grant the evidence of the numbers of graves as dating the prehistoric graves to 8.000 for the Magdalenian.ooo B. and were not counted by us. I t appears. yet we can see that it was at least some thousands of years. The historic period according to the Egyptians was 5.000 B.000 B. rivers deepened as much as 80 feet between the Mousterian and Magdalenian periods.C. or 5. and as even that is not probably the full extent. To be asked to end them with the ist dynasty at 5. Allowing for historic graves which had been plundered out.C. and 400 feet $er million years . . pointing to about 400 feet in a million years (Nature.ooo B. is as late as we can ask geology to grant. 40-50 age. note. Such dates would only imply the average removal of 4 feet of surface. so the time allowed for the prehistoric would have exceeded that of historic ages. mud was deposited. such as valleys ploughed out since gravels containing implements were deposited.c.500 B. In any case. and as the helium contents give a minimum age. or Schmidt zo. All this will show that when we have to deal with greatly changed surface conditions. 571. they give roo feet. Blanckenhorn would give ro. As the lesser depths were elevations originally.ooo years before us in the human period.ooo B. On the whole age of the world the rate of denudation probably equals that of deposit. the suppositions which would bring the ist dynasty to 3400 B. which varies from 700 years to 7. If we accept zoo feet per million years. the numbers would not be very unequal between the two ages. 8.C. there may have been IOO to zoo feet deposit in each million years. Geikie.

11. Petrie. M. the 50 divisions of Sequence Dating cover about 2. If. Garstang.ATING for the bcginning of cultivation and the rise of prehistoric civilisation. those which can be dated are1 .D. ~ 32 . Abydos 11. the date can hardly be after 34 (M xi). Gerzeh. and of the earlier desert flints of Solutrean connection. Now the average length of a cycle of civilisation in Egypt is 1. fore be placed about S. all begin at 34. Ayrton. of vegetable paste. This is between 31 and 37 s. having inlaid bead eyes. H. Survey of Nubia I . Petrie.ooo . rather before 8. stand thus : Egyptian prehistoric. = Magdalenian. The variations of the rate of burials.C. Primitive Art. Petrie. figures here. would give a date before 8. (Also cemetery and graves. 1 . I example . the work and condition of them agree together. Wainwright (in Petrie. 3 3 I Z I I Thus nearly all belong to the age from the end of the white-lined pottery to the beginning of the decorated pottery. Tarkhan 11. and of ivory. The figures of clay. CHAPTER 111 HUMAN FIGURES THE period of human figures in the round is closely limited to the first civilisation.T.) Thus the group ii. as we may see by comparing the number of burials known of the xviiith and of the xxiind dynasty. W. I .. and Ab. 11. I. Reisner. 1908-9.D. Another way of looking at the matter is from the periods of the civilisation. U. It is only the heads on combs that extend later.5 .S. Petrie. Pre-dynastic Cemetery of El Mahama. would greatly vary this scale. Gizeh and Rifeh. By periods of civilisation. of the dynastic immigration. 12. 1 . Snrvey of Nubia I I .000 B. and L. . then. begin at 38.. Firth. R. country dealer. . Specimens at University College. or different civilisations. . which was bought together from a local K. See E. Firth. Capart. Petrie. U. The figure ii. later civilisations. . and R. Naqada. and all these should thereG.000 B. A. Diosfiolis. This added to 6. 10. however. I or 11.C. Solutrean age By Nile deposits 8. style of this figure fairly carries with it the ivory F. The different classes of figures seem to be mostly contemporary.000 . I . Quihell and Green. . and generally about a life-time. Survey of Nubia. Cemeteries of Abydos. The The abbreviations for reference to published course of work seems therefore to follow the same rapid growth and gradual decay which is seen in volumes are as follows : El Amrah and Abydos. 22. The nnit of Sequence Date may roughly be said to be not shorter than a generation. . One of the earliest dated figures is of ivory. Tarkhan I . The E. 1 s . 34. and with these must be placed some of the R. But we must remember that this is the minimum geologically.N.T. Royal Tombs I . each division is on an average 50 years in length. .C.C. Cairo Catalogue.000 B.C. long and slender. Petrie. Mahasnah and BFt Khallaf. Q.600 years on an average. MacGregor figures (K 129. A. Labyrinth). 34. as having been found at Ballas. in the prehistoric graves. Petrie.000 or ro. well made.ooo B. R.. 34 36 38 . II.G. There are two well-marked periods. 18-24 will all belong to about S. but by the white-lined bowl found with it D. Archaic objects. Petrie.. By Magdalenian age in Europe or after 10. 11. 135). 42 44 - . By proportion of graves 20. . 24.D.300 years. . . a group. We do not here count those of which the dating is vague.D. T. The various indications of the age of the beginning of the prehistoric civilisation of Magdalenian connection. R. These are part of H. Quibell. Naville and Peet. and that archaeology cannot deny that the date may be more remote. a man wearing the sheath.i . Hierakonfiolis I and I I . to 42 and 50 S. I?. 39 4 1 . and so two cycles would imply a length of 2. and the rough blocks with triangular faces.500 years. C. cemeteries B. T. N. 23. The ruder peg-shaped ivory figures. 1907-8.000 B.. MacIver and Mace.

v. 44. Probably rather later. The plain heavy tusks. from a tusk. 11). with cut and pierced tip. 23). from a line below the breast. of S.D. 34). from N 1705. lix.). The earlier of these were at S. 7) which we dated to S. 7). 16).D. and found with 2 was also 8 A (no. The new civilisation which came in about S. v. Mahasna. With this style. Another seated figure. 45. 3 (see N. U. 5. lix. 6 and 30. dated to 39 (A.1. There are no figures of the second prehistoric age at all like these. The other figure. but from the work seems to be prehistoric. 41 are three N. and part of another. 5.D. The five stages of which we can trace the dates.D. 2 . they are reduced to mere pegs with heads in 43 (A. here xlv. 38 the arms disappeared (N. and x. Pottery figures are vaguely . are dated to 34 (M xi).D. 35). 6. 4 black V lines parallel across the chest. of 50 S. downward. 5 and a more purely mechanical cut of figures. i. 38 is the figure N.D. 2. N. and coloured with red and black.). 5) . 50 (N. 8. 42-47. 4. I n the examples here xlv. and 42 (xxix. z). 3. was similar. such as i.C. 43) . with long eyes and incised lines. Having now traced the stages in those figures which show the best work. 17. as above. Two of the tusks with eyes only are of 44 (lxii. presumably of offerings for the dead . is of S. and another. ii. of which a double-faced one. There is no trace of clothing in the modelling or painting. later still there is no. and unfortunately none of good work have been found by scientific excavation. lix. 41 (ii. 10. and. We have. ii. with four black crossing lines on the back. 8. They extend. and they were placed upright in a row along the side of the grave. and of 36-38 is a seated figure of good work (M xvi). with black eyes. Female figures were often made of vegetable paste and Nile mud. therefore. xv . 2. being in the same material.D. xlv. agrees the tusk head no. 6. The drill-hole necklace at 38 (xlvi. carrying an object on the head. and afterwards broken away. with a rudely indicated pointed beard. seems to show a woman in a long flounced dress. these are less detailed . we are bound to suppose that the changes in work would be parallel. A seated figure of a man found with model tools (D. Female figures are dated to 34 (head M. The eyes are white beads inlaid. iii 3. 40. it may have had a separate dress. lix. b 202). 101) with modelled arms. nos. suggesting necklaces. Another ivory figure. 9. All wear the sheath.D. As it had a separate wig. I. 18 .D. lix. B 119) is only vaguely dated to 33-55 S. of about 45 by the similar lines on dated tusks. 15. The double head 8. except the erect figure S. lxii. 4. and this leads on to the rougher figures xlvi. Figures of men are dated to about 3j (Garstang. 35. p. There is also a male figure of similar work. but there are remains of linen sticking to it. there is also a stick and scrap of head of a third figure. The men looking over a wall (D. So by comparison with the series of figures it seems probable that the well-cut heads i. 43. 38. 44 (N. The figure 30 is entirely coloured red. Pieces of two parts of figures here are from Naqadeh 1413 . a fairly defined position for the best art of the early prehistoric-figures carefully wrought in the round at 34. 13.C.D.D. the black wigs are modelled separately over the bald heads coloured red. is of unknown source. vi. A headless figure is shown in iv 2 . we turn back to the rougher materials. iii) and to 36 (D.D. lxiv. 4). 37 (1426))31-59 (N 1703 U. usually modelled on a stick. by S. then. 16. 10. vi. more likely about 35. but less full in the form . 2. lix. capable of being dated. which is nude. started afresh. nor are such tusks found after 44.C. A. 31-33 being parts of wigs. and passing into formal copying at 38. B 83 . while black spots suggest a bead girdle round the hips. over the same range as the figures noted above. is of 42. p. pl. a. To this stage succeeded the block figures. N. hence this may be assigned to the last stage of the tusks. like the comb head of S. 31-42. 41 (N. ix both figures). 41-43 (N 1539 U. 81). and at Naqada to 33 (U. 45.D. I. K 160) are only vaguely dated to 33-48 S. Of S. 38.D. I.HUMAN FIGURES 7 23 has had the sheath undercut. having long eyes and incised lines. Clay and pottery figures were the usual cheap substitutes for better material. lix. 4 here). There is one tusk with a very rudely cut face at S. iii. is ii. with the heads on ivory combs. from 34 to 42 show a continuous decay due to mechanical copying. seems to be of different char- acter. They clearly represent women carrying jars. The carved tusks of ivory are a separate class. gives a date for ii. lix. go. when under the second civilisation. 14. 29-33. These are dated by some from Naqadeh. xii. 34 (D. and fragments of a figure also occurred dated to 31-38 (A. which do not recur later. 7 all belong to before 40. 96. I to j . Of S. The date of the two pieces of wig 31-2 (N 1546) is 37. and more fixed in style. 29. as also in the Berlin example (K 127). having the breasts marked with beads.

g had the arms turned up around the breasts and a broad black band across the front as a girdle. On the back and left shoulder-blade an antelope with wavy horns (see 1 v ) Over the right shoulder a striped band. and are obviously of the same fabric. on right thigh three zigzag bauds. 3. I and 7 are beak heads. which will be considered with the proto-dynastic. views of a complete figure. I of buff clay with black lines. 16. perhaps a mast and two staying poles. forming a tripod. seated with feet projecting. ending in an hour-glass figure. with an attendant to guide it. 31 to 34. 6 . 3 there is painted a red apron in front. but the absence of detail about the pelvis seems to point to clothing being worn low down. In it is a pottery woman seated. and all drawn in black line. unfortunately all ravaged from graves without a history. This is enough to show that the figures must be placed between S. the slate palette with head.D. and perhaps arms (see Palette series and K 52). across the back of the pelvis a rhombic-leaf branch. 8 has the rhombic-leaved plant on left thigh. I. Pubic edge modelled very prominent. Regarding the date of this class. Another boat with curved ends ending in rosettes. is here vii. Another strange boat form. a black line between them. the head iv. The other boats and figures might likewise be figures of the dead in their funereal boats. li) should be noticed. vi. 2 is of S. On the front. and the hair worked over afterwards. and no. I. xii). and held in place by wavy ridges along the sides. The wavy ridges apparently represent snakes. 17. z. and in the middle of the boat is what looks like a corpse a t length on a bier. No. V. which is dated between 35-41. 18. The pot-marks (N. Another style of figure has no features. but the age was put beyond question by the present example. These clearly held masts or poles. lix. snapped and rejoined at the thinnest point. 6. The dress on iv. The ties which hold the awning are too brittle to be moved. The upper part of the figure is hidden by a mat-work awning which is tied down to the edges of the boat. On the right hip a line of SS as on N. no. has two men in it (Berlin. all the preceding figures are of the normal human form. and have clearly been in position for centuries. From the colouring of the pottery it would seem to be rather of the xith dynasty than prehistoric. 6 a whole figure of pottery painted red. of which the heads were reared up alongside of the feet of the figure.D. 4. like the hieroglyph for a town. The steatopygous type remains to be noted . Traces of spotty necklace . long eyes. and the back of 6 on the next plate. z of pottery painted red-brown in front.8 HUMAN FIGURES dated to 33-48 (D. There is no outline of garment shown. tied behind. Only two steatopygous figures have been found in dateable graves. vi. The figures here of clay iii. The same date is shown by the paintings on a figure of similar clay and style in N. I doubted their antiquity. 5 were brought together. the projection of the long face and feet can hardly mark anything but a body. Across the pelvis an enclosure with a plant (?) in black and blue colour. lix. and appeared all together a t a Luqsor dealer's. Nos. and up the abdomen a line of VV. 61. but only a beak head. vi. right upright. 15. wearing only a sheath and girdle. but the discoverer does not record the type. Beyond is a vertical hole on each side. there is some clue in a boat with similar ends painted on a box from El Amrah (A. and the slate head on an inscribed stem. reaching from the armpits to the ankles. B 109). secured by a red girdle. has a figure at the end all in one with the boat. The heads were modelled bald. p. with long ends hanging down. 5 is part of a similar red figure. P1. The figures in this collection are all made of buff clay. like no. though it does not hide the breast. The details are as follow. This may represent the dead in a funereal boat. A fine model of a boat. and wide black patch . vii. as the moufflon and the plant there are exactly like those on the white-lined pottery. and I. I is seen to join the figure g. Another class of figures are those in pottery boats. below it traces of design in black. and further a large hole in the middle. curving round to the sides of the legs. B 83) and probably about 44 (D. left normal. are undated. with incurved ends and a middle cabin. iv. unbaked. 13). of the MacGregor collection (K zo). as it is obviously much later than the figures we have noticed here. IV. Being a new type. Two green lines parallel on each side joining in the beak. unless noted. 17. Other figures which should be noted are the fine stone bearded statuette. here xlviii. 6. vi). On the buff clay figure iv. and a V mark (see pl. K 158). and these were with " a red bowl with a pattern painted inside " (N. For 10 see pl. 3. 4 is painted white. sold to me later. but they are not early . 2. lix. Since photographing. as on N. A group of these boats was found some years ago. On the neck a small clrcle with a cross in it.

I. g. as ii. 5. 6. shows the fact that the legs were modelled separately. V. 2. p.d. with base gold band. is an exaggeration of the thinner type v. Lead. xlviii. and Crete (references see K. On ankles. fragment of man in a skin. . . like the bead anklets of the pyramid age. 25. of which pl.D. .. not well defined. painted red. which represents the same race. From the time of their discovery they have been linked up with the similar figures found in Malta. A fragment of a figure. This Nubian is of later age. Alabaster. . 164). On abdomen diagonal wavy lines. A vase figure. (35) (35) (45) (33) (33) (34) (35) (45) (38) (37) . 11. Ivory. figure of boy. Over right arm 5 x 3 black spots. This is the only figure with feet. . N 276 3.. Illyria. Clay painted red . 8. Over left. . iii. . . 20-24. partly duplicated in K 123-4. Brown steatite ii.. Ivory. V. two heads on sides at (40) other end 3. and then joined together. another in Berlin is in K 125 . K 101. 8. . see D. bands of parallel lines. as iv. 4. the early spread of a race which has been gradually expelled from Europe. . .. vi. Inst. On throat two oval beads (') one over the other. and with the ivory carvings of Solutrean age from the French cave of Brassempuy (N 34). three wavy lines (?).D. . . g. Yet it is tempting to see in the diffusion of this type. . 2. R. and the traces of such on prehistoric bodies. On wrists bracelets. Ivory. for action or in health. On the back. is of 33-41. which are always slender. . 2. i. N 499. found together at Ballas zo and zz have eyes of green glazed steatite beads. Anthrop. wavy line below. all seem to belong to the same type. Material. Pottery. four parallel zigzags. peg figures of women 31. Ivory. 6. Black lines of eyebrows and eyes (?). we should note that they are always female. Ivory. S. Ivory.. . 18-24. Slate 10. 3. vii. 4. .. Modern. 5 is closely like the A A pattern here. Greece. . ostrich shell eye. female figure. . Tusk 2. but probably 60-70 S. . Slate. On back.. v. 5. then from Malta and Egypt. 5. . Lines joining in beak. and only occur in the first civilisation. Below that a broad black band.. .. B l o z . Brown limestone. head on front. several lines of indistinct nature. I. belonging to an earIier race which was enslaved or expelled by the Libyans who founded the civilisation. 7. 4. similar piece. N 1583 n. I t is obvious that these steatopygous figures belong to a different race to the generality of prehistoric figures. K 156. To appreciate the meaning of these figures in Egypt. delicate work. . Between breasts a line of A pattern (see pl. 6. like anklets of last. . .. ceremonial hammer. 10. now only persisting among the Korannas of South Africa. List of human figures in the collection (the dates in ellipses are only inferred by style) : Plate. 4.HUMAN FIGURES 9 all over to middle of thighs. Poland. N 1757 n. . B 83 z. Compare with these patterns those from New Guinea. It may be that the type existed independently in different stocks. .. I.. Diospolis. . or attenuated. The occurrence of the type as late as 6 0 9 0 in Nubia would agree with this race being pushed southward out of Egypt. lix. and the last refuge of which is in South Africa.. peg figure of man 28. Katanga. inverse of N. top of figure like 33-48 iv. 6. 26. 7. one from Nubia in F. vi). similar work to 24 27. Ivory. 6. Around front of waist. Other figures from Thrace. . as the hips are the position in which fat can be stored with the least disability of the person. next from Somaliland.d. traces of black lines. Wood. . 19. Jour. They apparently represent slaves to wait on the deceased. and the figure of the wife of the chief of Punt at Deir el Bahri. On back of pelvis W zigzag of parallel horizontal lines. Other figures of this class are published in N. face lost 29-30. pl. Ivory.

D. with long flap ears. . vii.. the usual Egyptian cur. and it has a raised socket all in one piece on the back . THE amulets in animal form have been described in the volume Amulets . 6. further examples of animals occur in the second section on the proto-dynastic remains. 23. 11. of S. thick : figure ? xxix. Drab clay faced with buff wash (really of xith dynasty). N 1706.. 26). this is like the long-legged hound of Amenemhat in Beni IIasan I. but there is no question as to the age of the frog. round and flat. Pieces of separate wigs.. Dies. Buff clay. 43. . 4. 4. Buff clay. Pottery. Portions of legs of paste figures. v. 2. one hunting is shown on a comb in K 44. One here in copper. Material. . is of S. JACKAL : apparently represented at about 31-34 s. xlv. coiled string awning . 8. namely the haematite figure ix. iv) . N. Nile mud. N 1757 . Buff clay. paint . 16.D. A slate palette here has two baboon heads at the side of it. . 14-16. N. legs only. xxiii. black and green . li. of dynasties o and I. . DOG: domesticated in Egypt from early prehistoric times . j. . I. Decorated pottery. xlviii. and two figures. ix. N1546 . 29. . Drab clay. vii. and in a grave-pit in the T cemetery at Naqadeh were the bones of about twenty dogs. xiii. black patterns . A dog with a collar is on a handle of an ivory spoon. 3. 26. 2. . I.. 30. seated upon an alabaster frog. 10. but a dog's head was found in a grave of 36 (Naqadeh 286. 24. As it is very unlikely that a country dealer would chance to get a figure to fit in this way. 10. Paste figures. 38.. viii. 6. .. . whether suspended on the person. 'rhe dog figures of ivory from the proto-dynastic time are dealt with in that section. of N 1413. there seems no doubt left as to its being in original order. 65 and 66. face on back and front. A thin flat oval plate of nacreous shell is interposed between the baboon and the frog.. . pot-bearers. 15. See also slate palette. iv. N 271 . The interest of them here is in the art. 2. A very different type is that of the alabaster head viii. with black detail 31-3.. CHAPTER IV ANIMAL FIGURES 20. Another is the curious figure of a baboon holding its young. xlvi.. either in the round or in drawings. painted red. painted red. Buff clay. back of v. xx. U 96 44. with another and ii 4. Nile mud. p. the baboon is also ancient. and the kinds of animals shown . chipped out of a thin flake. 37. or placed elsewhere. z. N. . and the syenite ix. Slate. Another dog figured here is the deerhound in relief on ivory.. 35. along with other animal figures.D.d. The only dated figure of a dog is of 34 (C. Limestone. Bone. Also see the pot-marks. red-brown facing. as they cannot be paralleled later. for 0 t h human figures. by the state of the ivory. I.D. 19. black ink patterns 9. Buff clay . xliii. S. Pottery. . and it has a tang which fits the socket. redwash . viii.D. 4. here they will be regarded as examples of the animals. All such figures may very likely have had a magical value. . N 170 j . The combination is so strange that it might be suspected as modern. 2. (36) (34) (35) (40) (33) (35) (40 ?) (40 ?) (78 ?) (38) 37 45 36 (41) 42 (42) 38 .. 67. and forehead pendants. thick lips. 45. buff wash. 5. inlaid ostrich shell eyes. Ivory. red apron. 11.. 7. 6. red-faced. on a white-lined jar above the ichneumon. painted red. .. Buff clay. 77 from Tarkhan 1552. 2. A Aint figure. . 3. n. see the dog hunting a crocodile on a white-lined bowl. painted red. coloured red. head of no. 5. It twice occurs among amulets which may he prehistoric. xvii.ANIMAL FIGURES Plate. N 1411 24. lxi. shows much the same variety as that on the bowl. 25. and spots over the eyes . BABOON: apparently not found before the late prehistoric age. White-lined pottery. Ivory.. 36. 17. I. . 3. 6. . . Tarkhan 1333. Diospolis B83. white dress. Similar figures of a baboon and young occur from Hierakoupolis and Abydos.

sard. I undated. are bought. besides the slate palettes later on. Sicily. 3 noble serpentine. as vii. front face. singularly like the snuff-horn used by the Basutos a t present . of 44 (A. ending in an ox head. 1 . black steatite (z). Others not figured here are of grey serpentine. viii. pl. I the oxen are a row of four feeding at a trough. HARE found along with lion figures for a : game (N. 6. ix. ANTELOPES: commonly figured on Decorated pottery. 25. with forward and downward horns. 6 and g. Three lions and a hare. and here viii. xxxviii. slate. but rare otherwise. a t Berlin. a t University College. 46. 4 bone.ANIIdAt FIGURES LION: absent from early figures. N. and commonly hung on fruittrees and buildings in Malta. chasing a dog. A model horn of black polished pottery. 2). are undated (N. The early dynastic figures are dealt with later. . the bull and cow are distinguished . xlvii. not yet unpacked. 8). ix. 24. See the pot-marks. A natural form of the ox head. B 109). 58. in ix. and Algiers a t present. Q 23) .63. 1 xiv). xlviii. a lioness in ivory. lxi. g5 . from not noting the early type of ox. dated to 34-46 by N. xxi). viii. the lion on an ivory spoon-handle. The purpose of i t seems to have been for holding a powder. apparently as a vase. 11-14. the bull's-head amulet in Spain. as pot-mark N. rclated to the lion ends later placed on seats. 26. ix. : MONSTER a quadruped with falcon head. with inlaid ostrich egg eyes. 76 (Abydos I. I. In ix. lxiii. 60. xviii. 28. cut in fineveined breccia. also in flint work at Berlin (K I I ~ ) . I. a lion and lioness in reliefs on an ivory knife-handle. 23. zz. from Gebeleyn. 117). A fine example in ivory. and this was somewhat varied both down and upward. xix). lx. from Naqadeh 711 (N. Coll. g.59). is a t ix. ix. SHEEPare found. vii). and therefore completely domesticated. vi. and a very large one of green serpentine : see Amulets. A flint figure chipped out of a flake is a t vii. I of bone. one in green nobleserpentine. undated. 23 (Univ. of quartz covered with blue-green glaze. which has been the end-piece of a low seat. where they are termed ram's heads. There is here the hinder part of a similar quadruped. hung on buildings in Majorca. 3). and the great stone lions of Koptos. is a t Oxford (K 142)~ the other is in fragments. 51. Other flint figures of the hartebeest and ibex are a t Berlin (K 116. the attachments of which are seen below it. I. ii. 13) vaguely dated to 44-64. painted with red and black stripes. IO). the bucranion over the shrine of Shedti in the Fayum (Labyrinth. till S. xiv). is from Naqadeh 1503. hollowed out. between 31-44 (M. 24. the painted skulls of oxen and goats in the " pan graves " of the Nubian invaders of Egypt. li. Ox : commonly found from the earliest age. b 139). with the horns curving downwards. li. pl. Of isolated figures there are three in limestone. The later type with wide-spread horns. pl. one in breccia. was found in grave zo Gerzeh. of date 36. 14.33-46 (hartebeest). xxix. On combs they are figured a t 33 (leptoceros ?). mainly entire. The upright horns are seen on a limestone figure. xxi. At Mahasnah was an ivory cow. The most usual amulet of early times was the bull's head. conventionalised. Upright horns amulet.D. (N. There are here three dated examples. The early type seems to have the incurving horn on a level. 6-10. (A. I t continued in use. 21. 91. 73). This amulet seems connected with the magic value of the bucrania placed over doorways (Hierakonpolis I. of S. ix. as i t has 1 1 a plug closing a hole below the head.D. ix. b I ~ z ) and four. vii . Claws of green serpentine are found a t 60 (N. In all these the horns are usually curving forward. occurs in limestone (N. 27. from a game. sometimes downward. There were also four clay cows of 37-43 . only once upward. 2 green serpentine. and only one vaguely dated example occurs a t about 64. occurs on the white-lined pottery (N. one of which. and to that age must be placed the alabaster lion. alabaster (3). see Amulets. brown serpentine. li. is figured K 152. two from Dios. 12 . and see the palette N. Others have corkscrew horns. lx. The examples here are in ix. xxix). which is probably about 60-65 S. no. In the close of the prehistoric and early dynasties the lion figure is often found. 6. 17). 93.). lviii. white with black stripes and white with red stripes.77-81. 3. see Gerzeh. or Barbary sheep. 4. is unknown in the carvings. The claw. not so early as the ox. and in a very rude form till the ist dynasty (Ab. 21. There are here nine pottery kine. A gazelle hunted by a dog is on the fragment xlviii. p.35 (gazelle). At El Amrah of 31 (A. and one from Tarkhan rz56. and never wide-spread. those here. see xxiii. of 34 (ix. but are not dated (M. U 379 of 67. 25. viii. 6. Ixi . N. The ram couchant is found as an amulet in green serpentine. IZ). and one of pottery (M. vii. The audad.D. probably after 60 in any case. 4. 5 carnelian. of 32 (ix. viii. 5). The hartebeest is figured . One with shaggy fleece is dated to 44 (D.

