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Int. j. econ. env. geol. Vol:3(2) 33-40, 2012 Available online at www.econ-environ-geol.

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Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures


MD. MINHAJ UDDIN MONIR AND H. M. ZAKIR HOSSAIN*

Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Jessore Science and Technology University,
Jessore-7408, Bangladesh.
E-mail: zakirgsd@yahoo.com

Abstract. Barapukuria coal mine (BCM) is located at Dinajpur district, NW Bangladesh. Total area is about 6.68
km2 and coal was encountered at a depth ranging between 118 and 509 m. Six major coal seams (seam I to seam VI)
were identified at BCM, of which, thickest one is the seam-VI (~36 m). The estimated coal reserves is about 390
million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons of coal is extractable. The annual production of coal is about 1 million
ton. In this study several parameters were used to explore minimization of accidents and improvement of coal production
in BCM. Considering the geological, hydrological and other technical parameters, longwall mining method is applied
for extraction of coal. Longwall retreating mining method is also applied for extraction of coal from single face with
the operational area protected by self-advancing hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS) system. These supports are
moved forward causing the roof behind them to form an extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may lead to
collapse with air blast. Coal in BCM is extracted from seam VI, using a multislice Longwall top coal caving method.
Average ventilated air composition is ~20.94% oxygen, ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor water
steam with huge dust. Production of coal was completed from 12 Longwall faces of 1st slice from seam VI. During
production period several accidents and troubles within BCM have occurred. Poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide
were detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-
off the face with mining equipments. During the development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall face, maximum
temperature and humidity increases up to 37 oC and 100%, respectively. Miners of BCM experienced some difficulties
to work in that adverse environment. Air return roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101 Longwall face
during production period, faces temperature 46oC, water flow 600 m3/hr and humidity 100%. Due to roof-fall, toxic
gas and very high temperature and humidity in the face 1105 and 1108, some miners were highly injured and died.
Therefore, taking necessary safety and risk measures during development of face and roadway in BCM, production
will be sustained by controlling roof-fall. Strata pressure of every faces is monitor regularly through electromagnetic
emission detector as well as changing sufficient ventilation system, accidents of BCM could be controlled. Adding
earth filling materials (e.g. sand, silt etc.) in to the vacuum goaf area, air blast accident should be reduced and surface
subsidence would also be controlled. Considering all the problems of 1st slice and initiating extra caution for face
development accident in BCM may reduce in 2nd slice and overall production may be increased significantly.

Introduction to confirm the presence of about 303 million tons of high


quality coal in its six coal seams (Wardell-Armstrong,
Barapukuria coal mine (BCM) is the only ongoing coal 1991). Further, techno-economic feasibility study
mine in Bangladesh. It is located in the Dinajpur district, conducted by Wardell-Armstrong (1991) reported that
NW Bangladesh of Bengal Basin (Fig.1a). Five coal coal from the BCM was extracted about 1 million ton/year.
fields were discovered in NW Bangladesh namely Majority of extracted coal (83%) was designed for used
Barapukuria, Khalaspir, Dighipara, Phulbari and Jamalganj in a power plant 250 MW (125 2 units) and the
(Uddin and Islam, 1992; Hossain et al., 2013; Imam, remaining 17% was using in brick burning, industrial
2013). Six major coal seams (seam I-VI) were identified and domestic purposes.
in Permian Gondwana succession (Fig. 1b) of the
Barapukuria basin (Norman, 1992; Bakr et al., 1996). The quality of Barapukuria coal is better compared to
Coal seam VI is the thickest (av. 36 m) among the six imported coals and gives a substantial quality and
coal seams which contains 90% of the total estimated competitive advantage over imported coals (Wardell-
reserve (Imam, 2013). Depth range of these coal seams Armstrong, 1991). The Gondwana coal in the basin
in the Gondwana succession of the BCM is from 195 to contains 12% ash in average and is potential for gas
506 m below the surface (Hossain et al., 2013). Seam generation (Hossain et al., 2013). The government of
VI is the only seam which continued to be extracted. Bangladesh established underground coal mine at
Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB) discovered Barapukuria (BCM) with technical and financial assistance
bituminous coal deposit spread over an area of 6.68 km2 of China, BCM started their operation since 2005 and
at Barapukuria basin (Wardell-Armstrong, 1991; BCMCL, continues coal production to date with some uncertain
2012). Detailed gravimetric, magnetic and geophysical mine accidents. Bangladesh government signed a contract
surveys were conducted by the GSB in 1986 and 1987 in 1994 with the Chinese contractor CMC (China National

