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Gloria Macapagal Arroyo


Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, (born April 5, 1947, San Juan, Philippines), Filipino politician who
waspresident of the Philippines (200110).
Arroyos father, Diosdado P. Macapagal, was president of the Philippines from 1961 to 1965.
Arroyo studied economics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., where she began a
lasting friendship with classmate and future U.S. president Bill Clinton. After returning to the
Philippines and graduating magna cum laude from Assumption College in Manila in 1968,
Arroyo earned a masters degree in economics (1978) from Ateneo de Manila University and a
doctorate in economics (1986) from the University of the Philippines in Quezon City.
Arroyo was a university professor when Pres. Corazon Aquino appointed her undersecretary of
trade and industry in 1986. She won a seat in the Senate in 1992 and was reelected in 1995 by a
record 16 million votes. She was elected vice president in 1998, garnering more votes than the
winner of the presidency,Joseph Estrada, who named Arroyo secretary of social welfare and
development. In 2000, however, a corruption scandal enveloped Estrada, and on October 12
Arroyo resigned from the cabinet post to rally opposition against him. Angry protesters drove
Estrada from the presidential residence on January 20, 2001, and Arroyo assumed power.
Arroyo brought an unprecedented academic and administrative background to the Philippines
presidency, but her tenure was plagued by political unrest. Just months after she took office,
some 20,000 supporters of Estrada stormed the gates of the presidential palace. Several people
were killed, and Arroyo declared a state of rebellion that lasted five days. In 2003 disaffected
soldiers seized a Manila apartment building and demanded Arroyos resignation; the attempted
coup was suppressed peacefully. Promising to reduce corruption and improve the economy,
Arroyo was reelected president in 2004. However, accusations that she rigged the election
emerged the following year and resulted in a failed attempt at impeachment. In 2006 Arroyo
declared a countrywide state of emergency after a military coup was blocked; the state of
emergency was lifted after about one week. Terrorism was also a concern for Arroyos
administration. Abu Sayyaf, a terrorist group that sought a separate Islamic state in the
southern Philippines, was responsible for a number of attacks, including the 2004 bombing of a
ferry that killed more than 100 people.
In late 2009, after members of a politically powerful clan in Mindanao were implicated in the
massacre of a political opponent and his entourage there, Arroyo briefly declared martial law in
the region. She also renounced ties with the clan, which until then had been a political ally.
Constitutionally barred from seeking another six-year presidential term, she ran for and won a
seat in the House of Representatives in the May 2010 presidential and parliamentary elections.
Arroyo subsequently was investigated for various alleged crimes, and in 2011 the government
barred her from leaving the country to seek medical treatment. In November she was arrested
on charges of having committed electoral fraud during the 2007 Senate election. She pleaded
not guilty to those charges in February 2012. However, the following month, new allegations
were brought that stated that she and her husband had accepted bribes from a Chinese
telecommunications company in 2007. She was released from custody on bail in July 2012.
Later that year Arroyo was arrested for allegedly misusing state lottery funds while president.

Presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Arroyo in 2007
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo WEF 2009-crop.jpg This article is part of
a series about
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Early Life Family
President of the Philippines


Foreign Policy International trips Iraq War Visiting Forces Agreement US designation of the
as a Major non-NATO ally ASEAN charter
First term
EDSA II 1st inauguration Presidency
EDSA III Operation Freedom Eagle Oakwood mutiny Fertilizer Fund scam
Second term

Philippine presidential election, 2004 Hello Garci scandal 2nd inauguration Hacienda Luisita
massacre 2004 SuperFerry 14 bombing Executive Order 464 2006 state of emergency East Asian
Energy Security Manila Peninsula siege Batasang Pambansa bombing Euro Generals scandal
NBN/ZTE scandal 2009 flu pandemic in the Philippines Ketsana (Ondoy) Maguindanao massacre
Senator of the Philippines

Philippine Senator
Vice President of the Philippines

Philippine general election, 1998 DSWD secretary


Philippine House of Representatives

election (2010) 2011 hospital arrest 2016 Supreme Court acquittal
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo's signature

Seal of the President of the Philippines.svg

The Presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, also known as the Arroyo Administration, spanned two
terms from 20 January 2001 to 30 June 2010. She served the remainder of her predecessor Joseph
Estrada's term after he was deposed, and she was elected to a full second term in 2004 which
ended pursuant to the provisions of the 1987 Constitution.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assumed the presidency at noon on 20 January 2001, following