4 N.as aship standard. 10)of 34-38 A large granite figure. and the Hierakonpolis ivories (H. . 33-41. xliii. 6. which will be discussed with the tusk pendants . Other examples of the same are of bone (z). xxiii. Other hippopotamus figures are of ivory (xlvi. The hippopotamus goddess Ta-urt is figured holding the crocodile by the tail. and the rounded nose of the elk. from the prehistoric town at Nubt. I t is here in ivory. I). The examples here are of bone. and engraved on slate. 4). but the work is too good for anything after the pyramid age. There is also a pot-mark (N. is at Athens (K 139). I t is found as a slate palette at 34. I. 30. on a fragment of a thincylindrical object (xxiv). ELEPHANT. 63. ix. 63 is of alabaster. Two vases have heads upon them (xxxvi. aard-vark. viii. 20 G. xxiii 5. I t is therefore possible that the disc ii. FALCON : commonly called " royal hawk. 6. of limestone. and N. ii. of s. 16. xvi. and on a pottery box at 35-41 (A. 45 . or any later age that we know. 2. li. 15. and might becoptic. An amulet of horns made of noble serpentine was found with malachite. which became much rarer as the elephant was driven southward. pl. and as a plug pendant at 45. 30 of grey-brown steatite has an imitation plug at the top. lx. without any hole or attachment. HORSE. 5.D. B 101). The disc is double convex. I t occurs also as the head of an ivory hair-pin. no. and a rhomb of calcite. but the upward turn of the front makes that impossible. xlvii. little square ivory plaques with finely cut figures of this animal in sunk relief are in ii. in the same limestone. see ix. before the tusks lengthen. Probably later. figured on the white-lined pottery xix. it seems to be an animal with small eye and mouth. 27. in clay at 36-38 (A. 7) of 38-73. 71. viii. A flint flake chipped as a hippopotamus was found a t Kahun (Kahun. 14.xvi) . pierced to hang as an amulet . are pendant plugs with a circular top pierced. A very fine slate palette of falcon shape is in the palette series. 39 (D. 72). 17. 71. I t is more clearly seen on the fragment of a duplicate of this at Berlin (K 38). been supposed to have been introduced long before. 18). Two ORYCTEROPUS. I t is drawn on white-lined pottery before 34 (xviii. or ant-eater. The date is unknown. 4.D. ix. Of the figures here ix. is of S. of pink limestone.12 ANIMAL FIGURES as a slate palette. and on the hair-pin. broken and turned on end) . 53. palettes in the form of an elephant (N. and potmarks of 33 and 37-48 (N. 48. pl. Four hippopotami are in the round on an ivory spoon-handle (N. Of sard it is found as an amulet at 77 and 78 . this is not impossible. the elephant appears on the Mill statue (Koptos. xliii. No. with a rudely outlined horse on it may be prehistoric . and a head of limestone. 4 c. 3. 12). These have evidently come from the inlay of a box. A deer with pal. three of clay. The incision is not at all like the work of the xviiith dynasty. in the group N 721 (N. 65) which have been termed bippopotami . of alabaster (viii. vi. and of thin sheet-lead which probably covered a wooden case now decayed. PORCUPINE : probably intended by the spiny figure with a long head spine below the lioness on xlviii. as viii. xxiii. HIPPOPOTAMUS of the commonest animals : one in early Egypt. undated. the common material of early times. 14. in grave N 632. zz). and they may well be late prehistoric. Three indistinguishable quadrupeds. The same type is also found in glazed quartz (N.There is a fine incised figme on a slate palette. 11. 7 of bone. on the base of which is a serpent cut in green serpentine. xlvii. 8 of yellow and black serpentine. The regular type with a thick body cut off square at the tail is dated to 44-64. it is of ivory. xi. xi). ix. a small ebony peg remaining in the edge of 14. and a frontal horn. p. and also in clay and cut in limestone as a plug pendant (D.C. 44. however. I t has. as flint figures enter the dynastic period (Abydos I. 72. 28 is of brown steatite." is first found in the form of the early royal emblem on a crescent. 21). N. See also limestone ix. 6. are of unknown age. 5. grey steatite.5 (D. xliii. iii). lx. from a comb) . 36. as a large modelled figure of pottery at 41 (D. viii. Another figure. xxvi. lxv. see Amulets. on the ivory xlviii. Ibexes are on a large comb of the later period. lxiii. 5) .800 B. 62. and green serpentine. apparently on a boat. in the grave N 1475. cut in bone. and 65 of hard buff limestone. schist. IS).liate horn. K 44. is difficult to understand . The horse has not been found represented in Egypt before the xviiith dynasty. and they can only be young elephant heads. li. of 44-55. and is probably therefore as late as the xiith dynasty . xli. 41 b). 17. and to have become extinct (K 190). I t is figured. ix. R 134) . like a thick lens. I t is also a ship ensign at 47 (N. which could be most nearly paralleled in the rhinoceros. lxi). 29 and 31. when it was brought from Central Asia by the movement of the Kassites into Babylonia about 1. very clumsily done. 11. 22.

the whole surface has been jabbed closely with a pointed tool. such as in Amulets. so the date is not known. to 11. right arm raised. of about 65. 2.ANIMAL FIGURES 13 BIRDS otherwise not clearly defined . 2 to 13 . 18 of grey steatite. Egyp. K 67. 65 ? painted on pottery. 41 a vase of white limestone. Serpents of chipped flint are found. there is are the earliest piece of glaze. Serpents round vase. behind him a long neter. to indicate the roughness of the skin. 19. vi. as the red limestone head ix. vii) 32 . The whole work resembles that of the sealings of the 1 iind dynasty. B 102. are found in limestone. 8 has an impression of a wooden stamp on the head. xi. from S. and 20 of ivory. see N. of 33-48. as is ix. z. of 65 (N. and as the 3 favourite head to ivory hairpins. 34. xxiii. This group of serpents and rosettes is almost exactly the same as on the Indian naga steles. xliii. xlvii. two bars (like taui). which may be prehistoric. A fine porphyry turtle with the legs and head well formed is stated to be a mace head. xii. NILE TURTLE first seen on a white-lined is bowl. pl. but a t that time I doubted its genuineness. as also may be the fish of steatite viii. 23. 5-8. A. see the ivory knife-handle here. B 83. xxiv . and a t a late date. 33. and (perhaps of xiith dynasty) a grey marble head with copper rings for eyes. 31 . see Royal Tombs 1 . with rosettes or flowers between them. Others are viii. A slate fish in the round. FROG never drawn. another bar. also as figures of chipped flint in dynasties o and I (A6ydos I. xlvii. xliii. 9-18 . and only in the later prehistoric age. and on several other vases of the same age. The coiled serpent is found as an amulet of lazuli (Amulets. a hemi-disc (? kha). xxix. xxiii. below that a t sign. 4. and pl. Below is another men (?) sign. 31 (D. N. 37 of alabaster. lx. the part of a similar handle a t Berlin (K 38). SERPENTS are occasionally figured on pottery (F 66) as K 125 in relief. similarly the other main emblem of historic times-the royal falcon-rarely appears. : occurs on white-lined pottery. broken in fragments. N. as xxii. of indistinct purport . 7. where they are of nearly all periods. of S. 2. undated. as xvi. and K 96. which was prevented from sticking by interposing a piece of very thin muslin. but is found carved. The main examples of the serpent are towards the close of the prehistoric age. Thus the nraens never appears. vi~i. 14-17. viii. 3 . a flying bird chippedin flint. xlviii. It is held up by the goddess Ta-urt. xxii. They are also very usual as the ornament on combs. K 33. 8 . an oblong block (? men). ix. v. and on late Decorated D 78 c f. SCORPION of 34 or earlier. lines on either side of it. I of 40-51 .D. 19 of grey-green steatite. : appears on the white-lined bowl of CROCODILE 34 ?. W. of 34 ? xxiii. D.. 10. I t was modelled at an early time in clay. 61. Coiled serpents. xxvi. xxvii. z. and a bone figure ix. It appears on one of the later slate palettes (Rise of the Dynastzes) . xlviii. two pottery birds viii. before him a uraeus the end of which is under the feet. both standing and flying.D. 35. EELSof pottery rarely occur. and other serpents only a t a late date . Fishes are painted on the white-lined pottery xviii. a god with head of falcon (?) or eel. xxiv. and black and yellow serpentine . Other figures in the round are apparently not early. It was a usual figure for slate palettes. 6. Unfortunately none of these have been fonnd in recorded work. vii. The stamping represents a disc. D. and a short bar behind. 21). are favoured. Unfortunately none of these are from known graves. two bird-form vases viii. when the entwined serpents. FISH very commonly copied for slate palettes are of all periods. See figures in N. xvi. 33 onward. on the ivory relief. 14. p. but not on the Decorated. It is not found as an amulet before . There is one dated example of a frog amulet. 7 has a hole in the base. as xlvii. 33. xlv. of brown serpentine. divided into sections.see the fancy pottery F 68. xxiv. 7. 96 f . dated to 33-41 in D. jg and 40 of bright green limestone. 38 of black and white marble. with incised. 10. zo G to 22 B. a falcon with the triangle da before it. 71. is probably prehistoric . xii. 6-11 .D. left arm down with onkh. 1 2 . 9. and here. The most usual place for bird figures is in the series of slate palettes. Pottery figures of a flying or standing bird are not uncommon. 52. and therefore of 31-40 . of Perabsen . Flamingoes are a usual design on the Decorated pottery. F 69 . Q 709). as there are nine here in the fancy forms. 2. in a single or double form. ix. 42 a vase of black serpentine with the feet carefully marked. 1917. 179. vii. and on a limestone lid of a jar. the pelican ? as a t Hierakonpolis . 5. xliii. 78 F. ten pottery bird-form vases. i t is a t Berlin. lviii. and the grand gold-leaf handle of a rippled flint knife a t Cairo. xhii. 7. Fish-shaped vases are often found of 33 to 40 s. see also the Mesopotamian twined serpents in Anc. 96 e). A large coiled serpent of blue glazed pottery was on sale at Luqsor about twenty years ago.

19. 11517-20. Yet-strange to say-the colouring and designs have survived down to the present time in the highlands of Algiers. xxiii. 5 . x-xviii. I. pl. 86 . 19 . mostly now at Oxford and Manchester . 35. 11. mostly chevrons . iv. 4. Garstang. C 11.D. 2. or Gizeh and Rifeh. 10 out. 1438. N 52. Q 11573. It was the name. 45-49 objects . here in pls. The oval tray. M xxiv. LOCUST only found in one large figure of bright : green limestone. A bowl with six radii of 5 lines each is in D. 08. many graves without it are classed into the same range by statistics of the other pottery. lviii. But. 76. of a pre-Menite king. pls. 91. 1-6. Or combined with a counter-chevron in nos. z : Arch. and commonly found at Hierakonpolis in this connection. 85 b. 79 a b . Rhombs shaded with parallel lines are sometimes found. see ix. in which references will be given to all the parallels that are published. Q 11518-9. 17. as nos. They are classed here according to the character of the designs. ix. viii. 11502. and 80 ? in 1528). lines.r4 THE WHITE CROSS-LINED POTTERY about 70. Q 23) Two of pink limestone and one of green serpentine are undated . but spots are one of the rarest decorations of this age. iii. 78. as nos. or. Survey Nu6ia (R) I . rrgro.X-X~III) 24. Even the spot patterns. 75 a b. xiv. spots. in Catalogue of Archaic Objects (Q) 36 (none important) . at Cairo. as here in lazuli of 40 (N 1858). is of 74 specimens (7 already published in following books) : Naqada (N) 53. Zigzags formed of lines all parallel are obviously from basketry. or title. and hence every example of it should be noticed and compared. x-xviii. copied here. 7. 1898. 77. Other radiating line designs are in Q 11498. and 3 is probably from the same idea. 4. 31-34. A 4. ix. 10. A 12 a . they run across the vandykes. A simpler use of round spots in rows is in M xxiv. El Amrah (A) 22 . 25. Mahasna. as no. H 45. 8. triangles . as in no. and ingreen serpentine of S. copied from the base of a basket. no. I. less usually. N 74. copied here. The chevron is the favourite use of parallels. 11528. I: L'Anthropologie. There is a bowl with this. yet the entire absence in all graves that are clearly of later date shows that only an insignificant amount could be placed later than the limits here assigned. Only the rudest graves with a single cup in them can be placed before the white-lined pottery. N 7. A 1 2 b . as will be noted in The Rise of the Dynasties. 84. shade a vandyke. 14. may be copied from the ribs of basketry. H C. 77. N 56. The motive which clearly underlies the ornament is that of basket work. FLY: a frequent early amulet. Another class has a central patch or group. BEETLE the long Sudani beetle was an amulet. . The series at the College. As to the period of it. The examples are not widely published. a contrast to the constant use of it shaded.37. X F. 6 0 7 4 animals. Parallel lines were only exceeded by the crossed lines as a favourite means of design. Or with rhombs in no. and others in N 60. and D 31 b. 16-21 . 45. as nos. 22. Sometimes. and occurs at the beginning of the ist dynasty. pl. rhombs. sometimes alone. 55 from Tarkhan of the same age. unless as shading. 3 . 11575 I t is combined with parallel lines in no. 6. 34 . Zigzag lines are sometimes found. and shaded with crossed lines. as it is hardly practicable to republish them here. 27-44 crossed lines . probably copy the little hollows in a piece of over-cast basketry. following the circular weaving of a basket. The plain block vandyke is rare. as N 34. M xxvii. 93. and parallel lines sloping round a tube in N 85 c. 1 . such as that in Qurneh xxvi. It occurs in a group at 60 (N. 46 (Tarkhan 11. : as found at Abydos in dynasty o (Abyd. the range is placed to S.D. I . 15. 7-26 parallel lines. Q 11505. see Q 11503. No trace of this class has been found in the later prehistoric periods or the historic times. Q. A 22. See also Q 11529.D. Or with zigzags. CHAPTER V THE WHITE CROSS-LINED POTTERY pLs. but are unusual . as I. g. H 35. xxvi. 62 . Cemeteries of Abydos 11 (C) 3 . A 3. hence it is not made an arbitrary class. it must clearly come at the beginning of the first period.D. Mahasna (M) 14. D 27. S. xxiii. 11579. I t might be expected that a few examples would linger on later than S. 43. 79 . The subdivisions are stated in the description. 8. THIS class of pottery gives the most insight as to the abilities and ideas of the earliest civilisation of Egypt.xiv) 1 and in crystal here ix. 11-15 . altogether 208 specimens. possibly a few of rougher and degraded style may be later . Parallel lines are also unusual. 11574 . 23. as in distribution it is the opposite to the wavy-handled class which begins at 40 and runs on to the historic times. Diospolis (D) 10. 13. see N 85 d . 50-59 plants .

turning in sharply.74 . 59. 29. Triangles with parallel lines between are sometimes used. Other leaves are wide and curve outward. and difficult to distinguish. 16. in some instances but not in all. 51. nos. Others curl inward. 319. 38. N 2. apparently controlled by two men at the right hand. 11571. 41. 56. 4. The plants are the most usual decoration. Q 11499-11501. as 53. 65. A 9. like shading. a middle stem. Q 11517. Q 11517. A branching tree with narrow leaves is figured once on no. 31. I have to thank Miss Garlick for some suggestions of names. The upper animal on 67 looks like an oryx at the head. N 85 d . but the length of tail could only be intended for a jackal. With this form of ship dated so early. 25 : N 6 to 24. or hunted. as on the next. That such ships with cabins wereused in the period of white-lined decoration is proved by a bowl which is copied here. Lawsonia alba. C I I . and what may be intended for splashes of water caused by the hunted crocodile. 58. M xxiv H 15 . as on nos. The other great class of design is the crosslined triangles. xxiii. and a stork below. Another stem has leaves curling over outward at the end. pl. no. the forward position of the horns resulting from their being noticed when grazing. 60 may possibly be a degraded plant form. 76 . as nos. showing also the oars. Below are three hippopotami. 11577 . The bowl 61 has three scorpions around it. as N 44 . as nos. 57. I . 33-37. as no. Radii may also be cross-lined. 68 . The row of five objects on 45 are unexplained . A 8. 68. and two H odd. but merely shade over the whole triangle uniformly. The large crocodile that fills the middle is shut in by hurdle-work above. D 4 3 a b . see Q 11535. xxiv H. and in the prow is the branch for shading the look-out. 36. perhaps Pe$lis portula. and hippopotami on 71 and 72 are fairly well done. and bands or squares in no. A bud with pairs of broad leaves below it is used geometrically in N 48. by dogs. A 21. A 5. D 31 a. 59 . The oval dish 63 appears to represent a crocodile hunt. possibly the sont acacia. A dog seems to be intended by the figure in the middle of no. 10. The cattle on 70. must be an ichneumon. On 46 the lower row look like stone axes let in to stout wooden handles. xxihi. Large triangles are mixed with groups of small triangles in no. iv. 43 a b . xxvii . 11578 . 4. Cross-lined chevrons are placed around a central circle. No. The lower animal.73. They are not merely one or two conventional forms. H72. and show a remarkable interest in artistic figures. 2. cross-lines are put over the whole vessel. but that is unusual. Cattle are figured on 66. On another the leaves bend down sharply. 44. 28. M xiv. c.THE WHITE CROSS-LINED POTTERY I5 24. xxvi . 09. as the lines scarcely ever meet down the middle. as 54. N 21-24. so usual on the later Decorated pottery. Rarely. 9. There is the long outline. (Q 11508 7) . The cross-lines may be only to express solidity. seems to he shown in plan on 49. Q 11533. by the length of curve of the tail. R. 26.69. N 28. with square objects attached at the sides. Lastly. 40 to 43 . Q 11535. Mxxiv. Q 11531. the oars along the sides. pointed at each end. possihly a yoke with crossbars to hold the animals' necks may be the source. D 31 a. 13. Triangle and counter-triangle occur in 32 . A 6 . I. 11566-7. 54.40. p. and the upper row may be stone hoes. 67. hut eleven different kinds are distinguished one from another. C 11. 69.. The horned beast on 69 seems surrounded. Sometimes hatched triangles are mixed with line chevrons. The chevron sometimes has a mid-rib. 11. a wavy line across them for the water. the two square cabins marked by the cross sticks of the roofing. 27.T. I t may he a palm-leaf.50. 59 . 26. which is probably a degradation of a crocodile figure. A flowering plant with drooping bell flowers is on no. The plain hatching in four or five triangles. The simple stem with straight leaves is the most usual. s . 34 to 40. A 15 . 27. and 21 . 28. 24. zo (branching). for a good figure see xxiii. 5 . there need be no hesitation in recognising the ship on the oval tray 49. or appear thick and fleshy. See also N 26-30 . 58. as nos. are often shown. No. Animals are often summarily figured. 7 . N 36 . M xi. 62 has a wavy pattern. the bristly hair being represented upright. The ship. 15. tufts of grass or reeds are placed above water lines on no. 32 . and less natural on Q 11570 and . On 68 are probably dogs above. as nos. the lines are always straight and uniformly spaced. The various kinds of objects represented are the more instructive matter. D 43 a .42. as in 39.41. Wide rhombic leaves in pairs. i v . These hardly seem derived from the chevron triangle. perhaps the henna. with some inflorescenpe on the stem.84. 55. probably connected with the rope with coiling end before them. 64 . appears curved owing to foreshortening over the curve of the howl . apart from any utilitarian or magic intention. A strange object is on 47 and 48.

2. points to the source being in a rocky country of variegated stones. a neck. ~35-41 (A xii). headless. 63. or may be to express rapid motion. M xxiv. Goat. and probably of a fresh race. Jackal. The various figures of animals published here and elsewhere. Fish. and deer (36 c). wearing the sheath. C 6). Q 11570. with little clay for pottery. . nos. 2. Another. 74 : xxiii I . A 21. These point therefore to the simpler styles of decoration being really contemporary with the first prehistoric age. . 93. xxiii. I. 61 . nos.D. spreading horns.. long-tailed. . 2 . The long-haired man is probably of the usual prehistoric people. A 21 . pot-mark N 15. 67. Neither figure seems to have any other clothing. 31-35 s. see Hierakonpolis. 63.D. These belong to the age when the .and short-haired men. are as follows. Of the wide type the only complete ones are on a bowl from Mahasna (xxiv. 31-39 s. H. Dog. who wears a hanging appendage. no.D. xxiii. 74. 13 w). Remembering the Nubian rahat fringe. A man hunting hippopotami. M xxvii. no. all appearing at once. 70 . upright horns. I. Stork. All these are very rare and sporadic . Two other figures of men. nos. 2). the spiral (35 a). and two fresh types come in later. The ship type begins at 45. The most distinctive is the vase here. At 40 there is a sudden burst of new types. nos. 68 . . yet there can be no question as to the early date. no. perhaps a daggersheath . it seems that this was the usual covering for women in the early prehistoric age. with a combat of long. 68. like the zigzag lines joining the outlines of quadrupeds. The animal with diverging horns and long hair on the chest is the audad. and having the long hair as often actually found on the bodies. and a girdle of fringe ending the figure below.D. M xiv . no. D 93. but in an adjoining region from which they were rarely imported. xxvii. 72 . pot-mark N 11. D 93. and another figure of a long-haired man hunting oxen is on a bowl. Elephant. and some enlargement for a head above.D. 31 to 39 there are a few examples . forward horns. 6. 66. imitates marbling. I. Hare. and one of the earlier ones. 31. 71 : xxiii. no. The zigzag line connecting the legs may be expressive of their connection in one figure. as it shows so much of the products of which no other traces are left. The numbers with letters are corflus types. is on a painted pottery box of s . xxiii z . N 91. C 11.. Hippopotamus. are on a bowl. This marks the entry of a fresh civilisation. desert sheep (Ouis tragelaflhus) . no. wearing the sheath. with references : Scorpion. C 11. 88) : these are formed as an hour-glass figure of two triangles for the shoulders and hips. I. 73. He is successfully attacking the short-haired man. at 46 s. CORPUS PLS. 71.D. no. Ibex. . N 97 . xxvii. young? D g 3 . N 98 . of the early period. 59 c d). 73 . Giraffe. M xiv . well defined and separate. XXXI~XXXVII) 32. z : M xiv . the animal with parallel curved horns is doubtless the ibex. pot-mark N 22 (s. A 17. xxvii. 95. 38). C 11. in 36 of marbling (63 c). vii. 2 . which class is the most remote from the usual age of decorated pottery. From S. and two women are on xxiii. no. There are also two rude diagrams of men on no. 63 .. 73 . 65 ?. D 93.. Antelope. and in 39 rush-bands appear on a larger scale (68 a). 69 . 67. xxvi . M xxvii . Audad. suggesting that he belonged to a colder climate. xxiii. I. That the forms are taken from stone vases.. the flamingo (41 m) and the row of hills (55 a. in 37 of chequer (29 a). in S. 36. M xxiv. 66. no. River Turtle. M xxvii. Figures of women are very rare. Small birds. 64. A 17 . 2. 96 ? Man. xxiii. 56 b. CHAPTER VI THE DECORATED POTTERY (PLS. no. as 10 g is associated in grave Naqadeh 1449 with two of the cross-lined bowls (C I. Ichneumon. On 73 the larger animalmust be the African goat by the wattles on the throat. Lastly come the human figures. xxiii. 30. Crocodile. xxiii. A portion of a similar figure is on the bowl with a boat (pl. XIX-XXII . A woman is on the bowl xxiii. 95 . ' Ox. I t may be divided into three stages. The dots down the legs of the vanquished figure may express hairiness.16 THE WHITE CROSS-LINED POTTERY xxiii. which are very scarce. no. 63. aloe (36 a). in 31 of rush-band pattern (10 g. THIS is the most important class of remains for the detail of the second period.. N 91. N 93.

not dated. Thus marbling was used over the whole of the middle period . so they cannot have been for kohl.D.D. In the next stage of "Early Dynastic " are included the triple-line pottery of 6 3 7 4 s. xxxv). later than in Egypt.D. the others with pierced handles. I t is most like the pottery D 68 m and s at about 60. are of about 60-65 by the Wavy-handle series. and with 63 they entirely disappear. Another new type of brush-work appears. they were only following the cheap shams of thousands of years earlier.N. 63. Beyond these types there are only left rough groups of lines without any structural meaning. 60. are very plainly seen on 4 a to 4 c. 65 and onward. and the wavy-handled of 57-66 S. This change was not only a negative one. and Late Prehistoric.D. and continue to S. type 14.D. the first two with ledge handles.S. Type 2 here in the corfius denotes the wavy handles with line patterns . together with all the line patterns down to 12.D.D.D.S. but they never have any galena or malachite in them. ranging from 36 to 71 S. as on type 12. I b is dated to S. 33. 43 t. 60.and are obviously late by their coarse style. 63. but from the forms of W 3 b (42-3) and W 3 d (48-53) it might be placed at about 45 . and the bands of lines on 2 s. I b is very badly splotched with a brush. 69. 320). see corpus. z k is dated to 52 . but some new styles come in. or the latter half of the second period. and accords in form with W 43 dated 57-66 . d. wavy-handled pots of S. Similar cords and cross-plaiting is the origin of the chequers on type 29 . and when the cords were forgotten the squares of connecting cords like 10 n were left isolated.D.. type 78 b (Diospolis). and coming from the hills they noticed the contrast of hill and plain.D. the fact is that such jars were entirely over and gone before the Royal Tombs of the ist dynasty. 60 . 31. 77 (Tarkhan 2057) or 80 in type D 74. where later degradations of them are found.THE DECORATED POTTERY 77 new-comers were well settled in Egypt. At first sight it might seem that these three natural divisions of periods agreed with Dr. joined by bands. however. Those terms. I d has been sprinkled with a brush of colour from three directions. may have been intended to imitate some crystalline stone. The spotted vases. There was no absolute dating. reference should be 492) of 58 s.D. 34. held together by alternate squares of cross-plaiting. Such rush-work we know in modern times on the Italian oil flasks. Reisner's Early. a spiral pot (E. of the decay and loss of types. The purpose of the twin vases. they may be classed with the statement (A.D. and 2 n. The style of pattern would agree with such a date. which entirely prevent attributing these wavy line patterns to imitation of veins in stone. and the flat pots 62.D.D. They are always small. The end of these naturalistic designs is almost as sudden as their beginning. 63 b. Middle. The collar and base of rushwork. vi. m.. 3 . as if for toilet use . pl. refer to Nubian periods. xxxvii. At least it is plain that the " Late Prehistoric " there includes the spiral pottery of 44-64 s. 1907. I t degrades in late times 0 into groups of lines without any meaning and placed irregularly. it is difficult to fix exactly of what age the divisions are. vertical and horizontal. I m resembles the stone type at about S.D. 329) that plain cylinder jars with cord pattern have "never been found in Egypt before the ist dynasty " . and others at Tarkhan extending to 80. beginning in S. 8. is not knotvn. in two or three comma-like strokes (66 b to p. In type 13 the original form is evidently vertical cords around the vase. The imitation is best done on the latter two . Such rush cording belongs to the earliest stage of the vases. entirely copied from basket-work.. p. Thus the divisions would be about zo S. pl. 63 c. The meaning of these wavy lines.D. so far from the painted pots of the xviiith dynasty being early imitations of fine stones. There was a diminution after S. as on 21 d of 75 S. to hold a conical cap. before they were made in Egypt. 35. I b. they took the flamingo of the Delta marshes as a subject. Other imitations of marble are the bowl 65. made to hold the stone vases. are imitations of mottled stone.D.D. used for the same reason-the difficulty of hanging or carrying vases without handles. They extend from 48 to 60 s. also 33 a. type 16. As there was not a single object with a royal name in the proto-dynastic Nubian series. I d is like W 3 g of D~ospolis. Nubia. t. Presumably they were for some liquids which have entirely vanished.. which are stated to be later than equivalent stages in Egypt (A. The barrel-shaped pots with an internal brim. The tall jars with rough figures of animals begin in S. seems to be a copy of twisted rush-work covers. We turn now to consider the types of the Decorated pottery in the corfius. of S.D. s. the boat pottery of 40-63. so as to show the vase between the cords. As to the date of these. begin at 64 or 65 S. as in 1 g and 13 w of S. and as there are no reasons given for these dates.