SEGMITE
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Fig. 1. (a) Map showing location of the study area and major geographic features of the Bengal Basin and adjoining
areas (modified after Alam et al., 1990; Khan, 1991; Reimann, 1993), (b) Summarized lithostratigraphic section of
the Barapukuria basin, Bangladesh (modified after Bakr et al., 1996; Islam et al., 2003; Islam and Hossain, 2006;
Hossain et al., 2013).
Machinery Import and Export Corporation) for the succession is underlain and overlain by prominent
development of Barapukuria coal mine at a production unconformities. The Barapukuria basin is bordered by
rate of 1 million ton/year in 25 years mine life by steeply dipping normal faults to the east namely eastern
underground Longwall retreating mining method (Kibria boundary fault which is the best structural evidence for
et al., 2012). The Barapukuria Coal Mining Company recent tectonic activity (Bakr et al., 1996; Imam, 2013).
Limited (BCMCL) was established on 8th December 1998 The northern, western, and southern boundaries of the
for implementing the Barapukuria coal mine project. basin are truncated by several small-scale normal boundary
Production of coal is going on and recovery of coal from faults, which are the major part of a zone of crustal
underground mine is constrained by mine layout, method weakness. This area is very close to the convergence
of extraction, and the number of slices to be mined. boundary of the Indian and Eurasian plates up to 200
Recently BCM is facing various difficulties and accidents km. The vertical displacement (~ 200 m) occurred with
to meet the optimum target production. The aim of this 73oC dipping, and the fault length is nearly 5 km (Islam
paper is to review and characterize various accidents et al., 2009). The horizontal displacement (~60 m) signifies
during production of coal and its remedy and modern tectonic activity and the basin developed due to
recommendation for sustainable development of coal its horizontal displacement of the boundary fault towards
extraction system in BCM. the east (Islam et al., 2009). Morely (1999) and Islam
(2009) reported that steeply dipping boundary fault
Geology and stratigraphy. The Barapukuria basin in segments in the basin, the displacement is approximately
NW Bangladesh is surrounded by the Himalayan foredeep unique in Precambrian Basement.
to the north, crystalline Shillong massif to the east, and
the precambrian Indian shield platform to the west (Fig. Stratigraphic succession of the Barapukuria basin is
1a). Structurally, this basin is a long, narrow, and shallow shown in Table 1. Stratigraphically it is subdivided into
Permo-Carboniferous intracratonic rift basin (Khan, 1991; basement complex, Gondwana group, Dupi tila group,
Alam et al., 2003; Hossain et al., 2013; Imam, 2013). Barind clay formation and recent alluvium in an ascending
The basin trends N-S for over 5 km, ranges from 2 to 3 order (Wardell-Armstrong, 1991; Norman, 1992; Bakr
km wide, and is over 550 m deep (Bakr et al., 1996; et al., 1996; Akhtar, 2000; Islam et al., 2003; Hossain et
Islam and Hayashi, 2008; Islam et al., 2009; Imam, 2013). al., 2013). The precambrian basement complex consists
This coal basin comprises an elongated asymmetrically predominantly of diorite, granodiorite, quartzdiorite,
half-graben type intracratonic basin (Wardell-Armstrong, granite, schist and gneiss (Bakr et al., 1996; Islam and
1991; Bakr et al., 1996; Akhtar, 2000; Islam et al., 2003; Hossain, 2006) . The Permian gondwana group mainly
Hossain et al., 2013). The coal bearing Gondwana consists of sandstone with subordinate shale, conglomerate
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Table 1. Stratigraphy of the Barapukuria basin, NW Bangladesh (after Bakr et al., 1996, Islam et al., 2003; Islam and
Hossain, 2006).