the EDSA II Revolution which ousted the democratically elected President Estrada. As she
anticipated the revolt, she told Time International in a November 2000 interview that she
planned to look to two predecessors as examples: "I will follow my father's footsteps in doing
what is right, and God will take care of the rest. My father is my role model. My living role
model is Cory Aquino. I am prepared."
Although her recent predecessors had lived outside Malacaan Palace, Macapagal-Arroyo
opted to return to her childhood home. The new President faced numerous challenges,
including an unstable economy and violent counter-protests launched by Estrada's supporters.
She was also accused of providing special treatment to the jailed former President. On 27 May
2001,Islamic militants abducted 20 hostages at a resort in the province of Palawan, and
Macapagal-Arroyo was thrust into the ongoing battle between the government and the rebels.
Several other kidnappings by various criminal gangs followed, and Macapagal-Arroyo officially
adopted a hardline "no ransom" response to the rebels and launched military operations
against them. Her administration was embarrassed, however, when it was revealed that several
of the hostages families paid ransom to the kidnappers directly, with some claiming that
officers of the Philippine Military received a portion of the funds. Macapagal-Arroyo's
administration got another black mark when her consort First GentlemanJos Miguel "Mike"
Arroyo was accused of receiving bribes from telecommunications company ZTE that was
seeking government-approved contracts.
An economist, Macapagal-Arroyo developed a blueprint to lift the national economy out of
its financial crisis. Looking back on her first year as President in 2002, she cited the country's
economic survival as her greatest achievement, although she remained well aware that much
work lay ahead, according to The Power and the Glory. "We have been able to survive, to have
a higher growth rate than our neighbors," she said. "I dwell on what must be done. I am a very
focused person. I don't focus on laurels, on feeling secure, feeling comfortable. Even on the day
I was sworn in as president, I didn't say, 'Wow, I am now president,' I said, 'What should I do
now?' "
Despite the obstacles and various charges of impropriety directed at those close to her,
Macapagal-Arroyo was elected to a full, six-year presidential term in May 2004. She edged out
her closest competitor, Filipino actor Fernando Poe Jr., by one million votes. In her inaugural
address, Macapagal-Arroyo vowed to create up to 10 million jobs in the next six years, balance
the budget, improve tax collection, provide inexpensive medicine for the poor, and unite the
country. "Our nation must embrace a vision of economic opportunity, social cohesion and
always an ever-democratic faith.".[1]
Macapagal-Arroyo again made international headlines in July 2004 when Filipino truck driver
Angelo dela Cruz was kidnapped by the Islamic Army in Iraq. In defiance of requests by the
United States' government, Macapagal-Arroyo honoured the rebels' demands to withdraw
Filipino troops from the country. Later that month, she called for an end to political in-fighting
in order to better focus on economic recovery. After former President Estrada declared the
Philippines to be a "nation in distress," [2] Macapagal-Arroyo said in her State of the Nation
Address: "Let us set aside political bickering and politicking for at least one year." She also used
the annual speech to re-iterate her pledge to relieve poverty and promote economic growth.
First Term (20012004)[edit]
The last quarter of 2000 up to the first week of January 2001 was a period of political and
economic uncertainty for the Philippines. On January 16, 2001, the impeachment trial also took
a new direction. Private prosecutors walked out of the trial when pro-Estrada senators
prevented the opening of an evidence (a brown envelope) containing bank records allegedly
owned by President Estrada. With the walkout, the impeachment trial was not completed and
Filipinos eventually took to the streets in masses to continue the clamor for President Estrada's
resignation. From January 17 to 20, 2001, hundreds of thousands of Filipinos gathered
at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), the site of the original People Power Revolution. The
clamor for a change in the presidency gained momentum as various sectors of Philippine
society professionals, students, artists, politicians, leftist and rightist groups joined what
became known as EDSA II. Officials of the administration, the Armed Forces of the
Philippines (AFP), and the Philippine National Police(PNP) also withdrew their support for
President Estrada.

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo displayed on a two hundred peso bill, being sworn in as president by
Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. in January 2001.
Days after leaving Malacaang Palace, President Estrada's lawyers questioned the legitimacy of
Arroyo's presidency before the Supreme Court. He reiterated that he had not resigned as
president and that at most, Arroyo was just serving in an acting capacity. The high court,
however, voted unanimously to uphold the legitimacy of Arroyo's succession. As a
consequence, Estrada no longer enjoys immunity from charges being filed against him.
In the last week of April 2001, the Sandiganbayan ordered the arrest of Estrada and his son,
then mayor Jinggoy Estrada, for plunder charges. A few days later, Estrada supporters protested
his arrest, gathered at the EDSA Shrine, and staged what they called, EDSA III comparing their
actions to the People Power revolution of 1986 and January 2001.
Thousands of protesters demanded the release of Estrada. Eventually, they also called for the
ouster of Arroyo and the reinstatement of the former. On May 1, 2001, they marched towards
Malacaang to force Arroyo to give in to their demands. Violence erupted when the protesters
attempted to storm the presidential palace and the military and police were ordered to use
their arms to drive them back. Arroyo declared a state of rebellion because of the violence and
prominent political personalities affiliated with Estrada were charged and arrested. The so-
called EDSA III was the first serious political challenge to the Arroyo presidency.
Corruption charges and Oakwood Mutiny[edit]
Main article: Oakwood mutiny
The Oakwood mutiny occurred in the Philippines on July 27, 2003. A group of 321 armed
soldiers who called themselves "Bagong Katipuneros"[16] led by Army Capt. Gerardo Gambala
and Lt. Antonio Trillanes IV of the Philippine Navy took over the Oakwood Premier Ayala Center
(now Ascott Makati) serviced apartment tower in Makati City to show the Filipino people the
alleged corruption of the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration. They also stated that they
saw signs suggesting that the President was going to declaremartial law.
Later in 2011, after being ousted from presidency, Arroyo was charged withelectoral
fraud and corruption.[17]
2004 Presidential Election[edit]

