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Chapter 7

Converter Control

Coursera Specialization in Power Electronics

University of Colorado, Boulder

Prof. Robert Erickson

The boost converter illustrated in Fig. 1 operates in the continuous conduction mode. The MOS-

FET has on-resistance Ron . All other sources of loss are negligible.

L D1

i(t) + vL(t) +

iC(t)

Q1

vg(t) + C R v(t)

+

dTs Ts

When entering equations, express your results in terms of the following variable names:

Quiescent duty cycle (D): D

Duty cycle perturbation (d): dhat

MOSFET on-resistance (Ron ): Ron

Output voltage perturbation (v): vhat

Inductor current perturbation (i): ihat

Quiescent output voltage (V): V

Input voltage perturbation (vg ): vghat

Load resistance (R): R

If your expressions contain the quantities Vg or I, you should use the steady-state model to elimi-

nate these and express your answers as functions of the above variables only.

1. Derive the small-signal ac equation associated with the inductor, of the form

di

= RHS

L (1)

dt

Enter an expression for the right-hand side RHS of this equation.

a d(t)

L Rt 1:m

+

+

i(t)

2. Derive the small-signal ac equation associated with the capacitor, of the form

dv

C = RHS (2)

dt

Enter an expression for the right-hand side RHS of this equation.

3. The small-signal equations of Questions 1-2 correspond to the ac model illustrated in Fig. 2.

Derive this model. Questions 3 to 6 refer to this model.

Enter an expression for the effective resistance Rt . Your expression should be a function of the

variables listed above Question 1.

4. Enter an expression for the coefficient a of the d voltage source. Your expression should be a

function of only the variables defined above Question 1.

5. Enter an expression for the coefficient b of the d current source. Your expression should be a

function of only the variables defined above Question 1.

6. Enter an expression for the effective turns ratio m. Your expression should be a function of

only the variables defined above Question 1.

Figure 3 illustrates a pulse-width modulator that employs a triangle wave rather than a sawtooth

wave. Questions 7 to 9 refer to this modulator.

8. Find an expression for the duty cycle d(t), as a function of the control voltage vc (t), for 2

vc 2. Your result should be an equation of the form d = RHS ; enter your expression for the

right-hand side RHS . Use the following variable name:

Your equation will include numerical values (in Volts) that are extracted from the figure. Do

not explicitly include units in your expressions.

Page 2

: n2

Fig. 7.70 Two-output flyback converter, Problem 7.13: (a) converter circuit, (b) small-signal ac

equivalent circuit.

(a)

Triangle

vtri(t)

wave

generator

Comparator

(t)

Analog

input + PWM

Fig. 7.71 Pulse-width waveform

modulator, Problem 7.14. vc(t)

(b) vtri(t)

2V

50 s 100 s

0

t

2 V

9. What is the small-signal gain of this PWM circuit? Express your result in units of volts1 .

10. What is the sampling rate of this pulse-width modulator? Express your answer in Hz.

Chapter 7

Below are optional extra credit problems. It is not necessary to do these problems to pass this

assignment.

Manipulate your boost converter model of questions 1-6 into canonical form. Your result should

be a circuit as illustrated in Fig. 4.

e(s)d (s) Le

1 : M(D) Re

+

Enter your expressions for the elements in the fields below, as functions of only the variable names

listed above Question 1 of HW #6, plus the following:

Inductance (L): L

Page 3

Laplace transform variable (s): s

Page 4

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