Age Rock sequences Lithological description Maximum


thickness (m)
Holocene Alluvium Sand, silt, clay 2
Pleistocene Barind clay formation Clay and sandy/silty clay 11
Upper dupi tila Sandstone, pebbly sandstone and
formation clay/mudstone 148
Pliocene
Lower dupi tila Mudstone, sandstone, and white
formation clay 80

Permian Gondwana group Feldspathic sandstone,


carbonaceous sandstone, siltstone, 476
shale, coal and conglomerate/tillite

Precambrian Basement complex Diorite, granodiorite, quartzdiorite,


granite, schist and gneiss 14+

and thick to thin coal seams (Bakr et al., 1996; Islam et roadway with permanent support system as per need to
al., 2003; Imam, 2013). The maximum thickness of the reduce side wall and roof collapse.
Gondwana group encountered in the basin is 476 m (Fig.
1b). The overlying Dupi tila group is sub-divided into Different modern equipments like self-advancing
lower Dupi tila and upper Dupi tila formations of Pliocene hydraulic powered roof support (HPRS), coal shearing
age (Fig. 1b and Table 1). The lower Dupi tila formation machine and armored conveyer paralleling the coal face
consists chiefly of mudstone with subordinate siltstone are use in this mining method. HPRS are moved forward
and sandstone. Maximum thickness of the lower Dupi resulting the roof behind them to form an extensive
tila formation is about 80 m. The upper Dupi tila formation abandoned, known as goaf. Coal in BCM is extracted
consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and from seam VI, using a Multislice Longwall top coal
mudstone. Thickness is about 148 m. The barind clay caving method (Imam, 2013). Because of the adjustment
formation is characterized by clay and sandy or silty clay. to the angle of coal seam and some correction in terms
Maximum thickness of the Barind clay formation is about of hydrogeology, the design combines the original central
11 m. The top of the succession is recent alluvium, mining district and southern mining district of the design
consists of sand, silt and clay. modification. In this method, coal seam is selected and
blocked into a number of faces of definite dimension
Results and Discussion (length, width and height) by excavating passage ways
around the coal face perimeter. As a result, the whole
Mining method and development of BCM. Multislice mine field was divided into two mining districts (southern
Longwall mining method was applied in BCM based on and northern). The present development and production
the geological, hydrological and some technical parameters works run through the southern mining district by long
(Imam, 2013). During the development of BCM two wall mining method (Fig. 2). The northern district will
vertical mine shafts (Main and Auxiliary) were used to be excavated later by adopting room and pillar mining
entrance into the underground for ventilation (inlet fresh method. During the development of the 1st slice the first
air and outlet dirty air), compressed air supply, water coal face was remarked as 1101, which denotes the first
supply, electricity supply, all machinery and miner, coal number 1 as no. 1 (northern) mining district, the second
hoisting etc. The main shaft is used for coal hosting and number 1 as the first slice and the last two digits refers
air return of the whole mine and the auxiliary shaft is to no. 1 coal face. The numbering of south wing of mining
used for supplementary hoisting i.e. rocks, materials, district is descending as 1101, 1103, 1105 etc. and the
equipments and men, also uses as a function of fresh air numbering of north wing of district is descending as
inlet into the mine. Underground mine level (e.g. 1102, 1104, 1106 and so on (Fig. 2). The no. 1101 coal
production level, ventilation level or sub level) is the face is located at upper ends of the south wing district.
system of nearly horizontal underground workings The basic design of BCM, total 12 faces will be extracted,
connected with the mine shaft. The ventilation and of which, seven from the southern district and rest of the
production levels in BCM form the basis for excavation faces from the northern district. Initially the working face
of the coal above or below the levels. The depth of the lengths both for fully-mechanized faces are of 120 m,
production level is 320 m from the surface. A series of the mining heights are 2.5 m for the first slice i.e. slice
roadways and entries are used to ensure coal conveying, no. 1101 and 3.0 m for the other slices.
materials and equipment hauling, ventilation, drainage
and power supply to move easily. Circular and arch During the production of 1101 the working face has been
shaped design was chosen at mine shaft and underground changed. The modified values of all faces in the BCM
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two sub-levels while the double entry layout and the