where wavy lines join the edges of two spirals. types 40 to 48. Along with the aloe are often figured bushes. The features of the ships on the pottery we may notice. 43 b. which is the main subject of type 36. The flowering plant. Now the details are all against such a rendering. a wavy line for a water ripple runs between them. and one turn round the outside to finish the spiral. the groups as 3j a are of 40-50 . 3).D. A late variety has a wavy line placed between the spirals. which were made by a group of brushes. From that the long central stem rises. the details show unquestionably that the figure is that of a ship. Similar ships (or forts) are figured on the painted tomb of Hierakonpolis (s. 26 a. The tying-up rope dangles from the stem. Moreover the nummulite is usually seen in cross section in limestone. and the study of detached large spirals would be later. In vi. beginning with the stem. Of these 36 p might throw light on the species intended. 49 is the top view of a ship . Yet other evidences come from the earlier pottery of the whitelined on red.D. This system of work extended to the spirals. I t is never represented as springing from the ground. The spirals have often been put down as imitations of nummulites in limestone. If the source were nummulitic the continuous mass would be the earlier. it cannot possibly be a fort. Four brushes are used thus. in order to speed the work. or 4. 40. It has been proposed that these represent forts. of an indeterminate kind. according to the number of brushes field together. 44 d. one of the ships (or forts) at Hierakonpolis has the very high end. and bush. 40-45 . Rather later than the spiral. inspired by trying to fill up the face of a small ovoid pot. as 36 a. as 67. 1917. I t is to be hoped that writers will consider the facts. but always in a tub or vessel. The single spiral as 31 belongs to S. and a branch at the prow. At the bows . 35 n. as 36 k. aloe. exactly like a figure o a ship with a square sail on a vase f in the British Museum (pl. ~ . about S. as type 31. As a different interpretation has been put upon these. as 36 b. c. 63). though without oars. 3. around which the leaves hang. these cannot possibly be forts. it is quite meaningless for the sides of a fort. I t might be due to a spiral mat of twisted rush applied to each side of a pot. So far as we can imagine a meaning for this plant here. it would be funereal. is later. as 25 a. and in the bows is always a branch as a shade for the look-out. The history of the type does not favour this view. This is obviously in agreement with the ships on the pottery. which probably represents the concentric sheaths of leaves round the base. 45. then three or four turns made in the middle by free hand. On another early dish (xxiii. and that the oars represent sand-ripples. detached. 38. Above it is a double arch. as shown by the thick colour beginning all along the same radius. 39. and in 67 d dated to 58-63 s . p. to influence the survival of the departed soul. as hinted by 31 a. and joined down the edges. 37. the figures of ships begin to appear. There is a steersman holding the steering paddle at the stern. Further. except one in pyramid times. the two cabins are marked by the cross lines of the roof-thatch. of 46-58. but no such spindleshaped form is ever painted . at the bow (right end) is the branch. On the ivory knife-handle in the Louvre (Ancient Egyet. around the ship are the oars projecting with large blades. The ostrich-farm theory is still more impossible. with two block-houses forming a pylon entrance.r8 THE DECORATED POTTEI~Y 36. This difference of the two ends is entirely in the nature of a ship. as it has loose little branches projecting. with triangular blades. being a desert plant the aloe can survive the drying up in such a situation.D. or the doctrine of similars. 2) is an obvious figure of a ship and similar oars. or a large tub like the cabins of the ships. xxiii. 27) are ships of both the types which are seen at Hierakonpolis. and it is occasionally watered. standing in threes grouped together. overlapping . Schweinfurth. as 32 1. and below ships on 43 a. Three brushes continued to be used in the coarsest late work. with square cabins. and there is no instance of nummulitic limestone being made into vases. is an aloe according to Dr. but the continuous surface of spirals. and may thus have a value in f sympathetic magic. On any lined vase it will be found that the lines are all multiples of 2. and not of a fort. as 36 d. and not so often revive impossible theories. I t is usual in Egypt now to place aloes in pots upon a grave . g. From its permanence it is regarded as an emblem of duration o life. The vessel is sometimes pointed. and usually a chair below it. or flat-based. and hangs over with a terminal flower. In all these various examples. The spiral rather seems to be a piece of pure ornament. it is needful to call attention to the facts. All of the line patterns ale largely influenced by a habit of holding three or four brushes together. and on his authority we term it such.

as 16 of Ra. set around a square base. 15. Double cross-barred . four. but might refer to a royal factory on the coast. where the hills are almost always a level table-land. where it can live for years without earth or water. 28 of Neit. acccording to Lane. iii). xvi : Kopt. 52-63 In the middle are the two cabins with a gangway between them. No such horns curving inward are usual in Egyptian hieroglyphs . 20. 2. with the same symbolism. the elephant. The aloe there is an emblem of vitality and long life. the regular Egyptian type is that of the wide splaying horns.D. Double . lxvii. In any case the gap in the oars would be needed for a clear way when at a landing bank. 4. 7 probably represents four pairs of horns. The two signs. . often placed in pots over the graves. . 16. with occasional . 21 are evidently local signs. a triple branch at 52 or 3 (47 a. both in the ist dynasty and in the later hieroglyphs. like the city signs of the owl of Athene 8r the caduceus of Hermes. and the separate flower 13. 19-21). they had annexes of less height (as also Naqada. 8 is a rougher form of 7. and also in North Africa (by the Carthaginians) it does not fix a region. 43 k ) The double branch is stiffly outlined a t 46 (45 b). The aloe as a town sign would be appropriate to any place where it freely grew. corresponding to the gap in the oars on the pottery drawings. over a seat for the look-out. 32 of Min . like the letters on the sails of fishing-boats. but are indistinct.. Such would be more likely along the Mediterranean coast than on the Nile. the falcon on a curved base. This probably represents some structure on the side similar to the red cabins . 5.. and by 52-63 this becomes a rigid double or triple mass of cross-lines (of 52-56 in 48 c. badly drawn.. 17 may be intended for the same or for a mace. Further. The groups of hills. I seems to be the shoulder and arms of a man. which occasionally appears in pre-dynastic times (marks ATaq. 14. 9 to 12. slate 43. The use of ensigns of ports on ships was well known later. No doubt some of these ensigns are religfous emblems. We may summarise it thus : Single branch . S. First is a plain branch (40 b. As the aloe flourishes now in Southern Italy. As it was known on the Nile. as on the Hierakonpolis ships. seem connected with the ideas still remaining in modern Egypt. S. 5 8 6 3 in 44 d). S. 18. may represent plants. iii. 37-48 : Dios. Behind the cabins is the tall pole bearing an ensign. the wide horns of the ox and lyre-shaped horns of the hartebeest are only found once. Thus the formalism of the branch progresses with date. nor are they likely to be personal marks of owners. as being seen from a distance. . before 46 . m. 45-63 . The frequent figures of the aloe upon the pottery. as well as these ensigns. 47 g . 14) : on the corners they had loops of withy (?) to serve to hold in the oars when stacked out of the way. and undated at 40 n. Referring to the separate signs. is hung as a charm over the doors of houses. 5) are essentially port signs. shaded by a branch. 46-50 46 . . aloe wood is used to burn in fumigating. Below the gangway the side of the ship is coloured red at Hierakonpolis. as such. 3. 41 d undated) . 4). particularly appropriate to ports. and. I) as the royal emblem . then a double branch at 46 (41 b) and 50 (46 d). and five hills (nos. it might be a hurdle that served to lift as a gangway to the shore. this probably belongs to the Nile Valley.D. 52. especially to a visitor on leaving a house. 33 . Of cosmic signs there is the sun.. These branches underwent changes in drawing(xix-xxii). Double formal Triple branch . further. 12. 41. xxxiv. where the towns were all on the alluvial inundated plain. That these ensigns (xxiii. and it serves as a good indication of age for vases without any tomb-date. as Strabo describes how the horse ensign of Gades was recognised when found in the Indian Ocean (11. perhaps with the idea of protection from coming evils. 19. I t is stated to hinder evil spirits from entering a house. 11. These are not known as signs of any deity. 58-60 in 51 b. such as is seen later at Hierakonpolis (xix. 53 .TIIE DECORATED POTTERY 19 is a branch or branches.D. but such would be very likely to be adopted as port signs where such deities were worshipped. The only plant represented is the flowering-stem of the aloe. The cabins are more fully shown at Hierakonpolis . 44 p. shown as in later times. I t seems very unlikely that four or five hills could be a sign of any place in the Nile Valley. I t is. is indicated by the three. 33-41) and earliest dynastic (Hier. Double or triple cross-lined . In one case an upper story appears as a shelter for a seated man. the commonest sign is the two pairs of horns: and 6 may be a variant of this. it was doubtless common on the sandy coast of North Africa.

and painted red upon the relief. On the Mediterranean. 88-94 . but on the other side are some figures of gazelles and flamingoes drawn with unusual delicacy and spirit. the crown of Lower Egypt (35-39). the hills favour belbnging to sea-ports. such as the falcon on a crescent (3). is found as a pot-mark (Nap. these appear to be occupied by women. the group of flamingoes began to be figured. xii. rowing galleys have been the most dependable vessels. liv. they are undoubtedly the flamingo. As he is also represented in the Oasis of Khargeh. . 50. 32 may be credited with the same connection. commonly used in the early prehistoric times . At first these were termed ostriches .and the cross for the arrows of Neit (28). the groups of horizontal lines with a flexure in the middle. Two remarkable vases should be noted. 43. The other notable vase is one with a ship moved by long punting poles. The double-pointed dart. might be worshipped at any desert coast. and with them on 41 m. Antelopes are represented from S. xvii. so that the outstretched wings are seen edgeways. 53 d. These signs are the harpoon. The nature of it is unknown. we find them as the main fighting force from Ramessu I11 down to Louis XIV. now so common on Lake Menzaleh. pushed from the shoulder exactly like poling on the modern dahabiyeh. is against these ensigns belonging to Nile towns. The sign 22 differs from others in being on a double pole. 58 (pl. viii). It resembles the Nile boat also in having a row of cabins upon it . Were they only for Nile traffic. 24. Just after the appearance of the ship design. Liv. In both of these cases the emblem on a pole seems to be intended for that of the god Min. Hence as a port deity he might appear at Qoceyr on the Red Sea. 31. with a slight shift at the body. but. 73-79). such appear above the flamingoes on 45 m. 29 and 30 are the harpoon. by the Koptos road. Sign 28 is probably the crossed arrows. and the absence of any of the known nome signs. S. and above each is a sign in relief on the pottery (marked by thin outline). and they may explain another part of the design. and the falcon and ostrich feather standard (s. oars would also be much needed. Nos. or other Egyptian products. iii). and the double form is like that of the relief figures on the Min statue of Koptos (K. 63. Similarly among the pot-marks is the plant of the south (4067). The main question to be solved is where these ships were trading. and as a pot-mark (D. as the coral reefs prevent tacking. he might have been taken as the deity of one of the Libyan ports on a desert shore. and the difficulties of navigation practically stopped the track from Qoceyr up to Suez. with the duplicated ends 32. 43 . No. On the contrary. as on 41 m. 51). and the crescent.D. These imply that a good deal of the historic Egyptian system has probably come down through the prehistoric ages. 55 a. 46. as also the following signs 23 to 27. or rarely for aiding in the descent on the current. The evidence of the signs of many hills for the ports is also strongly in favour of sea rather than river traffic. Ann. Not only is the drawing of this boat unique. in all ages. 45 m has three ships on it. On the Red Sea.D. 40 onward. though our scanty material of those long periods only shows some fragments of the story.D. oars are useless on the Nile. Forbes pointed out. I t is surprising to find several signs in exactly the form in which they were later used in Egypt. S. and therefore the signs. or at Koptos or Panopolis on the Nile. palm. as the stream can only be overcome by wind power. b. He seems originally to have been brought in from the land of Punt (see Athvibis. The single ends are like that of the sign in relief on a slate from El Amrah. I t is rather on some part of the coast of Syria or North Africa that so many hills would be found together.D. and oars only appear for crossing the stream. xxi. 25 are found also on slate palettes (D. 31. xxi. the regular symbol of Neit. It seems that this group represents a flock of flamingoes flying to or from the observer. N. 46 j.D. 8-g). 117-121 . the circle with a central spot for the sun (16). and two women stand out on the bows. or were they for the Mediterranean or Red Sea ? The use of a great number of oars is in favour of sea traffic. The bows seem to be a corrupt form of that on the vase Q 11557. 2). Min. hippopotamus. as my friend Dr.20 THE DECORATED POTTERY valleys : nor could these refer to the flat coast of the Delta. on pl. There is no connection between these and the ensigns of the ships below them. all about S. Dios. or of the common crocodile. iv. A. These marsh birds show that the Delta was well known to the designers of pottery . 42. as a god of the desert. I t seems to represent the pleasure-boat of some chief with the harem on board for an airing. 248-252 . the crocodile. Dios. for any fishing station this would be a likely symbol. I ~ o ) . I t does not appear therefore that these signs are quite distinctively of the river or of the sea. 45 m. Avch.

327 . papyrus bundles would not bear the pressure of water . s. and many pl. Nubia. perhaps of matting hung from a temporary mast. 48 c . There is no doubt that they are of the same age as all those designs .S. and 9 c a t 40 S. This may be to indicate that its place was between the cabins. 52). rather than with the design drawn. or hills. The model boats. pp. 81. 74 a. 77 has a row of men. and the stumps ground down. plants. or 12 lines. and drawing in along the sides with a curved outline. llke a steering paddle or a baler. and really belong to the school of white-lined pottery. 47. type 20 c. 46. 61-63. 44. as they are thin and well deepened inside. s.D. 67-69. 45 b. or be slung from a pole at the top. seem to be of a differentsource from the rest of the Decorated pottery. 47 g. The remaining forms might rather have been placed in the fancy class. it continued to be copied in very rough form to the iiird dynasty (Garstang. This form is well known in stone from S. see 41 m. d. matting would be made wider to avoid joins. is of S. 59 p. at Naqadeh they were of S. 27). attached to the suspensor knobs. 143. b. but the disproportion shows that the squat jars were produced nearer to Nubia than the ship jars. The rows of s figures. The material is not obvious. They never have any of the familiar design of ships. 52. was a sail. they have been broken off.D. and hanging down between ? The jar 59 t has apparently had large circular handles. whereas only a single ship vase (1909-10. making groups of 6. Are they possibly developed from loops for carrying the pot. between the suspensor knobs . I t has been called a shield. usually with little triangular knob suspensors.D. 78 c-f. flamingoes. n. I t seems never to be found except with ships. pl. next comes imitation marbling at 43 (63 b). and others apparently as late or later. 137. 43 .D. 45 b. S. stuck upon one of the cabins. The class of tall jars with rude figures is of the last age of the prehistoric. The bowls 71. 75. having been brought in with the second prehistoric civilisation . and then spirals at 46 (67 a). it was not looked on as) part of the ship. 45 b). The great difficulty of this view is that in no case is it shown upon the ship.D. I t has been suggested that they are a degradation of a flight of birds. 47 c. 45. The concentric semicircles of wavy lines. The squat type begins with rush-work patterns.. There was no tree with suitable bark. 45 b. 50 a b. as on 41 a.D. ending with mere wavy lines at S. at S. there is a strong suggestion that it.D. as they are of the same fabric. 1908-9. 60 and onward. show somewhat of construction. and three of 36. 72 are incised. 38 onward. It usually has on either side of it a small cabin like those on the ship.D. S. 1909-10. deer. of the end of the prehistoric age . and on the reverse of a ship vase (46 k). below ships (47 m). u. As also the ship jars bear the Delta flamingo they are probably northern. u. 27) is reported. or which would split in thin sheets . 45 b. See pl. Then follow crocodiles and serpents on 78 b. at the parts cross-shaded. 33. skins would be wider. The beginning of such decoration is seen in the crocodile hunt on 78 a (s. They seem to represent something connected with the form of the pot. 68 at 39 s. 97. m. 34 . I t is attached by cords to the top of a pole (41 j. 76 is a copy of a basket. The bowl 79 m has been painted with a triple brush. A puzzling object of artificial kind is shown below the ships on 41 d.1907-8. b. Nor were they dug-outs. but no shield would have a pole projecting below it. 48 c. and only set up occasionally. and unlike any other class of pottery. They only occur on wide pots. Perhaps as it was of small size. 113. 43 a. c. as they can hardly be called Decorated. xxvii). Probably none of these were made in Nubia. Malzasna. 48. I t is of some flexible material. 50 a. A later type. 35. are yet unexplained. which could be taken down when not required. .THE DECORATED POTTERY 21 sometimes with the aloe (36 c).D. b. incised. 80. as on 45 b. The plain undecorated forms are included with the others here. while the squat jars are southern. as the separate parts are clearly shown. 32. xxiv. and that seems to be the only explanation of them. The lines suggest longitudinal ribs with narrow strips running from side to side. and all were brought in from Egypt . of early date. . 32 . The family of squat jars. vary in position to a reversed N. j. 59 p. 9. Such boat models are early. and at the side of the vase in 43 a. 60.D. apparently stretched by diagonal sticks. painted with figures of sailors between the stripes. painted with their arms raised up.D. Now in Nubia the squat jars are not uncommon (A. u. p. n. at S. As it is almost always associated with the ships. are also incised. but as a piece of movable furniture. 116. pl. p. g). and separation of them from all the usual subjects seems to show that they were made by an entirely different school. They were evidently not mere reed floats. or over ships (47 b.

22 WEAPONS The earlier part of this Decorated class. 6. XXVI) 49. in a debased form. which comes from N 1488. 236). Unfortunately there are few well-dated examples published. xx. 2. coloured with black and white bands. like fig. The manner in which they were mounted for use is shown by the pair of maces with handles of ivory and horn (D. or another of 36-43 (M. and 63 (N. x. vii. thinned down a t the top to the size of the hole. Thus the form passes from a very shallow cone to a tubular projection. xx.D. vii. a go). 7). Ant. 2). a few limestone models. xliii. xix. like fig. There is a slightly concave outline. by later work and by types purchased.D. like fig. I . 36-43 (M. 11. 1443) and 34-38 (N 1416 . xii. ~ . Sarcophages. In this part therefore it seemed necessary to change the notation. CHAPTER VII WEAPONS XACES (PLS. I t o 19. The working handle must have been tough and pliable. v. 24 (N 690). Univ. xii. to 34 (A. and almost globular. 34. fig. 3). 4. of 35-40 (D. The Naqadeh series has been greatly extended. and the only likely form would be a strip of dried hippopotamus hide. and a very shallow planoconvex pottery model at 32 (N 1437). 50. or a band passing down the head. 2. xix. 2756. v. and at 34. 279. in the clay model. I) shows a spiral line around the handle.) . unfortunately very vague in date (3372). D. XXV. of 33-41 (D. 52 there is a full well-poised form. Of the dated examples the earliest discs are of a shallow cone form with slightly reflexed slope in s . the length of the whole being four diameters of the head . 27 (Gerzeh. between 44 and 70 (N. and of 42. it is absurd to suppose that a handle of ivory or horn cut so small would not be snapped if actually used. but as the scheme of the first year's discoveries proves to be so nearly what is needed. fig. A disc mace is found in Denmark (Mem. vii. A convex variation. 4470 (N. 86). and a thin concavo-convex form of debased style. No doubt a somewhat more consistent arrangement might be made throughout. appears at 38 in syenite (A. 34 (A. fig. 273. and on some pear-shaped maces a spiral line is represented. 2. as late as the xiith dynasty. A deeper plain cone is shown at 32. 36 of S. With the last was one of breccia. with a sharply tubular centre . with all the present material in hand. iv. ID. 4). 42 (N 1401). fig. This type continues as late as Hierakonpolis. go) : with a distinct concavity and longer hole. along with an exaggerated tubular form. prolonging the central hole. 86. so that no wedging on is possible. belong to 31 (N. A low globular form recurs at 55-63. 36-43. vii. 51. (N. At S. 12. is proved by the holes tapering to the flat top. 56.andnotanywedging as in a hammer. 31. are all that are later. At 60 is a higher form. Now the diameter of the hole in the head is often only a quarter of an inch. The earliest dated example is fig. vi. before 40 (M. and with the thin end long enough to pass down the outside of the head and coil round the handle. fig. Thatsomesucbbindingwasused. x. though elsewhere only a very few changes of the established corpzks have been tolerated. even in the largest. and the pear-form of the second period. is rather over five diameters long. see Riqqeh xxiii . weighing two pounds . Later there comes a deep cone with reflex outline. the globular form covering both early and later. of S. x. A. fig. by which time the painted imitation of stone had passed into an independent pattern. or with spots. The series of forms found at Hierakonpolis (early dynastic) are. 6. 62 c. short. erratic and debased. where they are smallest. The second type of mace is the pear-form. 3). 48. 3. 1914-15. LACAU. 42-46 (in R. 8. Thus it appears that as actual weapons they range from 31 to 42 . 3. 5). but other references given are to biconvex maces. and the purely ceremonial survivals at Hierakonpolis. fig. v. There is also a narrow barrel form. and there is no definite trend in those quoted. Limestone models.D. 3) : these are widest at the base. THERE two main types of stone maces are and their funerary imitations : the disc of the first period. another of probably the same agevaguely 31 to 44-is in M. it is better to avoid the confusion of the past records which would ensue on a general renumbering. of 37. 5). 37. A clay model of a mace on a handle. vii. has been re-arranged and re-numbered. at 52. 35-41 (N. nearly all. v. fig. vii. This latter (A. date about 35-40. A more flat-topped form appears at 43-48 (D. in the model. I O ~ ) . p p 104. in breccia (N 1241). 12 (N 1401). apparently). They continued to be figured among offerings. lime31 stone. 1071. 6. Nord. and many of the numbers assigned to the additions were incongruous. of date 34. a 102). 4). On reaching the proto-dynastic age . so as to secure the head from falling off. Coll. on handles).

figs. and conical lower ends .1g. 5). and Britain. Syenite. 59. 45 of basalt with nine irregular pits in the face . xx). I I . Wt. and fig. schistose 58. Denmark. GI. Syenite. The great ceremonial mace heads covered with sculptured scenes. Pointed maces are found in Italy. and 44 is of a type found at Hierakonpolis (H. the forms in various countries need to be placed together to distinguish the several different types. 21. Alabaster. 14. Hardlimestone. and bk. Limestone. Fig. I ? 7 2 Limestone.H. 49-65. The materials of these mace heads are : Porphyry. and it continued to be represented in the hand of the King slaying his enemies. I . Geobertite. 26. 42 is beautifully finished hard white limestone. . fig. perhaps brought by the protodynastic people from Elam. 48 B. found at Hierakonpolis. A hexagonal mace comes from Nubia (R 62 c. 30. 13. marble. 25. Hard wt. v. The ridged form. 63. 29 with eleven drilled holes filled with grey paste . limestone. 18. are of the form of fig. 30.. Syenite. Bk.. limestone. Syenite. 65. xxvii. Syenite. being of a hard dioritic stone it is not likely to be later. N 1488. 27. Ital. 60. Br. 42. Hard wt. have never been found in a recorded grave ... Town. 61. These here are all of the same design. 34. 70.D. Pink l~mestone. S. This type is found with the name of Khofra in his temple at Gizeh (Scarabs. Veined marble. 36. Brown alabaster. from the prehistoric town of Nubt. of date 37. They belong to the first period. xxvi~)nearly all have narrow bases. Breccia. hard pink and wt. Breccia. Breccia. Town. Pal. 75. 4. H. Ital.the great number found at Hierakonpolis ( H . 33. xxvi. Syenite. 3.. Koptos. 24. Hard alabaster. xxix. 71. are unusual. Town. 64 is an ovoid of red limestone. Alabaster. Alabaster. 57. IOZ).and bk. 55. figs. 101. N 1241. 46. Porphyry. Koptos. 18). 44. is rare. N 1401. 2. 20. and to the same in Nubia (R 62 c. N 690. 32. Hard marble. 44. with eight holes on each side. TI. with four knobs around it (Ancient Egypt. 40. 41 is from Koptos. as they are dated to 33-41 (D. Hard wt. and a wide dagger with three rivets. 45. to 36-43 (M. 4'3.marble. limestone. A long hammer-shaped mace of black and white porphyry. H 31. 52. N 267. 50.pinkish. 37. Brownish limestone. 63 are in hard white crystalline marble. Alabaster. 63. 7. 56.. Hard wt. and a boss on the stem between them. S. Limestone. 43. 60. Syenite. Breccia. Basalt.. Syenite. Drab limestone. limestone. Syenite. Crystalline marble. 43. 18.. Other forms of maces. 43. 10. marble. 38. 58 is the end view of an oval mace of shelly marble from Hierakonpolis. France. Hard wt. only the latter have a groove round the middle instead of a hole. 52. limestone. Pal. as 38. Alabaster. 5. shows how the drilling was worked from each side. They seem likely to be a foreign make. From Viterbese they are of Eneolithic age. 66. 47. Hard wt. 37. Hard wt. with pillowy copper adzes. Breccia. 54. see Bull. . 73. 69. 53. Alabaster. 51. The bottom row on pl. 15. Syenite. . Grey metamorphic. Porphyry. 68. 64. limestone. . 1. 16. Koptos. probably of the same age. but they are somewhat like a mace of the earliest age of Susa. Drab limestone. Porphyry. The axis of 60 is symmetrical as usual : 59 is a rare form with the points in the line of the base. 150-186) . probably early dynastic. 11. 49. with two horizontal bars at the sides. marble. 7 4 Naqadeh. Pointed maces. Lobedmace heads. 22. N 177. . 62. 6. 57. 42. 8.65. 19. 7. 65 in dark green chlorite. 39. dealt with later on. The broken example. S. Grey metamorphic. limestone. . N. Porphyry. 1917. Pear-maces are found in I t d y (Bull. Hard wt. 62. 33). Grey Marble. 28. 48. a pear-form head. 59. Peculiar examples are fig. 17. Chlorite. 12. 67. and wt. Brown limestone. Clay. xxvii. xxvi are spindle-whorls. pierced.11)~ also commonly figured on coffins of the xiith dynasty. H. 8). concave. down to the end of the temple scenes. 32. 61. . fig. H. Breccia. Syenite. I I . fig 53. Fig. 9. may be compared with H. Breccia. 41. 44 seem connected. of this group there are here figs. so neither region nor date is known. 35. are not precisely dated. 29. Hard wt. Alabaster. Diorite. Hard marble. 31 with a sign F cut on the upper part. fig. Alabaster.. H. 23. H.

