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Tirumalai Krishnamacharya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tirumalai Krishnamacharya

Krishnamacharya at 100 years (1988)

Born November 18, 1888

Chitradurga district, Mysore Kingdom

Died February 28, 1989 (aged 100)

Madras, India

Nationality Indian

Occupation Yoga teacher

Known for The Father of Modern Yoga

Tirumalai Krishnamacharya (November 18, 1888 February 28, 1989)[1][2] was an

Indian yoga teacher, ayurvedic healer and scholar. Often referred to as "The Father of Modern
Yoga,"[3][4][5] Krishnamacharya is widely regarded as one of the most influential yoga teachers of the
20th century and is credited with the revival of hatha yoga.[6]
Krishnamacharya held degrees in all the six Vedic daranas, or Indian philosophies. While under the
patronage of the King of Mysore, Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV, Krishnamacharya traveled around India
giving lectures and demonstrations to promote yoga, including such feats as stopping his
heartbeat.[7] He is widely considered as the architect of vinysa,[6] in the sense of combining
breathing with movement. Underlying all of Krishnamacharyas teachings was the principle Teach
what is appropriate for an individual.[8] While he is revered in other parts of the world as a yogi, in
India Krishnamacharya is mainly known as a healer who drew from both ayurvedic and yogic
traditions to restore health and well-being to those he treated.[6] He authored four books on yoga
Yoga Makaranda (1934), Yogaasanagalu (c. 1941),[9] Yoga Rahasya, and Yogavalli (Chapter 1
1988)as well as several essays and poetic compositions.[10]
Some of Krishnamacharya's students include many of yogas most renowned teachers: Indra
Devi (18992002), K. Pattabhi Jois(19152009), B.N.S. Iyengar (born 1924), T. K. V.
Desikachar (1938-2016), Srivatsa Ramaswami (born 1939), A. G. Mohan (born 1945), and Avathuta
H. H. Guru Dileepji Maharaj (born 1969). Krishnamacharya was the brother-in-law of B.K.S.
Iyengar (1918-2014), the founder of the style of yoga known as "Iyengar Yoga," who credits
Krishnamacharya with encouraging him to learn yoga as a young person in 1934.[11]


o 1.1Early life
o 1.2Scholastic education
o 1.3Education in yoga
o 1.4Mysore years
o 1.5Madras years
2Approach to healing
3Approach to yoga
4Accomplishment as a scholar
8External links

Early life[edit]
Krishnamacharya was born on November 18, 1888 in Muchukundapura, situated in the Chitradurga
district of present-day Karnataka, in South India, to an orthodox Iyengar family. His parents were Sri
Tirumalai Srinivasa Tatacharya, a well-known teacher of the Vedas, and Shrimati
Ranganayakiamma.[12] Krishnamacharya was the eldest of six children. He had two brothers and
three sisters. At the age of six, he underwent upanayana.[13] He then began learning to speak and
write Sanskrit, from texts such as the Amarakosha and to chant the Vedas under the strict tutelage
of his father.[2] Krishnamacharya's father also taught him asanas and pranayama.
When Krishnamacharya was ten, his father died,[14] and the family had to move to Mysore, the
second largest city in Karnataka, where Krishnamcharya's great-grandfather H.H. Sri Srinivasa
Brahmatantra Parakala Swami, was the head of the Parakala Math (there were two by that name
between 18351873 CE [15]). In Mysore, Krishnamacharya began a more formal schooling at the
Chamaraj Sanskrit College and in the Math. He made a practice of debating on the subjects of
the Shastras with the professors and visiting Pandits.[13]Krishnamacharya passed
his Vidvan examination in Mysore, where he had studied Vyakarana, vedanta, and tarka.
At the age of sixteen, Krishnamacharya had a strange dream in which his ancestor, the legendary
yogi and Sri Vaishnava saint Nathamuni directed him to go to the town of Alvar Tirunagari, in the
neighboring state of Tamil Nadu. Krishnamacharya obeyed the dream and traveled there. As
Krishnamacharya later told, when he arrived at his destination, he fell into a trance and found himself
in the presence of three sages. He requested the sages to instruct him in the Yoga Rahasya, a long-
lost yogic treatise by Nathamuni. One of the sages, whom he later identified as Nathamuni himself,
began reciting the text. When Krishnamacharya later awoke from the trance, he could recall all the
verses of this legendary treatise.
Scholastic education[edit]
Krishnamacharya spent much of his youth traveling through India studying the six darana or Indian
philosophies: vaieika, nyya, skhya, yoga, mms and vednta.[16] In 1906, at the age of
eighteen, Krishnamacharya left Mysore to attend the university at Benares, also known as Vrnas,
a city of hundreds of temples and a highly regarded North Indian center of traditional
learning.[17] While at the university, he focused his studies on logic and Sanskrit, working with
Brahmashri Shivakumar Shastry, "one of the greatest grammarians of the age".[18] He also learned
the Mimamsa from Brahmasri Trilinga Rama Shastri.[2] Krishnamacharya learned tarka from
Vamacarana Bhattacharya. He also forged a strong friendship with the head of Ki Sanskrit Vidy
Pha, Mahmahopdhyya Gagnth Jh.
After leaving Benares, in 1909, Krishnamacharya returned to Mysore and studied vednta with the
new pontiff of Parakla Math, H. H. Sri Krishna Brahmatantra. During this period Krishnamacharya
learned to play the v, one of the most ancient stringed instruments in India. Besides Math,
Krishnamacharya also studied at the University of Mysore.
In 1914, Krishnamacharya once again left for Benares to attend classes at Queens College, where
he eventually earned a number of teaching certificates. During the first year he had little or no
financial support from his family. In order to eat, he followed the rules that were laid down for
religious beggars: he was to approach only seven households each day and was to offer a prayer "in
return for wheat flour to mix with water for cakes".[19] Krishnamacharya eventually left Queens
College to study the adarana (six darshanas) in Vedic philosophy at Patna University, in Bihar, a
state in eastern India. He also received a scholarship to study Ayurveda under Vaidya Krishnakumar
of Bengal.[2]
Krishnamacharya was invited to the coronation of the Rajah of Dikkanghat (a principality
within Darbhanga), at which he defeated a scholar called Bihari Lal in a debate, and received
rewards and honors from the Raja.[20] His stay in Benares lasted 11 years.
Education in yoga[edit]
During all this time Krishnamacharya continued to practice the yoga that his father had taught him as
a young boy. Krishnamacharya also studied with the yoga master Sri Babu Bhagavan Das and
passed the Samkhya Yoga Examination of Patna.[2] Many of Krishnamacharya's instructors
recognized his outstanding abilities in the study and practice of yoga and supported his progress.
Some asked that he teach their children.[21]
During his vacations, which would last about three months, Krishnamacharya made pilgrimages into
the Himalayas.[21] At the suggestion of Gagnth Jh, Krishnamacharya sought to further his yoga
studies by seeking a master named Yogeshwara Ramamohana Brahmachari, who was rumored to
live in the mountains beyond Nepal. For this venture, Krishnamacharya had to obtain the permission
of the Viceroy in Simla, Lord Irwin, who was then suffering from diabetes.[21] At the request of the
Viceroy, Krishnamacharya travelled to Simla and taught him yogic practices for six months. The
viceroys health improved and he developed respect and affection for Krishnamacharya.[22] In 1919,
the Viceroy made arrangements for Krishnamacharyas travel to Tibet, supplying three aides and
taking care of the expenses.
After two and a half months of walking, Krishnamacharya arrived at Sri Brahmacharis school, a
remote cave at the foot of Mount Kailash, where the master lived with his wife and three
children.[6] Under Brahmacharis tutelage, Krishnamacharya spent seven and a half years[23] studying
the Yoga Stras of Patajali, learning sanas and pryma, and studying the therapeutic aspects
of yoga.[6] He was made to memorize the whole of the Yoga Kuruntha in the Gurkha language. As
tradition holds, at the end of his studies with the guru, Krishnamacharya asked what his payment
would be. The master responded that Krishnamacharya was to "take a wife, raise children and be a
teacher of Yoga".[24]
Krishnamacharya then returned to Vras. The Mahrja of Jaipur called him to serve as principal
of the Vidy l in Jaipur; but as he did not like being answerable to many people,
Krishnamacharya shortly returned to Vras. In accordance with his guru's wish that he live the life
of a householder, Krishnamacharya married Namagiriamma in 1925. After his marriage,
Krishnamacharya was forced by circumstance to work in a coffee plantation in the Hasan district. It
was after a lecture on the Upaniads in Mysore town hall in 1931 that he attracted the attention as a
learned scholar that eventually led to his employment at the palace.[25] Impressed with
Krishnamacharyas knowledge as a scholar and his mastery of yoga, Amarntha Jh, the son of
Gagnth Jh, introduced Krishnamacharya to various monarchs, and he was widely honoured by
Mysore years[edit]

