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SIXTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GEOMORPHOLOGY

MALLORCA ISLAND:GEOMORPHOLOGICAL
EVOLUTION AND NEOTECTONICS.

P.G. Silva; J.L. Goy; C. Zazo; J. Jimnez; J. Forns; A.Cabero; T. Bardaj; R. Mateos;
F.M. Gonzlez Hernndez; Cl. Hillaire-Marce and Bassam, G.

FIELD TRIP GUIDE - A7


SIXTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GEOMORPHOLOGY

MALLORCA ISLAND: GEOMORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND


NEOTECTONICS.

P. G. Silva (1), J. L. Goy (2), C. Zazo (3), J. Gimnez (4), J. Forns (5), A.Cabero (3), T. Bardaj (6), R.
Mateos (7) , F. M. Gonzlez Hernndez (2) Hillaire-Marcel, Cl. (8) and Bassam, G. (8);
(1)
Depto. Geologa, Universidad de Salamanca, Escuela Politcnica Superior de vila. 05003-Avila (Spain)
pgsilva@usal.es Telfono: 920353500; Fax: 920353501
(2)
Depto. Geologa, Universidad de Salamanca, Fac. Ciencias. 37008- Salamanca (Spain).
(3)
Depto. Geologa, Museo Nac. CC. Naturales (CSIC), Gutirrez Abascal, 2. 28006-Madrid (Spain).
(4)
D. G. Recursos Hdrics, Conselleria Medi Ambient, Gov. Illes Balears, Via Asima 4, 1er-der,, 07009, Palma de
Mallorca.
(5)
Dept. Cinces de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra. Valldemosa km7.5, 07071, Palma de Mallorca, (Spain)
(6)
Depto. Geologa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcal de Henares, Madrid (Spain).
(7)
Instituto Geolgico y Minero de Espaa (IGME). Ciudad de Quertaro s/n, 07071, Palma de Mallorca (Spain).
(8)
Universit du Qubec Montral, GEOTOP-UQAM, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8

1. Introduction to the Geology and Geomorphology of the Mallorca Island.


The island of Mallorca covers an area of 3640 km2 and is located in the middle of the Western
Mediterranean Sea (Fig. 1). It has a typical Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild
wet winters. The mean annual temperature is approximately 17 C, with mean winter and summer
values of 10 and 25 C. The mean annual precipitation is about 500 mm and is mostly
concentrated in autumn, although maximum precipitation can range from 1400-1600 mm in the
northern sector of Tramuntana Range (Guijarro, 1986: Fig. 2). The vegetation is typically
Mediterranean with two clear community types: holm oaks, Cyclamini-Quercetum ilicis, with
boreal characteristics abundant at the lowest altitudes and macchia and garrigue bushes, Oleo-
Ceratonion, Hypericion balearici, Rosmarino-Ericion mainly in the drier lowlands (Bols, 1996).

The island constitutes the most important emerged segment of the so-called Balearic Promontory,
which constitutes the North-eastern prolongation of the external zones of the Betic Cordillera
(East Spain) into the Mediterranean sea (Fontbot et al., 1990). This orogenic promontory consists
of Paleozoic to Middle Miocene materials deformed in a thrust and fold system during the Late
OligoceneMiddle Miocene (Fallot, 1922; Sabat et al., 1988 and Gelabert et al., 1992). Seismic
reflection profiles show that the Alpine thrust front is located NW of the Balearic Promontory
constituting the southern margin of the so-called Valencia Through (Sbat et al., 1995). The
promontory constitutes a main continental shelf segmented in two zones, Ibiza-Formentera to the
South and Mallorca-Menorca to the North. This second one is relatively narrow (ca. 17 km mean)
and shallow (ca 90 m depth) with a mean shelf-break at 139 m depth (Acosta et al., 2003). To the
south, the promontory shelf terminates in the so-called Emile Baudot Scarp. This is a NE-SW
linear scarp of ca. 380 km length that develops from 200 to 800 m in its shallowest part, to more
than 2000 m depth at its base. This scarp has a tectonic origin, corresponding to an old fault scarp
that suffered extensive erosion during the Mediterranean Messinian crisis (Acosta et al., 2003). In
detail the ESCI Profile data indicate that the Emile Baudot Scarp is a crustal extensional fracture
that separates the Balearic continental crust from the thinned oceanic crust of the Argelian Basin
(Sbat et al., 1995).

The overall structure of the island comprises a set of NE-SW trending basin and ranges developed
during a period of tectonic extension active since at least the Late Miocene (Alvaro, 1987,
Benedicto et al., 1993). Three main ranges can be distinguished from NW to SE: Tramuntana
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

Range, Central Ranges the Llevant Ranges. These ranges are Neogene horsts structures,
composed mainly of carbonate deposits varying in age from Carboniferous to Middle Miocene
(but mainly Mesozoic materials), that have an Alpine internal compressional structure. Thus,
positive reliefs are segments of the Alpine thrust and fold belt that were built up in addition to
folds by a pile of thrust sheets not bigger than a few kilometres long but hundreds of meters thick
during the Paleogene-Lower Miocene Betic nappe emplacement (Gelabert et al, 1992; Sbat et al.,
1988).

10W Eurasia 10E Termal evidence Felt earthquakes


Main Neotectonics Faults I=VII
4 0 I=VI
N Post - Alpine Antiforms I=V
Iberia I=IV
Betic s

Africa 0 300 km

Alpine ranges
Neogene oceanic crust
Sller ge Lluc
an Alcud ia
Valldemosa R Sa Pobla Basin
a
n
ta
.
BY F

n
u Inca
m Art

es
Basin
ra
T
ng
F
SN
F
SJ

Ra
Andratx
P MF

Manacor
Palma Ra
F

nt
SA

Basin F nd
a
va

N E
Ll e

F
CM
Santany
Plio-Quaternary Campo s
Basin
Upper Miocene-Pliocene 0 10 20 kms

Pre-Alpine Basement

Figure 1. Major geological features of Mallorca Island, showing neotectonic faults controlling the relief . Inset Map of the
Iberian peninsula showing the relationships among the Balearic Promontory with the Betic Cordillera, Valencia Through
(VTh) and the Emile Baudot Scarp (EBs) PMF: Palma Fault; BYF: Bunyola Fault; ENF: Enderrocat Fault; SNF: Sencelles
Fault; SAF. Sineu-Algaida fault; SJF: Sant Joan Fault; CMF: Campos Fault. Dotted lines are suspect fault traces

In contrast, the basins responds to half-grabens developed along the detached horizons of ancient
NE-SW thrust planes, driven by a nearly radial extensional stress field active until Quaternary
times (Alvaro et al., 1984; Benedicto et al., 1993, Cspedes et al., 2001, Gimnez et al., 2002).
The most important set of basins are developed at the toe of the Tramuntana range, generating a

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P. Silva et al.

Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary through of more than 80 km length, 10-6 km wide and more
than 0.7 km deep, limited to the SE by the main NE-SW normal fault of the island, the Sencelles
Fault (Benedicto et al., 1993; Silva et al., 2001). Within this through are actually assembled the
Quaternary sedimentary basins of Palma, Inca, and Alcudia (Fig.1). These basins, interconnected
until Mio-Pliocene times, are actually separated by well-developed intervening antiform-like
reliefs. This is the case of the Marratxi-Sta. Eugenia antiforms separating the Palma (SW) from
the Inca Basins (Silva et al., 1997). The Sta. Magdalena relief, separating the latter from the
Alcuday Bay (NE), can also be related to a Neogene antiform relief, but it can be also described
as a relict isolated relief, densely affected by karstification.

Actually the Inca Basin is the only completely terrestrial one, large alluvial fan systems develop
from the toe of the Tramuntana range (NW) to the southern facing scarp of the Sencelles Fault.
Gravels, silt and clays topped by well-developed red soils and calcrete crusts are the common
sedimentary material within the Inca Basin. Older alluvial fan deposits outcrop at the southern
part of the basin. These are backtilted giving place to the development of smooth intervening
reliefs between the main alluvial plains and the Sencelles fault scarp. Alluvial fan deposits are
also common in the adjacent Palma and the Alcudia Basins. However these basins are connected
with the sea, there well-developed Pleistocene to Holocene littoral deposits are recorded. Aeolian
and beach materials are commonly assembled in beach-barrier complexes closing the
aforementioned bays developed since the Late Pleistocene. Moreover, staircased beach deposits
interbedded with cemented aeolian sands ribbon the southern sectors of these basins, especially in
the Palma Bay case. This kind of littoral morphosedimentary assemblage is also characteristic all
along the South coast of the island. Other Neogene basins are developed between the Central and
Llevant ranges. The most important one is the Campos Basin, which has a more moderate
sedimentary filling of 300 m thick, and also opens towards the sea. In their littoral zone is
characteristic the development of large active dune systems.

The north-western littoral slope of the Tramutana Range is characterised by an energetic relief
related to the abrupt topographic elevation change that occurs in between the 5 km distance that
separates the highest points of Mallorca (Puig Major: 1400 m) from the sea (Fig. 2). This
topographic feature together with a probable recent uplift facilitates gorging and mass wasting
processes over a deeply karstified substratum. Large-scale landsliding occur at the littoral slopes
of Tramuntana involving the mobilisation of rock volumes over 200x106 m3 (Mateos, 2001;
Gelabert et al., 2003). However the case, uplift of the Tramuntana range probably has determined
the backwards gravitatory collapse of the rest of the island along the basal thrust plane, working
from Miocene times as a low-angle horizon of detachment. Thus, central and eastern part of the
island is characterized by normal faulting, basin formation, karstification and limited coastal
uplift. The topographic elevation is lower than in the North, an the more elevated point of the
Llevant Ranges stands at 516 m above the sea-level (Fig. 2).

Due to the mainly carbonatic nature of almost all the Mallorca materials, karstic landforms are
characteristic all around the island. Littoral caves (Gins, 1995, Vesica, et al., 2000), uplifted
notches, and partially inundated karstic canyons (named Calas), are common features in the
eastern and southern parts of the Island (Fig. 2). The speleothem analysis of the eastern coast
littoral caves has demonstrated a Quaternary uplift of Llevant ranges of c.a. 1.5 m during the last
85000 years (Forns et al., 2002). Presently, aeolian sedimentation, karstification and mass
wasting are the dominant active processes sculpting the geomorphology of the island.

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Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

2 40 3 3 2 0

Fo rmentor Cape

4 0
Sa
Calobra

Alcudia Farutx Cap e


Pluviometry (mm/yr) Puig Majo r Bay
Soller Sa Pobla
ge
Ran I nca
Art
na

es
es
ta Sta. Maria
un Sineu

ang
g
an
am 39 40
Tr

lR

tR
Palma

ra

van
Algaida

nt
Mana cor

Ce

L le
Ran da
Palma Felanitx
Bay
Altimetry (m)
0- 100
100-200 (1) Santany

200-500. Campos 39 20
(2)
500-1000 Bay
> 1000.
(3)

Tramu ntana Range


NW SE
12 00

900

600
Llevant R anges
300 Central Ranges
Inca Basin
Inca Basin Campos Basin
0 sea-level
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Kms

Figure 2. Topography and relief of the Mallorca Island illustrating major geomorphological features. Inset pluviometric
map. 1. Ancient swamped areas (albuferas); 2. main karstic canyons of the island (North: Gorges; South: Calas); 3.
Location of main littoral caves of the island.