roadway driving along the goaf are used for the successive
sub-level mining. Taking into all consideration the
underground temperature of BCM is very high and
comprises of complicated hydrogeological condition, the
double-entry layout is adopted for roadway arrangement,
which is very much favorable for temperature controlling,
ventilation and construction safety. Both the belt dip and
track dip entry road way tunnel has a net cross-sectional
area of 13.7 m2 and total length of 800 m. The tunnel is
started from the -260 m level pit bottom station and
completed at -450 m level, with an angle of 120 respects
to the global horizontal axis. A fully mechanized coal
face is arranged in the southern mine district and its
average length is about 104 m. The slice mining sequence
is slicing from up to down, that is in the same district
sub-level. At present 1st slice (12 coal faces) was mined
out, then 2nd slice with certain interval about 1.0-1.5 years
will be mined. This study suggests that some information
belong to different accidents or problems which occurred
in various faces of 1st slice may be reducing the problems
or accidents in other slices, resulting increases the coal
production.

Coal production. The commercial production of 1st slice


of central part of the mine started from 10/09/2006 and
Fig. 2. Barapukuria coal mine layout of 1st slice. successfully completed on 14/02/2012 (BCMCL, 2012).
Complete production from 11 (eleven) Longwall faces
are listed in Table 2. The 1101 working face lies at the and partial production from 1(one) Longwall face (1110
top of the south of the district. The sub-level haulage face) has been achieved during this time period. Total
entry (belt conveyor gate) and air return entry (track gate) 41.67 lac MT of coal has been extracted from the 1st slice
are laid out in parallel to keep the length of the working (BCMCL, 2012). During the coal production due to
face to be 104 m for the requirements of fully mechanized different type of accidents of 1st slice some of the face
coal face. The single entry layout is adopted between production reduced (Fig. 3).

Table 2. Face wise problems or accidents and steps taken in BCM during 2004 to 2010 (After BCMCL, 2012).
Coal face no. and Period of Problems or accidents Steps taken
dimension (length production
wide height)
1110 10/9/2005- Poisonous gas emission The face was sealed with the
(11874.752.70) 21/7/2008 equipment
1101 18/11/2005 - Cross the permissible limit of temperature Improved safety and risk measures
(460.751052.70) 28/2/2006 and humidity. Collapsed roadway side wall.

1106 07/5/2006- Barrier to cross the diagonal dyke section -


(562.751212.72) 22/9/2006
1109 07/3/2007- Coal seam orientation gradient and also Instruction has provided to mine
(558.541062.68) 19/11/2007 temperature, water flow and humidity cross employee to work cautiously by
the permissible limit avoiding accident.
1103 14/1/2008- Mechanical hit by the road header Highest safety was arranges to avoid
(609.85141.82.94) 04/6/2008 any accident.
1104 26/8/2008- Electrocution Highest safety was arranges to avoid
(677.5140.62.90) 18/2/2009 accident.
1114 07/3/2009- Production was completed without any Coal face geological and
(547.21272.98) 28/7/2009 accident and hindrance environmental condition was very
safe.
1105 12/8/2009- Underground roadway roof-fall accident Production continued by controlling
(5601652.90) 16/3/2010 roof-fall.
1108 25/2/2010- A huge roof fall accident to create roadway Strata pressure of every faces
(5501082.90) 09/11/2010 collapsed monitored regularly.
1112 21/11/2010 - Production was completed without any -
(537.7138.32.97) 05/4/2011 accident and hindrance.
1111 22/4/2011- Production was finished without any accident Sufficient ventilation was arranged
(542.6598.53.0) 01/10/2011 and hindrance.
1116 23/11/2011 - Overcoming dyke and geological difficulties Sufficient ventilation was arranged.
(325.951002.97) 14/2/2011 production was completed.