Krishnamacharya in a Yoga demonstration

In 1926, the Maharaja of Mysore, Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV (18841940) was in Varanasi to
celebrate the 60th birthday of his mother and heard about Krishnamacharya's learning and skill as a
yoga therapist.[26] The Maharaja met Krishnamacharya and was so impressed by the young man's
demeanor, authority, and scholarship that he engaged Krishnamacharya to teach him and his
family.[26] Initially, Krishnamacharya was installed to teach yoga at the Mysore Palace.[27] He soon
became a trusted advisor of the Maharajah, and was given the recognition of Asthana Vidwan the
intelligentsia of the palace.[28]
During the 1920s, Krishnamacharya held many demonstrations to stimulate popular interest in yoga.
These included suspending his pulse, stopping cars with his bare hands, performing difficult asanas,
and lifting heavy objects with his teeth.[6] The Palace archive records show that the Maharaja was
interested in the promotion of yoga and continually sent Krishnamacharya around the country to give
lectures and demonstrations.[29]
In 1931, Krishnamacharya was invited to teach at the Sanskrit College in Mysore. The Maharaja,
who felt that yoga had helped cure his many ailments, asked Krishnamacharya to open a yoga
school under his patronage[6][30] and was subsequently given the wing of a nearby palace,
the Jaganmohan Palace, to start the Yogashala, an independent yoga institution,[27] which opened on
August 11, 1933.[26][31]
In 1934, Krishnamacharya authored the book titled Yoga Makaranda, which was published by
Mysore University. In the introduction to Yoga Makaranda, Krishnamacharya lists Sritattvanidhi, a
19th-century treatise containing a yoga section by Maharaja of Mysore, Krishnaraja Wodeyar
III (17941868) as one of the sources for his book. In The Yoga Tradition of the Mysore
Palace, Norman Sjoman asserts that Krishnamacharya was influenced by the Sritattvanidhi and also
the Vyayama Dipika, a Western-based gymnastics manual written by the Mysore Palace
In 1940, Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV died and his nephew and successor, Jayachamarajendra
Wadiyar (19191974), showed less interest in yoga and no longer provided support for publishing
texts and sending teams of teachers to surrounding areas.[33] Following political changes in 1946,
around the time that India gained independence, the powers of the maharajas were curtailed, a new
government came into being. Funding for the yoga school was cut off[34] and Krishnamacharya
struggled to maintain the school. At the age of 60 (1948), Krishnamacharya was forced to travel
extensively to find students and provide for his family.[34] The yogashala in Mysore was ordered to be
closed by K.C. Reddy, the first Chief Minister of Mysore State, and the school eventually closed in
Madras years[edit]
After leaving Mysore, Krishnamacharya moved to Bangalore for a couple of years[35] and then was
invited in 1952 to relocate to Madras, by a well-known lawyer who sought Krishnamacharyas help in
healing from a stroke. By now, Krishnamacharya was in his sixties, and his reputation for being a
strict and intimidating teacher had mellowed somewhat.