1.1. Neotectonics.
The best developed tectonic landforms are in a large-scale view the Tramuntana Range Mountain
front and the aforementioned tectonic extensional through in which the main basins of the island
are located. Most of the extensional structures of the island run in a main NE-SW orientation.
Among them the main structure is the Sencelles Fault, along which a well defined bedrock fault
scarp is developed on Plio-Quaternary calcarenites, and oldest Miocene deposits (Pomar et al.,
1983; Sim and Ramn, 1986). This structure, facing to the NW, constitutes the southern border
of the Inca Basin been active since the last 19 Myr. Geophysical data indicate that this fault holds
an accumulated throw of about 750 m (Benedicto et al., 1993; Gelabert, 1998; Silva et al., 2001).
Other relevant NE-SW extensional faults are the Enderrocat fault (Gonzalez Hernndez et al.,
2001), the Sineu-Algaida Fault (Del Olmo y Alvaro, 1984; Sbat et al., 1988), as well as others
with poor geomorphological expression in the Alcudia Bay and Campos Bay sectors (Fig.1).
NNE-SSW faults are also relevant, but the main one is the so-called Palma Fault (Fig.1).
However, also some reverse faulting features have been reported in relation to the complex
antiform reliefs separating the Inca Basin from the Palma and the Alcudia Bays (Benedicto et al.,

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1993; Silva et al., 1997; 1999; Gimnez, 2003). Most of the Neogene faults are still active, since
they can be related to recent-historical seismicity (Imax = VIII MSK, 1851 Palma Earthquake)
and geothermal anomalies such as thermal springs and wells (Fig.1).

1.2. Climate and Sea-level changes.


sea-level changes induced by the large climatic oscillations occurred during the Quaternary has
been recorded in the Mallorca Islands by means of the analysis of marine terraces and
accompanying faunas (i.e. Cuerda 1989; Goy et al., 1997; Zazo et al., 2003), the analysis of
aeolian deposits and correlative soils (Rose and Watson, 1998; Gonzalez Hernndez et al., 2001b;
Nielsen et al., 2004), and littoral speleothems (Vesica et al., 2004).

The most complete sequence of staircased Quaternary marine terraces is recorded in the Palma
Basin. In a Northwest-Southeast transect (Son Pelat Nou- East Casa Branca) marine levels occur
between +60m to +15m asl (above the mean sea-level). A tentative chronology based on faunal
content and marine-terrestrial deposits relationship suggests an Early Pleistocene age for the two
marine terraces at +60m and +45m; and a middle Pleistocene age for marine terraces located at
+38m, +25m and +15m. Towards the coast, the only marine deposits that can be observed are
those from the upper Pleistocene (Last Interglacial- OIS 5) outcropping at Campo de Tiro site,
probably linked to the genesis of a subsiding area where a lagoonal environment was developed
since the Late Pleistocene (Goy et al., 1997). The most outstanding feature is that OIS 5e records
three highstands centered at ca 135 (one) and 117 (two) ka. In addition, a high marine level is
associated to OIS5c/5a (at ca 100 ka) is also recorded (Zazo et al., 1993). Phreatic overgrowths on
speleothems of various littoral caves along the eastern coast of the island also record sea levels
highstands during OIS 9 or older, 7 (ca 231 ka), 5e (ca. 130 to 112-119 ka), 5c (ca 107 ka) and 5a
(ca. 83 ka) (Vesica et al., 2004). Terrestrial, aeolian deposits and soils were extensively developed
during OIS 4 and 2 (Rose et al., 1999).

In summary, the most important environmental consequences are recorded during the transit from
warmer to colder climates, when soils are eroded, littoral sands are available for aeolian transport,
and rivers become effective erosive agents inland (Rose et al., 1999). Moreover, no relevant data
are available to asses the position of sea-level since intervening tectonic movements along major
extensional faults dislocated the height of marine terraces at different points of the island.

2. 1ST Day: The Palma Basin and Southern littoral of Mallorca. Coastal geomorphology
littoral karst and sea levels changes.
This first journey will be devoted to the analysis of coastal geomorphology of the SW sector of
the Mallorca Island. We will explore the different landform assemblages linked to low coastal
zones and cliffy coast separated by transverse faults. The last part of the journey in the southern
coast of the island we will visit relevant aeolian landforms and sediments as well as typical littoral
karst landforms, such as Calas (inundated karstic canyons), and evidences of paleokarst.

2.1. Stop1.1. Castell de Bellver (Palma de Mallorca City).


Panoramic view of the Palma Basin and Bay and introduction to the geology and geomorphology
of the Island (see introduction).

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Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

2.2. Stop 1.2 Campo de Tiro (A). Central part of the littoral zone of Palma Basin
Goy, J. L.; Zazo, C.; Hillaire-Marcel, CI.; Cabero A.; Bardaj, T.; Bassam, G.; Silva, P.G.;
Gonzlez-Hernndez, F. M.
Campo de Tiro was considered to be the type-section for Tyrrhenian marine levels (i.e. Strombus
bubonius bearing unit, after Issel, 1914, definition) of the Balearic Islands (Butzer and Cuerda,
1962; Cuerda , 1989), and many papers are devoted to the chronology of these deposits (Stearns
and Thurber, 1965, 1967; Hearty et al. 1986; Hillaire-Marcel et al. 1996). Given that Tyrrhenian
term has not a chronological meaning but must be considered only as a biozone, we will refer here
following oxygen isotopic stages chronology.

The whole sequence is exposed along the modern rocky shoreline, and has been synthesized in
figure 3. In brief, the sequence consists on four Last Interglacial marine units (OIS 5), separated
either by reddish terrestrial deposits or erosional surfaces that overlie older Pleistocene terrestrial
deposits. Stops 1.2 and 1.3 will give a detailed view of two different parts of the sequence.This
Stop allow us to have an insight of the disposition of the Last Interglacial marine units with regard
to the underlying deposits. The site is located at the mouth of a small gully.From bottom to top we
can observe: Cemented dunes of the Penultimate Glaciation (Riss dune, after Cuerda 1989).
Reddish clayey-silty deposits including clasts of the underlying aeolian units; red-clay paleosoil
well developed; and finally, over an erosional surface, there are alluvial deposits composed by
silty- medium grain sand with abundant bioclasts, land snails and micrite cement.

The older last interglacial units develops on top of the former units in an offlapping disposition
(Figs. 4 and 5), reaching a height of +3m amsl, and consists on a 3 to 5 m thick complex
cemented biocalcarenites with crossbedding structure, that contains a typical Senegalese fauna.

Figure 3. Campo de Tiro Section. (A) Stop 1.2: pre-Last Interglacial Units; (B) Stop 1.3: Last Interglacial marine sequence

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P. Silva et al.

2.3. Stop 1.3 Campo de Tiro (B).


Goy, J. L.; Zazo, C.; Hillaire-Marcel, CI.; Cabero A.; Bardaj, T.; Bassam, G.; Silva, P.G.;
Gonzlez-Hernndez, F. M.
Walking some 100 m along the rocky shoreline towards the SE, we follow this Last Interglacial
marine unit, starting the development of the rest of the sequence.

Figure 4. Campo de Tiro. Last Interglacial Marine Units (circled numbers) and Th Age (U-series measurements, Hillaire-
Marcel et al. 1996)

Units 1 and 2 (+3m amsl), consist on foreshore deposits composed by cemented pebble-rich
fossiliferous calcarenites, separated by a discontinuous thin red silt layer with angular clasts (Fig.
5). The preserved cement is composed by sparite with a vadose fabric. There are abundant species
of the Senegalese warm fauna (Brachidontes senegalensis, Hyotissa hyotis, Cardita senegalensis,
Polinices lacteus, Naticarius turtoni, Cantharus viverratus, Conus testudinarius) including
Strombus bubonius (Cuerda, 1989). According to the results of 34 U-series measurements by
TIMS, carried out by Hillaire-Marcel et al., (1996), this two units belong to the Last Interglacial
(OIS 5e), with ages of 135 ka for the lower unit and 117 ka for the upper one. Previous
chronological analyses based on allo/isoleucine and Th/U measurements (alpha) carried out by
Hearty et al., (1986) and Hearty (1987) assign these units to aminozone E.

Unit 3 (+2.5m amsl.) laterally cuts the previous units, and it is a well cemented marine
conglomerate with large sub-rounded blocks reworked from units 1 and 2, embedded in a reddish
clayey-silty matrix with micrite cement; deposited in beach settings (foreshore to shoreface). With
regard to the faunal content, this unit shows an abrupt change in the faunal assemblage, marked
by the disappearance of Strombus bubonius and part of the Senegalese fauna. This unit was dated
initially by Stearns and Thurber (1965) that gave an age of ca. 75 ka. However Hillaire Marcel et
al.(1996) assign it the same age of the unit 2 (117 ka, end of OIS 5e). Hearty (1987) assign this

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Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

unit also to aminozone E but suggesting the possibility that may be younger (OIS 5c or 5a). The
lithologic nature of this unit, together with the faunal content, suggests an intensification of
storms and a change in SST (some how cooler) by the end of OIS 5e. The occurrence of two
different highstands (Unit 2 and Unit 3) with the same age (117 ka) also points to rapid sea-level
change and instability at the end of this isotopic substage.

Figure 5. Campo de Tiro. Last Interglacial Marine Units (circled numbers)

Unit 4 (+1m amsl) consists on a finely laminated sandstone layer which grades upwards into a
conglomerate, with smaller clasts than unit 3, from which it is separated by an erosional surface.
Faunal content shows an assemblage similar to the present day one, with very poor warm
Senegalese fauna, but abundant Acar plicata (species not found in the Holocene of Mallorca;
Cuerda, 1989) and without Strombus. The chronologic Th/U data (Hillaire Marcel et al.1996)
gave a scatter of ages around 100 ka, assigned therefore this unit to OIS 5a or 5c

2.3.1. Considerations
Stratigraphic, sedimentological, chronological and faunal data confirm the existence of three
highstands (units 1, 2 and 3) during OISs 5e with very similar sea level position, and with
lowstand phases recorded in between by terrestrial deposits or erosional surfaces. It is worthy to
remark the important change in littoral dynamics recorded by unit 3, with disappearance of most
Senegalese fauna, particularly S .bubonius, and evident higher energy conditions related to
stronger wave action. An independent highstand takes place after OISs 5e (Unit 4) characterized
by the disappearance of Senegalese fauna, but prior to the Holocene as evidenced by the
presence of Acar plicata, possibly during OISs 5c or 5a.

2.4. Stop 1.4. Son Ver Nou-Cala Blava.


Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Hillaire-Marcel, CI.; Bardaj, T.; Cabero A.; Bassam, G.; Silva, P.G.;
Gonzlez-Hernndez, F. M.
This Stop is located to the south-east of Palma de Mallorca at the eastern end of the Palma Bay on
the downthrown block of the Enderrocat fault (Fig. 1). Six marine units develop along the coastal
cliff between Cape Orenol and Cala Blava (Figs. 6 and 7), which can be partially correlated with
those outcropping in the well dated Campo de Tiro section.

Unit 1 (Figs. 6 and 7) is at +10m amsl, and it consists on a thin layer (less than 0.5 m thick) of
well cemented conglomerate with marine bioclasts developed in top of an abrasion platform,
where Cuerda (1989) and Cuerda and Sacars (1992) reported the occurrence of Senegalese fauna

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in Cap Orenol (+11.5m amsl) with Strombus bubonius, Cantharus viverratus and Barbita plicata.
This fauna was dated as 125 10 ka by Stearns and Thurber (1967) and later by Hearty (1987)
that include it in aminozone G (~300 ka).

Figure 6. Marine units and terrestrial deposits in Son Ver-Nou-Cala Blava, and Cap Orenol sites.