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Fig. 3. Rate of coal production from 1st slice coal faces (CF).

Problems or accidents in 1st slice coal faces, BCM. a local miner was injured and one of his leg was lost.
BCMCL (2012) reported various accidents in underground Coal face 1108. A huge roof fall accident occurred due
coal mine in BCM from 2004 to 2010. During 1st slice to bump on 11th May, 2010. As a result about 40m of belt
roadway development and production of coal from faces gate roadway collapsed, a local worker died and 15 local
lot of difficulties and accidents occurred which are and 3 Chinese workers were injured. Temperature of this
summarized in Table 2 (BCMCL, 2012). The main face was 350C.
problems in faces are- Coal face 1112. Production was completed without any
Coal face 1110. Coal production commenced on 10th accident and hindrance. Temperature of this face was
September, 2005 from 1110 Longwall face, the 1st face 34.50C.
of the first slice. After few days the presence of CO was Coal face 1111. Production finished without any accident
detected, which increased up to the level of 6000 PPM and hindrance. Average temperature of the face was 370C.
and thus face was sealed-off together with the equipment. Coal face 1116. Overcoming dyke and geological
Coal face 1101. During the development of belt gate difficulties, production was completed by decreasing the
Roadway of this face, temperature 370 and humidity strike length to 200 m. Temperature of the face was 360C.
100% was found. Miners are experiencing difficulties to
work in that adverse environment. During the construction Mine accidents in underground BCM.
of Roadway a miner died due to collapse of the side wall
on 10th March, 2004. Electrocution. Electrocution is death caused by electric
Coal face 1106. Diagonal dyke was present in the face, shock, either accidental or deliberate. Death can occur
as such very much risk to cross the section. from any shock that carries enough current to stop the
Coal face 1109. This Longwall face was very risky and heart. Generally, small currents cause fibrillation in the
critical among the face. Coal seam orientation gradient heart which is reversible via defibrillator, but large currents
of this face was 230, as such difficult to operate the face cause completely damage via burns as well as cellular
equipment. On 26th May, 2007 a coal lamp was into the damage. High voltage lines are setup in pit bottom station
worker and caused on the spot death. Air return roadway and underground roadways. If anyone touch with these
temperature was always 40-410C. During production, open high voltage lines uncertainly serious accidents
face temperature 460C, water flow 600 m3/hr and 100% may occurs. In BCM, when production work was going
humidity was found. on in coal face1104 (28th September, 2008) a mine worker
Coal face 1103. On 17th September, 2007 a local miner has died on electrocution (BCMCL, 2012). To avoid this
of the contractor got hit by the road header whilst type of mine accidents in BCM it should be needed to
undertaking the roadway development work of 1103 belt keep away from the mine environments by wet working
gate and later on died. Average temperature of the face environments, inadequately maintained equipment, faulty
was 33.50C. Percentage of retreat of this face was 4.26 equipment, electrical supply, earthing system broken or
which are highest amongst the face of 1 st slices. ineffective, inoperative protection devices, failure to
Coal face 1104. Strike length of this face was 677.50, follow site safety procedures.
highest among all faces of 1st slice. Average temperature
of the face was 340C. On 28th September, 2008 a mine Mechanical. BCM is totally mechanized mine. Different
worker died due to electrocution. types of equipments (mine car, road header, shearer,
Coal face 1114. Production completed without any HPRS, belt conveyor etc.) are used for roadway and coal
accident and hindrance. face development, production, haulage or hoisting system.
Coal face 1105. Face length of this Longwall face was In 17th September 2007 when production of Coal face1103
165 m which was highest among other faces. This face was going on a local miner of the contractor got hit by
was first pillarless Longwall face. Due to roof-fall accident, the road header whilst undertaking the roadway
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development work of 1103 belt gate and later on died oxygen from the sealed goaf area. Seals are required to
(BCMCL, 2012). Hit from any machine in BCM be monitored each shift by a certified mine foreman for
underground mine should be less by awareness of the damage and leaks of harmful gases. The temperature and
mine work. humidity also cross the permissible limit which may
cause accident. These all harmful gases may monitor by
Support system. BCM is artificial supported underground gas analyzer or regularly by other devices and ventilated
coal mine. During the development and production work the air and its speed as it is needed.
from coal face, different types of supporting system
(permanent or temporary) were used for making good Water inrush. BCM shaft is installed through the water
working condition in the underground (Figs. 4a,b). Coal bearing zones and pit bottom and other roadway or face
face 1105 was the first pillarless longwall face in BCM. is developed through the sedimentary rock. Huge water
The length of this longwall face was 165 meter which penetrates into the mine shaft (during shaft installation)
was highest among the other faces (BCMCL, 2012). Due
to roof-fall accident, a local miner was injured for which
one of his leg was lost. A huge roof fall accident occurred
in coal face1108 due to bump on 11th May 2010, as a
result about 40 m of belt gate roadway collapsed, a local
worker was died and 15 local and 3 Chinese workers
were injured (BCMCL, 2012). If BCM authority taking
necessary step for increasing proper support system,
accidents will be reduced considerably.