and of 80 (R. 471. see two models of the xiith dynasty from Harageh. 18. ~ 1 38. 11-23. l-he material is seldom flint. and in the town. 1908-~. and this form continued to 59-63.. certainly of the first period by its association with the disc and pointed maces. 4 . b 21. The barbed type. The flint working of the prehistoric civilisation is so much connected with the general subject of flint working before that. 63 d. probably for fishing. He states that such axes are found in Nubia as late as the Old Kingdom . Another of full size. were after the ist dynasty (nos. a). B.. this continued to 46-53 and 48-53 (A. is known to be of the second period. xxvi. but.D. XXVII) 53. xxxv. xii. 1xv97) . early period. by the pottery found in it. On the suppression of the lower barbs. 8 (N 1215). The attachn'ent of the cord to hare poons is provided in the earliest by a notch cut above the lowest barb. as in the figures of Koptos (Koptos. The earliest. and after it down to the xviiith dynasty. 10. then 4. by N lxi 14 of 49-63. The main amount has been found in the lowest levels of the town of Koptos. A large size is of 54. one with a stop knob. xliii. The next in origin is the two barbed at 45. 40. grave N. STONE AXES (PL. 19. and one with a double head (Tools. 11 is a green slate arrow-head. of thin stem and a single barb. 38-9). also dated to between 44 and 63 (N 272) Thus the facts. XXXI) 54. of 55-63 (W. l-he dating has been found in ~ ~ b A camp i ~ . I I . seen in fig. like the harpoon.T. The copper harpoon is found as early as that of bone. and a broken one like fig. xliv). HARPOONS (PL. 9. XXVIII) 55. From this drilled decoration it is probably of about S. . . ft would thus be contemporary with the similar form of bronze age in Italy (Tools. On reaching the ist dynasty a more complex type comes in. xxi). and this camp. of hetween 49 and 63 (N I Z I ~ ) .. and certainly therefore of the earliest dynasties or prehistoric. 3. The plain points. site there produced sundry axes. 9 (N. 9. that it seems best to treat the whole of the flint work together as a separate study. of horn. 17. fig. iv. and those not precisely. lastly 7. as the comparative objects are not published. pp. The ivory arrow-heads here are all bought. The harpoons of ivory. and two were at El Amrah . 99). are seldom dated . from the South Town at Naqadeh are figs. F~~~ a few sites in ~~~~t polished stone axes have appeared. but never in dated graves. 8. ARROW-HEADS (PL. though Scanty. xxviii have been bought without a record. so they would quite agree . only leaving the top one. xliii. like the Egyptian specimens . H above. They were found in a few graves. T. i. bone. xxviii. 54). 65 b 5). with a and and a knob (R. there are three more here like 26-28. but generally basaltic or quartzose rock. with conoid butts. like those from the Royal Tombs. Other examples. Apparently later is the rise of the single barb form. The others on pl. undated. is published in Survey o Nubia. is dated to S. 3. z). point to a simplifping of the type in course Of time. with the camp date of 63. from about 35 to 50. splaying. this attachnlent be~ame a mere stop notch with or without a slight knob. 12. as figs. and as it is not dated to anv . which is contradicted by the Royal Tombs. 215-218). from a grave. b 106). are of the ist dynasty. 5. 4. 34-38. M ~ ~ i ~ t the finder. For the forms here see ~ o o l sxliv. lxv. 9 (N 1345). but not dynastic. The slender forms.) Another group. and horn are very limited in their spread. with comparisons from other lauds. An ivory ceremonial mace head. 20. it seems as if it were dynastic. is dated to 36-43 (M. and to 61 (N. top barb broken (N 1705) . except 24 from N 1808. xxxi. Two specimens. one of f . The dating is known in only eight cases. fig. xx) . more polished. has kindly sent me the type of the pot. fig. and to have . at Naqadeh. from Hierakonpolis. Unfortunately "one of these are from recorded graves. The simple barb on a long thin stem also appears in the Maket tomb. 24-39 . where the indications would set it several centuries earlier. this may be on the later scale of dating. only vaguely dated to 36 -63 From published examples the earliest is 34-38 for a small size (N 1345).D. h. has two bands and two zigzag lines of drilled holes around it. Fig. fig. The double head type continued ceremonially till late times. and 18 spindle-whorls. no others are recorded. 56. 63 (R. this has a Stop knob. The harpoon seems to have been used only in the first and second prehistoric ages. which was with a pot which has a wide range of 43-70. has three barbs. g pear-maces.Also 14 other disc-maces. xviiith dynasty (Illahus. pl. 6. and a medium one of 61 (N.

to secure the linen. as little force is needed.CLAY AND WOOD MODELS been merely an archaic and ceremonial survival in CHAPTER VIII the last prehistoric and later periods. shows how very fragmentary our knowledge yet is. Fig. with a red to slide over the curves of the body. early in the ist dynasty. and agrees fine muslin wrapper .-This models are funerary substitutes for weapons in the form is wide and short. beside was taken out by myself. are also prenarrow blade. xxxi. and a broad black band edges the buff. FORKED LANCE. supposed to be the pottery substitutes g. 63. Thus there is no chance binding. usual in the copper age of Europe . fig. Like the flint. Probably the model knife and two lances of baked see Tools. It is offered when Khufu forbade sacrifices. 70-1 Crete.two curves on each side (N. trusting to buff on the handle and the body of the lances. the rhombic outline continues in 36-44 (N I~IO). p. Ixxii. 259). and the black represents fibre binding in 61-2 (A. 11.D. coloured buff. broken at the end. MEASURES AND WEIGHTS harpoon was found in the two thousand graves of Tarkhan. of red of uncertainty about it. 22. 74 La T6ne. figs. 35-52 CLAY AND WOOD MODELS N Q 148). zo dark red blade with spiral black 21. Wooden models of double-edged knives are coloured . xii. is unpainted. and two pairs of black lines hide. this form The red represents flint covered with blood (for such arose when the flint work was giving up the long lances are unknown in metal). to separate the band round the base. another with plain red blade.The flint forms should be taken into or a funerary survival . two red stripes on handle . These are thus regular. vii. but with the form then made in flint. The development is two forked lances. figs. are narrower. 59. An entirely different type appears in 63. round it above. 13. a shorter handle and 57. and length would be in the way during work. sticking to the handle. like the painting of white. Not a single METAL WORK. 19. 16. rhombic form with a lumpy handle (D. another blade similar. coloured red on the blade and the tips of the lances. Both of these are of the flat. 72 Italy.work. xlvi. pl. fig. offerings of the temple of the ivth dynasty at Another. and 5z (N 1241) . DAGGER. 5) is before 40. COPPER IMPLEMENTS The frequent scene of harpooning in the tombs may show a dilettante survival. 58. and its of a curved knife. top and bottom. xxviii. pottery and wooden way round the tips. grave 336). 32-48 (N Q 489). xxxv. and deep mid-rib. from 32 to 63. FLAYING KNIFE (Tools. with parallel sides. 2 1 flint series. It seems that all these clay. On the knife handle are three lines of white and some dots between. and the whole grave was fully registered and well dated. The single red band and zigzag on the handle. forming a cusp and historic. The handle is a short tang. 12 is a clay cone. as harpoons like. undated. is coloured red on one appearance isolated as early as S. Grave B 17 Naqadeh. lastly a (H. white handle . For the rest see N. x). models of daggers here were bought. . from the rhomb to the round butt. ranging through the whole of the first plain wood. with long pottery. grave 807). its width to have a grip in the handle . triangular blade. Another model of a forked lance. remains of example in copper (DI. 17. vi). K 4. 15. fig. In a prehistoric grave at Hierakonpolis slight mid ridge comes in 51 (N 414) . the butt is linen handle. 14. The type is well known brown rough pottery.xix. usually slightly dished so as prehistoric gaves. K z-6). nor any except models in later tombs. This lined pottery. This indicates some binding .51. lxvii) were clay models of a knife and rounded butt in 56 (N 331). lxv. fig. 22 is one of the pottery objects found in the One like K z is dated to 49 (N. in practice it seems to have account in considering the development of copper disappeared before historic times.-T~~S a large subject in the is line around it. 27). wide. 18. Fig. Part of a model later from Cyprus in the xviiith dynasty. like archery at present. it has fine notching along the curved edge and some broken. Abydos. coloured red. Two ivory side only. A slight projection and a rivet is allowed covering. a wise vanished after the Magdalenian age in Europe. with spiral red line around the blade. from the thigh of a body which there are remains of some fibre (? papyrus) stained green by it. lxv. a flat-based triangle without any tang. Others from Tarkhan. The copper form does not start till 48-54 (A. was of about 70 (A. and second periods. The earliest flint daggers start at 36-40.

The type S. 58 (N 16z). Tools. 5). Ghuroh. 60-I). AXE. xvi. xxiii. 44 (N 807) . xvi). it could not be used with much blade partly lost. Another apparently (M. and to 56 (N 39) fig. then iv. as a little bar of copper. both ends were (N 1552). and alike .-This is only known in one ex. end. I ~ A smaller size (Tools. Tools. I. xxiii. KNIFE. A) and elsewhere another of 55-61 (b 65). from Diospolis (D. The square butt end used for pressure the ends. I t is of the pruning-hook type. needing therefore to be handled The semicircular top begins with the dynastic people carefully to keep the thread on the hook.D. 39-63. lxv. were in N 1480. 101-3. At 72 a small end eye appears. of 58. Ixv). The end wound on the stem is with splayed edge (N. but a hook to continued to 76 (N. and after 40 in in N 430.see N. this would be the cutting edge towards the a t 66 (N 3).-The earliest at 34. of date cases is twisted round the stem (lxv. which would be the position in which is not dated. of 33-55 (N. xix. are probably earlier stages. ADZE (Tools.-A silver bowl to a spoon. a 104). 1. like those date after 40. feature is the loop head (N. 106 (N I ~ Z I ) 37 (R 65 b. has not a pierced head. CHISEL (Tools. but pointed. see Tools. I I . as (N 1298) without widening edge.-A small copper knife with square tang. Similar strips of foil. lxiv.-These may have been for prick to the surface above a hearth. 45 (N 63). xlviii. 10. v . about 40 (Amrah. was found in N 63. and examples here. vii) and Tarkhan (T. 106 (N 1490. as fig. and one point (R 65.-T~~swas probably used for ex60. the to 49. probably of the same age. and others in a. of about 63 : tweezers and cutter. A needle at 78 (D. lvii. xix. punched pattern.-The earliest large copper axe seems to tracting thorns. but tapering to used alike. lxv. The distinctive left there by accident after the period of the camp. 58 (N 162). 61 (N 1233). 21. Otherwise they are not HOOKED KNIFE. 22). no. only gradually ousted the double-ended tool.I. held between the fingers. lxv) . 39 (N 1485). 67 . lxv. v).-This is rarely of copper. For these and other forms see SPOON. 6172. 33-37. dated to 38. 34 inches long. ample. are after 40 (N 63). 9-23. 21. In later times such points are it is semicircular. 46) 57-64. flattened at both ends. in 58 (N 162) and some date after 40. 15c (N I Z I ~ ) . as fig. N 63. like the point in the later sets with he that from the camp site in Nuhia. lxv. before 40 (M. From the small size. FOREHEAD PENDANT. it might have been points. 19).-A thin flat bodkin is of 66 (N. begins at 31. but which by its type is probably skinning. of 31-41 (A b 117)~ and Royal Tombs. or for fastening garments. no. 46 (N 297). N.-The adze is dated to ? 61 43-56.-A pair was found in a grave in the right hand. lxv. iii. but others here of widely found north of the Mediterranean (Tools. was found at El Amrah (A. with a slightly concave back known. 104 (N 1856). As this is much more like the type here seems probably for the same use. and continued at Tarkhan (T. lxv). Amrah (A. 15). I. at 58 (N 162). and was close PINS(Tools.-^^^ has apparently been found. The chisel with a point at the other end is known Two pieces of a copper spoon are named as found at 34-38 (N 1345). xxii). and suggests EAR PICK. is named from El Amrah. later the edge is not straight union is doubtful. made by hammering out and turning over. and 61 (N 1233). worker when holding the knife concave downwards 61. 60-67). b 9). 5) is before 40. 106 (N 293). Tools. Gizeh. which in some The earliest large axe in Egypt is square. The chisel with square shank is of 34-38 (N 1345)~ one from N 1770 is of about 61. 1606). historic age. . with a copper handle. PRICKPoINT. RINGS. are 34 (N IZ~O). TWEEZERS. lxv. probably a finger-ring and not pushed with much force . that vines were already cultivated in the first pre. and is of some force. grave 3). 34-46 (R 66 a 41 (N 17591. used in the iron age (Tools.-Of 35 is a broad strip of foil with zigzag I t thus appears that the first idea of the chisel is as a small graving tool. A silver spoon (N. b 28). some date after 40 (N 63). 78. grave 162. NEEDLE (Tools. The straight-sided adze (N 126o). vi . iii. catch the thread. lxv). vii. as xviiith dynasty. v. with eyes inch from end. lxii). xv.26 METAL WORK notable that two here are worn away on one side at 62 (N 1270).-This begins at a very small and the same form lasts to 66 (N. 100). BODKIN. 74). of the iind-iiird dynasty in Egypt. 3 and 4 inches long. A plain band of foil as a ring was of 44-50 at El The rimer is found at 34-38 (N 1345). also from . b 233) of date 60. Needles pointed at each in the 1st dynasty. size in the first period.known till the ist dynasty. p. but always with a flat top.

-A cover for a vase. Whether the source was meteoric. a 1 4 . xlviii. 58-60 (A. 11). Much later. lx. I). But as that form of vase belongs to about S. reading in the usual hieroglyphs "fraction one half. A plain wide finger-ring of 72 comes from N 1248. the solid beads are dated to 38 (N 1547)~ 49-53 (N 8 ~ 2 44-63 (A. A11 of these are from Naqadeh. lxv. or 10 deben. there was a hawk which had been thinly coated with lead (N 721 . This art of thin gold work backed by paste thus began by 47 and continued to Roman times (see Ornaments). A broad flat ring. iv . So the iron may ba certainly dated between 60-63. 48-50 (A. An 1 armlet (?) is formed by a crescent-shaped strip. 46-53 (A. was found of date 55-57 (W. 4). evidently of the second Very few objects of lead are known from the prehistoric age. There is in the collection a leaden figure of a woman of prehistoric type (xxiv. and none seems to have been found elsewhere.being obtained. as it was found with a clay figure of a man. v 67)) 57 (A. so the whole measure would be 14. b I O ~ )60 (A. in accord with the later weight unit. grave 80). 46). and wire loops." This vase contains 7. A silver spoon was of 57-64 (N.90).) WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 63. 1 (N 17. whereas gold can be found in stream-workings. Among a group of small animal figures. and of a ship (K 33. it would show that not only had the prehistoric people a unit of liquid measure. a 67). the other with incised figures of women. group fig. copper chain occurs in the iind dynasty tomb of Khosekhemui. This is quite likely. a 96). carefully turned over to a flat end. Gold beads were certainly used from 47 to 65. pl. 16). 2) and hollow globular beads from the same grave (lxv. one with animals and entwined serpents and rosettes. 14) over a core-probably of wood-which had decayed (s. 28). 46). (Labyrinth. plating round handles. As galena is common it is strange that lead is not oftener found. z is in this collection. and a ring of 61 (N. The most important examples of gold work. there is inscribed the mouth sign and two strokes beneath it. 44-64). but also that the Egyptianmode of writing a fraction . Also it needs nearly always to be mined.D. overlapping at the ends (xlviii. a 3). 3).D. made of thin copper. viii. and then filled with a paste of carbonate of lime. b 87). 3. IRON The only occurrence of iron was at Gerzeh. is of 68.-T~~ principle of a chain was already invented in the first period. The gold known belongs to the second prehistoric age . On a basalt vase. Fittings to stone vases. SILVER WORK Silver is much rarer than gold in the early ages. 65-72 (W. v 55). I t was so much valued that it was threaded with gold beads. Beside the copper foil of the above ring at 35. p. 22. yet many examples have been found in the few graves that were intact. The earliest examples are a cap of a vase of 42 (N 1257 . p. 50-52 (A.400 grains. There is no doubt that a considerable quantity of gold work was made in the prehistoric age. 34). 1-8 inside 2. GOLD WORK period. or native iron produced by reduction in basalt. LEAD 62. as. 24). is not known. b 17). b 40). of 57 (R 65 a. 5. a 58). there was foil made as early as 33 (A. A gold wire ring and beads belong to between 46 and 52 (N 723). xxxiv. 15-19. belong to the same general period as the beads. and . p. It was obtained probably from Northern Syria which was less accessible to the Egyptians than Nubia-the land of gold. I t was more usual to beat out thin gold tubes. of beaten gold lips. and it is remarkable that copper should have been ahundantly used in the first age. b 106). VASE LID.3 outside width. which is characteristic of that age (A.D. in order to keep them from being crushed.METAL WORK AND MEASURES 27 Ballas 224. without any of the native metal-gold. are the two knife-handles in the Cairo Museum . but none have been recovered in recorded graves. 36-40. though nearly all the graves were plundered for gold in early times. lxv. Such beads are found of 47 (A. A gold pendant of foil with a punched dotting is of 59 (N. Gold tips to a bow were found in Nubia. where tubular beads of iron were found in two graves dated to 55-63 and 6 0 6 6 S. and 58-63 )~ (W. all known were looted by plunderers. undated. A tube of gold and copper alloy of 48-59 was found at Naqadeh (N 1247. Beads and wire are the earlier form of gold work.200 grains of water when quite full . 5 5 4 3 (W. CHAIN. p.

which has similarly a threading hole.3 history. in the graves.7 3 196.5 + 10 126.74 125. : : .2 yet the frequency in later times of weights of a third of the qedet (over fifty here) would be thus explained The forms of 189. 1163. which has the same range of values. 192.. 40 .7 313. being denominators of the fraction.2 rings. 1448 3 48.28 WEIGHTS A N D MEASURES dates from the first prehistoric age. . The weights of one pair with similar long zigzag lines (xlix. might perhaps be questioned. looked fresh.0 not fall into a very simple arrangement..5 + 30 126. and the seller of the jar did not notice it. too small for a wrist. and subsequently bought by a museum. and in the ist dynasty by the gold bar of Aha. 3785.0 Bought . and with these we may note two large stone rings.7 and 485.8 also being weights. probably on a thread. . . the higher the numbers of strokes the larger the jar. so that there is good ground for its being ancient. the beqa of Palestine.5. 40-61 2785 15 185.6 20 199. I concluded that the numbers were recent. without a I773 . as if recently added . 64. . Cone . and one of breccia.2 f t 2 24 This seems to be the well-known Daric standard Grave. and two singly.8 3785. The subject is complicated by a series of basalt jars with various fractional marks on them. while plastic. .2 2180.8 125. the painted with wavy line patterns in black. two pairs.{ . as perhaps 478.3 1267. evidently as I to 3.D. the civilisation of which seems to have come . 31-41 7694 40 192. probably I to z.5 and 941. Both of these are large propositions. whereas the higher numbers.2. Unit.5 65.0 pointed domes amounts are : with rounded bases .4 2 209. 199. 3763. The rounded ends . Another pair with rectangular and sharper zigzag lines (xlix. 236.6 grains.2 10 218. S. which would be quite normal. 66. . 4 236. 218. which might otherwise be a stone palette. .3 grains. 790'0 5 197.0 grs. 6.0 3763. . There are some rounded 985. There . 1866 . whitewashed and painted. of Mesopotamia. but whether prehistoric. and so is of the beginning o the second f 1873 . At Tarkhan six alabaster cones were found 1563. S. 43 3996.3 872.2 1 0 47. as they Porphyry turtle . They are median 145. Alabaster ring Syenite slab Breccia ring . indicate a multiple and division of the qedet by 3 . 185. Weight.4 +. The cones have been bought. 211.5 . artificially worked up. but the double cone from grave N 1251.0 20 49'0 the hole through them has evidently been formed This would correspond to a qedet of 141-147. of 1940.D. These marks. Also a finely wrought syenite slab. . s Unit.5 485.8 grs.0 grains.0 130.6 48. which might be worn on the arm. one of alabaster (xlix. and had no use as implements.6 6 1940 is of 40 date. 7) are 261. The marks are undoubtedly ancient.8 from the East. by the weight of Khufu. which was certainly known in the ivth dynasty. In the present case the number seems ancient. 8. too large for a thumb.2. as 1892 980. 11). moreover. Now these may all be connected. 46 589. or added later by historic Egyptians. oblong like early Old Kingdom weights. cylinder 418.3 18 47'0 porphyry objects are added here. however.6 4435. There is also a possibility of another class of objects being weights.0 Bought .4 + 4 121.0 same with flat base .6 period. In several graves at Naqadeh were cylindroid stones with domed ends... B 107 .2 + 36 123.3. .0 20 49'2 cones of limestone paste.7 cone with rounded base. These are : is also a rounded double cone of clay. 9) are 313. Bought ..5 941. 4435.2 are cylinders with as a survival of an old ternary division. They were never worn. 10) is 1267. Two 845. nub.7 and the same sexagesimal multiples as the two stone 461 . On comparing the weights of them they all agree within the limits of variation of the gold standard. Grains. The big double cone (xlix. 32 4224.8. They do 118.6 a rounded Grave. 261. 33 5676 30 189.5 20 211. 196. should have been on smaller jars.7 f 30 125. which were offered to me in Egypt.

xvii). . lxiii. The middle hole for suspension is . seems to have had a bird (lost). and of 58 (N 162). lxiii. xxix. it is quite closed in N lxiv 73 of 40-43. ten between 31-39> and five between 40-47. 33-37.35 inches long. which CHAPTER I X become modified almost into horns. It might be questioned if this 48 grain-unit is not a quarter of the beqa or nub standard. here. XXX) to N. but 1 is like one of 58 (N 102). Plain figures of birds (N. vaguely of The knob top appears at 34 (D. 4 7 (N 64). was the aboriginal Libyan standard of the first civilisation. XXIX. V. no. (a 120) of 47.595 and 1.44 (N 7 4 . lxiv) are dated to 34 (N 65 . from Mahasnah one with an ass (?) of 34 (pl. and 58 (N 162). 7). Those from Naqadeh (N. median 193. lxiii. 5 of 38. From Nubia one with animal lost. also combs with animals lost of N 1647. Two broken quadruped combs are of 34 (N 1661) and 33-69 (U 255). and only a sixth of them come The largest example of this type has four pairs. 14 here . A separate base is sometimes placed between comb head and bird. Another 1 combs with long teeth. 17. First is a thick narrow comb with apparently a bird. There are only vague datings COMBS (PLS. for fastening the hair. xxx. of 36. 6 of 35-41. x. and no dates for those here xxix. and to 43 (D. x. The arms between the holes are 1.06 wide. 31-39 (N 67). as N. 16. Similar combs. 57-60. and another (N 1614) of three teeth herc. 10. A plain rounded top. Indistinct forms. Two knobs combs of thin cut horn are of 34-39 (N 1507)~ and arc of 58 (N 162) and of 61-72.16 to . xxix. and another. An early decoration was of quadrupeds. THEmain distinction in this class is that the 8-1r. 67). and a similar one. The strings shown in the photograph are modern. was due to the dynastic invasion. 5 teeth . modified from the horns. of 31. on a stem with six notches. 19 (N 1465)~ as also another with a double base and horns or of 42 (N 14x1). no. with between 41 and 47. A small comb of 4 teeth. while the qedet. slightly broken at the upper tip : and a short one of 10teeth. a much longer one of 36 (N 1503) . but the fractional multiples would be very improbable on the nub basis. lxiii) are of 33 (1497)~34 here (1661). almost closed in N. I t would correspond to a unit of 188-196. xii animal). undated. 2. lxiii 57. xxix. last of all. x. and a similar one from N 149) . which belong to 38-42. With a separate base is no. 55. joining on to the type of slate with a row of knobs. 6) . 56. are of xxix. D. N 1858. 18 (N 1821. xi comb. xlvi. birds broken away. 36) is made of hard pink-brown limestone. v. 68. lxiv. of 35-43 . 35 (1687)~ 33-46 (1586)~ a t 40. and nearly all about modified into a ring. Thus the earliest are very simple and small. but seldom later.13 .zo deep. to the first period. here xxix 15 (N. when they declined into mere ornaments. None of these are later or amuletic design. also from El Amrah. The horns become short teeth are none before 40. with a bird on it. here. a change of I in 500 was visible in the level of the beam. The earliest have a plain flat top. Birds are the most usual figures. 3). and is of 33. and N lxiii 57 A of 50. and with a birds seem to have been double base of 31-42. are also of 38 and 41.600 long. It would thus appear that the nub. the Daric or Babylonian shekel was the standard of the second or Asiatic civilisation .08 wide. X. 101)~38 (N 65. the end holes for the pans are . I (N 1649) . belong here has the row of dots. . I. a material often used in prehistoric work. 67. One hippopotamus is placed along with other animals. B ror). This type is PERSONAL OBJECTS dated to 33 and 36 in N. median 145. 7 of 36 (N. is of 32 (D. and D.WEIGHTS A ID MEASURES X 29 Old Kingdom qedet being 139-151. no. and 40-43 (260) . Two which have had birds (?) . This last leads to the multiple bird tops. vaguely of 38-67 (N 1598). here xxix 12. N 1708) . and one of about 42 (pl. 4 of 34-46. flying 42 (N 69). but on actual trial a difference of I in 120 was found . Those with a gazelle (?) at the top (K 43). or bcqa of Palestine. 3.zo wide. lxiv. of 38. a difference of I in 320 . appears than 42.17 to . Plain a base at 46. omitting those of vague dating. Those here are xxix. is of 58 (N 162). 86). A small balance beam (xlvi. dated here to here xxix. 58 . of 35-46 (R 66 a 18). Apparently 31 (N 1595~6 teeth . when they end. This latter looks like a magic up on the top of the comb. 51. x. N lxiv 70. xxix. of 69. The beam is 3. lxiii. a ring. standing of 35-53 (A. TWO on no. as D. or with 31-56 . here (N 1505). 4 : a hippopotamus (?) of 38. 88). without any object.