Unit 2 (+6.5m amsl) includes a well-cemented (sparite cement due to the dissolution of some
bioclast in meteoric environment) sandstone and reddish silt filling a notch related to a poorly
developed abrasion platform (Figs. 6 and 7). Climbing dunes probably related to the lowstand
facies subsequent to the highstand covers it. The faunal assemblage is similar to that found today
in the Mediterranean. Stearns and Thurber (1965) dated this unit as 250 ka using U-series
measurements.

Unit 3 (+4m amsl) is represented by a thin marine conglomerate associated to a continuous notch.

Figure 7. Son Ver Nou- Cala Blava Marine Units (circled numbers) and aeolian deposits.

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Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

Units 4, 5 and 6 form a staircase cut into the lower part of the older sequence (Fig. 8), and they
can be correlated to units 1, 2 and 3 of Campo de Tiro by their similar faunal assemblage and
facies. Nevertheless in this section Units 4 and 5 are separated by an erosional surface, instead of
terrestrial deposits as in Campo de Tiro, probably due to the differences in the geomorphological
setting.

Figure 8. Son Ver Nou-Cala Blava Marine Units (circled numbers) and aeolian deposits.

Chronology of these units can then be stated by correlation with Campo de Tiro section, where
larger number of U-series data are available (Zazo et al., 2003). This correlation is supported also
by U-series measurements (TIMS) in unit 5 that yielded an age of 113 2.5 ka, ascribing then
these three more recent units at Cala Blava (Unit 4, 5 and 6) to the OISS 5e (Zazo et al., 2003).

Regarding to the older units, the chronological assignment has been somehow misleading up to
now. Firstly, the presence of Senegalese fauna in Unit 1 (+10m amsl), and the dating by Stearn
and Thurber (1967) as 125 10 ka, led Cuerda (1989) and Cuerda and Sacars (1992) to assume a
last Interglacial age for this unit. Nevertheless, this assumption does not fit at all with the location
of this site in the downthrow block of Enderrocat fault, mostly, having this last interglacial unit at
+2,5-3 m amsl at Campo de Tiro, also in the downthrow block. On the other hand, aminoacid
racemization carried out by Hearty (1987) on this terrace, included this unit in aminozone G, that
is older than 300ka, while Stearns and Thurber (1965) dated unit 2 as 250 ka using U-series
measurements.

2.4.1. Considerations
All these data led to consider Unit 1, 2 and 3 older than the Last Interglacial. This assumption has
an enormous paleoenvironmental consequence, since it points to the presence of warm

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Senegalese fauna, including Strombus bubonius, in the Mediterranean Sea prior to the two last
interglacials suggesting the arrival of this fauna to the Mediterranean as early as OIS 9 or even
OIS 11 (Zazo et al., 2003). This assumption agrees with the presence of Strombus bubonius in
OIS 7 deposits in other privileged localities of the western Mediteranean such as La Marina
(Alicante, SE Spain) and Loma del Viento (Almera, SE Spain) cases (Zazo et al., 2003).

2.5. Stop 1.5. sEstret des Temps : Late Pleistocene cliff-front dunes: Morphology, architecture
and related sedimentary structures.
Forns J.J.
The Late Pleistocene cliff-front aeolian deposits constitute wind-borne marine carbonate sand
trapped in front of a prominent cliff that runs along the southeast coast of Mallorca near the
village of Santany. These deposits form part of the Pleistocene succession that are well
represented in southern Mallorca (Butzer, 1975), occurring on top of the Upper Miocene Reefal
Unit and/or the Santany Limestone Formation (Pomar et al., 1985). This succession are
composed (Butzer, 1975) by sedimentary cycles related to Pleistocene glacial-eustatic sea-level
variations, each composed of marine (beach deposits) and continental (carbonate aeolianites and
colluvial deposits). The aeolianites were assumed to have formed during glacial periods
characterized by low sea level and strong winds. The aeolian deposits present at sEstret des
Temps (Cala Figuera) corresponds to an impressive example of a topographically controlled
aeolian accumulation. Owing to the occurrence of small abandoned quarries, the 3D architecture
of the sediments can be studied in detail (Clemmensen et al., 1997, 2001). Topographically
controlled aeolian accumulations are common features in coastal areas (Pye and Tsoar, 1990;
Livingstone and Warren, 1996). Aeolian accumulation related with the cliff (cliff-front aeolian
accumulations) comprises echo and climbing dunes and sand ramps (Livingstone and Warren,
1996; Lancaster and Tchakerian, 1996). The information preserved in the sedimentary structures
or internal structure at SEstret deposits allows the interpretation about the genesis of echo and
related climbing dunes.

Figure 9. Sedimentary architecture of the Late Pleistocene cliff-front dune at sEstret des Temps.

11
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

2.5.1. Stratigraphy and sedimentology


At sEstret des Temps Pleistocene succession lies above a number of wave-cut terraces formed
during the last interglacial cycle and the beginning of the last glacial period (Butzer, 1975; Butzer
and Cuerda, 1962). The cliff-front aeolian accumulation comprise the four sedimentary facies
(colluvial and aeolian) separated by bounding surfaces of event-stratigraphic significance.
Contacts between colluvial and aeolian deposits are sharp and relatively planar, marking the
sudden onset of aeolian activity. Contacts between aeolian and overlying colluvial deposits show
much variation. They are typically erosional and display a meter-scale relief showing large slabs
of reworked aeolianites and variations along-slope in sedimentary characteristics. From base to
top (Fig. 9) the sedimentary facies are (Clemmensen et al., 2001):

Cliff-front dune deposits


An accumulation up to 30 m height of thin laminated fine to coarse-grained carbonate sand
(mainly marine bioclasts) with a little terrigenous material cemented by calcite that corresponds to
dune deposits that record the trapping of wind-transported marine carbonate sand in front of a
steep cliff. This accumulation overlies basal colluvial deposits. It presents low-relief wind ripple
lamination and numerous tracks and trackways of the extinct goat-like animal Myotragus
balearicus (see below 3.1.) as well as invertebrate trace fossils and root structures (rhizocretions).
The dune strata are arranged in large-scale, critical to supercritical climbing dune cross-
stratification with well-developed seaward facing stoss-side deposits and cliffward facing lee-side
deposits. Angles of climb typically increase towards the cliff and may reach 50. Stoss surfaces
normally dip 15-25 but may reach up to 31 in the steepest cases. Lee-side surfaces typically
have dips between 20 and 26 with a few dips reaching 30-32. The dune profile is slightly
asymmetric and the brink-line varies from sharp-crested to rounded, the last one typically assisted
with reactivation surfaces.

The dune evolution can be divided into three growth stages (early, intermediate and late) each
having a characteristic morphology and sedimentary architecture (Clemmensen et al., 1997,
2001). The early stage (Fig. 10) comprises sediments lying between 1.5 and 0.9 d/h (d = distance
from the cliff; h = cliff height) with H/h-values (H = dune height) of 0.34. The dune profile is
typically rounded and the brinkline is not to well defined but becomes sharply defined towards the
cliff. Stoo the stoss-side deposits increases the slope angle towards the cliff dipping 12-25; the
strata flatten towards the crestal zone. The lee-side deposits dip 20-26. The intermediate-stage of
the dune comprises sediments lying between 0.9 and 0.6 d/h with H/h values of 0.46. Dunes stoss-
side deposits dip at 20-26 and lee side deposits dip at 22-26. The dune profile is typically
slightly asymmetric. In cross section the dune brinkline varies from sharp-crested to rounded, and
at some intervals the associated internal structures of the crest resemble the zig-zag structures of
Rubin (1987). The late-stage of dune accumulation presents H/h-values up to 0.88 and the
accumulation lies between 0.6 d/h and the cliff. The dune stoss-side dip around 25 and the lee-
side deposits dip up to 30. The dune profile is weakly asymmetric and the angle of climb is
supercritical (may reach 50). The dune brinkline is most commonly sharp-crested and the related
brinkline deposits show little architectural complexity. In agreement with Clemmensen et al.
(1997) all these genetically related dune sediments are termed cliff-front dune deposits to stress
the importance of topography in controlling the aeolian accumulations.

12
P. Silva et al.

Figure 10. Idealized stratigraphy and growth stages of the cliff-front dune (modified of Clemmensen et al., 1997).

Colluvial-ramp deposits
This deposits consists of red matrix-supported breccias, matrix consisting of silt-rich carbonate
sand with some terrigenous material. Clasts correspond to Miocene calcarenites or lithified
aeolian sediment. Depositional packages slope away from the cliff and typically thicken
downslope. They lie at the foot of the fossil sea cliff or drape underlying aeolian deposits and
slope away from the cliff. They have a sharp and mostly erosional contact with underlying aeolian
deposits, and a gradational to sharp contact with overlying aeolian deposits. Root casts are
common at the upper contacts. They correspond to intense periods of rainfall with the reworking
of aeolian sand, soil products and rock-fall material on ramp during debris flow events.

Sand-ramp deposits
These deposits form 1-3 m thick sheet-like packages of aeolian sand that overlie stratified cliff-
front dune and colluvial deposits. Climbing sand ramp deposits at sEstret des Temps develop as
sand sheet that slope away from the fossil sea-cliff with angles between 20 and 30. They are
composed of fine to coarse-grained carbonate sand with some terrigenous material. They present
wind-ripple lamination, Myotragus tracks and root casts and, seaward sloping, even, parallel

13
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

lamination. They represent the trapping of the carbonate sand on a ramp developed in front of the
cliff of the material transported by the southeastern winds.

Ascending-dune deposits
These deposits correspond to the uppermost part of the cliff-front accumulations. They are formed
by fine to coarse-grained carbonate sand, showing wind-ripple and sandflow lamination. They
present thick (1-2 m) sets of large-scale landward dipping cross-stratification. The deposits of this
unit record two closely related events of ascending-dune formation on the colluvial ramp. They
primarily developed at places where the colluvial ramp was significantly lower than the cliff. The
dunes were relatively small and present sinuous-crested bedforms due to the influence of the
vegetation.

2.5.2. Tracks and tackways of Myotragus balearicus, Bate 1909


Described originally from Late Pleistocene cliff-front dune and sand ramp deposits in a small
quarry in the souhteastern part of Mallorca (Forns and Pons-Moy, 1982), Myotragus tracks are
a common feature in all Late Pleistocene littoral aeolianites in Mallorca, specially those that
correspond to the OIS 3 (Forns et al., 2002). They have been identified in the greater part of the
Pleistocene and Early Holocene aeolianites, increasing their presence with time until 5000-4000
BP when the extermination of Myotragus occurred with the Homo arrival (Alcover, 2004).
Myotragus balearicus is a fossil ruminant goat endemic trough a process of insular evolution
(Alcover et al., 1981) of the Middle Pleistocene to Holocene of the Gymnesic islands (Mallorca,
Menorca and Cabrera). Their ancestors presumably colonized the the Balearic islands during the
Uppermost Miocene, and then evolve rapidly during insular conditions and in absence of
mammalian predators. Adult specimens reached approximately 45 cm at the shoulder and their
estimated weight varies between 20 kg for the smallest individuals to 50 for the largest specimens
(Alcover et al., 1999).

In sEstret des Temps quarry, the tracks can be observed in all the aeolian units. Their distribution
is more frequent in the basal cliff-front dune deposits, where tracks are abundant in the crestal
zone deposits, common in the stoss-side deposits and rare in the lee-side deposits. There are
thousands of laminae in the lithified aeolianites that have been tracked by Myotragus balearicus.
The extensive sections, parallel and perpendicular to the bedding, provided by the quarry allow
seeing them in vertical as well as in horizontal sections. The sediment disturbance caused by the
trace maker involves both plastic deformation and microtectonic rupture in the form of
microfaults and microthrusts (Fig. 11).