Ventilation. Fresh air travels up the main gate, across the


face, and then down the tail gate. Once past the face the
air is no longer fresh air, but returns air carrying away
coal dust and mine gases such as methane, carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide etc. depending on the geology
of the coal or other rock properties. Return air is extracted
by ventilation fans mounted on the surface. Typically to
avoid coal in the goaf area spontaneously combusting,
gases are allowed to build up behind seals so as to exclude

Fig. 5. Houses of Kalupara and Balarampur villages were


Fig. 4. Underground supporting system in BCM, (a.) cracked and land submerged with water due to BCM
mouth of coal face supporting system, (b.) underground subsidence, (a, b) Land submerge by water due to
roadway supporting system. subsidence, (c, d) Houses are cracked due to subsidence.
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and coal face (during production). The enormous water methods (using earth materials, sand, silt etc.) should be
flux may be flooded the whole BCM if it is unable to applied.
discharge water regularly by pumping system. Severe
water inrush in the central district of the BCM commenced Conclusions
in 2005, as a result coal production stopped for several
days (Islam and Islam, 2005, Imam, 2013). Therefore, Barapukuria coal mine (BCM) is placed at Dinajpur
the basic design of the BCM, especially the parts regarding district, NW Bangladesh, covering an area of about 6.68
to mining system and facilities for provisions against km2 and coal encountered at a depth ranging between
flooding would be modified and readjusted (Islam and 118 and 509 m. The estimated coal reserve is about 390
Islam, 2005). This water derived from adjacent aquifer million tons and of this, nearly 64 million tons is
sources and inrush of water may be controlled by regular extractable. Several parameters are used to reduce
pumping and always standby pump operator in the accidents and increase coal production in BCM. Longwall
underground pump house. retreating mining method is applied for extraction of coal
from single face with the operational area protected by
Mine accidents in surface of BCM. self-advancing HPRS system. These supports are moved
forward resulting the roof behind them to form an
House collapse and land submerge. During coal extensive abandoned area named goaf, which may cause
extraction from the 1st slice of BCM, goaf area originated collapse with air blast. Extracted Coal in BCM using a
as a result subsidence occurred on surface adjacent to multislice longwall top coal caving method. Average
the mine area. Land subsidence is a normal phenomenon underground air composition in BCM is ~20.94% oxygen,
in case of underground Longwall mining method. It ~79.00% nitrogen, ~0.04% carbon monoxide, and minor
causes by the collapse of an underground mine or cave, water with massive coal dust. Carbon monoxide was
and/or by the compaction or deterioration of soils and detected during/after development of 1110 Longwall
filling materials subsequently damaged surrounding face, which increases up to 6000 ppm, therefore, sealed-
buildings, bridges, and roads. Additionally, disrupt off the face with mining equipments. During the
ground water supplies to the households with limited development of belt gate roadway of 1101 Longwall
water source or decline water table. In BCM, it is face, maximum temperature and humidity increases up
estimated that at around 0.75 m ground subsidence to 37oC and 100% respectively. Miners of BCM suffered