Presidential styles of
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Reference style Her Excellency

Spoken style Your Excellency

Alternative style Madam President

Article VII Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution explicitly states that the president of the
Philippines can only serve for one term. However, the same provision also implicitly states that
a president's successor who has not served for more than four years can still seek a full term for
the presidency. Although Arroyo fell under this category, she initially announced on December
30, 2002 that she would not seek the presidency in 2004. She emphasized that she would
devote her remaining months in office to serving the people and improving the economy of the
In October 2003, Arroyo changed her mind and announced that she would contest the May
2004 presidential elections and seek a direct mandate from the people. She explained, "There is
a higher cause to change a way that nourishes our future". With her decision, the
initial criticisms hurled against Arroyo centered on her lack of word of honor.
As predicted by SWS exit polls, Arroyo won the election by a margin of over one million votes
against Poe. However, the congressional canvassing was quite contentious as opposition
lawmakers in the National Board of Canvassers argued that there were many discrepancies in
the election returns and that insinuations of cheating were raised. On June 23, 2004, Congress
proclaimed Arroyo and Noli de Castro as president and vice president, respectively.
Second Term (20042010)[edit]
2004 Presidential Election rigging allegations[edit]

Arroyo taking her Oath of Office for a full term as president before Chief Justice Hilario Davide
Jr. in Cebu Cityon June 30, 2004.
On June 30, 2004, in a break with tradition, Arroyo first delivered her inaugural speech at
the Quirino Grandstand in Manila. She then departed for Cebu City for her oath taking, the first
time that a Philippine president took the oath of office outside of Luzon.
Allegations of cheating against Arroyo gained momentum one year after the May 2004
elections. In a press conference held on June 10, 2005, Samuel Ong, former deputy director of
the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) claimed to have audio recordings of wiretapped
conversations between Arroyo and an official of the Commission on
Elections (COMELEC). Virgilio Garcillano, a former COMELEC commissioner, would later be
identified as the official talking to Arroyo. According to Ong, the recordings allegedly proved
that Arroyo ordered the rigging of the national elections for her to win by around one million
votes against Poe.
The recordings of Ong became known as the Hello Garci controversy and triggered massive
protests against Arroyo. Key members of her cabinet resigned from their respective posts and
urged Arroyo to do the same. On June 27, 2005, Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to
a COMELEC official, claiming it was a "lapse in judgement". She, however, denied influencing
the outcome of the elections and declared that she won the elections fairly. Arroyo did not
resign despite the pressures coming from various sectors of society.
The Hello Garci controversy became the basis of the impeachment case filed against Arroyo in
2005. Attempts to impeach Arroyo failed later that year. Another impeachment case was filed
against Arroyo in 2006 but was also defeated at the House of Representatives.
In October 2007, lawyer Alan Paguia filed an impeachment complaint against Arroyo in
connection with the issue of bribery. Paguia's complaint was based on the revelation
ofPampanga Governor Ed Panlilio that various governors received half a million pesos from
Malacaang. The impeachment case, as of the middle of October 2007, has already been
referred to the House of Representatives Committee on Justice.
State of Emergency[edit]
Main article: 2006 state of emergency in the Philippines

President Arroyo with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, June 9, 2009

On February 24, 2006, a plot to take over the government was uncovered by authorities,
allegedly headed by Gen. Danilo Lim and other rightist military adventurists. General Lim and
some of his men were arrested. To face the threat posed by enemies of the state, Arroyo issued
Presidential Proclamation 1017 (PP 1017) and used it as basis in declaring a state of emergency
throughout the Philippines. According to Arroyo, this declaration was done to quell the military
rebellion, stop lawless violence, and promote peace and stability. PP 1017 also empowered the
government to enforce warrantless arrests and take over strategic private utilities companies.
On February 25, 2006, the police raided the office of the Daily Tribune, a newspaper known as a
critic of the Arroyo administration. The government then issued a journalism guidelines to
address the threat posed by critics in the media. Presidential Management Staff chiefMichael
Defensor said that the guidelines were necessary in order to cope with the emergency
The state of emergency existed for about one week with the purpose of curbing further
violence, illegal rallies, and public disturbance throughout the Philippines. The police and the
military dispersed demonstrators and protesters, especially those along Epifanio de los Santos
Avenue (EDSA). Aside from General Lim, prominent personalities were also arrested in
connection with their alleged participation in the attempt to overthrow the government.
Among those arrested were:

1. Col. Ariel Querubin leader of a group of Philippine Marines who engaged the
government in a political stand-off at Fort Bonifacio on February 25, 2005
2. Randy David led a protest rally without securing the necessary permit
3. Crispin Beltran party-list representative of Anakpawis charged with inciting to sedition
and rebellion
4. Batasan Five party-list representatives charged with rebellion and were placed under
the custody of the House of Representatives; Bayan Muna's Teodoro Casio,Satur
Ocampo, and Joel Virador; Gabriela's Liza Maza, and Anakpawis' Rafael Mariano
PP 1017 was lifted on March 3, 2006 but members of the opposition, private lawyers, and
concerned citizens challenged its constitutionality before the Supreme Court. On May 4, the
high court declared the proclamation constitutional. However, it also said that it was illegal for
the government to implement warrantless arrests and seize private institutions and companies.
Charter Change[edit]
Arroyo currently spearheads a controversial plan for an overhaul of the constitution to
transform the present unitary and presidential republic with a bicameral legislature into a
federal parliamentary government with a unicameral legislature.[18]

President Arroyo with U.S. President George W. Bush, May 19, 2003
Main article: Presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Economy
Arroyo, who earned a master's degree and doctorate in economics, made the Philippine
economy the focus of her presidency. Annual economic growth in the Philippines averaged
4.5% during the Arroyo administration, expanding every quarter of her presidency.[19] This is
higher than in the administrations of her three immediate predecessors, Corazon
Aquino (3.8%), Fidel Ramos (3.7%), and Joseph Estrada (3.7%).[20] The Philippine economy grew
at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007, with real GDP growth exceeding 7%. [21]The
economy was one of the few to avoid contraction during the 2008 global financial crisis, faring
better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities,
lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances
from four-to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a growing business process outsourcing
industry.[19] Arroyo's handling of the economy has earned praise from former US President Bill
Clinton, who cited her "tough decisions" that put the Philippine economy back in
shape.[22] Despite this growth, the poverty rate remained stagnant due to a high population
growth rate and uneven distribution of income.
A controversial expanded value added tax (e-VAT) law, considered the centerpiece of the
Arroyo administration's economic reform agenda, was implemented in November 2005, aiming
to complement revenue-raising efforts that could plug the country's large budget deficit.[23] Her
administration originally set a target to balance the national budget by 2010. The tax measure
boosted confidence in the government's fiscal capacity and helped to strengthen the Philippine
peso, making it East Asia's best performing currency in 200506.[24]The peso strengthened by
nearly 20% in 2007, making it one of Asia's better performing currencies for that year, a fact
attributed to a combination of increased remittances from overseas Filipino workers and a
strong domestic economy.[25]
Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy of holiday economics,
adjusting holidays to form longer weekends with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism and
allowing Filipinos more time with their families.
The rate of inflation during the later portion of Arroyo's administration was so high. Common
consumer goods became prohibitive in cost. There was a marked decrease in the number of
students in universities. Privately owned universities closed in numbers.[citation needed]

President Arroyo with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, February 17, 2009
Domestic policies[edit]
Main article: Presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Domestic policies
Foreign policies[edit]
Main article: Presidency of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Foreign Policies
Public perception[edit]

Social Weather Stations quarterly public opinion polling of the net satisfaction rating of
President Arroyo.
The Social Weather Stations public opinion group has conducted quarterly surveys tracking the
net satisfaction rating ("satisfied" rating minus "dissatisfied" rating") of President Arroyo. She
began her presidency in the first quarter of 2001 with a net satisfaction rating of +24. Her rating
first dipped into the negative in the first quarter of 2003, making Arroyo the only president to
achieve a negative net satisfaction rating in SWS opinion polling. Her rating rebounded well into
the positive in 2004, in time for the presidential election where she won election to a new six-
year term. However, net satisfaction sunk back into negative territory in the fourth quarter of
2004, and has remained negative since, dipping as low as 38 in the second quarter of 2008.
Her net satisfaction rating in the first quarter of 2009 was 32.[26]

2009 biopsy[edit]
On July 3, 2009, it was announced that Arroyo had undergone a biopsy to examine lumps
discovered in her breast and groin.[27][28] Press Secretary Cerge Remonde stated that the results
of the biopsy were negative.[27][28] Remonde also denied reports published in the July 3, 2009
editions of the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star that Arroyo had undergone surgery for
the removal or repair of breast silicone implants.[27][28][29]