2.6. Stop 1.6 (optional). Punta des Savinar: Karst collapse phenomena in the Upper Miocene and
their role in coastal morphology
Forns, J. J.
During the Late Miocene, reef-rimmed carbonate platforms fringed many of the islands and
margins of the Mediterranean basin. In all the islands of the Balearics, carbonate platforms
prograded, in some cases, more than 20 km away from its basement in the core of the island
(Pomar, 1991). Cliff sections near Santany in the SE of the island provides near continuous cross
sections parallel to the reef-rimmed margin. Several facies occur within these late Tortonian-
Messinian carbonates (the Reef Unit). These limestone rocks were transformed to dolomite with
the movement of Mg-rich fluids causing dolomitization on the marginal carbonate platforms
during the Messinian salinity crises with the evaporite formation in the Mediterranean Sea. This
major event is represented in the Santany area stratigraphy by an irregular (mostly karstic)

14
P. Silva et al.

unconformity cutting into the upper Miocene platform that is overlaid by another carbonate unit
called Terminal Complex (Santany Limestones), Messinian in age, and characterised by shallow
marine carbonate platform deposits with sand bars (oolitic sand shoals), mangrove swamps and
stromatolitic facies.

Figure 11. Perpendicular sections of tracks and trackway of Myotragus balearicus at sEstret des Temps.

2.6.1. Origin and evolution of the coastal cliff


From a study of the stratigraphical relationships of the geological outcroping units (Upper
Miocene, and Middle and Upper Pleistocene) along the coast of Santanty (Fig.12) and from
several seismic reflection profiles, shot perpendicularly to the SE coastline of the island of
Mallorca, we address the tectonic origin for the coastal cliffs of SE Mallorca (Forns et al., 2005).
Normal faulting is responsible for the cliff formation of these outcrops of ages between 275 (the
age of the aeolianites that overlay the Upper Miocene deposits that are affected by the cliff) and
40 ka (the age of the cliff-front dune that fossilize the cliff). The model proposed is the hanging
wall deformation above a normal fault with a concave bend (rollover). Geometric analysis of the
profile calculated a cliff erosion rate of 0.74 mm a-1 (175 m in 235 ka). The analysis of the erosion
rates due to continental processes (Balaguer et al., 2003) as grain lost (0,1 mm a-1) and rockslides
(0.78 mm a-1) indicate that these processes can account for the overall cliff retreat.

2.6.2. Karst collapse phenomena


Subsidence features of solutional origin are conspicuous in the rocky shore around Santany
(Forns, 1999). Repeated deformations are outlined by the lower beds of the Upper Miocene
rocks. These deformation-outcrops show also breakdown debris and setting features affecting
frequently all the Santany Limestone Unit. Karstification of the coral patch reef must be involved
in the development of such collapse features. Voids, which were formed mainly by solution of
aragonitic coral skeletons may have triggered, flow of plastic materials and promoted, in some
cases, the formation of secondary voids in the overlying beds. When these secondary cavities
reached a size of several meters, sudden breakdown may have occurred causing deposition of
chaotic piles of blocks and boulders that filled up the evolving void. Surface observations show a
similar pattern of collapse processes causing the deformation of the Upper Miocene levels. They
are always characterized by the presence of funnel-shaped depressions as their most distinctive

15
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

features (Fig. 12). These bedding-parallel hollows are associated with setting subsidence of
materials towards underlying voids developed in the Reef Unit. Chimney-like voids appear to be
located below the depressions and indicate vertical migration of the plastic layers as well as
subsidence of broken blocks and slabs from more the resistant beds. Breccia formation processes
are related to solution cavity collapses resembling to those occurring in other karstic
environments. The types of breccias observed are dependent on both genetic processes and
features of the host rock. Although there are several breccia types, the most common are those
collapse breccias, which were formed by rock fall and by rock infilling. Interparticle voids coated,
in different degrees, by calcium carbonate cement with several growth episodes are common in
the breccias.

2.6.3. Influence of paleokarst features on coastal morphology


The presence of paleokarst structures on the S and SE coast of Mallorca had a great influence on
the processes that shape the coastline. Palaeocollapse structures results from collapse and infilling
of ancient cavities which causes the break and deformation of the Upper Miocene rocks and
affecting several limestone and marly lithologies and breccias with different degree of
cementation. The differential strength, respect to the marine and subaerial weathering processes,
of the involved materials at palaeocollapse structures located in the shoreline gives different
littoral morphologies. The destruction and removal by means of marine erosion of the different
kinds of paleocollapse structures and lithologies involved in each case, give a sequence that can
be ordered in an evolution pathway: 1) coves; 2) capes; 3) notches and marine abrasion caves; 4)
marine arches; and 5) circular isolated shore platforms.

Figure 12. Paleokarstic phenomena at the Punta des Savinar zone.

16
P. Silva et al.

All this kind of features can be observed at different heights above the present sea level. The
responsible of these phenomena are the Pleistocene glacio-esutatic sea-level oscillation, as well as
the tectonic tilting that affect the eastern coast of Mallorca (Forns et al., 2002).

3. 2ND Day. The Tramuntana Range: Landslides and karstic landforms their role in the
relief and recent activity.
This second journey will be dedicated to explore the geomorphology of the Serra de Tramuntana,
the major range of the island. Recent, historical, giant and Quaternary landslide events are
recorded in the different slopes of the range. In addition, during the journey we will have the
opportunity of observe the more outstanding exokarstic features sculpting the mountain including
large karren slopes, doline fields, and giant karstic gorges (Fig. 13).

The Tramuntana mountain range is constituted of carbonates deposited during the Mesozoic,
together with Lower Cenozoic detritic-carbonatic materials. The only non carbonatic materials are
Lower Triasic red sandstone (Bundsandstein), Upper Triasic gypsum and clays (Keuper), and
small outcrops of subvolcanic rocks. Taking into account the outcropping materials, the
Tramuntana mountain range can be divided into a northern zone (Soller-Formentor) where hard
Liasic carbonates are dominant, forming high cliffs, and a southern sector (Soller-Andratx), where
the presence of soft materials determines a more gentle relief. On the other hand, the alpine
geologic structure of Tramuntana mountain range of Majorca, consisting of a NW vergent
imbricated system of thrust faults formed during Lower Miocene times, determines the existence
of a south-eastern smooth face and a north-western abrupt face (Fig. 1). Tramuntana is
characterised by a Mediterranean climate, where intense rainfall episodes are common. Moreover,
the important topographic differences determine a great variability in mean annual temperature
and rainfall (Fig. 2). Thus, in the highest zone of the central sector (Lluc) mean annual
precipitation reaches 1200 mm, and at the South-western sector (Andratx), average rainfall does
not exceed 400 mm per year.

3.1. Stop 2.1. Mass movements in the Tramuntana range.


Mateos Ruz, R.M and Gimnez, J.
Rock falls and soil movements are frequent today within the Tramuntana Range and numerous
historic registers have been found. On the other hand, historic records related to rock slides, which
are commonly of greater dimensions, do not exist. The mass movement historical record indicates
that the majority of movement events are concentrated in autumn, where the intense rainfall
episodes are common, this indicates that intense rainfall episodes are the main triggering factor
leading to a mass movement.

3.1.1. Fornalutx Complex Soil movement.


Complex soil movements occur when the material involved in a rotational slide becomes a fluid
mass. These kinds of movements are common in the SW sector of Tramuntana mountain range,
but also occur at its central zone. Two important complex soil movements during the 20th century
have affected Fornalutx village, located at the Soller valley,: 1924 and 1974 (Mateos, 2001,
2002). The most important soil movement was in the 17/12/1924 one (Darder, 1924), which
destroyed olive-trees, and stone fences of an area of approximately 150000 m2, but fortunately
nobody was injured. Thus, the colluvial Quaternary sediments that constitute all the outcrops of
the hillside on the left margin of the Fornalutx creek have been mobilised at different times.
Quaternary materials, composed of fine sediments together with carbonate heterometric boulders
can reach up to a few meters thick and are exposed over the soft and waterproof Keuper clays and

17
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

gypsums (Fig. 14). The impermeable character of the Keuper facies and the sediment
characteristics of the Quaternary colluvial materials are the intrinsic causes of those chronic
complex movements. On the other hand, intense rainfall episodes are extrinsic causes, thus all the
registered mass movements have occurred after a rainfall episode. The convergence of these three
factors (Colluvial Quaternary sediments over the Keuper clays, and intense rainfall episodes) can
be observed in other zones of the Tramuntana range, and in each case we find complex soil
movements associated with them.

0 3 6 Km Sa Calobra 2.2

50 0 m G
Sa Costera F
E
N Blitx 2.3 Lluc
D
Puig Major
H
0m
10 0
2.1
Fornalutx L
C
Sller
50 0 m
B
2.42.5 Selva
Dei K
0m M
1 00 0 m Biniarroi
m 50 J
5 00 I

Valldemossa A
Inca
m Son
0
20
N Ramis

Karren fields Inland gorges


Santa Doline fields Large landslides
Maria
Sencelles
Closed karstic Depression
Open karstic Depression

Figure 13. Route-map of the Tramuntana range showing the most outstanding gravitational, karstic and fluvio-karstic
features to be visited during day 2. (A) Vall dOrient and Gorge of Cova Negra; (B) Biniarrix Gorge; (C) Coma de Son
Torrella; (D) sEsquetjar de Moncaire; (E) es Clots Carbons; (F) es Castellots; (G) ses Olles / es Pixarells; (H) Puig de
Masanella; (I) Elbow of Capture of Torrent de Masanella; (J) Linear reliefs of Lloseta Inca; (K) Coma Rotja; (L) Coma
Grande; (M) Son Grau; (N) site of reverse faulting within the Inca Basin (Son ramis; optional stop). Modified from Forns
et al., (1995).

18
P. Silva et al.

SE-NW

Quaternary Fornalutx
Creek

100 m
Upper
Triassic

Keuper
500 m

Figure 14. Simplified sketch of the Fornalutx complex soil movement.

3.1.2. Littoral wedge translational rock slides.


Tramuntana mountain range wedge slides can be huge movements involving up to 108 m3 of rock
material. They are recent movements, however there are no records of their occurrence along the
historical age. The geomorphologic characteristics of this great rock slides, which are
predominant along the coast between Soller and Sa Calobra (Fig. 13), indicate that they most
likely took place during more humid periods in Quaternary times, but also they can be triggered
by great seismic events. Most of the wedge slides in the Tramuntana mountain range have a
surface rupture that is defined with two different discontinuities or fractures oriented N15E/50
NW and N105E/50NE. The contained rock mass in between these two planes is displaced
downward following the intersection line, forming a wedge slide. Figure 15 shows a vertical and
an oblique photo of the huge wedge landslide of Balitx. The landslide affects the Liasic limestone
that forms the sea cliff of the area, and involves more than 200 millions m3. The scarp below the
crown is almost vertical reaching a height of 100 m, causing several continuous rock falls, and
forming a great volume of debris deposits at its toe.

Figure 15. Oblique aerial images of Blitx translational wedge rock slide.