30 PERSONAL OBJECTS broken away are of 39 (N 289) and 40 (N 1251). in 58 ( A . xxxviii. 10.D. A coarse flat pin. The pattern on the stem begins with crossing lines in 31 (N. The bird is the usual top. The earliest here has a serpent end. 46-61 (177)~and 60-61 (147). lxiii. 14. 60 (Q 23). T. here . xxix. IO). b 62). 1 (N 1413) is 1 ivory: 1 2 (N 1536) is horn. Thus there is every stage of decay from the teeth several inches long. and at the Royal Tombs only one extremely degraded bird pin of the time of Zet (R. Another with the top notched at each side (N 1536. 19. the edge quite smooth and teeth represented by a zigzag line. In the beginning of the dynastic age only three or four perfectly plain pins were found in the two thousand graves of Tarlthan . belong to all periods. lxiii. zo (N 1293). 13 is of ivory. no. 82). 22 is simply broken at the top. 52). B 101)and 36 ( N l x I ) A double base. 3. The plain ivory hair-pin with flat top was used throughout the long period 3172. I.three of 1517. lxii. with a very slight notching. and 2 with hippopotamus. 8 . A ribbed round head. viii 15. x. Nos. with top decayed. I I . cannot be dated. 51) is of 31-58 (1875). of 34 (D. 34 (N 1654). HAIR-PINS (PL. and here of 36. the few examples of good birds. The bird on the top. ii. lxiii. 27). xxx. Birds are of 34. but probably these and the best bird pins belong to 33-38. Diagonal lines come 47-50 (N. are probably about 36 by their resemblance to N 61. viii. viii 17. 1411). belong to about S. 6. and D. iii. viii.D. q ) . 4. 15 is of buff limestone . as N. viii. while in D vi B 378 it is of 52. lxiv. of ivory. or with flat top at S. as the comb of Benerab under Aha (R. is of 50 (N 1852 here). 5 is of noble serpentine . here xxix. vi. and 33-37 (M xii. iii) and 77 (viii. Beside that of 35-68 (here xxx. 42. 378). four of 1788. 3 1 7 0 Strangely one of the most simplified birds is the earliest. The diagonal and spiral lines seem to belong only to the second period. of 31. lxiv. two of ivory are without a cross line (one is N 325) : 14 is of bone. xxx. broken. The head with two birds. of 31-48 (N 1677). as also a piece with long grooving of teeth . Spiral lines appear between 35 to 68 (N 1643. 4 (N 147. T. or else ivory. The wide form. notched to form a head. 74) . lxii. 24. 21) is accompanied by a short horn comb xxx. xxx. without or with lines below it. 26) and 53-69 (N 1216 here). An instroctive group of contemporary fragments is from N 162. 23. are not dated. There are undated plain pins of 1101. lxiii 53). 5 are none dated. 11) there is one of 37-57 (N 325). I.or 48-74 (N 1224. Two dated to 52 are of simple work (D. Flat hairpins are nearly all of the first period. lix. with distinct teeth. viii). 12-14 may be spoonhandles : but sometimes a broken spoon-handle . Thus the plain pin. lix. 40. in 44-54 (N. xiii 45) . 84) of 66 and 75 (N. so the only good dating places it contemporary with the square form. 18. 2. and3548 (1413). D. 19 of S. though often partly broken. is of 65-75. see viii 22 (N 259). 8 from N 1787 (undated) is ivory. and fragments from many graves. 11). 9 from Tarkhan 1584). in 57-66 (C. I I . 69.D. N. 9. like viii. see viii. The two with human heads xxix 23.D. Two ornamental pins. 54. 81 (Tarkhan I. While the material of the long-tooth combs is usually bone. 16 of brown limestone. comprising types as xxix 4. 17. 58 (A. With bases underneath. The pin comb with a rounded shoulder is of 39 (N. 53). 3. and another like it also. 21 (N 1503). and with square shoulder of 60-1. of S. 1 . and the crossing lines.59 (Q 185). a similar stem with birds on the top is of 6172. which is of about 40 by the lines of holes. The lines of dots as necklace appear to date from 38 (N. with short depth (N. the short-tooth combs-passing out of real use-became made of various materials. viii. 20) . viii. 7 with diagonal cross lines are of ivory .D. down to a smooth edge. x. The others here. may have been intended for a bird : 10 is of horn . 58. and a third like 23. 8 (N 1774) . 12 . with gazelle. is of 51. VIII) 70. lxiv. lastly 17 is of breccia. the bird. A stem with five notches and horns or bird on the top is 31-56 (N. and a broad head. Unfortunately those here are none well dated. I. which are also found in 44-50 (N 1852 here). The combined comb and hairpin seems to come from the comb with long handle xxx. 16 looks like a degradation of the same. In the first dynasty the comb reappears with a round top and moderate teeth. is of 57 (1234. is of nearly the same age. 8). 7) to 42 (N. lxiii. viii I. Three other notched stems here. the latter being a favourite in even the xixth dynasty. all are noted under the 1 types above. The short-tooth comb begins at S. but shortened (N. v. The square form with grooved teeth at one end and slight notching at the other. is of 40 (N 1251) .

.

is as N 17 (in lxi 5) dated to 47. 14504). 2). of about S. all of beautiful finish. vii. 2 carnelian. bought. 4 marble. Other decorated bowls have hands outside. The marbles do not occur before about 38 or 39 (A. A short spoon with a falcon on the end of the handle from Ballas 224. 6 black and white porphyry. I I .).).. 11. 1 . Portions of other such sets are here. The slip is copied from the slips of split reed. porphyry. 29 with the splay end. iii). b 107)~ 52-62 (N 399. W. such as occurs in Tark. to 58-66 (N 1246). Of plain rods there are dated examples here of 34-56 (N 169)~ 44-64 (N 450). from Dallas 43 . also a rosette and animals. Here one square slip or rod with diagonal lines on three sides and none on the fourth. a75). carnelian. or with four hippopotami (N. two thick and one thin rod. by the form of the handle. is undated. 60-66. of 79. 5 porphyry balls and an alabaster bar. 3). 60 from Naqadeh. xlvi. 33. . 2. of 55-57. 4). xiii. to 52 (N ~zog). No. ist dynasty: there is one of chalcedony (Gizeh and Rqeh. four lions and a hare together in a pit N Q 711 not dated (N. above. ii. 4 of ironstone. xxxi. lxi. and the number thrown is shown by how many fall with the outside or the inside uppermost. 27 has a deep vesica bowl and wavy handle.57 diam. iv. 1 Square bowls are found in S. 28 is vaguely dated to 35-61 by N 1203. T. as that with a lion chasing a dog. 7-8). is of 78 (Tark.C. A square bowl covered with rows of deer outside. g hard brown limestone. XLVI) 73. four are used together. are of N 1229 .3 porphyry. other examples are W. Also a set of three slips with bracts. 22 at U. ii.C. 30 is N 743 of 60 ? 31-33 are without history. b 37). to 34-59 (N 267. 11. and deer on the handle. to to 52-56 (A. g of 77. XXXI. to 35-68 (N 379. 39-63. seems to be prehistoric. and three slips of veined brown marble are proportioned for a gateway . x i 4). 74. No. to 46-66 (N 123g). 35. and a falcon of 77-78 (M. The ninepins are of alabaster and breccia. a I13 by comb type. 49-63 . marked with bracts on one side. 21 white quartz pebbles. U. (G. 58-70 (N 3431. vii. iv. N 1485. 32. N. quartz. I brown agate. U.D.47 to . unpierced. of 78. breccia. I). They are of various fine materials. with one having diagonal lines. blocks. to 52-70 (W. a syenite bar with malachite. and hence the earliest dated spoon. Unfortunately most of the records do not state the material. 5 limestone). G. 116. N T 10. 33 is of slate. were in N 1215 of 49-63. There is here a group of rods with bracts. 6) of 42. I. xxxi. vii. 4). pp. to 52-66 (A. 4. xlvi.R. Slips with bracts. 34. . 6 grey granite.96 wide and I 17 high. 2. and continued to xii dyn. U. which began about then. as well as limestone. to play through. 62 (N ~ z z g )66. and portions of a set of four slips with diagonal lines on one side xxxi. Other materials used are silver. 8. to 45 (N 47% to 47 (A. T. 3 and 7). 3 of bone. 52-63 . lxi. and a cross end to the handle. and agate. I syenite. with a bowl peaked toward the handle. Others have the ibex (K 39). ranging from 51 to 72 . N 10 of 70 . and vaguely to 31-48 (N 1677. Another frequent gaming piece is the slip of ivory. This game therefore is probably dated to about 50-60. 25. of 52. 43-67 (N 376). 3-6 (bought).). along with diagonal line slips. 7. are of the second period.).C. 5. 77 (Tark.C. 32 . used down to the present day for casting a throw . ii. Thus only one is necessarily beyond the limits of the second civilisation. . and T.32 PERSONAL OBJECTS of 79. An undated ball is of calcite (N 691). 75. the four balls to play with are of black and white porphyry. xlvi. porphyry. also a slate bowl with copper wire handle covered with stone beads (N.C. 49-63 to (N 12x5. 26-31). U. were found with balls.s rough porphyry. ii. I lazuli. rods with bracts and plain rods. xlvi.).7 ironstone. 8 (N 6791. The use of these balls is shown by the group for a game of ninepins. xx. and selected natural pebbles of quartz and ironstone-probably decomposed pyrite nodules from the limestone (xlvi. to 36-55 (A. as a bar of porphyry with the balls of N 1215. vii. 26 has a bowl V-shaped all along. N 1245. N 379 . and early in the iiird dynasty 52 of white quartz. I breccia. I. 17 ironstone U. vi. I. They reappear in the reign of Zet. but there is no other instance then of a spoon of wood. 26-31. of 78 . a bar of breccia. curved. 12 and 15. There is a similar square rod in Cairo Museum (14498)~and with cross lines (14492. Six such slips.D.C. The handles were also decorated with figures of animals in the round. (A. and bars of grey marble and porphyry. date 62 . and therefore the earliest here dated. The commonest objects for games are the marbles used in playing. grey marble.C. and I of marble. is as N. Some are dated to 36 here (N 1503). no record. and to 60 GAMES (PLS. There are many unnumbered balls in the College Collection. with three plain rods and four blocks. so they are probably due to the second civilisation.). U. and five blocks. lxi.

and upward. and 12 pairs of limestone. 4 lions. z pairs limestone. and A pair of tusks with zigzag lines down the inner it is dealt with in the catalogue of Games. of S. 15. was in blocks. The range thus there were I pair of pink limestone blocks. of coarse work. 14. are found along with rods 77. and above that two holes. 5 with a double zigzag on one side.D. xxxi. I block with broken rods. 711. 78 (Tarkhan I. Bands of diagonal lines are the other elements of this group having been already first dated at 37. The originally filled with black paste. of the ist dynasty. 2. An ivory game-piece is in i. usual in historic hollow. where with blocks (Ballas 43) and with ninepins (N 1215) also crossed slip and plain rods. I hare. and they section on Toys. The rods with two pairs of lines each encircle the tusk diagonally. I slip with long bract . 5 . 76. 31-50). 7 (N 1497)~having three lines knots . I pair of alabaster. pl. 5 other pairs of limestone solid tusk with similar lines.D. These pass into also in Tarkhan I. with one block large class of tusks which have been attached by there were 11 ends of rods broken up (N 169). In the College there are 5 blocks. each pair is agroove round the top. vii) tags and cones of stone (34-60 ?).GAMBS AND TUSZS 33 and 78 xxxi. what objects went together in different games. fig. lines from those go round slip with cross lines diagonally goes with balls. xvii) .grave N 1348. ferring to plates xxxii. xii. these tusks are slightly The game on a squared board. along with curve. 33 flint balls. 3-6 (Tarkhan 10). was already begun by about S. seem to be of the same age as the marked rods and TUSKS (PLS. 14. as above noted. I pair pink limestone blocks. Another undated tusk has two pairs ably ninepins (A. Another tusk has come in before the dynastic people (see Tarkha~ and a single wide band of diagonal lines. found buried by itself (N. ably a pair of solid tusks were carved from the rest. around it half-way down. 2) have each a single line From the various groups we can now specify around. 33. 7. xiv. A nearly associated above)." The earliest is a perfectly plain tusk. The decoration begins diagonal lines . The slips with bracts go of lines around and many a t the tip. Blocks. and one dumb. bracts go with the 4 lions and hare (N. Q. 6 has two rectangular board. there is a very 5 blocks there were 6 rods (T IO). I pair bone. fig. See the these rods certainly ranges from 56 to 78. denoted here by " fig. so their wide ends to leather work. found with 6 rods. and are more likely about of cones of alabaster and breccia in this collection 35. In the large flat tags of ivory and bone (31-55). With considered along with human figures. but is only vaguely dated 33-48. may be prehistoric. and a bead of plain rods go with the blocks. vii. I. (N. pro. Other zigzag lines can playing pieces are of 36-38 (A. 14. groups 17. pair of large tusks (fig. of about 42 (M xvii) and 51-63 (W. I). this is the only example of the prehistoric age. See holes around the base (s. XXXIII) slius. with (N 169) . pl. by means of pierced apparently 6 rods were used with the blocks. bracts in mid . are therefore system is the opposing groups of diagonals. Rattles of pottery are found along with the game and a single on the other. bought. xxxiii.D. from N 1426. and zigzags. fig. but ends bone. as on the pair of fine tusks each with two zigzags. 11-16. undated .D. I pair tip. pl. which are numbered grave 10). alike in size. i. 16. and fig. Sets hardly be later than 40. Cones of clay that might be may be about this age. xiv. but not with balls without rods. Another different size from others . The simplest sloping lines are on fig. tusks. The whole set of gaming articles found together sixteen holes around the top. Two pieces. for binding it on. reand a domed piece. Q. 42 (M. of 34-56 continuously. 78. 6 plain rods . vii) were : 2 tapered slips with short a similarly plain tusk with eight holes is from N 1488. 10. this is a solid tusk. Here we shall review the order of the designs. not joining as a spiral. b 163). and also into gaming set. The use of tall pawns does not similar tusk here was in N 1542. near the tip. S. so in place of holes there alabaster.D. 9. 6 rods with middle knob and end a t S. formed by drilled holes. vii. probtimes. entirely before the third or late prehistoric age. 31 (N 1587) . the later examples. 271. and three lines near the of limestone. ix. all these ivory. XXXII. I pair of belongs to the first and second periods. The ostrich-shell for an eye . with fig. 711. fig. A bell flint. 711. like those with human heads. and 4 blocks. Q. fig. and parallel lines on the outer curve. from N 1583. Fig. 4 . and are cut off flat in the solid part . z slips with Another plain tusk is fig. A different Royal Tombs). vi) . Apart from the subject of the large straight in some cases. Thus the use of such are not unusual in historic times. which have been They therefore belong to the smooth rods.

41 (N 1781). a 26). they were attached to leather. of S. a pair from N 1732. another of alabaster. fig. Ir. fig. Sloping edge lines.D. are classed in order like the . a pair from N 1871. 62. and a single one smaller. A. and the only positions noted are of three along a forearm (A. A pair of thick. 36. of 33-41. has 14 holes with some leather remaining. Peculiar forms are a narrow tag without any hole or groove for tying. 80. By S. The Stone Tags. is that of 38 (N. 47 are dated to 43 (A. 2). is like D. 46. fig. 32 (a pair. 19. xxxvii-xlii. three or four in the middle and eight at the tip. bearing three lines at middle. 44 (N 1419). from N 149 undated. and to 44 ? (D. 43. a similar tag is of 36-39 (A. This begins at 35. 3 (N 1419) of 44 . 2 of 36-39. Others undated here are of red limestone. M. or 1251). probably of the same age. because decadent and less regular designs. figs. fig. A pair like fig. of buff limestone. a pair from N 108. fig. see D. 46 (N. fig. x. Zigzags continued in S. and at 46.24. and continue 35-43 (A.D. at 31. Two round tags of alabaster. 45. fig. 50 and 53 (D. The first here is of fig. 40 (N. 24). R 155). coarsely notched tags.D. Plain edge lines continue in 45. on pls. I to 139. and three at tip . and 19 are probably before 40. or were of clay. 11. but not at all degraded. Probably fig. a 66 of 43 . Another step was the notching of the edges in place of continuous lines. We need the clearance of a well-preserved and intact grave to settle the question. fig. 51-2 (N 399). fig. 60 . 35-43. 6). or might belong to leather water-skins as plugs to stop the holes of the limbs. opposing. i. 31-9 (A. might be a little later. 25. THEhanging stone vases here. 34. 35. pair. one covered with red leather (N 1705) is of 45 . 33 of 34-63 is probably nearly as early. With these go the cone N 1432 here. b 75 of 46-56). 102). 27. v. The Flat Tags. 32 (N 1871). 50. 102. are dated to 43 (pair here. 62 c. a 66). and one bought. xix. 29 (three. N 1866). 58. a 89 .-The dated examples extend from 34 to beyond 52. with only two little rings at the tip. 40 (N 1552)~like N. Spirals around tags begin at S. 22 (N 1407) .D. Firstly the plain tusk appears again.57. figs. The purpose is not yet certain. and the last appearance is the long cylindrical tag dated between S. 52 and 63. of pottery. fig. but similar cones are of 37 ? (R. 1414). nos. 109) Another here with only two pair of lines is like one of 33-41 (D. 45. from N 1536. to 35-43 and 38-43 (A. figs. of 317. figs. Some were also found at El Xmrah (A. p. Cones begin by 34. vii. dated by A. on fig. fig. also a pair of plain thick coarse tags with grooves. are probably before 40. 26. 21) and 55. IOI . badly cut tags of 47.D. 48 dated to 34. less bold and rather later (40 ?). figs. others. 36-39 (A. probably early in the series (38 ?). Clay cones are found . of alabaster. 17. 45. which is often found sewn on to the grooves and holes by leather strips. fig. fig. z). with incised triangles on it. and lastly there are a pair of thin. v. covered with leather. Probably of like date are a pair of alabaster cones. 1900) . dated to S. and down to 52. 44 (N 1419). Diospolis. fig. fig. Edge lines imitating a spiral are of 37. Another form of short rounded tusk. one of three alike : and figs. undated.-These begin with a few pIain lines around. which is not likely to be later. 186o). 79. 47. Edge notches and diagonals are united in the large tag. and a pair as fig. The large cones of red limestone 53. with 1 2 holes drilled for tying on. 49. 20 and 30. fig. 50 (N 268) . 22 of 36-44. flatter and wider. 46. 18 (N 1606).D. vii. 50 the tag had shrunk to the little alabaster. also 59. made in imitation of the red limestone. are of 39-43. 13). which come at 43. This was for ornament. Others of the same class are figs. fig. xiii. 31 (N 1575) . fig. 23 is also of 35. Fig. 50. The quadruple zigzag pattern. v. Next come zigzag diagonal lines at 33. fig. are fig. perhaps of 38. After this the decoration seems to have reverted t o the earliest type of plain rings. at S.The next stage was passing from diagonals into spiral lines. XXXIV-XLII) 81. 44 (N 1583) . 38 (N 1736) . and they were used therefore side by side with ivory tags. x. 21. 8.D. b zzo). N 1871). vi. There is a double pointed tag of ivory. 54.D. 47. and 61. 55 (N 1705) are of S. on a pair. Regarding the use of these tusks and tags. 39 (N 1486). and one similar. around the top . a 59). also fig. 41-8 (A. by M. b 78). 56. as here (N 1697). from El Amrah (A. on figs. are undated. CHAPTER X THE STONE VASES (PLS. vii. are a pair. fig. 42. x. 1x4 1. three others of bare clay (N 1905) being found with a rhombic slate. of alabaster (N. undated. D. 28. one of a pair (N 1772). lxii. Other spirals. 13. 44. and such ornament might arise on leather dress from wearing tusks as trophies of hunting.

135 of 57-64. 63. are undated . The very coarse little one here. and 8 is of 44 to 65 in ten examples. The very wide short vases nos. 1. The more definite base to no. 2-8). nos. ix. 124 are not late. 29) : at 66. 146 is undoubtedly of dynasty o. xlix. and flat brim. 42-3.D. 45. The hemispherical bowl 147 may be late. type 311. T. to narrow month.D. although the foot type started from a tube form. 50. None of them end before 61 (types 26. Later is no. 11. 66. suggest a late date . no. in order of degradation of foot. of the end of the ist dynasty. 22. Dios$olis. of equal curve above and below. 11. included here. 32) . The history of the squat type must be entirely taken from the corpus. 143. The conical cups are of the middle prehistoric age. So the course of changes was from the most open mouth and deepest form. The basalt vases. in order from most globular to tallest form. 4). 19. 69.23 being of S. T. Shouldered vases from nearly barrel form to the highest shoulder. 30 ends . 121. 61 and 151 of S. 26. or R. (D. T. it is more distinct as time goes on. to that follows type 5. The type survived into the ist dynasty. 109-112. 42.D. which begins with the full form type 72. 455. 14. and also from an entirely different site. 2046.D. 66-108.D. a capital instead of a cemetery. 11. T. 11.D. lastly is the flattest base of all.D. This merges into the types 47-51 usual in the ist dynasty. 45. No. or only slightly flattened : those from Tarkhan and the Royal Tombs have a distinctly flat base. is of 65 S. nos.D. I of S. tjpes 109. T. at Diospolis 66. with conical foot 113-117. Thus the tendency was from full and wide forms to narrow. 83. of S. beginning a t S. of 34-43 in one grave. 22.. Naqada. The barrel forms of all proportions begin and also end nearly simultaneously. Much of it is now known to belong to the proto-dynastic age. 11. as none in University College are dated. 118 like type 58 of S. with a tall conical foot are early. 47. 144 is dated to S.D. The standing stone vases are here re-arranged. 51. 29-65.D. with the falcon on the mouth sign. 11. 29. 125-130 is obviously a descent of type. as in R. 145 might be of the ist dynasty. ending in a wide flat base. The barrel and shouldered types persisted in the ist dynasty. in types 7175 placed in Naqada xii. 84. The ranges of S. The degradation of a clear conical foot to the mere button of nos. 1226.D.63. to show the change of type . 129-132. and 47 (t. 47. no. and 30 begins at S. This form is exactly contemporary with the Decorated pottery forms which are scarcely known before 40 and end at 63 : evidently the same changes of civilisation affected stone and pottery alike. The tubular basalt vases.THE STONE VASES 35 corpzcs. no. No. 123. except the small one. and no. Of the small flat-bottomed vases type 7 is of 46 and 58.D. 60. as it is almost like D. Barrel vases." both falcon and name being protected by the arms of the ka. The shouldered form begins as a slight variant on the barrel form at S. xliv.D. may be noted with these. This King Ro was first recognised on a sealing (R. The little saucers 140-142 are probably late prehistoric. as in 22. ix. 1x9 of S. no. because of connection with following 118-134 vases with feet. are earliest for types 15. and type 45 at S. 66. I f the name occurred only in this form it might possibly be merely a stand for the falcon.D.D.D. but the similar type 63 is late. 44. as the bottom is rounded. viii. I . and the high shoulder 42 begins at S. round-bottomed squat vases from flattest to highest. It is therefore very satisfactory to find it here set apart under the ka arms . Types 23 and 28 are not noted before S. In the early dynasties the form changed to splayin6 outward at . Oval vases 135-139. 85. as in R. no. the most globular. and no. Tubular vases. though not hanging. without feet 109-112 . and one from Diosgolis is of They led on to the series.D. Lastly the oval forms 135-139 are of the middle period. 46. T. 32 on to 51. 38-60 s. and much larger of 66 S. ix. One. 119. The College series here includes a few of that later age.D. of 52 and 73 S. and then shallowest form.D. 86. 42 (type 33). The materials-noble serpentine and porphyry with large crystals-indicate the later prehistoric age. xiii. and the others at S. the widest mouth in proportion .D. 1-14 .D. but thematerial and work rather link it with the squat jars. R.D. 25.. I n Naqada viii the earliest type is 4 of S. 120 of S. The basalt bowl 148 is like that of the middle of theist dynasty. xlvii~. ix. T. The examples here are no. of 80 s. 113-117. as type 62 is of 38.D. 149 of S. but the bulk of the dynastic vases are included in the catalogue of Stone and Metal Vases. 136 of 52 S. 96). After this arose type 3 of 52-3 and 63 . and the same as pot-marks (R. 118-134. The system of order is. The large oval jar of breccia. 82. flat-bottomed 15-28. as the older cor$us is inconsistent in period and in arrangement. is found in a rather degraded form down to the ist dynasty. 38.D. as it is from Hierakonpolis and hears the name of " The Falcon Ro.