Krishnamacharya teaching a child

In Madras, Krishnamacharya accepted a job as a lecturer at Vivekananda College. He also began to

acquire yoga students from diverse backgrounds and in various physical conditions, which required
him to adapt his teaching to each students abilities. For the remainder of his teaching life,
Krishnamacharya continued to refine this individualized approach, which came to be known
as Viniyoga.[6][36] Many considered Krishnamacharya a yoga master, but he continued to call himself
a student because he felt that he was always studying, exploring and experimenting with the
practice.[37] Throughout his life, Krishnamacharya refused to take credit for his innovative teachings
but instead attributed the knowledge to his guru or to ancient texts.[6]
At the age of 96, Krishnamacharya fractured his hip. Refusing surgery, he treated himself and
designed a course of practice that he could do in bed. Krishnamacharya lived and taught in Chennai
until he slipped into a coma and died in 1989, at one hundred years of age. His cognitive faculties
remained sharp until his death; and he continued to teach and heal whenever the situation arose.
Although his knowledge and teaching has influenced yoga throughout the world, Krishnamacharya
never left his native India. Yoga Journal said that:
You may never have heard of him but Tirumalai Krishnamacharya influenced or perhaps even
invented your yoga. Whether you practice the dynamic series of Pattabhi Jois, the refined
alignments of B. K. S. Iyengar, the classical postures of Indra Devi, or the customized vinyasa of
Viniyoga, your practice stems from one source: a five-foot, two-inch Brahmin born more than one
hundred years ago in a small South Indian village.[6]

By developing and refining different approaches, Krishnamacharya made yoga accessible to millions
around the world.[6]

Approach to healing[edit]
Krishnamacharya was not only a yoga instructor but also a physician of Ayurvedic medicine. He
possessed enormous knowledge of nutrition, herbal medicine, the use of oils, and other
remedies.[38] Krishnamacharyas custom as an Ayurvedic practitioner was to begin by conducting a
detailed examination to determine the most efficient path to take for a patient. For example, he
would take the patients pulse, examine the color of the skin, and listen to the quality of the breath.
During the time of diagnosis, Krishnamacharya would look for what upset or hindered the
harmonious union of the body, mind, and spirit.[39] According to Krishnamacharya, even though the
source or focus of a disease is in a particular area of the body, he assumed that many other systems
in the body, both mental and physical, but also be affected. At some point during or after an initial
examination, Krishnamacharya would ask if the patient was willing to follow his guidance. This
question was important to a patients treatment, because Krishnamacharya felt that if the person
could not trust him fully there was little chance of his or her being healed.[40]
Once a person began seeing Krishnamacharya, he would work with him or her on a number of levels
including adjusting their diet; creating herbal medicines; and setting up a series of yoga postures that
would be most beneficial. When instructing a person on the practice of yoga, Krishnamacharya
particularly stressed the importance of combining breath work (pranayama) with the postures
(asanas) of yoga and meditation (dhyana) to reach the desired goal.[41] He would continue to see the
person approximately once a week to monitor the progress until he or she was healed.

Approach to yoga[edit]
Krishnamacharya believed Yoga to be Indias greatest gift to the world.[42] His yoga instruction
reflected his conviction that yoga could be both a spiritual practice and a mode of physical
healing.[43] Krishnmamacharya based his teachings on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Yoga
Yajnavalkya. Whereas Krishnamacharya was deeply devoted to Vaishnavism, he also respected his
students varying religious beliefs, or nonbeliefs.[44] A former student recalls that while leading a
meditation, Krishnamacharya instructed students to close their eyes and think of God. If not God,
the sun. If not the sun, your parents.[6] As a result of the teachings he received from his father and
other instructors, Krishnamacharya approached every student as absolutely unique,[45] in the belief
that the most important aspect of teaching yoga was that the student be taught according to his or
her individual capacity at any given time.[46] For Krishnamacharya, this meant that the path of yoga
would mean different things for different people and that each person should be taught in a manner
that he or she understand clearly.[47]

Accomplishment as a scholar[edit]
Krishnamacharya was highly regarded as a scholar. He earned degrees in philosophy, logic, divinity,
philology, and music.[6][48] He was twice offered the position of Acharya in the Srivaishnava
sampradaya, but he declined in order to stay with his family, in accordance with his gurus wishes.[6]
He also had extensive knowledge of orthodox Hindu rituals. His scholarship in various darshanas of
orthodox Indian philosophy earned him titles such as Skhya-yoga-ikhmai, Mms-
ratna, Mms-thrtha, Nyycrya, Vedntavga, Veda-kesari and Yogcrya.[49]

Books on yoga:[50]

1. Yoga Makaranda (1934)

2. Yogaasanagalu (c. 1941)
3. Yoga Rahasya
4. Yogavalli (Chapter 1 1988)
Other works (essays and poetic compositions):[51]