19
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

3.2. Stop 2.2: The Torrent de Pareis Gorge.


Silva, P.G; Gimnez, J. Goy, J.L., Zazo, C. Bardaj, T., Cabero, A.,
Deep and narrow karstic canyons are characteristic of the central and northern sector of the
Tramuntana Range. They have a fluvio-karstic origin linked to gorging processes triggered by
active uplift of the Tramuntana Range from the Late Miocene Early Pliocene Times. They
preferably developed in its northern slope linked to an active base-level (sea-level), but also occur
at its southern slope linked to the feeder channels (Cova Negra and Guix) of alluvial fan systems
directed to the Inca and Palma Basins (Fig. 13). In both cases they are linear features of 2-4 km
length, c.a. 200 m deep, and some tens of meters wide, clearly accommodated to large fault zones
transverse to the main orientation of the betic thrust sheets within the Tramuntana range. The
most outstanding fluvio-karstic gorges are the Torrent de Na Mora and Tuent (Fornalutx), Torrent
de Pareis (Sa Calobra) and Fondo de Mortix (Escora). All of them are located in the northern
sector of Tramuntana (Soller-Formentor), where the biggest rainfall amounts of the island occur
(Fig. 2), and are developed on massive Jurassic limestone. Figure 16 displays the main
geomorphological differences between the northern and southern sector of Tramuntana. South of
Soller, where lithology is relatively softer and precipitations lower (Fig. 2), v-shaped valleys are
characteristic indicating a predominance of fluvial processes over the karstic ones. On the
contrary, North of Soller ancient v-shaped valleys are deeply incised by active gorging (Fig. 16).
Also is possible to recognize an ancient base level surface defined by the ancient valley bottoms
and valley-slope shoulders. This develops between 300 and 400 m in the Northern sector and
delineates the paleomorphology of the valleys previous to the eventual Late Miocene Pliocene
uplift of the Tramuntana range. To the South valleys are clearly wider, only the Torrent of Deya,
immediately to the SW of Soller present a modest basal gorge (Fig. 16). On the other hand the
aforementioned morphological envelope it is also recognisable in the southern sector, but from
altitudes ranging between 400-500 m asl on the more ancient materials of the Tramuntana, This
maybe indicate a longer erosive history and greater degree of denudation in this sector
Codolar
NE Sa Calobra - Pares Es Port SW
Fondo Mortix Tuent Fornalutx (Cala de Valldemosa) 900
Deya Estellenchs Bachas
Cornavacas Soller 600

300
Cala 12 81
Castell 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Kms

Figure 16. NE-SW topographic cross section of the Tramuntana range along its littoral slope extracted from the SGE
Digital model of Spain. Shaded circles enhance the paleomorphology of ancient v-shaped fluvial valleys North of Soller.
Dotted line indicates the envelope surface of the ancient base level of v-shaped valleys throughout the Tramuntana range
prior to active gorging.

The torrent de Pareis and its prolongation to the confluence with the Gorg Blau and Torrent the
Lluc (SEntreforc), about 3 km upstream from the sea, constitutes the most outstanding and
touristic fluvio-karstic gorge of the island. The vertical walls of the gorge can reach 250 m and its
width rarely surpasses 20 m wide. Along the gorge, multiple overhanged walls, cavities and caves
remember its initial karstic origin. The littoral outlet of the gorge, called Sa Calobra (Fig. 17) is
actually closed by a gravel beach-ridge a +3 m asl leading the generation of a recent backbarrier

20
P. Silva et al.

depression subject to be inundated by NW stroms. Bordering this littoral depression remains of an


Holocene terrace occurs at +1 m asl, with an 14C age of 4.430110 years BP (Goy et al., 1997),
suggesting a higher position of the sea for this period.

Figure 17. View of the littoral outlet of the Torrent de Pareis (Sa Calobra).

In the SE sector of the island minor gorging also occur. Shallow karstic canyons furrow the
tabular Miocene deposits (reef carbonates) conforming the named Calas. These calas rarely
surpass 40 metres height. They are related to the extensive littoral karst of the SE coast of the
island and surely most of them to littoral cave-development and collapse. In spite of all the
information on endokarstic and paleokarstic features of this sector of the island (i.e. Gins and
Gins, 1995, Forns et al., 1995; Vesica, et al., 2000), gorge or cala development has not been
subject of a deep study. Nevertheless Gimnez et al, 2002 indicates that due to the fact that there
is a great correlation between the orientation of the fractures that affect the upper Miocene reef
deposits and the drainage and coast orientation, most of the calas and gorges of these part of
Mallorca must be related to Mio-Pliocene fracturation. However gorge development in the
Tramuntana range somewhat resemble the impressive gorges developed in the southern coast of
Crete, where are related to major normal faulting or gravitatinal collapse in intense karstified
coast over the forearc zone of the Aegean subduction zone (Fassoulas, 2001). Keeping in mind
the great difference between tectonic contexts of Crete and Mallorca, the northern coast of
Mallorca also is over a major compressional thrust zone, the Betic Cordillera thrust front, south to
the Valencia Through (Fig. 1) and large gravitational landsliding involving minimum
displacements of 150 125 metres occurred during the Late Miocene-Pliocene times (Mateos
Ruz, 2001; Gelabert et al., 2003)

3.3. Stop 2.3: Panoramic view of the Torrent de Pareis from Escora.
Silva, P.G; Gimnez, J. Goy, J.L., Zazo, C. Bardaj, T., Cabero, A.,
From this panoramic viewpoint there is an excellent view over the headwater zone of the Pareis
Gorge, in the confluence zone of the torrents of Lluc (NE) and Gorg Blau (SW) called the
sEntreforc. This is characterized by the occurrence of subvertical valley walls affected by
subvertical karrens. The Gorg Blau constitutes the fluviokarstic outlet of the ancient Tectonic
andkarstic depression actually occupied by the Gorg Blau Dam (Fig. 13).

21
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

Also from this point it is possible to observe some of the most interesting exokarstic features of
the Tramuntana range. Among them karren fields and dolines are the most developed ones. In this
zone they mainly develops on the karstic surfaces at 400-600 m above the sea-level in which are
incised the main karstic gorges. From this point are particularly spectacular the Els Castellots
karranfield and the Clot dinferm dolines, both located at the SW slope of the Torrent de Pareis
(Fig. 13), and developed on intensely karstified Lower Jurassic limestones (Gins and Gins,
1995). Many of the karrenfield features (pinachels, flutes, etc.) ressembles tropical karst features,
but as a whole the karrenfields of Tramuntana display the typical features of a mountain karst
with a clear altitudinal zonation (Gins and Gins 1995). Although karstic and paleokarstic
features are widely developed in the Tramuntana range from its initial emergence, between the
late Cretaceous and the early Paleogene (Forns et al., 1995), the present assemblage of karstic
landforms within the landscape of the NW slope of the Tramuntana range should start during the
Late Miocene or Early Pliocene times.

3.4. Stop2.4: The Biniarroi Complex Landslide


Gimnez, J. and Mateos, R.M.
The Biniarroi village, located at the southern slope of the Tramuntana range, have been affected
by recurrent landsliding during historic times causing important damage. The most important
event took place in 1721, which affected an area of 296000 m2 and mobilised more than 2 millions
m3 of poorly consolidated sediments. This mass movement is reported in the Spanish seismic
catalogue as an earthquake VIII MSK intensity (Mezcua and Martnez Solares, 1983), but taking
into account the historical descriptions of the event, it cannot be truly classified as a tectonic
event. Less catastrophic younger events also affected this zone during the years 1814 and 1943
AD. The first one affected an area of 88800 m2, and the second one only 15000 m2 (Gimnez &
Mateos, 2002) (Fig. 18).

1721 Spring N
Plio-Quaternary
Springs
Biniarroi
Creeks
Lobes
Holes

Sta Llucia
Church

Mobilised areas
1943
1813
1721
Ancient? Ancient Scarps 1721 scarp 0 100 200 m

Figure 18. Geomorphologic sketch of Biniarroi valley. The probable areas of the historic landslides are also shown.

22
P. Silva et al.

3.4.1. Historical descriptions of the 1721 landslide


Two different historic sources has been used: a description of the mass movement with a
schematic picture of the area, and a more extended anonymous description transcribed by Gabriel
Fiol Mateu (2002). These two descriptions indicate that the first evidences of the movement
began the 24/3/1721 and the mass movement did not stop until the day 29. The first evidence of
the mass movement was a hole that appeared the 24/03/1721 early in the morning at the highest
point of the valley. In the afternoon different water springs (small pools) appeared in the orchards
located below the first hole occurred and follow-up a great strike alarmed the Biniarroi citizens
who observed the upper zone of the valley was moving down, and that trees and houses walked
down slope. Next morning, at the highest sector of the movement, the terrain subsided 40 m and a
hole of 55 m diameter and 20 m depth appeared. The 26/3/1721 almost all the houses and trees
crashed down, and the 29 the landslide stopped. The historical descriptions relates that the
destroyed area was near 0,3 km2 and 1000 m long, and that some houses moved 250 m
downslope.

Figure 19. Digital elevation model of the Biniarroi valley. 1721 landslide is also indicated.

3.4.2. Geology and geomorphology of the area


Three different materials can be observed in the Biniarroi valley: Cretacic marls, Oligocene
conglomerates, and Plio-Quaternary poorly consolidated colluviums. Mesozoic and Paleogene
materials are intensely deformed and the Plio-Quaternary rest unconformably over them. Plio-
Quaternary deposits outcrop along the entire valley slopes and also are present at the highest zone,
which indicates that formerly they probably constituted a thick colluvial wedge at the Tramuntna
piedmont. These deposits are mainly made of silts with big boulders of Oligocene conglomerates.
It has a high concentration of carbonates, with a low degree of plasticity. The great percentage of
fine elements of the matrix, made this material impermeable enabling the possibility to reach
great pore pressures. On the other hand, the geomorphologic analysis of the zone has been done
using aerial photograph and with a Digital Elevation Model (Fig. 19). The scarp related to the
1721 event has been identified using historical descriptions, field study and aerial photographs
analysis (Fig. 18). The great scarp located at the uppermost zone must be related to an ancient
landslides indicating that landslides phenomenon has been recurrent also during Quaternary times.

23
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

3.4.3. Triggering factors


According to the geomorphologic features and historic reports Biniarroi movement must be
classified as a complex rotational mass movement event with flux at the frontal part. Since the
movement extends several days, the involved materials should behave as a semi-plastic soil and
did not attain the Liquid Limit. Considering an affected area of 0.29 km2 and a mean thickness of
10 m, we obtain that nearly 3 million m3 were mobilised during the 1721 landslide. Three main
causes are the responsible for recurrent landsliding at Biniarroi valley: nature of the Plio-
Quaternary materials; presence of water springs at the contact between Cretacic marls and
Oligocene materials; and intense rainfall episodes. The poor mechanic parameters of the soil and
occurrence of water springs are the intrinsic causes. Triggering factor must be the chronic intense
rainfall episodes. In fact, historic chronics relate that before the 1721 event an intense rainfall
period took place, and also three days before a great snowfall took place (Fiol Mateu, 2002).
Mateos (2001) analysed the frequencies of those intense rainfall episodes in Tramuntana range,
and concluded that the area located near Biniarroi could attain storm episodes with rainfall
intensity up to 250 mm in 24 hours each 25 years, and of 300 m each 100 years. These returns
periods fairly match with the recurrence of landsliding at Biniarroi, that is one event per century
(1721, 1814 and 1943 AD). It also can be concluded that the Plio-Quaternary materials shift to the
semi-plastic state during rainfall episodes with intensity up to 300 mm/day.