pls. slightly convex in the side.D. x here). S. 213-14. S 4 a. 150 is only a model. I t is usually accompanied by a pebble of brown-yellow jasper for . one is dated. The animal vase. belongs mainly to the early prehistoric time. with a plain angular brim. 87. then. with slightly hollowed foot. H.D. The breccia bowl 160 rather suggests the ist dynasty (see that from Royal Tombs 1 . are none of them dated. The rounded brim is rather later. 172-3-4. The tall. 163. and is probably of Libyan work. and is usual in the ist dynasty at Tarkhan. The beautiful little syenite vase. scarcely hollowedat the top. areapart of that civilisation which pushed into Egypt and formed the first civilisation there. pl. 70-100. This form is otherwise characteristic of the vith dynasty. and is therefore probably early. and one dated 32-46 . 206. so it is probably of the same source. 192. pl. 207. but it has the same splay at the base as 215-18.D. and the forms beautifully wrought. So these seem to come at the close of the first prehistoric age. 40-50 I t seems. a rough gypsum dish. 278). has a serpent in relief on either side . 64 b 2). 64.D. 1915. 4) . 178. The pairs of circular boxes. from Gerzeh. 59.. 64 b I). 7) . as they extend over the whole prehistoric age in various forms. XLIII-V) 90. xxix. A painted box from Diospolis (xvi. 169. of prehistoric age. Another box with painted sides is of 35-41 (A. two from Nubia are of 31 and 37 ? (R. The very thick and clumsy breccia cup looks like the base of a table inverted : but as it is of 63 s. 221 is doubtless much later. Many other black pottery imitations are in the pottery corpus. and 33-54 S.type 1 416) : the material makes it unlikely that it is later. 34. are undated. xii. but widening below. no. is of about S. zzo resembles another of the Libyan group (Anc. 164-5. seem to be later . The alabaster cup 157 might be of historic times. xii. 215-zzo. only one in a dozen being later. is of 31 (R. 1915. 34 ? ( M . xxi). nos. 10-13). 37 and 57. 37. No. 73) is undated . between 33 and 41 (D. 34 S. 217 may belong to the same family. nos. No. 8). The saucer 159 has a stumpy handle. Thus the type is of the early age 31-37 s. Lastly there is a very interesting group of peculiar vessels. 163. zoo. . . 155. it is undated. as described by Mr. then. are of 34 (Naqada. bevelled above. 4. is probably of the ist dynasty (compare R. 166. but perhaps later. nos. Those. The long oval alabaster dish is of the same type as the white-lined pottery tray. The discrimination of cylindrical jars nceds care.D. 218 belongs to the first prehistoric age. The slightly conical class. T. The well-known rope pattern cylinders are dealt with fully in the later age. looks as if it had been a squat vase like no. The little cup vases. a second. S. The shorter cylinders are similarly dated. CHAPTER XI SLATE PALETTES (PLS. 40. 89. judging from the deep cut under the brim. 161.D. 29. broken. as no. 88. and 34 (Naqada. The bottle form. and this enables us fairly to connect this form splaying to the base with the black pottery imitation of stone. are dated 33. class F. that the family 215-16. The bulgy cylinders of basalt. Three here. Nap.D. are undated. nor about the curved cups. and cut down at the top.D. NEXTto the pottery the most frequent object in prehistoric graves is a slate palette. Bates in Ancient Egypt.D. 44. which are of 44-64. 178-183. B 51. 11. Similar. fixed to 58-60 S. The square boxes. it seems as if this must be a vessel. in the class of Stone and Metal Vases. Eg. and of 37 ? (R. There is no evidence as to the date of the conical cups with brims. vi. about S. as nos. 156. XI).D. and the tie round the middle as 217. b 3. and the wide-spreading brim resembles that of F 96 g. The blue and white marble bowl with handles. which belongs to S. 70 (no. 4 c). both of which are thin. No. is of the usual proto-dynastic type from Hierakonpolis. 37-57. These Libyan stone vessels. pierced for hanging up. 31-34.. These are nearly all two diameters or more in height. are undated here. One of the most surprising dates is that of two small pointed vases. and~is material. 153. no. three from Naqadeh were of 33.D> '31-35. and one of 72. 154 . zog-212. plain cylinder. 219 is obviously of the family of the white-lined pottery. of four from Diospolis. 208 is a black pottery vase placed here for comparison of imitating stone. which are akin to those found in burials in Libya. No. it seems to be of the same family as Naqada.D.36 THE STONE VASES the mouth. 5. and no tables are known before the ist dynasty. 201-205. ix. 170. has a gold handle on either side . Since then he has pointed out that a similar vase to 215 was found by Dr. 158-165. like nos. 184-190. with four holes in the top edge. to 45 S. between S. three were in a grave dated some time between 33-41. type 65. 167. type F 96 b of S. S 82-84. probably 50-60 may be the age of this class . Reisner.

4). of 44-48 (t. The Nile turtle was a favonrite subject. t. N. and xlv. the band of green malachite paint appears on the steatopygous figures of the first civilisation. I. 4 V (N 95). being dated to 62. and on the palettes is often a worn place. t. the gills are not marked. The examples with the legs doubled up in rest are later. 92. 40 J. those with head and feet are from 46 to 58 (t. xi. 4. Type 6 may be intended for an elephant. 10F. 7). reduced to vague outlines by 70 (t. This first form may be said to begin about 36 and go on to 44.D. In the following account " fig. fig. The vulture appears in figs. or Ncfash. M. 31 D at 52 (D 422 at U. 38 P of 36 and 42. refers to the cor$zls volume of the Prehistoric. and very degraded figures are of 73-76 (type 5 P) and 7 3 7 9 in Nubia (E 45 c 11). 24 R). fig. I. type zg. 38 c of 38. fair in 60 (W. p. I t is now possible to trace the history of it. The Barbary sheep appears in type 2. sometimes still retaining malachite. xxix.D. and is only dated to 77. p. 4). 11. A bag of lumps of rough malachite is frequently found between the hands. xi. fig. from 48 to 79 (t. 42 to 48 . 35. 40 D. and on to 60. After this the middle mass is heightened and becomes the attachment for a magic slate. " type. and (34-55) N 171. Next. 140). 22-24. vi. Ann. 15. about 44 (D. with a quadruped engraved twice upon one face. and haematite is sometimes found in lumps. undated (K. I. owing to loss of horns. 46 H of 59). with head only. 7 c). p. I. 46 to 72 . They begin. t.D. provisionally I called it the$elta. In this simple form it looks most as if the idea was the reed boat. by 63 the ends were modified to a bird's head and tail. The hare seems to be intended by type 7 D. 48 to 63. 57). IS). and 77 or after. iv. 16 c. and they will be taken in order. undated (Liverpool Ana. Then the Latus. 11. The hartebeest with lyre-shaped horns is a type 4 J of 34-46 (R 63 b TO). it is probably about the date of 40. v. 34. This finally degraded into an oval. from the human figures to geometric shapes. I t is incised on fig. Another figure here. Birds in general are badly defined . I. Rougher work now comes in. undated.54. 23). xii. it is a very thick slate. t. types 28 to 32. of 77 (T. it appears from 36-41 to 77 (D. with a distinct Oxyrhynkhos. fig. and in the iiird dynasty there is the malachite band round the eyes of the mummy from Meydum (Medum. of 41-46 (R 63 b 5). though not dated. from its resemblance to the Amazonian shield (N. xv. 10. 36. and also ground as red paint on the palette. Hippopotami are early. t. A. also fig 8 D. The types 3 D. vii. 63). 17 U . The falcon was not of importance early. vi. and 4 K was apparently similar before the horns were broken. The forms of the palettes vary greatly.). as t. Mast. down to 74 (t. m). . 36 (D. With well-formed head and legs it is of 33 to 39 (type 14 D). xxii.11). date 39 (D. With head only (t. 32 D. the middle load rises into a high mass. zz A. figs. xliii. and vaguely of (36-55) M. T. 15). and from the style of it like the heads. Elephants are fairly outlined at 50 (type 5). 7 M seems to have a baboon head at each side . see xlv. 23 P. Perhaps the dog and leopard are incised in a group on a slate. 120) . and sometimes with a load in the middle. The fish are very usual. T. turning up at the ends. The earliest form is the simplest. of 37 to 41. t. 8). N 836. z. xxix 27). zz G. dated to 34 (D. The only human figure is here. 44 h. or is developed as ornament at 46 (R 63 a 10). t. 16). N 512 . xi." or t. galena is also frequent. The utility of the paint around the eye was to keep glareoff and act as a germicide. II. viii). Next is a rounded fish with triangular projecting tail. 51). T. was surrounded by graves of S. it finally had a notched border in 78 to 80 (t. L). 14 N). Reduced to a plain disc from before 63 to 77 (N I772 . fig. A peculiar figure. 93. but before 70. 140). The head remains as a mere bulge. The gazelle is incised on a slate in a group (Liv. 53. 18). 34. A viii) . Lastly. A peculiar long rounded tail is of 42 (D. This is the apparatus for painting around the eyes . 91. and in 45 (D. 102 . and various examples which extend certainly from S. of S. 32 M . 4 F here. 37)." refers to the College collection on pls. xi.SLATE PALETTES 37 grinding. is the top of a triangular slate. Next is a Mormyrus cashyf (fig. lix. 35).D. A less splaying tail begins at 39 and goes on to 72 (t. xliv. and around the eyes of the sculpture of Hathor-nefer-hetep (Saqq. has been difficult to interpret. 18 : T. Arch. at S. fig. 40 and 45 . in 46 to 77 (t. 45 F of 46.C. iv. 4 U (T. 38. Fig. 4 P. zo c (T. t. type zo s. I). I. French edition only). 24 D . are uncertain. type 28 H is of 44 and of 35-37 in Nubia (R 63 a 8). xxix. and the tail is made by notching in the oval outline. The pigeon and duck are excellently rendered by two figures. of 58 (A.

t. 47 k . R 63 B 4) . 80 P.D. A cross-line border was added from 61 to 80 (t. to 46 at the latest. 48 g. 65 D). xx. 78 G of 58. and the border lines stamp it as being under dynastic influence. and even earlier. and is rarely found before 70. 45. This hump. 76 R. in 77 and 81 (T. and this lasts from 31 to 58. t. But the great majority are before S. is from 65 to 80 (N 161 . 60. viii. T. An ovoid with two slight suggestions of heads is of about 75 (E. 9 : A. The degradation into a mere oval was reached by 46. Without any projections the plain rhomb. t. The use of border lines on the oblong palette begins at 53. and on the square palette at 76. 80. dated to 37 in Nubia (R 63 a 5). rather lower. viii. The group seems as if it were the . The earliest of all has the two heads with a deep hollow between them. t. we often find that a good form will continue to be made long after a degraded form has been started. x. 3). and is practically extinct by 79. a zigzag border at 77 (t. lix. are not dated before 57. which seem much like the wing feathers sticking up when two birds are carried by the wings together. T. through t.D. I. 58. 81 d. z) . of the former and $ of the latter type. 82 G to t. T. 4 at Naqadeh three such pieces. 58 (A. 40. g of 57 . which narrowed further. 11. 4). between S. 80 c of 50. and on the top of a square slate. with human heads (N. This may make us doubt whether the ovoid is not the first form. to 40 or earlier. and an ostrich egg. The type merges into an ovoid form. a 8 9 . z of 58. or early in the ist dynasty. t. and that to the notched block. it begins in the forties and appears as late as 77. Beside them were two ivory tusks. But it was by no means of dynastic origin. With a striated block. T 18) . 72 D. iii 2). XI. one solid. or notched on the edge (E. x v . the rhomb belongs to the first period. Then came a type with a long projecting tail with parallel lines t. S. and that our dated examples happen to be late in the history of the form. Broadly speaking. 69 c. t. 91 V. 3 of 56 . B. begins a t 33 and goes on to 41 or later. t. 64 (R 63 G I . The rather curved bulging outline is a late form of the forties and 53 (M. The equalsided square form is of 77-80. With horns at the end. z) were found tied together by a cord through them. xii). x. I t is the first appearance of any form that is the important point in its history. The dated forms are. T.D. 671 of 77. 45 to 47 . A. viii. I. 87-88. 61). T. D. with rare examples of later dates. 76 R). starting at 30.78. 92 D. 80 P of 38-47 and 63. I t may be suspected therefore that more evidence would take back the long-feathered type. might easily degrade to the type 76. D) . is dated from 33 to 70. The rectangular palette begins at 39 or a little later. N 1725). one hollow. 28) and 80 (T.D. D. A. Another form with much slighter hollow between the heads. t. and to 46 (t.38 SLATE PALETTES An improvement began at 63 to 75 with again making a distinct tail (t. which begins from a t latest 43. All through. with distinct radii. 45 c 6). while the deeply notched forms. I. 48). The feathers. The rectangular palette then is almost entirely of the close of the predynastic age. 78 M of 74. 54. N. With a grooved block t. I t was then oblong. In grave T. xii. t. 46 to 64 . x. 67 T. rather later. t. : MAGIC SLATES 96. 30). 59. 94. modified by carving the birds' heads on it. These range from 37 to 78. 18. The shape then is long. 95. with some projections at the shorter axis. down to 50 (A. and therefore belongs essentially to the 2nd and 3rd periods. or slighter at 45 to 47 (t. with a thick clumsy body. fig. 28). 61 D. t. and a notched border in 71-78 (t. 11. 57 and 66 (C. c 3). g . A. 2) and 63.D. Slate figures of another class are too small for palettes. The beginning of a new type is shown by a hump between the heads. The rhombic slate is the earliest of all. t. 59. xxiii. down to S. plan lxxxii). continuing on to 56 (A. and show no trace of grinding. evidently for tying them together. Another large group is the double-bird-head palette. T. 11. t. 57 N (N 1863). The rhomb with a crescent on the end of it. however. S. It seems unlikely that a square block should suggest the long radii of fig. without any lines. still lasted at 74 and 78 (D. with considerable variations. as it belonged to the poorer classes. 33 . T. 78 D. 90 D. 75 K. With a plain block t. A hollowed fish is of about 70 (M. fig. 67 D. (N p. t. They always have a groove and sometimes a hole at the base. 72 p. 21 d. viii. The present evidence places the square hump. 75. I. and so were contemporary with all the types of double birds. and this became a vesica-shaped slate. 3. dated to 77 (M. hollowed on one side. 75 c. 11. 76 G and fig. 11). t. and continued in this form. Next the hollow becomes a V notch between heads at 38-44 (A. 91 T. types 72 G K).

a 55). N 1675. 30 H. fig. Fig. 48 . x. figs. 10. . Fig. 11). from 38 to 41. xlv. N B 133~46 67 T. 102 N. 61 ? . tied together. Fig. vii. N . 23 P. 78 . 104 D. 109). Aa55. N 1329 . 103 F. Figs. N 799 . 46 M. 6. dated to 46 by N 1871 (1x5. 104 G of limestone. eyes of glazed beads. 1047. 61 G. 96 R . of 32-48 (N 1675. by the I'ong tail and ears curving forward. N 1649. is of 33 (N 1646. the incised figure is of a zebra. 5). placed in recently? Fig. 160). N 1257~42 . 91 M. xlv. with a few survivals a little way into the second period. and also as late as 47 by a decorated vase with hill pattern (N 1781). 35. 28 H. 17 U. 103 N. fig. 4 C the incised lines are filled in with a red-brown paste . Lastly there are the bird and double bird pendants. 35-46 (A. see xlv. 77 . N 1203 (35-61) . may be dated to 38-43. N 710 . 90 G . A pendant in the form of a lion is in the MacGregor collection (K 55 A). and 47. 104 L are of ivory. 65 D. vi. Tark. N 161. bevelled away beneath . fig. 78 D similar . 45 U. 3. G. 1063. similar. the incised cartouche line appears to be ancient. 61 D. with the reference to the source when known. A later form is of ivory. 45 F . IOI G.S. 7 M. xlv. 78 . iv. NT. N 185~47 68. N .B. similar. fig. figs. and 37 (D. Fig. N 512. the eyes are filled with quarter spheres of bright crimson sard . fig. 9 D. 38 H. 38. 80 P. 54 F.32-48 (A. The next type is with the human head. A variant with stages beneath the horns. might be intended for lions. 91 T. and there is no reason to doubt their being original. is dated to 40 by N 1251 (1x3. 46 R. lxiv 89). 31 D. a pair from N 1871. D . see xlv. Ballas ? . pl. the pieces do not seem to be parts of beads. mark 207. b 78). 5. N 310 . . Fig. figs. Another class of palettes made of porphyry and quartzose rocks has been found mainly in Nubia. 65 . has a middle object between the birds. like other instances of later subjects. 94 K. 37 (A. Fig. with marks 91 M . clearly dated to 33 by a white-lined bowl (N 159o).35-46. a 26) compared with N. 46 Q.46 . and 4070 of limestone (A. and a red pupil : the work is finely finished. Fig. N 1675). 103 D H. 95 E. lxii. 10. xlv. 30 D has an incised design of a man trapping a quadruped . T 164. Fig. 38 . 58 D. 45 C. lxii. fig. The earliest of such figures are birds.77. 97. is of 46. 23 D. I. The two horns. 104 D.outfit of a magician : and the small figures remind us of the small flat pieces of wood. N 1267 (31-61) . apart from the developments of form traced above. N 1891. i.48 . 4 P. A very coarse form. Two examples are recorded from Naqadeh. N 113. 57 C. and another varied . xlv. xliii-xliv there are also in University College slates of the corpus types (see cov$us. N. Figs. 57 G. and the date. HARD-STONE PALETTES 98. and between 42 and 47 (N. the incised lines are on opposite ends of a thick palette. The double bird pendant is of 44. by the tail. L. Prehistoric Pottery and Slates) as follows. and 41-48 (A. 22. 32-48 . 69 D.79. 14 K. Some peculiar points of the slates figured here should be noted. 1900. NT. for divining by the position in which they fall ( A m . Fig.19 . 14 P. 101F is of red limestone. and less exactly to 36-39. 36-43. Another variant. The single bird. 37. 4. Mah. b zzo). the animals seem to be the Barbary sheep. 24. Tark. roo D. S. 102 G. but to have been made on purpose. 2. double size . X. The latter example in N 149 was with a slate of type 42 K. figs. N 429. 12). 51). 33 (N 1590) and 34-59 (N. Egypt. 40 J. 16-21. N similar . xlv. S . Beside the forms of the figures on pls. and 44 (D.37 . Also three rectangular palettes. 41. N 320. 103 T. 18. T 24. Another class with two birds (or horns ?). 81 . Thus it must have ranged from 39 to 43. 103 J. N 1237. SO all these datings agree on 38-40 for the horns pendant. the eye is filled in with a yellow paste. 18-20. 28 D bit. N 1470. 2. 278) Thus this class of magic pendants is almost entirely of the first period. Q. b 220. 48. vi. bit : 92 D. 98 L. 164). I. both incised figures. 46 D. a square . as the cartouche line is the cord collar of the high priest of Horus (see Louvre statue) it might well occur on a slate as early as this. N 1770. P. and others with two bulls' heads were in the Price collection (P. N 524. 24 J. 1914. N 171. see the photograph. is dated to about 40 (D. 90 L. and of bone of 41. like ii. which are used in Central Africa to cast on the ground. N 241 . 24 D. 4 F the lines are scratched and are very thin . 43).A.34-55 . Fig. which is dated to 38 by N 271. 98 M. 80 . 103 F. the eyes are beads of ostrich shell. lix g.D. These might perhaps be dynastic. Two heads of birds from pendants or palettes are of S . 88 G. 33. xlvi. 40) and to 33-48 (N 1348). b 68). Tark. 9. 38-43 (A. 44 . 42) and 43 (D. IOI H. or other material. 415. ii. Garst. N . and another thick bevelled slate marked 118. 102 G has eyes of ostrich shell. yet the type of slate is not later than 58 .

Of the others 1 D 8 d. with legs and tail marked by grooves. only nos. xlix. and eyes by circles. Leather. An egg-shaped wooden vase. and here a clumsy thick one. A broken horn vase is xlix. 34-46. undated. The contents of grave N 1863 are well known and varied. as they are all usual types.8. N. xlviii. U 364. is of 43-44 (N 1412)~ and a small cup vase with a zigzag round the base is of 47. The Nubian forms are generally square or of a barrel-shaped outline. date 52-61 (W. 13 of 80. 19. 73-79. but three types are well marked. Pottery. We can hardly avoid seeing the parallel in this dating to that of the square slate palettes. It seems impossible. only a slate palette. xlix. xii.5 x 3'0 . Of black and white porphyry there is a turtle (5). Two small coarsely made ivory vases were bought. undated. 3. and R. 5) : also an ovoid of black syenite (xii. 15. might easily last as long as D 8 c . A similar ivory vase with a foot is of 36-43 (M. 14 (N 1865). examples were brought in during the second prehistoric age. After the principal classes of objects already described there remain many isolated specimens to be noted. 14 of 79. but it appears to be prehistoric by an exactly similar dish found in Nubia (R 66 a I) : there was no pottery with that. Another is from N 1425. 57. P 26 b. 79 b. The cylinder with a slight ledge handle here. xlviii.7 x 2. but it is dated to 46 (N 1863). Another.). xlix. so that it is very unlikely that they could all have continued here without leaving any trace elsewhere. P 22.). of about 60 (N 538). not forming a pattern. rarely. Stone. is probably of about 70. Horn vases with a slight foot are dated to 41. undated. and a row of zigzag. lxiv. so the dish may be of any part of the prehistoric age. iii.0 x 4'2 . and a syenite slab with green malachite on it. rough around edges and below. This raises an important question as to cylinders originating so early. G. The . xlviii. date 58-59 (U. The ivory vase with a foot is of 37 and 42 (N. These kinds of stone are mostly unknown in the materials of the early stone vases.D. 13. yet. much broken. but types N 24 and 26 in grave N 1863 could hardly go later than type N 28. between 3 8 7 3 (U. 17. I. These last two and the following five bought examples are in the College collection. and Shell. therefore. A long horn vase with foot was bought. . 93 d. as B 23 b. xlix. Wood.4n oval dish of ivory. AND WOOD (PLS. A cylinder of limestone. is undated. N. A very thin fine cylinder with plain band. xii).D. N. so probably these have been brought down from Nubia. which is of 50-52. and a finely polished small cylinder.C. (2) a similar form with slight projections at one end.D. 4. v). iv. point to point. THESEare unusual. 6) with a porphyry pebble rubber. x. though not recorded beyond 48. Of black and white syenite rock (I) a pillowy square 6. 4 and 6 could be at all paralleled . 78. 13. CHAPTER XI1 MINOR ARTICLES VASES OF IVORY. probably about the latter date. Metal. Fibre. There is also a square of white and grey dolomitic marble polished on top. 60 or beyond. decayed. from N Q 84. here has been included in the catalogue of ivory. as B 1 f. 0 I ) . S. anciently or recently. 34) is between 65 and 76. 56. is like those of ivory in the age of Zet. INSCRIBED OBJECTS. 100. for all others that are known are under the influence of the dynastic people. 81 (G. D 8 c. has a pattern of two rows of triangles. S. (D.D. 3. I t is certainly ancient as it is full of a cake of brown friable vegetable paste. xx). From Gerzeh there is a fish palette and rubber of black and white porphyry. all covered with cross lines. is from N 128 undated. It seems then that the main age of these is of the dynasties o and I . (4) a flatted pebble 2'5 x 1. A vase with a pointed end from N 1796 is in N. to stretch three clearly early types beyond 50 at the latest. 5. These will be taken in the order of Inscribed Objects. from Diospolis. xlix. 31 (R 66 a 8). and is of 34 (M. but made in all periods. and these have no cognate forms continuing later. The plain cylinder of ivory with a slight brim begins a t S. 12. (3) another 3. The dating of those in R 63 c is 1 and 17 of S. 95 b. 102. of 32-46. see xxiii.of granite of 45 (N 1528). Ivory. The incised pottery is so rare that we cannot base much on it. 75-80. 105. 39 a. Some types might extend to S. which is unfortunately not published.D. with a slit for the mouth. 18. xlviii. S. xlviii. and these quartzose palettes seem to be a variant of the usual rectangular slate. 1 Others in E 45 d are dated to 70-80. 16. N 1759. lxi.8 . has irregular wavy lines around it. I t looks like a barbaric imitation. lxiv. 78-80. xlix.D. 7. of 32-50. 2.C. xlviii. N 231. HORN.-T~~ ivory cylinder ix. XLVIII-IX) 99. ix.