1. Yogaanjalisaaram
2. Disciplines of Yoga
3. Effect of Yoga Practice
4. Importance of Food and Yoga in Maintaining Health
5. Verses on Methods of Yoga Practice
6. Essay on Asana and Pranayama
7. Madhumeha (Diabetes)
8. Why Yoga as a Therapy Is Not Rising
9. Bhagavad Gita as a Health Science
10. Ayurveda and Yoga: An Introduction
11. Questions and Answers on Yoga (with students in July 1973)
12. Yoga: The Best Way to Remove Laziness
13. Dhyana (Meditation) in Verses
14. What Is a Sutra?
15. Kundalini: Essay on What Kundalini Is and Kundalini Arousal (sakti calana) Based on Texts
Like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Gheranda Samhita, and Yoga Yajnavalkya
16. Extracts from Raja Yoga Ratnakara
17. Need for a Teacher
18. Satvika Marga (The Sattvic Way; philosophy/spiritual/yoga)
19. Reference in Vedas to Support Vedic Chanting for Women (philosophy/technical)
20. Fourteen Important Dharmas (philosophy)
21. Cit Acit Tatva Mimamsa (philosophy)
22. Sandhya-saaram (ritual) Catushloki (four verses on Sankaracharya)
23. Kumbhakonam Address (catalog) Sixteen Samskaras (rituals)
24. Mantra Padartha Tatva Nirnaya (rituals)
25. Ahnika Bhaskaram (rituals)
26. Shastreeya Yajnam (rituals)
27. Vivaaha (marriage rituals)
28. Asparsha Pariharam (rituals)
29. Videsavaasi Upakarma Nirnaya (rituals)
30. Sudarshana Dundubhi (devotional)
31. Bhagavat Prasadam (devotional)
32. Narayana Paratva (devotional)
33. About Madras (miscellaneous)
Iyengar Yoga
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iyengar Yoga

Founder B. K. S. Iyengar

Established 1970s

Derivative forms Anusara Yoga, Forrest Yoga

Practice emphases

great attention to detail and precise focus on body alignment often

with the use of props

Related schools

Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga

A student performing Uttitha Trikonasana, triangle pose, one of the basic standing poses in Iyengar Yoga

Iyengar Yoga, named after and developed by B. K. S. Iyengar, is a form of Hatha Yoga that has an
emphasis on detail, precision and alignment in the performance of posture (asana) and breath
control (pranayama). The development of strength, mobility and stability is gained through
the asanas.
B.K.S. Iyengar has systematised over 200 classical yoga poses and 14 different types of Pranayama
(with variations of many of them) ranging from the basic to advanced. This helps ensure that
students progress gradually by moving from simple poses to more complex ones and develop their
mind, body and spirit through a step-by-step approach.[1]
Iyengar Yoga often makes use of props, such as belts, blocks, and blankets, as aids in performing
asanas (postures). The props enable students to perform the asanas correctly, minimising the risk of
injury or strain, and making the postures accessible to both young and old.
Iyengar Yoga is firmly based on the traditional eight limbs of yoga as expounded by Patanjali in
his Yoga Sutras.[citation needed]
Iyengar Yoga is a form of Hatha Yoga in which there is a focus on the structural alignment of the
physical body through the development of asanas. Through the practice of a system of asanas, it
aims to unite the body, mind and spirit for health and well-being. The discipline is considered by its
practitioners to be a powerful tool to relieve the stresses of modern-day life, in turn helping to
promote total physical and spiritual well-being.[2]
It can be said that Iyengar differs from the other styles of yoga by three key elements: technique,
sequence and timing.

Technique refers to the precision of the body alignment and the performance of pranayama.
Sequence means the sequences in which asanas and breathing exercises are practiced.
Following the specific sequence is important in achieving the desired result, because only the
combination of certain poses and breathing techniques can ensure the expected positive effect.
Timing is the third key element which defines the time spent in each pose or pranayama.[1]
Iyengar Yoga is characterized by great attention to detail and precise focus on body alignment.
Iyengar pioneered the use of "props" such as cushions, benches, blocks, straps and sand bags,
which function as aids allowing beginners to experience asanas more easily and fully than might
otherwise be possible without several years of practice. Props also allow elderly, injured, tired or ill
students to enjoy the benefits of many asanas via fully "supported" methods requiring less muscular
Unlike more experiential approaches where students are encouraged to independently "find their
way" to the asanas by imitating the teacher, an Iyengar Yoga class is highly verbal and precise, with
misalignments and errors actively corrected. Iyengar teachers complete at least two years of
rigorous training for the introductory certificate. They may complete subsequent intermediate levels
and senior levels of certification, potentially entailing a decade or more of training.

Ashtanga vinyasa yoga

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about a style of yoga consisting of six series founded by K. Pattabhi Jois. For the
eightfold yoga path, a system first described in Patajali's Yoga Stras, see Rja (Ashtanga) Yoga.

Ashtanga yoga

Founder K. Pattabhi Jois

Established late 20th century

Practice emphases

Employs Vinysa, or connecting asanas.