3.5. Stop2.5: Panoramic view of the Inca Basin from the Tramuntana Range.
Silva, P.G. Goy, J.L., Zazo, Gimnez, J., Bardaj, T., Cabero, A.
From Santa Lucia Church, located at the top of Mancor de la Vall village, is also possible to
examine the overall geomorphology of the northern border of the Inca Basin. The basin is a half-
graben feed from the north by relevant alluvial fan systems such as Solleric and Rafal Garcs,
nowadays dissected throughout their length. To the South-west the Cova Negra fan (Sta. Maria
del Cam) is also dissected and its feeder channel goes towards the Palma Basin throughout the
antiform of Marratx. To the East the ancient fan of Inca is actually abandoned and beheaded.
Their ancient feeder channel, the present NW-SE trending Torrent of Masanella, was subject of
fluvial capture by NE-SW trending drainage of the Alcudia Basin (Torrent the Bger). From this
point we can observe the large-scale elbow of capture formed by the aforementioned process of
fluvial piracy. The ancient apex of the Inca fan was totally eroded. Actually, anomalous linear
relieves on deformed cretacic and paleogene materials behead the ancient fan system and it is no
rejected the participation of faulting in the beheading process, although the characterization as
faults of the linear relief is problematic. Whatever the case the distal part of the Inca fan is tilted
towards the Tramuntana Range (Silva et al., 2001) and apparent reverse faulting affects their
deposits at mid fan locations (Gimnez, 2003). If time enough after this stop we can optionally
visit faulting features at Son Ramis.

4. 3RD Day. The Inca Basin: Tectonic landforms and neotectonics.


This last journey will be dedicated to the analysis of the landforms and landscapes generated by
tectonic activity at different spatial and temporal scales (Late Neogene to Late Quaternary).
Landforms linked to reverse faulting and normal faulting will be analyzed, including the bedrock
fault scarp of the Sencelles fault, the major fault of the island, subject to recent fault-trenching
studies.

24
P. Silva et al.

1 8
2 9

3 10
4 11
5 12

Myotragus b. site 6 13
7 14

Solleri c Gorge
(Karstic Canyon)

S encelles
Landslide of
Son Morei

Sag-pond of
Son Perics

Rock Salient
of Puig Segu
Binial

Torrent de Solleric

Ponded Sta. Eugenia


area
Left-lateral deflected
drainage (z patterns)

Ponded
area

Sta. Eugenia
Antiform
Marratx
Antiform

1851 PME
Macroseis mal
location

El Portol

Figure 20. Schematic strip-map of the Sencelles Fault, showing its more prominent recent features For location see Fig. 1.
1- Pre and Syntectonic materials (pre-Serravallian); 2- Post-tectonic pre-pliocene materials (Serravallian to Messinian); 3-
Plio-Quaternary materials (Fm. St. Jordi); 4- Quaternary dolines and ponded areas; 5- Pleistocene alluvial materials; 6-
Late Pleistocene to Holocene valley fillings; 7- Late Pleistocene to Holocene Alluvial fans; 8- Colluviums; 9- Drainage
network; 10- Karstic Canyons; 11- Normal fault scarps; 12- Normal fault degraded scarps and erosive scarpments. A:
Location of the Portl Doline (Stop 3.1) B. Location of the fault trenching zone on the Sencelles fault (Stop 3.2).

25
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

4.1. Stop 3.1. The Prtol Doline: reverse faulting and surface features.
Silva, P.G.; Goy, J. L.; Zazo, C.; Gonzlez-Hernndez, F. M.; Cabero A.; Bardaj, T.
The Portol Doline is located between the NW-SE trending antiforms of Marratx and Sta.
Eugenia at the borderland zone of the Palma and Inca basins (Figs.1 and 20). Aside the
controversial origin of these complex antiform structures (see stop 3.3), the Quaternary
sedimentary filling of the doline record reverse surface faulting (Goy et al., 1991; Silva et al.,
1999; 2001) evidenced in the walls of an ancient quarry located in the southern sector of the
doline. The present-day doline has a mean diameter of 0.4 km and it is inset in a major polje
depression elongated in a NW-SE orientation and, developed on the Pliocene calcarenitic
substratum. Doline filling (>20 m) is comprised by a sequence of six different fine-grained distal
alluvial inputs separated by reddish and/or brown paleosoils holding well-developed gley features
in thick Bt clayey horizons (0.2-0.6 m) at the uppermost part of each unit (Fig. 21). The
occurrence of basal gravel lags in the different alluvial inputs, eroding and disrupting the
underlying Bt horizons, is also common. The basal deposits of the doline sequence are constituted
by a thick unit (>5 m) of red sticky clays (terra rossa) which directly rest on the upper Pliocene
littoral calcarenites. The paleomagnetic analysis of the sedimentary sequence throw a constant
normal polarity for all the units (Brunhes epoch < 0.78 Ma) indicating that main faulting events
took place during or after the Midle Pleistocene (Goy et al., 1991, Silva et al., 1999). The entire
Quaternary sequence is tilted 25- 20o SE, and truncated by a thin unconformable alluvial veneer,
constituting the present ground surface. This supports a recent and weakly developed brown soil,
which is also dislocated by the fault (Fig. 21).
Protruded Fault scarp Fault plane hy pothet ical pro longat ion
Dama ged fence
Contorted tree

re cent ponded zone


Colluvial wedge
re cent marmorised deposit s

Palus trine Guide-le vel


5m

0
0 5m De ep wea thered
bas al calc arenite s

Figure 21. Block-diagram showing main deformational features displayed at the Portol doline reverse fault and stereoplot
(lower hemisphere projection) of structural elements used for the determination of the intervening main stress axis. In
white the palustrine guide level. Scaled grey strata represent the different alluvial inputs involved in the doline filling.

Reverse faulting is highlighted by the offset of a singular calcareous palustrine level, of 0.4-0.6 m
thick (Fig. 3.2). Fault throw measured from this guide-level is of 2.56 m. The fault strikes in an
N140-130oE trend, and dips between 55 to 23o SW. The palustrine guide-level is strongly
disrupted in the upthrusted block, displaying a deformational style similar to those showed by
fold-limb faults or coseismic low-angle pressure ridges (Fig. 3.2). In particular, ground surface
deformation can be described as a protruded scarp facing to the NE and ranging 0.88-0.20 m

26
P. Silva et al.

height (Silva et al., 1999). The scarp is partially buried. An colluvial wedge of 27o mean slope
connects both fault blocks. This includes large calcarenitic blocks (40x20 cm) from an ancient
stone fence severely damaged on the fault line. The fault scarp crest strikes in an N158-163oE
orientation and dies out 197 m away from the quarry, however trigonometric estimations predicts
a total scarp length of ca. 535 m. The contrasting values of displacement showed by fault throw
(2.56m) and the present surface faulting ground dislocation (0.88 m), seem to indicate the
occurrence of at least two different events. The first during the Middle-Late Pleistocene and the
second one during presumably historic times. Damaged stone fences, stone-blocks including in
the colluvial wedge and contorted and tilted (40) ancient tree-trunks let to relate this ground
deformations with the 1851 Mallorca Earthquake (VIII MSK) as suggested by Silva et al. (1999).

In any case, this anomalous compressional feature can not be considered as true surface faulting,
but as a secondary or sympathetic surface faulting (INQUA Scale, 2005). This was probably
triggered by the occurrence of subsidiary near surface roll-over processes along the major
extensional faults bordering the south margin of the polje-depression or simply by karstic ground
failure promoted by seismic shaking.

Cementery
Plio-Quaternary
Sta. Eugenia
Ca lcarenites

PM Co lluvial wed ge
3
PM 2

Valley-floo r
deposits
-L1
PM 1

PM
-L

4
1

VLF
PM

-3
5

PM
2 -L
VLF-1

VLF
2

-2
VL
+
Dd 1

F-4

Electric logs (SEV)


VLF
-5

Seismic Re fraction
Line s (P M)

Electromagnetic A BM
Profiles (VLF)

Dipole-dip ole Pro file

Trench site

Tracks
0 50 100 150m
Fences

SCALE: 1:3. 000

Figure 22. Topographic map of the surveyed zone at the Sta. Eugenia Bedrock fault scarp showing the geology and the
fault trenching site (Stop 3.2). Geophysical survey-lines are also displayed and labelled. For location see Fig. 3.

4.2. Stop 3.2. The Sencelles fault scarp: geomorphology and trenching.
Silva, P.G.; Goy, J. L.; Zazo, C.; Jimnez, J.; Gonzlez-Hernndez, F. M.; Cabero A.; Bardaj, T.
The SW termination of the Sencelles Fault is in this zone featured by a NE-SW bedrock fault
scarp of c.a. 7 km length and 12 m (maximum) height facing to the NNW (Fig. 20). This fault is

27
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

the main extensional structure of the island from the last 19 Ma. Geological and
geomorphological evidence proves its activity until early Pliocene and Pleistocene times and has
been tentatively related to the 1851 Palma Earthquake in which macroseismal area we are located.
The scarp, developed on Plio-Pleistocene strongly cemented littoral deposits, constitutes the
southern border of the Quaternary Inca Basin. In this point scarp height diminish from 3,15 m in
the East to they eventual die-out near the cementery of Sta.Eugenia. After a detailed topographic
(1:10.000 Mapping and 25cm DEM production), geophysical (geoelectrical, seismic refraction
and geomagnetic profiling) and geomorphological analysis (Fig. 22) this point was selected for
fault trenching (Silva et al., 2000, 2001, 2004).

The trench was only excavated in the soft-sedimentary record of hangingwall of the fault (Fig.
23). The Quaternary materials are mainly constituted by massive grey clayey marls. They
constitute a massive plastic body adjacent to the fault plane in which different sedimentary
markers (i.e. intraclast detritic levels, apparent paleosoils and mottling horizons) delineated an
overall anticline that absorbed most of the deformation in the hangingwall. The north limb of this
fold is eroded by a rectilinear scarp of 1.4 m height carved in the clayey-marls on which
channelled torrential deposits are assembled recording no apparent deformations. Only adjacent
to the bedrock fault scarp in the fault-through (2.6 m width) generated by the flanking anticline
two successive colluvial wedges are overlapped, coating the last 0.95m of the buried fault scarp.
Nevertheless, the upper 1.05 m remained exposed as the free-face of the scarp. The upper
colluvial wedge is clearly post-1851 event. It contains large blocks of adjacent stone fences built-
up over the bedrock fault scarp and inset artificial-trenches embedding post c.a. 1950 car-oil
cans. Concluding, from the excavated trench is impossible to define any event horizon, but the
two onlaped colluvial wedges may indicate repeated fault scarp reactivations. In any case none
surface rupture evidence, and the debris slope of the present scarp may develop by fence collapse
triggered by ground shacking. Similar colluvial wedges, containing large fence-blocks, have been
described in neighbour fault scarps located in the macroseismal zone of the 1855 Palma
Earthquake (see Figs. 1 and 19).

