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Homework Assignment #1

Chapter 7
Converter Control
Coursera Specialization in Power Electronics
University of Colorado, Boulder
Prof. Robert Erickson

AC modeling of a boost converter

The boost converter illustrated in Fig. 1 operates in the continuous conduction mode. The MOS-
FET has on-resistance Ron . All other sources of loss are negligible.

L D1

i(t) + vL(t) +
iC(t)
Q1
vg(t) + C R v(t)
+
dTs Ts

Figure 1 Boost converter of Questions 1-6.

When entering equations, express your results in terms of the following variable names:
Quiescent duty cycle (D): D
Duty cycle perturbation (d): dhat
MOSFET on-resistance (Ron ): Ron
Output voltage perturbation (v): vhat
Inductor current perturbation (i): ihat
Quiescent output voltage (V): V
Input voltage perturbation (vg ): vghat
Load resistance (R): R
If your expressions contain the quantities Vg or I, you should use the steady-state model to elimi-
nate these and express your answers as functions of the above variables only.
1. Derive the small-signal ac equation associated with the inductor, of the form
di
= RHS
L (1)
dt
Enter an expression for the right-hand side RHS of this equation.
a d(t)
L Rt 1:m

+

+
i(t)

vg(t) + bd(t) C R v(t)


Figure 2 Boost converter small-signal model for Questions 3-6.

2. Derive the small-signal ac equation associated with the capacitor, of the form
dv
C = RHS (2)
dt
Enter an expression for the right-hand side RHS of this equation.

3. The small-signal equations of Questions 1-2 correspond to the ac model illustrated in Fig. 2.
Derive this model. Questions 3 to 6 refer to this model.
Enter an expression for the effective resistance Rt . Your expression should be a function of the
variables listed above Question 1.

4. Enter an expression for the coefficient a of the d voltage source. Your expression should be a
function of only the variables defined above Question 1.

5. Enter an expression for the coefficient b of the d current source. Your expression should be a
function of only the variables defined above Question 1.

6. Enter an expression for the effective turns ratio m. Your expression should be a function of
only the variables defined above Question 1.

A pulse-width modulator circuit


Figure 3 illustrates a pulse-width modulator that employs a triangle wave rather than a sawtooth
wave. Questions 7 to 9 refer to this modulator.

7. What is the switching frequency, in Hz?

8. Find an expression for the duty cycle d(t), as a function of the control voltage vc (t), for 2
vc 2. Your result should be an equation of the form d = RHS ; enter your expression for the
right-hand side RHS . Use the following variable name:

Control voltage (vc ): vc

Your equation will include numerical values (in Volts) that are extracted from the figure. Do
not explicitly include units in your expressions.

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: n2

Fig. 7.70 Two-output flyback converter, Problem 7.13: (a) converter circuit, (b) small-signal ac
equivalent circuit.

(a)
Triangle
vtri(t)
wave
generator
Comparator
(t)
Analog
input + PWM
Fig. 7.71 Pulse-width waveform
modulator, Problem 7.14. vc(t)
(b) vtri(t)
2V

50 s 100 s
0
t

2 V

Figure 3 Pulse-width modulator circuit with triangle-wave, for Questions 7-9.

9. What is the small-signal gain of this PWM circuit? Express your result in units of volts1 .

10. What is the sampling rate of this pulse-width modulator? Express your answer in Hz.

Optional Extra Credit Assignment


Chapter 7
Below are optional extra credit problems. It is not necessary to do these problems to pass this
assignment.
Manipulate your boost converter model of questions 1-6 into canonical form. Your result should
be a circuit as illustrated in Fig. 4.

e(s)d (s) Le
1 : M(D) Re
+

Vg + vg(s) + j(s)d (s) C V + v(s) R


Figure 4 Boost converter canonical model.

Enter your expressions for the elements in the fields below, as functions of only the variable names
listed above Question 1 of HW #6, plus the following:
Inductance (L): L

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Laplace transform variable (s): s

1. Enter an expression for the effective inductance Le .

2. Enter an expression for the effective resistance Re .

3. Enter an expression for the voltage source coefficient e(s).

4. Enter an expression for the current source coefficient j(s).

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