Related schools

Iyengar yoga, Vinysa

K. Pattabhi Jois teaching Ashtanga yoga with Larry Schultz, mid 1980s.

The Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is a style of yoga codified and popularized by K. Pattabhi Jois during
the 20th century which is often promoted as a modern-day form of classical Indian yoga.[1] Ashtanga
means eight limbs or branches, of which asana or physical yoga posture is merely one branch,
breath or pranayama is another. Both Pattabhi Jois and Sharath Jois, his grandson, encourage
practice of Ashtanga Yoga - all eight limbs. The first two limbs - Yamas and Niyamas - are given
special emphasis to be practiced in conjunction with the 3rd and 4th limbs (asana and pranayama).[2]
Sri K. Pattabhi Jois began his yoga studies in 1927 at the age of 12, and by 1948 had established
the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute for teaching the specific yoga practice known as Ashtanga
(Sanskrit for "eight-limbed") Yoga.[3] Ashtanga Yoga is named after the eight limbs of yoga
mentioned in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
"Power yoga" is a generic term that may refer to any type of aerobically vigorous yoga
exercise derived from Ashtanga yoga.
Mysore style[edit]
The term "Mysore style" comes from the city Mysore, in Karnataka, India, where Pattabhi Jois and T.
Krishnamcharya taught. Students are expected to memorize a sequence and practice in the same
room as others without being led by the teacher. The role of the teacher is to guide as well as
provide adjustments or assists in postures.
Twice per week Mysore-style classes are substituted with led classes, where the teacher takes a
group through the same series at the same time. However, it should be noted the inclusion of two
led classes per week was only included in P. Jois' senior years.[4]
Sequences and series[edit]
Usually an Ashtanga practice begins with five repetitions of Surya Namaskara A and five repetitions
of Surya Namaskara B, followed by a standing sequence.[5] Following this the practitioner begins one
of six series, followed by what is called the closing sequence.[5] The six series are:

1. The Primary series: Yoga Chikitsa, Yoga for Health or Yoga Therapy
2. The Intermediate series: Nadi Shodhana, The Nerve Purifier (also called the Second series)
3. The Advanced series: Sthira Bhaga, Centering of Strength

1. Advanced A, or Third series

2. Advanced B, or Fourth series
3. Advanced C, or Fifth series
4. Advanced D, or Sixth series[5][6]
Nancy Gilgoff reports that originally there were four series on the Ashtanga syllabus: Primary,
Intermediate, Advanced A, and Advanced B. A fifth series of sorts was the "Rishi series", which
Guruji said could be done once a practitioner had "mastered" these four.[7] Anthony Gary
Lopedota also confirms this.[8]
Method of instruction[edit]
According to Sharath Jois, one must master poses before being given permission to attempt any
others that follow.[9] However, Manju Jois disagrees.[10][11] According to Manju's accounts of his
father's instruction, Pattabhi Jois also occasionally allowed students to practice in a non linear
format.[12] Many of Pattahbhi Jois' students now teach their Mysore classes in similar style,
offering posture variations, and teaching Ashtanga in a much less linear style, with a greater
emphasis on alignment and breathing.
Sharath's "new generation" of young students have adopted Sharath's new rules, and teach in a
linear style without variations. According to the Sharath generation, variations are not allowed,
and practice must be in a strict Mysore environment under the guidance of a Sharath-approved
teacher. How-to videos & workshops, detailed alignment instructions, and strength-building
exercises are not part of the method, neither for the practitioner or the teacher. These types of
instruction are not approved by Sharath, and never taught by Sharath.[9] However most of his
teachers who claim to have been taught by him will teach the above methods, exercises, &
postures, even though none of what they teach is part of the Ashtanga method of instruction
under Sharath.[9]
Pattabhi Jois also did not require students to independently drop back and come up from back
bending before progressing to the 2nd series. Sharath changed the requirements, and has now
made this mandatory.
Officially, the style has very little alignment instruction.[13] However, many of Patthabi Jois'
earliest teachers did emphasize very detailed alignment and posture-break down instructions,
based on information they gathered outside of Pattabhi Jois direct instruction.
Sharath's teachers followed a similar trend, however unlike Pattahbhi Jois' students, attribute all
their knowledge to Sharath. This stands in contradiction to the fact that Sharath does not teach
or speak about alignment at any point in his instruction of students or teachers.[9]
There is a lot of debate over the term "traditional" as applied to Ashtanga Yoga. Students of
Pattabhi Jois noted, that he modified the sequence to suit the practitioner.[14] Some of the
differences include the addition or subtraction of postures in the sequences,[5][15] changes to the
vinyasa (full and half vinyasa),[16][17][18] and specific practice prescriptions to specific people.[14][19]
Nancy Gilgoff describes many differences in the way she was taught ashtanga to the way it is
taught now. She notes that Pattabhi Jois originally left out seven postures in the standing
sequence, but later assigned Utthita Hasta Padangusthasana and Ardha Baddha
Padmottanasana before the Intermediate Series was given.[7] She notes that Utkatasana,
Virabhadrasana A and B, Parivritta Trikonasana, and Parivritta Parsvakonasana were not in the
series at this point.[7]
She also notes that he did not give her vinyasa between sides of the body poses or between
variations of a pose (e.g., Janu Sirsasana A, B, and C were done together, then a
vinyasa.[7] Likewise Baddha Kosana, Upavishta Konasana, and Supta Konasana were also
grouped together without vinyasa between them, as were Ubhaya Padangusthasana and
Urdhva Mukha Paschimottanasana.[7]
According to Gilgoff, Pattabhi Jois prescribed practicing twice a day, primary and intermediate,
with no vinyasa between sides in Krounchasana, Bharadvajasana, Ardha Matsyendrasana, Eka
Pada Sirsasana, Parighasana, and Gomukhasana in the intermediate series.[7] Shalabhasana to
Parsva Dhanurasana were done in a group, with a vinyasa only at the end.[7] Ushtrasana through
Kapotasana also were done all together. The same went for Eka Pada Sirsasana through
Yoganidrasana.[7] The closing sequence included only Mudrasana, Padmasana, and Tolasana
until the completion of the Intermediate sequence, when the remainder of the closing sequence
was assigned.[7] Urdhva Dhanurasana and "drop-backs" were taught after Intermediate Series.[7]
Nancy goes on to say that the Intermediate series included Vrishchikasana after
Karandavasana. The Intermediate series ended with Gomukhasana.[7] Nancy also notes that
Pattabhi Jois added Supta Urdhva Pada Vajrasana as well as the seven headstands when
David Williams asked for more.[7] According to Nancy, these eight postures were not part of the
Intermediate Series prior to this.
Tristhana means the three places of attention or action: breathing system (pranayama), posture
(asana), and looking place (dristhi). These three are very important for yoga practice, and cover
the three levels of purification: the body, nervous system and the mind. "They are always
performed in conjunction with each other".[20]
In his book, "Yoga Mala", Pattabhi Jois recommends staying five to eight breaths in a posture, or
staying for as long as possible in a posture.[21] Breathing instructions given are to do rechaka and
puraka, (exhale and inhale) as much as possible.[21] "It is sufficient, however, to breathe in and
out five to eight times in each posture." [21]
In an interview regarding the length of the breath, Pattabhi Jois said (translated quote),
"Inhale 10 to 15 seconds then exhale also 10 to 15 seconds".[22]
He goes on to clarify,
"(As) your breath strength is possibly 10 second inhalations and exhalations, you do 10, 15
seconds possible, you do 15. One hundred possible, you perform 100. 5 is possible, you do
His son Manju Jois also recommends taking more breaths in difficult postures.[10]
Pattabhi Jois recommends breathing fully and deeply with the mouth closed. He does not
specifically refer to Ujjayi breathing.[21] However, Manju Jois does. Manju Jois also refers to
breathing called "dirgha rechaka puraka, meaning long, deep, slow exhalations and inhalations.
It should be dirgha... long, and like music. The sound is very important. You have to do the Ujjayi
In late 2011, Sharath Jois, the grandson of Pattabhi Jois, declared his feelings on the issue,
stating that Ujjayi breathing was not done in the asana practice, but also stated that the
breathing should be deep breathing with sound.[23] He reiterated this notion in a conference in
2013 stating, "You do normal breath, inhalation and exhalation with sound. Ujjayi breath is a
type of pryma. This is just normal breath with free flow".[9][24]
In 2014 published on YouTube, Manju Jois dodges the question, "What is the difference
between Ujjayi breathing and free breathing?" by saying that "the breathing in Ashtanga should
be long and deep with the sound like the ocean".
He also states that if you don't make sound, that is okay, too. However he makes no distinction
between the two terms and provides no explanation.[25]
As far as other types of Pranayama in Ashtanga, the consensus seems to be they should be
practiced after the asanas have been mastered. Pattabhi Jois originally taught Pranayama to
those practicing the second series, and later changed his mind, teaching Pranayama after the
third series.[16][26][27]
Sharath Jois recently produced a series of videos teaching alternate nostril breathing to
beginners. This was never taught to beginners by his grandfather, and is one of the many
changes Sharath has made to the Ashtanga Yoga method of instruction.,[13][15]
Bandhas are one of the three key principles in Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga, alongside breath and
drishti. There are three principal bandhas which are considered internal body locks:

Mla Bandha; or root lock at the pelvic floor (drawing in the perineum)
Uyna Bandha; drawing back the abdomen, 2 inches below the navel
Jladhara Bandha; throat lock, achieved by lowering the chin slightly while raising the
Both Pattabhi Jois and Sharath Jois recommend practicing Mula and Uddiyana bandha even
when not practicing asana. Pattabhi Jois has this to say: (translated quote) "You completely
exhale, apply mulabandha and after inhaling you apply uddiyana bandha. Both bandhas are
very important... After bandha practice, take (your attention) to the location where they are
applied and maintain that attention at all times, while walking, talking, sleeping and when walk is
finished. Always you control mulabandha".[28]
Connection between breath and bandhas[edit]
Sharath Jois says, "Without bandhas, breathing will not be correct, and the asanas will give no
Dristhi is where one focuses the eyes while in the asana. In the ashtanga yoga method, there is
a prescribed point of focus for every asana. There are nine dristhis: the nose, between the
eyebrows, navel, thumb, hands, feet, up, right side and left side.[20]
In the words of Pattabhi Jois, "Vinyasa means 'breathing system'. Without vinyasa, don't do
asana. When vinyasa is perfect, the mind is under control".[15]
Vinyasa means breathing with movement. For each movement, there is one breath. All asanas
are assigned a certain number of vinyasas.[9][20]
According to Sharath, "The purpose of vinyasa is for internal cleansing. Breathing and moving
together while performing asanas makes the blood hot, or as Pattabhi Jois says, boils the blood.
Thick blood is dirty and causes disease in the body. The heat created from yoga cleans the
blood and makes it thin, so that it may circulate freely".[29]
Sharath also claims that the heated blood removing toxins, impurities and disease from the
organs through sweat produced during the practice. He claims that "it is only through sweat that
disease leaves the body and purification occurs".[9][9][29]
The Ashtanga practice is traditionally started with the following Sanskrit mantra:[30]
vande gur cararavinde sadarita svtma sukhvabodhe
nireyase jgalikyamne sasra hlhala mohantyai

bhu purukra akhacakrsi dhriam

sahasra irasa vetam praammi patajalim

which is roughly translated into English as:

I bow to the lotus feet of the gurus,
The awakening happiness of one's own self revealed,
Beyond better, acting like the jungle physician,
Pacifying delusion, the poison of Samsara.
Taking the form of a man to the shoulders,
Holding a conch, a discus, and a sword,
One thousand heads white,
To Patanjali, I salute.
and closes with the mangala mantra:[31]
svastiprajbhya pariplayant nyyena mrgea mah mah

gobrhmaebhya ubhamastu nitya lok samast sukhinobhavantu

which is roughly translated into English as:

May all be well with mankind,
May the leaders of the Earth protect in every way by keeping to the right path.
May there be goodness for those who know the Earth to be sacred.
May all the worlds be happy.