4.3. Stop 3.3. The Marratx Antiform.


Silva, P.G.; Goy, J. L.; Zazo, C.; Gonzlez-Hernndez, F. M.; Cabero A.; Bardaj, T.
The Marratx and Sta. Eugenia antiforms reliefs constitute the limit between the Palma and Inca
basins (Fig.1). Plio-Pleistocene calcarenitic deposits of littoral and eolian origin are involved in
these two main structures (Del Olmo et al., 1991; Silva et al., 1997). The adscription of the
apparent folded clacarenites to a same generic stratigraphic formation (St. Jordi Fm.) lead its
cataloguing as a true anticline by different authors (Benedicto et al., 1993; Grimalt Gelabert and
Rodriguez Perea, 1994). However, at Marratx, the present anticline-like pattern of the
calcarenitic outcrops (Fig. 24) responds to the superposition of unconformable Plio-Pleistocene
eolian sediments gently dipping SW (towards the Palma Bay) in the South limb over previous
Pliocene (s.l.) littoral deposits folded in a monoclinal style by rollover-type extensional structures
in the North limb (Silva et al., 1997). A detailed analysis of the geology of the antiform core
(Fig. 25) clearly shows that its cataloguing as an anticline is very problematic in absence of true
data about the accurate age of the dipping calcarenites. The nucleus comprises intensely deformed
cretaceous marlstones overlapped by thick detrictic series of oligonece age. This are in
progressive unconformity towards the Palma Basin (SE) including large olistholites of Jurassic
limestones coming from the Tramuntana Range. Softer marly and clayey lower Miocene deposits,
also dipping to the SE, occupy the rest of the structure.

28
Stone Fence
STA. EUGENIA TRENCH 1 (East Wall N150E)
September 2002.
Bedrock
NE Fault-scarp
(G)Ertoil Level SW
(F ) Artificial Trench Fillings (Post-1950 AD)
(early 20th Century)

A A
C

B B
Bedrock
(Not Excavated)

C C

D
D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 meters

A: Plastic M arly Clays of mass ive structure . Color: gradding from dark gr een (5Y 3/4) in the ba se to pale green (5Y 7/3) at top. It displays a diffuse gley mottl ing (10YR 6/6) affectin g to the whole outcro p. Levels A0 and A1
represent w eak soil horizons cha racterised by the development of root-traces and adense and inte n se red mottling(5YR 4/6) of 10-20 mm of diameter. In A1 mottl ing is denser and drakner giving pla ce to a generalised
red
P. Silva et al.

colourin g (1 0YR 6/7). Soils horizo ns draw an antiform-l ike structure subparal lel to the main fault . Several fissures and slickenslide planes disp lay convex geometries striking N55-65E a nd dipping a maximu m of 65SE.
+
B: Plastic Marly Clays(B ) with interbedded level of intraclasts (B ) and/or nodules of indurated marls. Materials are sim ilar to Unit A (same m ottling but intense colour (5Y 6/2). Clasts h ave 10-30 mm diame ter(medium)
with
maximun size of 45mm, they display subrounded geomoetry, sometimes have el liptical geometry orien ted to the starta dippi ng.This intraclastic level shows a severe distortion, displaying an assymetric fold in the intersection
point C13-D-13 of the grid. The vertical limb of the fold fits to the convex slickenside surface separating units A and B.

Figure 23. Log of the East-wall of the Sencelles Fault trench at Sta. Eugenia
C . Sandy marls (C1) and sands with Ostre as sp.(C ). The entire unit occupie s a little through of appatrent erosive nature adjace nt to the fault plane. Thesematerials are affected by an intense carbonation which decreases
from
the base to the top of the unit. Carbonate nodules are common. The sandy marls (C ) gr ade laterally to the yellow calcarenit es of U nit C . These materia ls are coarse-medium grain calcarenites w hich contain numerou
s subrounded
clast of recristallyzed calcarenites, ostrea fragm ents as well as oversized (60x40 cm) subrounded bloulders of calcarenites of the Plio -Quaternary substratum (O). These materi als are afected and included in the fa ult
gouge. This unit
is inte rpreted as a littoral colluvial-wedge (C ) gr ading laterally to a narrow littoral sag-pond (C ) of Early Pleistoce ne age. It constitutes the last evidence of li ttoral sedimentation a long the fault zone. The intense secondary carbonation
affecting this unit indicates a relative long period of no-sedimentatio n and fault activity.

D
D. Sands, gravels and boulders(D ) and sandy silts (D ) . Unit D1 constiutes a channel fill-gravel bar body comprised by redish sugangula r to subrounded gravels of 2 to 30 cm diam eter with numerous os trea fr agments. Gravels lithology
D (Pliocene and Miocene recristallyzed and bioclastic calcarenites) indicate a so uth provenance of th e materials (i.e. Sta.E ugenia Antiform). The occurrence of oversi zed (110x50 cm) boul ders evidence the tor rential nature of this
deposit. This un it pass laterally and vertically to the sandy silts of Unit D2, wich c onstitutes a channel fill deposit in cluding n umerous interbedded gravel-lags.In the ce lls A9 and B9 is comm on the occurrence of reworked and deeply
weathered marls of Unit A. All these m aterials are affected by na intense recarbo nation, which increase s upwards leading the development of typ ical chalky horizon in cells A7, A8 and A9. All this unit is interpreted
as an channel-fill
of torrential nature running parallel to the fault trace, but car ved in the noth limb of the antiform-like stru cture developed in Unit A.

E. Boulders, gravels and clays (E ) gradding laterally to clays with gravels (E ). The Entire unit constitutes a colluvia l wedg e of angular and weathered bould ers of the Pliocene susbtratum (Unit O)which also
in cludes reworked
ostrea fragments. In t he proximal cells A15 to A8 gravels and bould ers are clast-sup ported with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 cm diameter. In the distal cells A7 to A1 the clayely sand matrix is dom inant, gravels range from 1 to 2 cm
d iameter and are matr ix-supported. There a re any evidence of faulting in this colluvia l w edge, but its deposit could be induced by fa ult reactivation durin g the Late Pleistocene-Holocene.

F.Inset Artificials trench fillings

G. Boulders and Clays. Upper Colluvial wedge. This unit conta ins very angula r blocks and boulders (30x20 cm) of the substratum and from an anciente stone fe nce(deep yellow) built on the adjacent fault scarp. The
lower lim it of this unit is very
irregular due to man excavations during the first half o f the 20th Century as indicated by the associated inset trenches ( F) and the occurrence of post c.a. 1950 car -oil cans (Ertoil). This unit is interpreted as a man-i
nduced colluvial wedge.
O. Plio-Quate rnary Calcarenites ( Fm. St. Jordi) . This m aterials constitute th e donwthrow wall of th e fault and the subastratum on which the b edrock fault scarp is developed. The Fault gouge was partially excaveted during the trench analysis.
Is constituted by recristallyzed calcar enit es including many fragments of Ostrea sp. with subvertical o rientatio. The maximmun width is of 45 cm a nd th e minimum one is 15 cm. This fault go uge affects and includes
materia ls belongi ng to Unit C
(the littoral colluv ial wedge).

29
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

Marratx Antiform
North Limb Stop 3.3 Tramuntana Range

Torrent de ses Mates-


Cova Nera

P
Qf 1
P
Sta. Maria P
n
Qf1 2 si
a
B
c a
3 3 In
Qf2 2 Portol Doline
Stop 3.1
P P 1
Pa Qf3
lma P
Ba
sin Roll-over
3 P 3
lateral Ramp
Son Sardina Fault 3
Sencelles Fault

Figure 24. Block-diagram showing the most relevant geomorphological features, present stage of dissection and inferred
subsurface structuration of the Marratx antiform. 1: Cretaceous; 2: Oligocene; 3: Miocene deposits; P: Pliocene and Plio-
Pleistocene deposits. Qf: Pleistocene alluvial fans sequence; Qd: Early Pleistocene aeolian sediments.

From the geomorphologic point of view the Marratx antiform can be classified as a gentle open
jurassic relief with an internal type oval depression type clus or ojiva. Within the depression
only develop low cuesta and mesa-type reliefs sculpted on the upper clacarenites and isolated
Jurassic olistholites. The antiform is drained by a transverse NE-SW stream (torrent de Cova
Negra Ses Mates), initially considered as an antecedent drainage related to the Quaternary
development of an anticline (Grimal Gelabert and Rodrguez Perea et al., 1994). However
different features indicate that the present transverse drainage was established by the capture of
the ancient axial channel of the former Cova Nera fan developed within the Inca Basin (Fig. 24)
by headward erosion along an ancient stream directed towards de Palma Basin (Silva et al., 1997).
In fact, the drainage pattern within the antiform core displays the typical dendritic pattern of an
erosive headwater zone, and the transverse drainage generates a large alluvial fan system
sedimentation testifying the erosion of the antiform core (Fig. 3.3). First alluvial fan deposits
assemble the lithological spectrum outcropping within the antiform, whilst the younger deposits
mainly include clast belonging to the Jurassic and Triassic materials of the Tramuntana Range.
The capture process should occur during one of the Late Pleistocene sea-level lowstands,
probably that one related to the Last Glacial Maximum (18 ka BP). Submarine canyons of 12 m
depth (actually filled) attributed to this period (Diaz del Ro et al., 1993) dissected the Palma Bay.

30
P. Silva et al.

Can Borras (FFCC: Stop 3.3)


200 S Ver N
100 Qd
P Qf
3 3
Mi
2
Ol 1
c
0m
1 Motorway Sta. Maria
Sa Cabanet a
c P
200 SE J
NW
7km
100
Qd 2 P Qf
Qd c 3
3
Sv
3
Mi
2
Ol
0m
2 P Can Torres P
Portl Sa Cova NW
200 SE 5km Qd
J 1 Qf
100 Qf 2
Ol
Qd 3
Sv
2 3
3
Mi Mp
Ext ension al
0m 3 F aults
P
3 Son Sar dina F ault
0 1 2 3km

Figure 25. Geological cross-section of the Marratx Antiform from the NW (1) to SE (3). Symbols and labels as in figure
3.5.

Acknwoledgements
Spanish Projects BTE 2002-1691, BTE 2002-1065 and REN2001-3378; INQUA Commission on
Coastal and Marine Processes, and Palaeosismicity Subcommission; IGU Coastal Systems
Commission; and IGCP 495.

31
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

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Gonzlez Hernndez F.M., Goy, J.L., Zazo, C. and
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Goy, J.L., Zazo, C. and Cuerda, J. (1997). 299 p
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Pomar, L., Marzo, M. and Barn, A. (1983). El
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J.J. Forns, A. Rodrguez-Perea (eds.). El
Terciario de las Baleares (Mallorca-Menorca).
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measurements in Tyrrhenian deposits from
Pomar, L., Forns, J.J. and Rodrguez-Perea, A.
Mallorca. Further evidence for two last
(1985). Reef and shallow carbonate facies of the
interglacials high sea-levels in the Balearic
Upper Miocene of Mallorca. IAS 6th European
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Lancaster, N. and Tchakerian, V.P. (1996).
Geomorpholog and sediments of sand ramps in
Pye, K. and Tsoar,H. (1990). Aeolian Sand and
the Mojave desert. Geomorphology, 17, 151-
Sand Dunes. Unwin Hyman, London.
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Livingstone, I. and Warren, A. (1996). Aeolian
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last 140 ka: evidence from Mallorca, Spain. J. Internarional Geological Congress, Firenze
Geol. Soc. London 150, pp. 435448. (Italy).

Rubin, D. (1987). Cross-bedding, Bedforms and Stearns, Ch. and Thurber, D. (1965). 230Th/234U
Paleocurrents. SEPM Concepts in dates of late Pleistocene marine fossils from the
Sedimentology and Paleontology. SEPM, Tulsa, Mediterranean and Moroccan littorals.
OK. Cuaternaria, 7, 29-41.

Sabat, F., Muoz, J.A. and Santanach, P. (1988). Stearns, Ch. and Thurber, D. (1967). 230Th/234U
Transversal and oblique structures at the serres de dates of late Pleistocene marine fossils from the
Llevant thrust belt (Mallorca Island). Geol. Mediterranean and Moroccan littorals. Prog.
Rundsch., 77(2): 529-538. Oceanog. 4, 293-305.