dated to 54 (N 1848 ostrich shell). and the two large whorls 66 and 67. are 50-52 . Here there is one model in noble serpentine. Three little pointed pieces of noble serpentine are probably forms of the claw amulet. Inner hook . . stone . Thus it may be broadly stated that forms are dated thus . Eg. 103. 102. is of 52 (N 690) . The forehead pendant begins with an eggshaped outline (N.T. as they are so small and fine. 13. to 52-62 (N 399). from Gerzeh 21. see Amulets. The form is also usually found in the sets of funeral offerings let into limestone slabs of the Old Kingdom (Dendereh. copper (N 1770)~ Three are of markedly conical shell. c. see Anc. A rough rectangle of alabaster. who were certainly bringing in their art as early as 57-66. copper Cone shell . and. Two whorls are of red and white breccia. 32. 23) which is dated to 50 (N. The wearing on the forehead is certain. as figs. I). 1x6.LANCES. was in grave 177. They are pierced with a single hole at one end. 5) and 52-62. 16). and not of long range. 57-64 (N 1007 bivalve shell). all bought together. Eg. 61 . 10. This might be a very early link with the dynastic race. and they are cut to fit easily the curve of the brow. is dated between 34-46. 70. Next is a larger form dated to 54 (N 1848). and six drilled hollows. shell. set in an ivory handle. with one unnumbered. 73. it seems that the thread spun must have been thin and fine. All these are at the College. Polishers of various kinds l are needful in a l ages.139. . I porphyry. 68. and bird slate 24 D. There are twenty-seven of them here. One.1916. I black steatite (Amulets. if so. There are eight unnumbered. is strong for an imitation of a patterned cylinder being of 46.1384. Ab. 105. Three blocks of emery were . WHORLS.4g.T. 16. 130. the pendant would be the exact prototype of the gilt tube now worn in Egypt above the face veil. to 61 (N. It seems possible that these may be spacers for carton-weaving . see Anc. probably of about 48 by the wavyhandled jar W 4. b. as an inscription. Some curious plates of steatite. then. 101. I. 47-49. Am.. 40. and it might be as late as the xixth dynasty. has a sign upon it. 51. fig. Two figures of shell. and proto-dynastic ones in the town of Abydos (I. Am. or five holes at the other. An indication of use is given by the hook inside at the lower end in N . from one that was found in position. 9. 7 2 7 5 . The veil is undoubtedly Bedawy at present. similar. From the small sizes of these whorls in general. ix. FOREHEAD PENDANTS. with seven on the other side. 16. A pair of small whorls of hard pink-and-white marble. . k.C. including 69. and undated N 142. 61 ? of and Am. 21 of S. and three. . lii). Am 130 t u are probably also a late form of forehead pendant. .. also two from the North Town. . I t is possible that some of the larger whorls may have been for the stem of a pump-drill. like 68. Conoid. xxi. h. Cem. four. a and s. 104. has a row of signs on each side. no. Egg-shaped. the latter is in U. Another form is rounder. are most likely about the same age . A little plaque. drawn in xxiii. p. 1g17. and oue for this purpose was inserted in a gold handle . A parallel to this is found as a neck 6 amulet in the Old Kingdom. are of unknown use. xlv. or at least before 50. 33. from N 1788.-A few amulets are met among the animal forms described. ii. Another is of alabaster. 44-63 (N 272). iv). d. A plummet of emery. g. undated. 2 grey marble. and found with ironstone balls. of ivory.. B. lxii. Am. . q). also in two at the College undated. N 267. lasting on to 65 (W. The fragment of a thin sheet of ivory.unnumbered. shell (N 399) . xxiv. all of shell. and xlvi. hence it is to Eastern influence that the forehead pendants may be assigned. They appear to be connected. all of shell . 54-61 54-61 60 61 They are thus distinctly of the latter part of the second period. 71. ivory. with others undated. The inner hook at the lower end seems as if intended to hold up a face veil. xxvi.. Oval. 43. Gerzeh 55). r. flat-topped comb. xxvi. . Actual claws (of lions ?) are found of 36 (N 1503) ix. j . ix. ii. they may be intended for some game. and probably of old Arab usage. as shown by the carved handle of the rippled flint knife in the Louvre. 323) two unnumbered. There are 13 examples in soft limestone from the South Town at Nubt. see Amulets. o. ix. 71. f. for the series of types. with a hole broken through at the edge. though the condition of it is like that of much prehistoric ivory. 8. e. The forked flint lance was used ceremonially. 24. and one of noble serpentine (Am. The spindle-whorls were nearly all found in the prehistoric towns at Naqadeh.D. 41 evidence. STONE. 130. one of 60 (D. and a long pendant drop of brown and white alabaster is of 30-43 (N 1466). m. one with 17 holes drilled in the back (Am. the latter representing a bundle tied together. n). but there is no date known for this piece.

in University College. like the wooden toilet boxes of the xviiith dynasty. Note the bull's head amulet of green glazed quartz. A pottery bar inches long. I1 v 12. are of 5 0 7 3 (N zo8). 107. Why this colour should have been selected is unknown . holding between them two sheet-copper horns. 362. made in sections. See also the black incised pottery. 14 thick. barrelshaped. are of 52-63 . were unfortunately found without record. is of bone. of 34 (N 1654)~of 30-37 (U 317)~of 38 (N 1899). An ivory tag. that were used for grinding the malachite upon the slate palettes. and 79 (N 113).B. xlvi. 11. I t was glazed over with dark . xlvi. Three slips with leafage lines. 106. This is not isolated. xlv. 42. The agreement of all these dates in the first civilisation sufficiently proves that we may accept the glazed bird as dated by the white-lined bowl at 31. as xxiv. xxiv. A pottery scoop is thin and well baked (xxiv. with two peg-holes to secure the staff. nor any socket mark on the copper. 44. are flatted on the back as if for attachment to a flat surface. 117)~ (N. 108. POTTERY. A model square dish is of 35 (N 1483). lx. The little triangles of slate. seem to have come from around the base of a papyrus column. blue glaze is of 52 (D. GLAZE found. 31 . this may be as late. of dynastic age . 10. The roughly chipped bead upon it was found separately. A piece of breccia shaped on all sides. The bird N. viii.. and conical edges. such as the sides of a box. converging into one on the opposite side.B. forming a deep boat with upturned ends. with reentering angles. A large number of the brown flint pebbles are here. even to the xiith dynasty. was probably used for smoothing pottery . with a groove for polishing stone beads. for there is no recessing of the ivory. was with these. I t looks like a stay for a support. it might be the hinged wing-shaped cover of a toilet box of bird form. 378). parts of which were under the skull and the rest in the filling. This glazing on quartz is thus from 48 onward. the use of a polisher on pottery is shown by a limestone figure of a woman polishing a jar. and bevelled off on the top edge above . the rest black. ix. but the copper horns here might have been inserted when the slips of ivory were rejoined recently. with a dowel hole below. 52 (D. 19. Harageh 387. 1-6. and so acquire a sloping edge. 39. the ivory hair-pin. 7. The questions of the later dates and forms of beads belong to the subject of beads in general. g. which depended on the tightness of the thread which held the beads together . 6) . is well dated by a white-lined bowl. This mode of polishing accounts for the varieties of cylindrical. v. for the head of a staff. has not been explained. from N 399. like sets found of the xviiith dynasty . After the glazing on a sandy base. A bull's leg is of ist dyn. from N 1774. and from N 439. is for pillow-netting. 11. 22. A handle of ivory. 494)>57 D. This type is placed to S. The use of GLAZING begun in very early was times. Upon schist. as beads of green glaze on a of sandy base are known. 4. has a copper wire loop for suspension.-A square bar of ivory. . Blue glaze 61 on quartz is dated to 35-48 (D.B. BONE. 55 (D.T. A small square of ivory. B 102) . 378. of the xiith dynasty. A chalcedony polisher. with a great variety of glazed and stone beads here. xlvi.B. undated. 26) from D. IVORY. A black quartzose polisher. of green glaze on a sandy basis. and 6 3 7 1 (N 1574) : green glaze on quartz is of 58 (N 851). probably from inlaying. The shape is that of six lashed bundles of papyrus.B. and peg-holes at the ends to fix in plugs. has two holes on one side. xlvi. 109. 8. was bought with a bar formed of two slips stuck together. 14-16. I t is slightly hollowed beneath. P o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . but also for model boats . 48-50. A short tusk. The handle. xlvi. of a quarter sphere. A remarkable object of glazed quartz here is part of a boat. type 8. and a model cup is of 57 (N 1733). A bone pricker is probably for basket making (xxiv. which would fairly fill the hand. evidently for a cord. but out of 20 here.B. ix. see also R 66 b 36-51. and green glaze of 50 (N. and on steatite from 50 onward to the Arabic age. Similar horns on a pole are in relief on a slate of 33-41 (D.-A massive bone armlet is described under the Armlets. of 39 (U 47). ii. 343). has the ends turned at right angles 3$ long. 5-8. 381). xlvi. of 31 (N 1587)~ 33 (N 1497.U. 16). I5 are light wood-brown. if there was any slack the beads could rock more or less. may be intended for papyri. its source is unknown.42 IVORY.P o was rused not only for tte y vases. ix. glazing on stone began in the second civilisation. Four legs (?) of ivory. so). U 260). 37. xlvii. 38.D. Knobs of ivory. but are certainly early. for prickers and netting bones. 11 (N 456) of 56. such as that from Tarkhan. or nearly so. is divided in four by lines of rope pattern. or might be placed under a box to raise it from the ground.

The first instance of a bull'sleg couch is in grave N. also from Tarkhan. Two organic lumps apparently are the contents of stomachs (N 1437). Pieces of a box painted with red and black or white (not here) is recorded from N 222. Leather cushions stuffed are recorded at 37 and 66 (U. from D. and MATERIALS 43 reeds covered with red paste are here. and 42 (M. A piece of a throw-stick which has been joined by lashing is of uncertain age. in which ties. Copper. S.H. and (2) the production of moulded glass. shows that linen was freely used in the second age. Reeds were used as a basis for paste figures. of Specular iron is of S. and a piece showing tie-holes. M~~E~~A~s. 34 (N I~OO).D.H.D. at 33-37. 104. Goldfoil was as early as 34 at Gerzeh. joined by drill-holes. 41).~ ~of ~ wooden bull's Ta leg of a couch is of 72. 2. Semicircular hooks of coneshell. placed with the horn cup. 110. in grave N 1649 . xlix. The surface of quartz that has been glazed is partly dissolved. Models of garlic made in clay. D 63 c. there is one example of a Hathor head impressed on blue glass. of 43 (D x).).C. 23. 23. WOOD. with a knob at one end. is commonly found from 33 (N 1590) onward . fig. So many pieces of glazed quartz were found at Hierakonpolis. The glass is an opaque violet blue. 36-43. between the forearm and upper arm. GLASS. In the Cairo Museum (42090) is a sphinx about zo inches long. ix. 3 of 66 S. but undated. p. probably imported. is well dated by eight types of pottery. 26). Galena is also common in later times of 70 and onward. A wooden spoon of long oval form may be prehistoric. I t does not seem possible therefore to question (I) the making of violet frit -the most difficult kind. The glass pendant was found in a small alabaster vase. so there is no chance of its having been dropped by plunderers from elsewhere.C. which is of quartz. and with haematite at 74 (N 17). There are also here rolls of leather tied up. I t scarcely belongs therefore to the first civilisation. SHELL. and plain linen of 35-55 (N 1103. at the beginning of the second civilisation. before 40. and is here painted with yellow chevrons. The impress is imperfect. 39. 26). especially at Tarkhan.v. Another object of glazed quartz is part of a lion. xlvi. Two lumps of beer lees. micaceous haematite is of 51 (N 259). which is quite characteristic. were inserted.GLASS. that the boat and lion-paws here may well be of the latter part of the prehistoric age. a chipped flake pierced. xxx. and had gilt bands covering the joints of the pieces. green glaze. 24. the beads of ostrich shell are common in all ages.D. and has a glossy fused appearance. found at Koptos. The white dress of the women on the Hierakonpolis tomb. There were at least seven blocks. of which there are seven here. 42 (N 1401). 206. All of these minerals are frequently found. Leather is found painted with blue paint at 32 (N 1563). Silver in fused buttons is of 46-52 (N 1760).-Malachite is the commonest mineral. This is an early example of what became the standard form in the early dynasties.D. Part of a band of chequered black and white rush work is undated.-Beside the early glazes noted under Stone Work. and on the pottery figure.of ostrich egg. xlvi. 113. Clay models of ostrich eggs are of 34 (D. the bars across the top having also been pressed across the face. N 1759. 1666 and 2063. . there are seven here varying from 2 to f of a circle. iv. U. whiie there are only two before that. 46. is undated in N 660. probably of Akhenaten. though there is no proof of the period. of 34 and 38. are of 38 (N 1465). 1 1 WOOD 1 . shown by the pottery. Ancient conchoidal chipping proves the material to be glass. the forepaws broken from a whole figure. 85. are also dated to 31-44. p. 56. lxiv. Obsidian is of 34 (N 126o). similarly. Linen stuccoed and painted is found at S. and a . like partly dissolved sugar. leather stained red. 77-81. in imitation of the finest lazuli. and knotted leather thongs. xlv.T. The grave.). are dated by one of 38. 101). Haematite is of 43 (A a 66). 4. 18-20. 24.D. probably of copper wire. undated. Brown and white knitted stuff is recorded of 69 (N. from N 1914 and 711. so that it would be impossible to bring it much later than 41 S. Three of the sections are shown at the base of pl. AND F I B R E . N. The whole boat must have been about z feet long. evidently glazed anciently. The details are more fully stated in the catalogue of Glass and Glazes. from the bottom of jars. the most decisive of which is the early stage of marbled Decorated. String is here of 37 (N 1546). having been used for face paint. Eighteen examples are dated after 41. 47. of 40-43 (N 260. Blende is found at 47 (N 1734). is of about 60 (N 743). 112. 25. of 48-50 (A a 122) . 38 (N 271) .

from 32. the position from left to right goes with the time.836). The chamber was 84 x 60 inches. L. when the late began to supplant it. After that. A change of population and of styles is usually spread over at least a century or two. Turquoise is only found from 55 to 63 (N 494.C. Quartz was used throughout from 33 to 39. Let us now look more closely at the curves. 115.U. 129). Garnet is once found at 33 (D. Resin is often found in the second age. though the types of pottery are in some cases slight variants.C. and so indicate the strength of each civilisation. the walls 22 thick. whence the late steadily takes the place of all styles up to the dynastic age. (2) a stimulus to invention from expanding circumstances . The really distinctive matter is the starting of new forms. when the population and their graves were fewer than afterwards. would only be a record of blind habit and copying. 75). have traced out by Sequence Dates. may be due to three causes : (I) an immigration of a ready-made civilisation. the black-topped ware. The Arabs were coming into Egypt as mercenaries three or four centuries before the Arab conquest. 26o). The second civilisation stopped the hard stone work of the first age. or at the beginning of the ist dynasty. and then not till about 70 (D. is undated. Mica flakes were used about 52-62 (N 399). some time between 50 and 70. and then from 50 onward. after which the black-top was merely THE EPOCHS O F THE PREHISTORIC AGES copied with a few variations. Nebbek fruit is of the first age. The mere continuance of a form or a style means little .B. Amethyst is found once at 55 (N 494). 43 x 82. Steatite was commonly used throughout. and we may glean more on this. brick lining became common. pl. in other cases entirely new departures. So we should not expect to find sudden changes in the prehistoric. the number of examples of a form. from 38 to 72. The Decorated ends with 63. Broadly.44 MATERIALS string of a dozen rough chipped disc beads from N 499. from 31. A sharp revival at 114. Agate pebbles were common from 31 to 36. The most distinctive feature of alteration is the presence of material changes and new inventions. Carnelian was used throughout.B. The Norman influence in England began a quarter of a century before the Conquest. but the fusion did not take effect till a century after. was collected in the first age. from 32. but gradual movements covering a few stages of sequence. Now. as imitations of stone. there is a gap in the production of beads from 40 to 50. from 30 to 80 Sequence Date. U. further on. 271).R. 75). and the fancy ware belong to 30-40. perhaps be found in the history of the products which we marks the bringing in of Nubian captives by the . 378. tubular. the Decorated to 40-52. a dozen recorded instances being all between 38 and 62. Broadly speaking. both U. Probably all these causes acted. The Greeks were settling in Egypt as long before the Alexandrian conquest.T.38.B. as at Mahasna and Tarkhan. the red polished. 15. The great burst of novelty at 31. Red coral. when 34 new types appear. and then from 50 onwards. Clay beads are often found in great quantities. Such epochs in historic times are never very sudden. and did not revive it again until the luxurious age of 50-60. lined with brickwork. It had been used for five bodies. Lazuli is found from 36 onward (D. Corn had naturally decomposed. 343). (3) a longer time being included in this earliest stage. Another grave. and broken up to separate the tubes as beads for threading (N 1503. THEepochs of changes in the civilisation can 79. Serpentine is dated at 40 (D. The immigration is the more likely cause. if we could trace them at any one time. the number of types that begin in each stage is shown by the height of a curve. There was a continued activity till a sudden CHAPTER XI11 fall in 39. Bricks were used as early as grave N. In the curves. Other details about beads will be dealt with in the volume on Bends. but after that often from 50 onwards. and at 52 to 58 (D. in which time there was scarcely any work except in soft steatite and calcite. was of 74 (N 17). as the sudden drop at 32 would not agree with the other causes. but was mostly used from 50-63. between 63 and 71. Calcite was used throughout. 36. but imitation grain made of little rolls of clay was in grave N 1579. of 31 (N 1443) and 37 (N 1546). with an outer chamber. yet all together they give some measure of the vitality of the classes which are distinctive of different periods.

but the double. and only coarse daubing was left. until a sudden burst of novelty at 73. When the black top became less fashionable at 39. and a gradual infiltration of the second people was taking place. Oval stone vases. This is the third instance of such a rapid change. 117. in imitation of stone. A few examples are found from 31 onward. the upper layer was entirely red by being surrounded with air. . of the second civilisation at 40. which looks as if this were due to a barbarous intervention. the most continuous and coherent view of these ages. about one stage later. Then a steady growth of new styles continues to the culmination in the abundance of ship types at 46. only the first is applicable to these other cases-that is. Round butt knife Squat pottery. Ivory tags Rhombic slates. Combs with birds Comb and hair-pin combined. and a total drop at 7476. The fancy types begin later. Model semicircular tusks. so far as material goes. showing that the simpler styles of rush-work pattern were being made somewhere near Egypt and imported. Then suddenly at 40 the new styles came in with a rush. . . though presumably the population and graves had increased. mainly due to the larger and more stable forms being packed in the lower layers of the kiln. After that. except the Late. The Late Pottery began to show itself with the second civilisation at 39 . the immigration of a people with many fresh forms of pottery suddenly increasing the types. 6 in 7 before Forked V Lances. At 53 there seems to have been a general decay of invention . 116. like that on the introduction of the black-topped ware. also begins at 34. Having reviewed the growth of types in pottery. So far we have dealt with the first civilisation. when it became most active with fresh forms. and the Decorated at 40. The Red Polished ware is really all one with the black-topped. however. . but even that showed little vitality after 45. 5 stages. one oval at 31. The entirely black ware. and others to the red ware. This gives an absolute time-value for 74-78. when the white-lined patterns were declining. Hard stone beads . Marbles. we can now see how far other changes may help us. 39 39 . as this style lasted for many ages in Nubia. the Red Polished did not fall as suddenly. The Decorated ware belongs essentially to the second civilisation. The Rough Pottery was merely the cheap substitute for better wares . or 60 years to each stage of sequence. This is. We see then that the Red Polished begins a little after the black-topped. and then the dislocation of the conquest checking novelties for a f generation or two afterwards. square. and the dynastic people coming in at 73. First copper chisel. The lower layer in the burning became blackened by the deoxidising effect of the ashes. Squat stone vases. Conical foot vases. The following are the more distinct and dateable points. however. The Black-topped at 31. and the average time of a stage would be longer rather than shorter in the earlier times. placing the dates of beginnings before the subject. it declined gradually to 51. the Late styles increased. show the same strange variation. and allowed of a upper layer. every style. some distinctive forms belonging to the black. There are. Rectangular slates (very rare).41. Spirals on tags. perhaps similarly due to importing ready-made styles. no authority for the time value of earlier periods.THE EPOCHS OF THE PREHISTORIC AGES 45 dynastic expansion of Egypt southward. 40 40 40 . and animal types not till 33-34. but its rise was at the fall of other styles in 53. and were neglected after 53. 38 End. There was some revival about 60 and 63. In the same way black Greek vases can be changed to red or black alternately by letting in or stopping off the air from a furnace.32. 1 as the kilns were developed. equivalent to the 300 years of kings before theist dynasty. and the dates of endings after the subject : Begin. and was stagnant after 63. . Everything-even the Late Pottery-shared in the fall at 63. Both kinds had a flicker of activity of design at 57 and again at 63. sank into mere routine. and both appear in the early dynastic movement. 5 in 6 before Flint dagger. These were all much less thought of after 40. I this prove true we can definitely fix the bulk of the first civilisation entering at 31. 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 Forked U Lances. but after that the old styles were extinct. followed by a sharp fall. O the three f causes suggested for the change at 31. .

Squat vases . II. behind the Fayum. as we see in the curve of Decorated 45 Scimetar flint knife. The totals of these 42 Spoon (stone). End. decays 41. flat top. at 38. incised (T. The 46 Flat base. Maces. disc 42 76 Square slates. The age of Spiral vases . 26) . Then there are hardly any Double-edged flint knife . clearly of Solutrean style. pl. new type at 63 is a striking one. the old order of the prehistoric. 50 Lazuli. at each date are marked as curves. . . . never found in the graves in Egypt. latest . quartz used. and Notched tags other such lids. Hippopotamus. southern origin. but they all show mental differences. 40 Combs. v. ends 42 70 Rectangular slates usual. There it is seen that Tusk development . L. with a lid which Combs. 42 Maces. handled. to social and political change. xxix. Scimetar flint knife . peg form of black-topped vases. Combs with animals . Human block figure . 50 Hard stone beads again. SOMEoutline of the changes in general civi56 Rods for games. stone vases. and drop the mud of the Nile Valley. above the curve . and before the unchecked Ship vases evaporation of the Nile made it lose its velocity. last decay . 78 Round-topped adze. shows Forked lances. 42 Barrel-shaped stone vases. Clay figures. . This style is familiar in 48 Glaze on stone. 65 . styles is at 60-63. large physical invasion at 40. 63 Square-ended flints. CHAPTER XIV 50 Ninepins. copper. D 75 a. dynasty (Medum. They are akin to those Forehead pendants . Tusks. Spiral tags . the influence a little preceding the main Tusks. d. of the same date is the basket pot. probably due 42 Shouldered stone vases. the proto-dynastic age. 75 b. Begin. Palestine. As such a form of basket is known in early Nubia. lisation may now be attempted. the Nile deposits is from about 8. . The spread of Bone harpoon . .000 B. that they belong to an age with some rainfall.000 or 10. . short. 50 Forehead pendants. On the deserts 56 Adzes. new things after 50 : and the great fall of the old 45 Ship vases. found in the lower levels of Susa. birds. These changes are not at all of equal importance. End. garnet. flat top . is mostly at 40 to 42.C. it seems that it may indicate a 50 ? Triangular copper dagger. pear.46 Begin. the square-ended 46 Ivory spoons. vases ceasing to produce any new types at 64. THE EPOCHS O F THE PREHISTORIC AGES 40 Aloe and spiral designs. Another new type Combs. flint flake. 13). latest fits into a groove around the mouth. . . made of glazed ware or black 48 Fly amulet. and which are Ninepins . . and was usual in Egypt 49 Flaying knife. 41 Combs. The ending of old things Paste figures . 41 69 Comma pattern vases. is a large class of worked flints which are Oval stone vases . these flints over what are now barren deserts. . that Serial flaking flint is to say before the final elevation of the land dried Boat slate with bird ends up the Saharan Sea. the greatest number of new things ("Begin ") is 43 Small saucers of stone. THE PREHISTORIC CIVILISATIONS Stone tags . that is the knell of 46 Hill pattern on vases. in later times. and across from Egypt to 57 Serial flaking flint. which continued till the end of the iiird 46 Bull's-head amulet. . 12. 1x8. well-formed 66 Bull's legs for couch.