Pattabhi Jois claimed to have learned the system of Ashtanga from Sri T. Krishnamcharya, who
learned it from a text called Yoga Kurunta by Vamama Rishi.[32] This text was imparted to
Krishnamacharya in the early 1900s by his Guru, Yogeshwara Ramamohana Brahmachari. Jois
insists that the text described all of the sanas and vinysas of the sequences of the Ashtanga
system.[33] However, the Yoga Kurunta text is said to have been eaten by ants, so it is impossible
to verify his assertions.[33] Additionally, it is unusual that the text is not mentioned as a source in
either of the books by Krishnamcharya, Yoga Makaranda (1934) and Yogsanagalu (c. 1941).[33]
According to Manju Jois, the sequences of Ashtanga yoga were created
by Krishnamcharya.[34] There is some evidence to support this in his book Yoga Makaranda,
which list nearly all postures of the Pattabhi Jois Primary Series and several postures from the
intermediate and advanced series, described with reference to vinyasa.[35]
There is also evidence that the Ashtanga Yoga series incorporates exercises used by Indian
wrestlers and British gymnasts.[36] Recent academic research details documentary evidence that
physical journals in the early 20th century were full of the postural shapes that were very similar
to Krishnamacharya's asana system.[37] In particular, the flowing surya namaskar, which later
became the basis of Krishnamacharya's Mysore style, was not yet considered part of

Eight limbs of Ashtanga[edit]

Pattabhi Jois never made a distinction between his sequences of asana and the eight-limbed
Ashtanga Yoga associated with Patanjali and the Yoga Sutras. It was his belief that asana, the
third limb, must be practiced first, and only after could one master the other seven limbs.[15][29]
The sage Patanjali outlined eight aspectsor "limbs" of spiritual yogic practice in his Yoga

Sanskrit English

Yama moral codes

Niyama self-purification and study

Asana posture

Pranayama breath control

Pratyahara withdrawing of the mind from the senses

Dharana concentration

Dhyana deep meditation

Samadhi union with the object of meditation[39]

Confusion with power yoga[edit]

Power yoga is a style of yoga created by Bryan Kest, in the late 80s.[40][41] Baron Baptiste,
a Bikram enthusiast, put his own spin on the style, and branded it.
Neither Baron Baptiste's power yoga nor Bryan Kest's power yoga are synonymous with
Ashtanga yoga. In 1995, Pattabhi Jois wrote a letter to Yoga Journal expressing his
disappointment at the association between his Ashtanga yoga, and the newly coined style
"power yoga", referring to it as "ignorant bodybuilding".[42] Yoga Journal Magazine: (scriptures).[42]

Media and injury[edit]

In an article published by The Economist, it was reported that "a good number of Mr Jois's
students seemed constantly to be limping around with injured knees or backs because they had
received his "adjustments", yanking them into Lotus, the splits or a backbend". Tim Miller, one of
Jois's students, indicates that "the adjustments were fairly ferocious".[43]Injuries related to Jois's
Ashtanga Yoga have been the subject of discussion in a Huffington Post article[44]
In 2008, yoga researchers in Europe published a survey, that lacked a control group therefore
limiting internal validity, of practitioners of Ashtanga Yoga indicating that 62 percent of the
respondents had suffered at least one injury that lasted longer than one month.[45][46]
However the mass media has reported injuries in other styles of yoga equally as often as in
Ashtanga Yoga. For example, Bikram yoga, hot yoga, and Iyengar yoga have received equally
bad press.[47][48][45][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]
The long holds in headstand and shoulder stand, essential postures to an Iyengar yoga practice,
have been reported as being linked to serious injury in numerous sources.[45][57][58][59] Broad had
this to say: "One of the saddest and most thoughtful letters came from an elderly man who
studied with Iyengar in India for 16 years. His list of personal injuries included torn ligaments,
damaged vertebrae, slipped disks, deformed knees and ruptured blood vessels in his brain".[60]

K. Pattabhi Jois
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

K. Pattabhi Jois

Born 26 July 1915

Kowshika, Hassan, Karnataka, India

Died 18 May 2009 (aged 93)

Mysore, Karnataka, India

Occupation Yoga teacher

Known for Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga

Spouse(s) Savitramma (Amma)

Children Saraswathi Rangaswamy



Relatives R. Sharath Jois (Rangaswamy) (grandson)

K. Pattabhi Jois (Kannada: ) (26 July 1915[1] 18 May 2009[2])
was an Indian yoga teacher who developed the popular vinysa style of yoga referred to
as Ashtanga Yoga.[3] In 1948, Jois established the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute (now known as
the Shri K Pattabhi Jois Ashtanga Yoga Institute)[4] in Mysore, India.[5]

Early life and education[edit]

Jois was born on 26 July 1915 (Guru Prim, full moon day) in the village of
Kowshika,[6] near Hassan, Karnataka, South India.
Jois's father was an astrologer, priest, and landholder. From the age of 5, he was instructed in
Sanskrit and rituals by his father, as were all Brahmin boys. No one else in his family had learned
yoga or even expressed interest in it.[7]
In 1927, at the age of 12, Jois attended a lecture and demonstration at the Jubilee
Hall[8] in Hassan by T. Krishnamacharya[9] and became his student the very next day. For two years
Jois remained in Kowshika and practiced with Krishnamacharya every day.[7] Jois never told his
family he was practicing yoga. He would rise early, go to practice, and then attend school.
In 1930, Jois ran away from home to Mysore to study Sanskrit, with 2 rupees.[1][10] Around the same
time Krishnamacharya departed Hassan to teach elsewhere. Two years later, Jois was reunited with
Krishnamacharya, who had also made his way to Mysore. According to B.K.S. Iyengar, Jois was
assigned to teach asana at the Sanskrit Pathshala when the yogashala of Krishnamacharya was
opened in 1933 and was "never a regular student."[11][12] During this time, the Maharaja of
Mysore, Krishna Rajendra Wodeyar, had become seriously ill and it is said that Krishnamacharya
had healed him, through yoga, where others had failed. The Maharaja became Krisnamacharya's
patron and established a Yoga shala for him at the Jaganmohan Palace.[13] Jois often accompanied
Krishnamacharya in demonstrations.[14] Jois has stated that he studied with Krishnamacharya from
1927 to 1953[15] and claimed to teach the same asana system that he originally learned.[16] Jois has
claimed that he was B. K. S. Iyengar's teacher,[17] which Iyengar has refuted.[18]