Sabat, F., Roca, E., Muoz, J.A., Vergs, J., Vesica, P.L., Tuccimei, P., Turi, B., Forns, J.J.,
Santanach, P., Sans, M., Massana, E., Estvez, A., Gins, A. and Gins, J. (2000). Late Pleistocene
and Santiesteban, C. (1995). Extension and paleoclimates and sea-level changes in the
compression in the evolution of the eastern Mediterranean as inferred from stable isotope
margin of Iberia: the ESCI-Valencia Trough and U-Series studies of overgrowths on
seismic profile. In P. Santanach (ed.). ECSCI spelothems, Mallorca, Spain. Quaternary
Estudios Ssmicos de la Corteza Ibrica. Rev. Soc. Science Review., 19, 865-879.
Geol. Espaa, 8 (4): 431-448.
Zazo, C., Goy, J.L., Dabrio, C.J., Bardaj, T.,
Silva, P.G. Gonzlez-Hernndez, F.M., Goy, J.L. Hillaire-Marcel, C., Ghaleb, B., Gonzlez-
and Zazo, C. (1997). Origen y desmantelamiento Delgado, J.A. and Soler, V. (2003). Pleistocene
del Antiforme Plio-Cuaternario de Marratx raised marine terraces of the Spanish
(Mallorca, Espaa). Geogaceta, 22 : 143-147. Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts: record of
coastal uplift, sea-level highstands and climate
Silva, P.G. Gonzlez-Hernndez, F.M., Goy, J.L., changes. Marine Geology, 194, 103-133.
Zazo, C. and Mrner (1999). Quaternary reverse
surface faulting in Mallorca Island (Baleares, Zazo, C., Goy, J.L., Bardaj, T., Gonzlez-Delgado,
Spain). Geogaceta, 26: 99-102. J.A., Hillaire-Marcel, CI., Dabrio, C.J., Lario, J.,
Civis, J., Luque, L., Ghaleb, B., Borja, F., Silva,
Silva. P.G., Carrasco, P., Gonzlez Hernndez, P.G., Gonzlez-Hernndez, F., Soler, V. and
F.M., Goy, J.L., Zazo, C., Luque, L., Santos, G., Gillot, P.Y. (2004). El efecto de los ciclos
Delgado, M. and Poza. (2000). Prospeccin climticos en las variaciones del nivel del mar.
geofsica de la Falla de Sencelles (Mallorca, In: Miscelnea en homenaje a Emiliano Aguirre.
Espaa): Una metodologa preliminar para la Volumen I. Geologa. Museo Arqueolgico
realizacin de trincheras de falla. Geotemas, 1: Regional, Nmero 4, Alcal de Henares, 157-
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Silva. P.G., Gonzlez Hernndez, F.M., Goy, J.L.
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266.

Silva. P.G., Gonzlez Hernndez, F.M., Jimnez,


J., Santos, G., Delgado, M., Carrasco, P., Goy,
J.L. Zazo, C. and De Luque, L. (2004). Fault
trenching analysis of the Sencelles Fault
(Mallorca Island, Spain). Abstracts 32nd

35
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

ROAD LOG:

First Day: Departure from the Field-trip meeting point at 9:00


0-2.5 km Drive along the Avenue Gabriel Roca (Palma Port Water Front Drive) towards de
West. After the Auditorium, turn right at SAigo Dola Street. Reach Francesc
Rosell Sq. then turn left at Avenue Joan Miro direction Castell de Bellver (castle)
and take Bellver Street. Drive up the street and park in the castle Parking. From the
top of the castle (free admittance) you will get a nice panoramic view over the
Palma Bay, Tramuntana Range and the rest of the inland landscape (Introductory
Stop 1.1).
2.5-17 km (14.5 km) Drive down from the Castell hill following the same itinerary. Follow the
Avenue Gabriel Roca to the East and take the Motorway PM19 direction Santany
(East). Take Exit 6 direction Coll den Rebassa. At the village centre turn right after
the traffic lights and take road C17. Stop at the first Petrol Station. Cross the road
and walk (10 minutes) towards the seaside. You are in Cala Gamba one of the
classical sites of the Late Pleistocene of Mallorca: Campo de Tiro outcrops. Here,
walking on the shore different sets of marine episodes belonging to the OIS 5 stage
will be analysed at stops 1.2, 1.3.
17- 19 km (2 km) Follow the road C717 direction Can Pastilla. Coffee stop at the Palma
Beach.
19- 30 km (11 km) Drive across Can Pastilla and take Motorway PM19 at Exit 10 (Platja de
Palma) direction Santany (East). Take Exit 13 direction Cala Blava (Road PM-
V601-4). After 3 km turn right towards Son Ver Nou. Drive to the seaside. Stop at
a little cark park adjacent to the seafront track. Walk to the sea-cliff and reach Stop
1.4, the nearest little embayment area. Uplifted OIS 5 marine levels and notches
will be explored here.
30- 54 km. (24 km) Drive back to Road PM-V604-1 and follow direction Cala Pi. At Capocorp
road junction turn right and take the local road to Cala Pi. Near the beach (cala) is
the lunch stop, where also we can have a nice panoramic view over the seaside and
observe superb littoral karst features and landforms.
54-96 km (42 km) Drive back to Road PM-V604-1. After the Capocorp road junction turn
right direction Ses Salines (East). After 17 km turn left, and take road PM-603
direction to Campos. Reaching this village turn left again and take road C717
direction Santany. Down town at the Church road junction follow to the right
direction Cala Santany. Reaching the roundabout of the Cemetery turn left to
sAmarador and then follow the sign to sEstret des Temps. When we reach the
coastal sea-cliff we are in Stop 1.5 , where superb sections of late Pleistocene dunes
crops out in the cut-slopes of ancient quarries. Depending of the available time we
can do the next stop. Following the seaside northwards after a 400 m pleaseant
walk you are in Stop 1.6 where we will explore interesting features about coastal
morphology and evolution and upper Miocene paleokarst features.
102-159 km (57 km). Return back to Palma de Mallorca City. Take Road C717 until the city of
Llucmajor, here turn left and take road PM602, and then the Motorway PM19.
Overnight and dinner in the Hotel.
P. Silva et al.

Second Day: Departure from the Field-trip meeting point at 8:30


0-23 km Leave Palma by the Sller Avenue and take Road C711 direction Sller (North). At
Sller you should turn right and cross the entire village (cross the bridge) to take
the local road PM-V212-1 direction Fornalutx. In this touristic little village we can
observe the landscape and effects of historical landslide events (Stop 2.1). We will
have some free time to walk around the village.
23-50 km (32 km) Follow by the local road PM-V212-1 direction Lluc. At the road junction
turn right and take road C710. This is a small mountain road crossing the
Tramuntana range, so although a short distance the travel-time may be long (1-1.5
hours). During the travel we will stop at several scenic points (i.e. Ses Barques,
Cber, Gorg Blau) to observe different landscape features about large landslides
and karst. At Sa Calobra junction turn right and take the amazing and waving
descend towards the Sea by the road PM-V214-1(Coaches can not descend from
13:00 h) . At Sa Calobra, follow the park signs. Time to lunch in one of the
different tourist restaurants. After lunch we will walk to the Torrent de Pareis and
trek upstream during 3 km (ca 1.5 hours) to reach the sEntreforc, a gorge segment
of 3 m wide and 300 m deep (Stop 2.2). Walk down to the Sa Calobra site will take
(40-45 minutes).
50-68 km (18 km) Drive back by the road PM-V214-1 uphill, at the Sa Calobra Junction turn
left and take the road C710. Before the Village Escorca Stop 2.3 for panoramic
view of the Torrent de Pareis Gorge.
68-93 km (25 km) Follow the road C710 until the Lluc Junction, and take the road PM-V213
to Selva. In this city turn right and take Road PM-V211-2 direction Mancor de la
Vall. Cross this village following the signs to the Ermita Santa Llcia. Again, in the
top of the mountain we will observe a gigantic landslide occurred in 1721 AD (Stop
2.4) and introduces a panoramic view to the Inca Basin (Stop 2.5).
93-122 km (39 km). Drive down to Mancor and take the road PM-V211-1 direction Inca.
Cross the city of Inca following the Via Colom Street. Reaching the Square
Carritxeres (a large roundabout) take the motorway PM27 to Palma de Mallorca
City. Overnight and dinner in the Hotel.

Third Day: Departure from the Field-trip meeting point at 8:30


0 19 km. (19km). Leave Palma City direction Inca by the motorway PM27. Take exit 11 to
Sa Cabaneta following the road PM301 until the Village of Prtol. Stop at the west-
end of the village at the bus-stop site. Opposite to the bus stop you can observe the
remains of and ancient quarry excavated in a doline (Stop 3.1).
19-28 km. (9 km) Follow PM301 direction Sta. Maria del Cam. In the first roundabout go to
the right and take road PM302 direction Sencelles. After 2.5 km take the detour
(right) to Sta. Eugnia by the road PM304. In Sta. Eugnia follow the signs to the
Cemetery. Stop at the Cemetery car park, and walk (10 minutes) following the little
track at the west end of the parking. Step down the bedrock fault scarp after the
little white house. This is the site of the fault trenching performed in the year 2002
(Stop 3.2)*.
28-36 km. (8 km). Return back to road PM302 direction Palma. At the large roundabout go
right (over the motorway) and take the road PM301 direction Sta. Mara del Cam.
Cross the city and follow the road PM202 direction Bunyola. After railway cross,
take the third street to the left (opposite to Camino de Alar). Follow the track
during 1,5 km and stop in a double track near a house. You are in the Covanera-Ses

37
Mallorca Island: Geomorphological evolution and neotectonics

Mates valley To the East you can observe in the cut-slope of the railway the
northen flank of the so-called Marratx Antiform (Stop 3.3).
36- 59 km. (23 km) Return back to Sta Maria del Cam and take motorway PM27 direction
Palma. Reaching Palma detour to motorway PM20 and then immediately take
PM19 following the signs to the airport (direction Santany). Take exit 7 to Can
Pastilla. Lunch stop at the Palma Beach. In the afternoon we will take a flight to
Barcelona or Zaragoza. In the first case transfer from Barcelona to Zaragoza will be
in coach (307 km about 2h 50 m).

* Depending of the available time (flight hour) nearest points of the Sencelles fault (Son Sant Joan or
Son Arrosa) scarp or reverse faulting sites (Son Ramis) within the Inca Basin could be visited. These
points are located immediately to the East of Sta. Eugnia following the road PM302 or local paths.

Z arago za
Zaragoza

SPAIN Mallorca Sa Calob ra


ra s Island 2.2
rd il le Pollena
Co 2.3
ti c Lluc
Be
ALCUDIA BAY
Soller
2.1 2.42.5 Sa Pobla
GE Selva
R AN
Val ld emo sa Inca

NA Sta. C
Banyalbufar
N TA Maria
A rt
U 3.3 Se ncelles
AM C
ES

TR 3.1 3.2
NG

Sta. Sineu
And rat x 1.1 Eugenia
RA

Manacor
1.2
Palma 1.3
Mallor ca
T

1.4 RANDA
AN

PALMA BAY
EV

Llucm ajor
F elan tix
LL

Mesozoic (R an ges) Cam pos

Miocen e - Plio cene


Santany
Pl io-Qua ternary Basins
st
1.1 Itinerary and stops 1 Day 1.6
nd
2.1 Itinerary and stops 2 Day 1.5 Cala Figuer a
rd
3.1 Itinerary and stops 3 Day 0 10 20 30 km

Itinerary-map of the field trip.

38