occurs from 1st slice and successively for the mining of several difficulties in non-suitable environment. Air return
5 th slice the ground subsidence may occur 2.25 m roadway temperature was always 40 to 41oC in 1101
(Quamruzzaman, et al., 2009). In May 2006 immediately Longwall face during production period, faces temperature
after starting coal production from 1101 face, the first 46oC, water flow 600 m3/hr and humidity 100%. Due to
surface subsidence was experienced nearby Kalupara roof-fall, toxic gas and very high temperature and humidity
and Balarampur villages (Figs. 5a, b). Subsequently, in the face 1105 and 1108 some miners were injured and
the ground subsidence area was recorded in other areas died. Therefore, using proper safety and risk measures
during 2008 and 2009, an area of about 628 acres of during development of faces and roadways in BCM,
land was affected by subsidence that include 8 villages production will be sustained by controlling roof-fall.
and mouzas (BCMCL, 2011). Most of the houses of Strata pressure of every faces is monitored regularly by
Kalupara and Balarampur villages were cracked due to electromagnetic emission detector and changing sufficient
BCM subsidence (Figs. 5b, c). ventilation system, accidents of BCM could be controlled.
Using earth filling materials in the goaf area, air blast
Recommendations accidents should be reduced. Considering all the problems
of 1st slice and initiating extra caution for new face
For successful coal production necessary safety and development, accident may reduce in the 2nd slice and
risk measures should be taken to avoid any accident. production may be increased significantly.
According to the mine act safety rules and regulation,
instruction is provided to mine employee to work
cautiously by avoiding accident. Acknowledgement
Engineers and mine workers have achieved different
kinds of experience due to geological and engineering We thank PETROBANGLA (Bangladesh Oil, Gas and
problems from 1st slice. Through technical production Mineral Corporation) and BCMCL (Barapukuria Coal
experience from 1st slice, production will increased in Mining Company Limited) for logistic support and supply
2nd slice. of printing materials. Thanks also to Shamim Ahmed and
Production was continuous by controlling roof-fall Mustafizur Rahman for providing photos for underground
and sidewall collapses using proper support system. support system and subsidence in Kalupara and
Strata pressure of every faces will be monitored Balarampur villages in and around the BCM.
regularly through EED (Electromagnetic Emission
Detector). References
Sufficient ventilation will be arranged in the 2nd slice
faces to create safe mine environmental condition. Akhtar, A. (2000) Coal and hard rock resources in
To avoid air blast accidents in the coal face filling Bangladesh. Episodes, 23, 2528.
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Alam, M.K; Hasan, A.K.M; Khan, M.R; Whitney, J.W. coal mine. International Journal of Coal Geology,
(1990) Geological map of Bangladesh. Published 78, 91-109.
by Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Islam, M.R; Islam, M.S. (2005) Water Inrush Hazard in
Geological Survey of Bangladesh with cooperation Barapukuria Coal Mine, Bangladesh. Bangladesh
of United States Geological Survey. Journal of Geology, 24, 1-17.
Alam, M; Alam, M.M; Curray, J; Chowdhury, R.M.L.R; Islam, M.S; DRozario, A; Chowdhury, K.R; Banerjee,
Gani, M.R. (2003) An overview of the sedimentary M. (2003) Palynostratigraphy of the Gondwana
geology of the Bengal Basin in relation to the regional sequence in the Barapukuria Basin, Bangladesh.
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