This suggests that they may be the relics of the Solutrean flint workers. and t h e s e o r water skins-were decorated with ivory tusks or tags stopping the leg holes. the thinness of the body. The ivory figures give a good idea of the type of the people. Flint was very skilfully worked. which were all entirely of handwork. Copper was not common. while the men only used the sheath. rarely. Glazing was an art brought in with the invasion . This implies the skilful art of making the green or blue frit. and not being really native. is obvious. as slaves brought by the incoming Algerian people from Malta. Yet even then they fastened the skin with a copper pin. and its decay in Egypt is due to its having been brought from a different centre. glazed figures and beads were a usual decoration. and several other arts of life. but was employed for harpoons. we cannot suppose that their dwellings were not fully as good. With all this -fine production of small objects there must have been an equivalent care in the houses and surroundings of the people. The people who brought in the continuous civilisation of Egypt at S. but the edges were minutely serrated with deeply cut teeth. with pottery so exactly like that still kept up in the highlands of Algiers. well-designed figure carving in ivory. the great variety of form. Figures were also made in clay and paste. There is a less likely source of the steatopygous people. were usual. and the application of it to coat stone and siliceous paste with a continuous smooth glaze. The artistic sense also appears in the vases of ivory and of stone. doubtless with flint flakes. Harpoons were made of horn and of copper. the long wavy hair was fastened up with longtoothed ivory combs. the sharp-edged disc mace was the most usual.THE PREHISTORIC CIVILISATIONS 47 and this is therefore the later limit of the Solutrean flintcthey may be much older. which was afterwards the most usual in the early dynasties. that we cannot but see here a Libyan immigration. and. which needs prolonged and precise heating. with a single black-topped cup. first appear buried in shallow circular holes. All of these are buried now far below the mud of the Nile plain. and as the level of the arts of the Egyptians was higher than the modern Africans'. a goat-skin over the body. but it is much more likely that they are Egyptians. Now in the earlie. They carried bags of painted leather. 119. with figures of birds on the head. or any irregularity. and reference is therefore needless. yet it is rarely that a lack of symmetry. They had much drawing in white lines on the pottery. a rhombic slate palette. The authority for each of the following data will be found in its place in the preceding pages. Armlets and rings of shell and ivory were worn. The whole of it was built up by hand.D. Square boxes of pottery were sometimes painted. The art of figure carving was well advanced. Immediately after these first immigrants there poured in a civilised people. For weapons. The slave women of the previous steatopygous race were also represented. and the finest porphyries and other beautiful stones were sought for as materials. Pottery was the favourite product of these people. Some shaved the head. without any wheel or circular motion. and for small chisels used in carving. by some method which we cannot imagine. and wore wigs. Leather sandals were in use. with their characteristic tatuing patterns. so that there was much care of the person and cleanliness. probably as slaves to the slender people. for pins to fasten the skins on the person. usually having the figure of an animal in open work on the top. Slate palettes in the forms of various animals were used to grind the malachite. Magic figures of slate of a small size were used. Large double-edged knives and forked lances were finished perfectly in this style. Some Central African peoples at present have excellent houses and fittings. on the standard later known as the gold standard. without exaggeration. to serve as a germicide and also as a barrier to the glare of the desert. with surface scaling like that of the long knives of the great megalithic tombs of Denmark. Hair-pins. along with tusks of the hippopotamus carved with human heads. beautifully finished. They brought in a large variety of pottery. the polish of the surface. . but this was forgotten in a few generations. Not only was the surface evenly wrought. The women wore a linen skirt or a waist fringe. For decoration. Weights were established. far better than those used in later ages. The care lavished on the perfection of shape and outline. 30. which was generally painted below the eyes. all show a love of artistic treatment. the depth of the notch being as wide as the tooth. The general view that we get of the first civilisation is that of a capable and skilful people.st graves are figures of the steatopygous people. and can only he matters of inference. where they are known to have lived .

with a small projecting beard. and others. These then are the people who were trading -perhaps settling-in Egypt throughout the centuries of the first civilisation. especially in the less care for the hair . and who entered the valley in a large wave at S. leisure for its expression. Horn cups also became usual. by the supply of stone instead of clay for vases. The maximum of new things was at 38. and the large size of galleys that were in use . As emery probably was brought over in the first period.1 . wearing a comb upside down on a pin as their ornament. as on pl. and the hair worn in a pigtail. the bull's head. the later always have single burials. The variety of wealth seen in the very different size and richness of the graves also shows much personal gradation. sometimes long. or with the sacrifice of wives at the funeral (D 35). at least. 6. The only such region in touch with Egypt is the eastern desert. well developed and upright. and only a short scratch comb was used. and not merely small fisheries. showing that for personal objects. Instead of pottery imitated from basket-work. There is a strong suggestion that these are the same people who are represented bringing in a tribute of similar shaped stone vases at the early dynastic period (The Rise of the 1 Dynasties and Royal Tombs. the wide squat vases without ships are of the southern region. used by the Egyptians. The mental attitude of these people is seen not only in their beautiful and delicate handwork. as indicated by the positions of the offerings in the graves being usually in the same order. as ii 23. They were provided with square cabins. There was a firm belief in a future life. of stone at firstprobably from the rocky homeland-and then of ivory.D. are peculiar to this second period. and of the imitations of them in pottery. with much artistic feeling. they had passed from a communal stage. or possibly southern Sinai or the northern Hejaz. From this we learn of the frequency of shipping. The forehead pendants came into use about the middle of the second civilisation. fly. Throughout this age there had been living. The special characteristic was the large class of Decorated pottery with red designs on a buff ground. bringing in many fresh classes of production. at first of stone and then of shell. 120. Bricks of dried clay were made for houses and tombs. the long comb disappeared. Spoons were brought into use. shown by the fine and valuable objects placed in the grave . sometimes combined with a hair-pin. These imply a system of trading. and there was no dread of the return of the dead. by close and peaceful alliance of tribes. All of the forms of stone vases. The personal relations also differed . falcon. Amulets came into use. this type belongs to the northern part of the valley. The physical type of the people was not uniform. the earlier people are often buried two or three together. within touch of the Nile Valley.15). I t was therefore affection and reverence for the dead which prompted the offerings. i. indicates a political advance as a settled order of civilised connection over the country. if not by united rule. as they are furnished with weapons. and rowed by a bank of oars. and the forehead oinament and face veil of the Bedawy. shown by the variety of plants copied in the designs on the early pottery. which was common in Egypt. they have a retreating forehead and a long pointed nose. Although the slate palettes continue in use: yet a fresh class of hard stone palettes occasionally appears. In both cases the head is of a high type. and these drove out of use the older things increasingly till 41-43. This shows a different feeling in their ceasing to wish to be buried along with a previous burial. They were already using a system of signs as marks on property. The whole outlook of that age must have been prosperous. and even into Nubia. These people differed from the earlier Egyptians in the care of the person. bordering on the Red Sea. 38. probably introduced from the mountain . Ships were already in use in the earlier part of the first civilisation. others were beardless. well provided. Whiie some had a pointed beard.iv. but also in their observation and love of nature. and. they made imitations of stone vases. and the length of the garments worn indicate that it was probably a high and cold region. The home of this second civilisation must have been mountainous. One cannot imagine the earlier people who carved their comb heads so lovingly with animal figures. The unity of the civilisation all over Egypt.48 THE PREHISTOR I C CIVILISATIONS The funereal system was developed as a formal ritual. another people in different surroundings. without any negroid trace. claw. this points to traffic with the Smyrna coast. and perhaps as happy and sympathetic an attitude of mind as that in any later age of the country. These are linked with the modern shell pendant on the forehead in Africa.

and rising to actual conflict with the Egyptians by about 60. Nuh. They are therefore not due to Nubian. and Min. of 68 s. on the Daric standard of Babylonia. The use of cylinders pretty certainly came in from Elam. f During this second civilisation. which lasted on to the early dynasties. The fine ripple-working of flint knives lasted from 57 to 63. for amulets and beads. 13. but suddenly new types ceased at 62. and have brought down Nubian types with them. dated to 63. Glass first appears as an opaque violet paste. Neit. The handle. A good deal of the Late pottery came in from 53 to 61. Beside the points just noticed there are also some other features of the third period. Glaze was applied to quartz. which continued to expand with new forms well into the first dynasty. and ornaments on stone vases. and then the outburst a t 78 shows under a completed government the revival of work. Various games were played: ninepins. just as the second period was traceable all through the first age. Yet the established forms continued to be made without much deterioration until a sudden collapse a t 63. adzes. Here then seems evidence of Elamite influence beginning before 50. I t may be that the Nubians swept down and broke the second civilisation a t 63. 37 ( R 62 a). when the principal productions of Decorated pottery and ripple working all ceased. Copper became more usual. The third period of the prehistoric opens far back. This does not stand alone. Dios. The decoration 7 .D. apparently Egyptian and foreign. until a sudden burst of new forms a t 74. By 54 there is a cessation of originality in all the previous lines of work. while very few new things were brought in. and then evenly flaked all over in a ripple pattern. in place of the long double-edged knives. and Turk. Gradually they increased with more and more novelties. 1 .D. Now this is found still earlier in Nubia a t S. moreover. d. Another special type. This seems to mark a great raid over the land. and the Nubians probably broke the second civilisation a t 63. the long curved scimetar knife. b. probably derived from the sacred cord of the high priest o Horns. There is another influence to be considered also. and a knife of this work had an ivory handle with scenes of Elamite character. the latter 1 of green glazed ware. pl.D. there was an imitation signet cylinder. during which there was the greatest ability in work. but this is less likely.D. but more likely to Elamite influences. 1917. these were later trimmed down to a flat plane. The cartouche appears. coming in a t 63. and accompanying this is a sudden rise of the late pottery at 53.xiv. of S. beginning at 38. is the square-ended flint flake with parallel sides. 77-81 and 77. and left it in a moribund condition. large single-edge flakes came into use . The new influences were beginning to filter into the country which were to lead to the overthrow of the second age. So far then we may say that the Elamites were worrying at Egypt from about 60 or earlier. and in a style which is evidently far above what the Egyptian was doing a t that time (Ancient Egypt.THE PItEHISTOR IC CIVILISATlONS 49 region. 12. The entire cessation of new types in 7 5 7 7 marks the age of conquest. 121. the crown of Lower Egypt. 26). The third period is marked by the basket-pot. and only gradually did the Late styles flourish again. such as the falcon on a crescent for the King. The disc mace entirely gave place to the pear mace . independently of the Elamites . The foreign type is like that of the black ship in the Hieralcoupolis painting. iron beads show the first knowledge of that metal. This type of pot and flake then points to a Nubian influence coming in at 63. triangular daggers. copied from a basket with a ledge round the top to hold a conical lid: see Decorated type 75 a. which continued through the history. lasting on to 52. with two different types of ships. there was a maximum of activity a t S. Weights were used.D. 1909-10. Religious signs begin. and marked slips used for casting throws.S. which seems to mark the invasion by the Elamite race that began the dynastic series. The working of flint was changed . and black incised ware.. of 63 s. and which could not in any reason be put later than 50. The flint dagger appears. with mere rough marks on it in lieu of any real signs. has scenes of fighting by maritime invaders. In a grave well dated to 46. ground flat. and forked lances with a deep V hollow. and a pot of black incised ware of this form was found in Nubia (A. 46. the fine quartzose rocks ceased to be used and hard limestone was found to be the easier substitute. We must now look a t the invaders.. the signs of Ra. which swept off the capable artisans. 67. or the Elamites may have entered the Nile Valley from the Red Sea up in Nubia. and yet here is evidence of the unintelligent copying of a cylinder before 50. board games. Gold and silver come into use for beads. 46). shown by ripple-flaking o flint and fine f stone vases. This form of fitting in a lid is well known in Nubian baskets of later time. v. and flaying-knives became common.

down to the xviiith dynasty. mixed with ashes. scattered over the deserts on both sides of Egypt and across to Palestine . to meet the most extended view of the beginnings of the Oriental civilisations. the third of the qedet. scorpions. The Magdalenian flakes and bone harpoons are similar to those of the Prehistoric cemeteries. and the Cypriote type with a deep midrib appears instead at 63. which never contain flints of the earlier styles. The Mousterian style appears in a settlement on the present edge of the desert at Lahun. been able to trace the rise of two great civilisations. What has been thus done for Egypt may be also done for other lands if sufficient facts are observed and used. the anarchy which followed. and serpents appear instead of the ships. and the very coarse figures of crocodiles. the same style also occurring in flints from the great mound of Susa. by a close attention to the relative ages of the pottery and all the other products. the influence of styles of work extended to the barbaric fringes of colder Europe. or Egypt. and the affinities of their sources. gives good reason for such work in Egypt not being later than the same styles in Europe. We have thus. Flint armlets also seem to belong to the end of this third period. which proves that the Nile has not been above its present level since that time. In the historic period gther designs of flint work prevail. as that is linked with the present subject of the prehistoric cemeteries. There are known from Egypt groups of flint work of styles corresponding to all the principal periods recognised in Europe (see Ancient Egy$t. A fresh standard of weight comes in at 77. also to observe the fall of the second civilisation. A good bowl of this style is as early as 52. 1915. part 2). The order of the Solutrean. known to us mainly from remains of cave dwellers. Magdalenian and polished flint styles being the same in Europe and in Egypt. Such a view necessitates accepting the shortest reasonable dating in geology. with painted pottery.50 TIIE PXEHISTOKIC CIVILISATIONS of pottery with groups of comma-shaped dabs of colour was the style which superseded all the other patterns . entering the dynasty o. The rise of the dynastic inil fluence and its triumph wl be dealt with in a following volume on The Rise of the Dynasties. and the gradual occupation by the dynastic race which culminated in their conquest of the country. Mesopotamia. hence the Prehistoric civilisations described in this volume are to be taken as being parallel with the Magdalenian age of Europe. flamingoes. The Chellean and Acheulian periods are as yet only known from scattered examples. on the desert at Naqadeh. The flat triangular dagger vanishes. The Aurignacian style is found in a settlement. and aloes. The Solutrean is represented by great numbers of worked flints of many types. NOTE ITseems desirable to antimpate here a statement of some conclusions which properly belong to the catalogue of Flintwork. The general result is that while civilisations were successively developing in the more favourable climates of Elam. which belongs to the national standard of the historical times. . gazelles.

33 Boat of glazed quartz. 43 tools. 16. 48 Animal figures. ivory. 11 Bull's leg of couch. 39. 11. 44 Couch. 47 lumps. 10 Balance beam.INDEX Abbreviations to publications. 6 Adze. 44 Combs. 42 gold.3 9 Blende.50 hunt. 48 51 Baboon figures. 44 glazed. 13.30.37. 3 8 Birds. 48 Bushes figured on vases. 43 Branches in bows of ships. 2 6 Civilisation. figures of. 27 Changes. 37. 44 Age of strata. periodic length.49 Bead polishers. 43 Blocks for games. 44 Amulets. 44 Chisel.49 weapons. 2 5 Coral. 25. 46 Claw amulet. 10-14 Ant-eater figures. 27 stone. 4 Carnelian. 21 Cups.49 Chain. 2 9 Barbary sheep.26. 42 Boat slates. 44 Beer lees. 11. 19 Calcite. 45 Beliefs of prehistoric people. 44 Corn. 44. 43 Crocodile figures. 2 6 Books on the prehistoric age. 31. 12. 14. 37 . prehistoric. 44 Carton-weaving. 41 Clay beads.3 9 Barrel-shaped stone vases.20 Armlets. evidences of. I.47 Arrow-heads. 48 Bird-head slate palettes. conical. 41 Cartouche collar of high priest. red tubular. copper. 29. 30 long-toothed. I4 Beginning and end of productions. 18 Cabins on ships. 42. 19 Bricks.48 Copper. 12 Antelopes.48 Brushes held-together in painting. 18. figures of. Barbary sheep. models of.21 Bull's head amulet. 6 Civilisations. 21. bull's leg of. early. 10-13. 24 ' Boats. 2 6 Agate. 11. 2 6 stone. 44 Card index for classifying. 30. 18 on decorated pottery.42 with figures. copper.43 Burials.16 Axes. multiple. 19 in tub.z Box painted. 35 horn.29.47 short-toothed. model.42. hairpin. 8 Bodkin. 24 Audad. 5 Aloe ensign. 43 Beetle figure. 33 Board squared for game. 41 in second civilisation. 42 Beads of clay.18 Amethyst.47. 16. 17 Basket patterns.

25. 6. 13 Galena. figures. 25. 13. 43 Gold work. 15. 43 Hair long and wavy. absolute. 2. 19 of copper. figures of. 44 Gazelles. 13 Elamite influence. 16. 30. 13 Funereal system. 49 Dahabiyeh punted. 16 in boat. 4-6 geological. 32. 20. 48 plummet. 8 vegetable paste. 7 female. 30 Decorated pottery. 14 Forehead pendant. 20 upon ships. 48 reclassified. 25 Flint armlets. 19. 16 Gold foil. 9. 30 Geological dating by helium and lead. 11. inscribed. 47. figure of. 40-41. copper. 16 Glacial periods. 8 clay. early. 12 Human figures. 31. 43. 16.INDEX Cylinder. 7 on vases. 37 Dynastic influence. 42 Hare figures. 4 L 4 8 Forked lance. 20 Daric weights. 8. 24. 49 Fly figures. 42 early. dates shown by. 41 Ensigns like later figures. 19 figures. 5 =lls on ship ensigns. 49 Glazing beads. 12. 5 ~ o gfigures of. 43 Game board. 5 . models of. 3 Graves. 3. 39 on tusks. 16 plate references. 7. 37 Emery grinders. 12. 47 Hair-pins. earliest. 4 relative. 4 Decay of style by copying. 40 Daggers. 37 Flamingoes. 49 of ivory. 5 Glass. 7 Ibex figures. 30. I1 Horns ensign. figures of. 44 Face veil. 49 Dating. 16 Denudation. 33 Games. Duck. 16 20 . 16. earliest. 49 Goat. 3 sequence. 5 mode of discriminating. 49 Earpick. 22 Deer on decorated pottery. 47 ensign. figures of. 27 Grave-groups compared. 7. 13. 40. 37 . 7 on combs. brown. 19 figures. 10 steatopygous. number of prehistoric. 8 ivory. 43 Horn of pottery with plug. 6 Haematite. 30 on slates. 37 Fish figures. 49 Elephant ensign. African. 33. 16-22. 50 pebbles. figure of. 37 Hooks of shell. 37. 16. 19 vases. 25. 4% 47 on quartz. 5 Giraffe figured. 16. 16 Hippopotamus. 47 Handle of ivory. 12. 42 of slates. 41-2 imported. figures of. zo Hartebeest. 28. 16. 16. 50 flint. 40 of limestone. 41 Falcon ensign. 39 Horse. 42-43. 49 Garlic. 37 Helium. 37 Harpoon. 6-10 decay of. 15. 42 working. 10. 43 Garnet. 41 Frog figures. 27. Flaying knife. 7 dates of. 20 Epochs of the prehistoric. 26 Eels. 26. beak head. age of. rate of.

15. 19. 16.INDEX Ichneumon figures. 47 models of weapons. 37 Libyan migration. 22-24. 25 model vases. 17~ eight classes of. 43 Marbles for playing. 33 Locust figures. 20. 27 silver. 3. ensign of. 39 for game. 32 Marbling on decorated pottery. 37 Pendant of gold. 10. copper. 49 handles of. 43 beads. 44 Lead worked. 42 Lance forked. disc. 22-24. 5. 3 hand made. 19. 1 1 Mormyrus cashyf. 44 glazed. 16 Immigration shown by pottery. 43 Ox figures. bar. ensign of. 16-21 decorated periods of. 49 Nile mud deposits. 47 Prehistoric signs continued later. 32. 43 Leopard (?) figures. 14 Maces. 8 Palettes. 26 Qedet weights. figures of. 27 on forehead. 48 Porcupine. 15. 27. 37 Neit. 42-43 Ra. 28. 3 Number of graves. 47 Pelta slates. 16 Knife. earliest. Archaeological Survey of. 39. 16 Ox head amulets. 49 Ironstone marbles. 42 white-lined. 43 Orycterofius. 1 1 Oxyrhynkhos fish. 49 style continuous from Egypt. ensign of. 49 Rahat fringe figured. 2 Measure for liquid. 33 Rectangular slate palettes. 49 Prick-point. 47 covering dry cones. 44 Needle. z0. figures of. 44 Iron beads. 49 Nub weights. 37 Pins. 44-45 decorated. 14-16. 48 Models of weapons. 44 Min. I . 16. 28. 26 Plants painted. 47 Lion figures. 26 Nefash fish. 41 Pigeon. 36-38. 32 Jackal figures.49 source of. 42 polishing. 25 Monsters. 23 Magdalenian period. 41 Latus fish. 27 Leather bags. 37 Lazuli. 38 . 12 Pottery. 47 Nubia. 15. 46 Ninepins game. 26. figure of. 19. 38. 20. class. figures of. 50 Magic slates. 17 Material published on prehistoric. I 2 Ostrich egg shell. 22 lobed. 27 Linen stuccoed and painted. 27 Mica flakes. 34 cushion stuffed. 15. 16 Political condition in prehistoric age. 20 Mind shown by products. 50 Quartz. 25 Knobs of ivory. 47 Malachite. 47 pear-form. 37 Painting on steatopygous figures. 26 flaying. 47 Rattles of pottery. 47 stone vases. 5 Obsidian. 48 slate. 43 rolls. 11. 43 worn early. 2 Nubian influence. 5 . 16. 36 Lid of vase. 42 changes of style. 11. hard-stone. 6. 25. 37 Nebbek fruit.

14 Vases of ivory. 37 Tusk with copper loop. 44 INDEX Steatopygous figures. 38 Slip with bracts for gaming. age of. for netting. 15. 7. 8 Tortoise-shell armlets. 39 Ship drawings. 42 Tags ornamented. 42 Turquoise. 47 races.. 18 Signs as property marks. 26 Types begin and end.54 Reeds for figures. 47 Slates. 13. 25 Zebra. 50 White-lined pottery. 43 S-figures of birds. 20. 44 Shaving the head. 43 Slate palettes. 4 Serpent figures. 37. 50 Specular iron. 42 Squat jars. rope pattern. 28. 13 Rush-work patterns. 41 Silver work. 11. Ld. 8. accuracy of. 43 Spindle whorls. 38 Rimer. 48 continued from prehistoric age. 15. flints from. Weapons. 6. figures of. 13. 16 Strata. 15. 40 17 Pdnfsd By Haeell. and wood. 19. 18 3 Spoons. 27. 46. 21 Steatite. 20 on ivory handle. 46. 14. 36-38. zo Ships for sea traffic. magic. changes of. 33 Tusks with human figures. 26. 4 meaning of. 7. 41 Spirals on decorated pottery. horn. 42 Tusks ornamented. 19. 47 in rush work. 21 Sandals. 18. 26. 17. 21 Sail (?). gold. 34 Tatuing on steatopygous figures. 16. 31. 47 Wire. 40 stone. 21 Serpentine. Square of ivory. 47 Sheath worn by men. 5. 31. 48 ensigns. 2847 of qedet. 3 ~ ~ 448 . 47 Sheep. 26 Rings. 13 on vases. 34-36 Wavy-handled pottery.47 Weights of daric. 16. 47 Scoop of pottery. 44 Rhombic slate palettes. 7. 27. 3 Susa. 31. 7 Tweezers. 45-6 Uniformity over country. prehistoric 3 Vandyke patterns. 28. 27 Wooden models of weapons. Watsaa & V m c y . 39 Zig-zag patterns. 32 Solutrean period. 50 Tag of ivory. 44 Turtle. 32 Rosettes between serpents. 47 Rods of ivory for games. 42 Scorpion figures. 31 Triangles of slate. . 6. 9 Stone vases. 49 upon ivory. 16 Sequence dates. La?eaon and Aylerbuty. z2-25. 14-16 Wigs worn. 43 Resin. 17 Stork figure. 5 Style uniform over country. 16. 49 of nub. figures of. 34-36. 3.

3 : 4 PREHISTORIC TUSKS AND STONES W I T H HEADS I .

9 : 10 PREHISTORIC IVORY FIGURES II .

7 :10 PREHISTORIC CLAY AND STONE FIGURES Ill .

7 : 10 PREHISTORIC C L A Y FIGURES IV .

.

PREHISTORIC. DESIGNS ON STEATOPYGOUS FIGURES .

1 : 3 P O T T E R Y B O A T S A N D FIGURES VII .5 :6 P R E H I S T O R I C F L I N T A N D P O T T E R Y ANIMALS.

7 : 10 PREHISTORIC IVORY HAIRPINS 1:2 STONE FIGURES OF ANIMALS Vlll .

1 :1 PREHISTORIC AMULETS IX .

. 1-12.1:3 PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED BOWLS. X.

.1:3 PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED BOWLS. XI. 13-23.

PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED BOWLS. XII. 24-32. .

1:3 PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED BOWLS. XIII. 33-41. .

. XIV. 42-48.1:3 PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED VASES.

1:3 PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED VASES. SHIP AND PLANTS. XV. 49-59. .

60-66.L I N E D VASES. XVI. . ANIMALS.PREHISTORIC W H I T E .

PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED VASES. . 67-69. ANIMALS.

XVIII. ANIMALS AND MEN. .1:3 PREHISTORIC WHITE-LINED VASES. 70-74.

1:3 PREHISTORIC. 36-41. XIX. SHIP DESIGNS. .

XX.PREHISTORIC. 43-44. . SHIP DESIGNS.

SHIP DESIGNS. XXI. . 45-46.PREHISTORIC.

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3: 7 PREHISTORIC PEAR MACES A N D SPINDLEWHORLS XXVl .

1:2 STONE AXES. XXVII. .

2 : 5 CLAY A N D WOOD M O D E L WEAPONS XXVlll .7 : 10 P R E H I S T O R I C B O N E HARPOONS.

7 : 10 PREHISTORIC BONE AND IVORY COMBS. 1sT PERIOD XXlX .

7 :10 PREHISTORIC COMBS AND SPOONS 2ND PERIOD XXX .

ARMLETS AND RINGS XXXl .7 : 10 PREHISTORIC GAMING PIECES.

7 : 10 PREHISTORIC T U S K S XXXll .

3:4 PREHISTORIC I M I T A T I O N T U S K S XXXlll .

2:5 PREHISTORIC S T O N E VASES XXXlV .

2 : 5 PREHISTORIC STONE VASES XXXV .

2 : 5 PREHISTORIC S T O N E VASES XXXVl .

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CYLINDERS TO LIBYAN. PINK ~ U F F L I M .1:3 STANDING STONE VASES. XLII. ~ . n BASALT YClL LIWI'r 220 BASALT 0s ALAS.

XLIII. TYPES 1-57.1:4 PREHISTORIC. S L A T E PALETTES. .

1:4 PREHISTORIC. . XLIV. 65-103. S L A T E PALETTES.

2 : 5 PREHISTORIC MAGIC SLATES 2 :3 FIGURES AND SPACERS XLV .

3 : 4 PREHISTORIC IVORY AND STONE OBJECTS XLVl .

3:5 PREHISTORIC BOATS A N D EELS O F POTTERY XLVll .

9 : 10 PREHISTORIC CARVINGS AND COPPER BANDS 3 :4 IVORY VASES XLVlll .

1:2 PREHISTORIC VASES AND WEIGHTS. 1sT DYNASTY GLAZED TILES XLlX .

PERIODS OF CHANGE SHEWN BY T H E NUMBER OF N E W TYPES OF POTTERY. . L.

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58

WORKS BY W. M, FLINDERS PETRIE
(Besides those published by the British School in Egypt) A STUDENT'S HISTORY OF EGYPT. Part I, to XVIth Dynasty; Part 11, XVIIth

and XVIIIth Dynasties; Part 111, XIXth to XXXth Dynasties. 10s. 6d. each. Methuen. TRANSLATIONS OF EGYPTIAN TALES. z vols. 3s. 6d. each. Methuen. DECORATIVE ART I N EGYPT. 3s. 6d. Methuen. NAQADA AND BALLAS. 86 plates. 25s. Quarifcfi. KOPTOS. 28 plates. 6s. Quaritch. SIX TEMPLES A T THEBES. 26 plates. 10s. Quayitch. RELIGION AND CONSCIENCE I N EGYPT. 2s. 6d. Metfiuen. SYRIA AND EGYPT. 2s. 6d. Methuen. METHODS AND AIMS IN ARCHAEOLOGY. 66 blocks. 6s. RESEARCHES I N SINAI. 186 illustrations. 28s. Murray. MIGRATIONS. Huxley Lecture, 1906. 1 1 plates. 2s. 6d. RELIGION OF ANCIENT EGYPT. I S . Constable. PERSONAL RELIGION I N EGYPT BEFORE CHRISTIANITY. 3s. Harper. ARTS AND CRAFTS I N ANCIENT EGYPT. 45 plates, 5s. Foulis. THE GROWTH OF THE GOSPELS. 2s. 6d. Murray. EGYPT AND ISRAEL. 54 figures. 2s. 6d. S.P.C.K. REVOLUTIONS OF CIVILISATION. 57 figures. 3s. Harper. THE FORMATION OF THE ALPHABET. g plates. 25s. AMULETS. 53 plates. 21s. Constable. EASTERN EXPLORATION. 2s. 6d. Constable. SOME SOURCES OF HUMAN HISTORY. ro illustrations. 5s. S.P.C.K.

Electronic publication prepared by Kelvin Smith Library Case Western Reserve University Cleveland.shtml .etana. Ohio for ETANA Core Texts http://www.org/coretexts.

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