Although Jois has claimed that his Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga system is based on an ancient text
called Yoga Korunta, Jois has indicated that he has never read this text.[19] The authenticity of Yoga
Korunta is questionable and it is not possible to verify the truth of this claim.[20]
Jois remained in Mysore and married a young woman named Savitramma[10] (but who came to be
known as Amma), on the full moon of June 1933 when Jois was 18 years old.[21][22] In 1948 they, with
the help of Jois' students, purchased a home in the section of town called Lakshmipuram, where
they lived with their children Saraswathi, Maju and Ramesh.
He held a teaching position in yoga at the Sanskrit College[14] of Maharaja from 1937 to
1973,[23] becoming vidwan (professor) in 1956,[23] as well as being Honorary Professor of Yoga at the
Government College of Indian Medicine from 1976 to 1978.[24] He taught there until 1973, when he
left to devote himself fully to teach yoga at his yoga shala.[citation needed]
According to Tim Miller, Pattabhi Jois continued to practice asanas until his son Ramesh committed
suicide when Jois was 42 [25]
He had studied texts such as the Patajali Yoga Darana, Haha Yoga Pradpik, Yoga
Yajavalkya and the Upaniads,[24] and in 1948, he established the Ashtanga Yoga Research
Institute at their new home in Lakshmipuram.[26]
In 1964, a Belgian named Andr Van Lysebeth spent two months with Jois learning the primary and
intermediate series of the Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga system. Not long afterwards, van Lysebeth wrote
a book called J'apprends le Yoga (1967, English title: Yoga Self-Taught) which mentioned Jois and
included his address. This marked the beginning of westerners coming to Mysore to study yoga.[10][16]
He also gained attention from celebrity students including Madonna, Sting, and Gwyneth Paltrow [27]
His first trip to the West was in 1974 to South America, to deliver a lecture in Sanskrit at an
international yoga conference.[23] In 1975 he stayed for four months in Encinitas, California, marking
the beginning of Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga in the US.[28] He would return to the US several times over
the next 20 years, to teach yoga at Encinitas and beyond.[28]He also regularly travelled to Sydney,
Australia, where some of his advanced students were based.[citation needed]
He wrote the book Yoga Ml, in Kannada in 1958, and it was published in 1962, but was not
published in English until 1999.[28] The film Guru was made about him by Robert Wilkins.[29]
Jois continued to teach at the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute in Mysore, now located in the
neighbourhood of Gokulam,[6] with his only daughter Saraswathi Rangaswamy (b. 1941) and his
grandson Sharath[14] (b. 1971), until 18 May 2009 when he died aged 93 of natural causes.

A range of obituaries for Jois were published in many newspapers and journals, including the New
York Times,[30] the Financial Times,[31] the BBC,[32] the Guardian,[33] the Huffington Post,[34] the
Economist,[35] the LA Times [36] and the Times of London.[37]
A student David Life, co-founder of Jivamukti Yoga school in Manhattan, has said of him, "He was
not a monk or a renunciate; he was fearless about combining the path of yogi with the path of
participant. He never saw it as separate from our lives. He thought that anyone could attain to yoga if
they had the desire and the enthusiasm."[38]

The Economist published an obituary which questioned Jois's adherence to the yogic principle
of ahimsa or non-violence and highlighted that "a good number of Mr Jois's students seemed
constantly to be limping around with injured knees or backs because they had received his
adjustments, yanking them into Lotus, the splits or a backbend."[35] The same obituary also
questioned Jois's adherence to the yogic principle of brahmacharya or sexual continence and made
the accusation that his female students received different "adjustments" from his male
students.[35] CounterPunch in a magazine article indicated that Jois was a "reported sexual abuser of
students."[39] Accusations of inappropriate touching of women by Jois during yoga classes also
surfaced on YogaDork.[40][41] Elephant Journal published an article entitled When do Yoga
Adjustments cross the line? with a photo of Jois adjusting female students[42] and another article
entitled Have you Experienced: Sexual Harassment in Yoga Class? showing the same photo.[43] In
an article appearing on YogaCity NYC, a female student reported she was groped by Jois during a
class in New York.[44]
Adjustments by Jois have been characterized as "overwhelming, producing fear and extreme
discomfort in students as they are pushed beyond their physical and psychological comfort zones in
often-difficult, even dangerous asana."[45]

Jois' grandson R. Sharath Jois teamed with Sonia Klein Jones, to create Jois Yoga in honor of
Krishna Pattabhi Jois.[46][47][48][49][50]
Samuel Hahnemann, a German physician who was frustrated with the heroic medicine of his time,
invented homeopathy about 200 years ago. Since then, his followers have applied what we might call
selective dogmatism to his invention: they have religiously adhered to certain aspects, been considerably
more liberal in other respects and abandoned some concepts altogether. It is therefore not unreasonable,
I think, to ask what the father of homeopathy if he were still with us might think of homeopathy as
it is being practised today.


We tend to consider homeopathy to be one single therapy or school of thought, but this is not quite true.
There a numerous forms of homeopathy, including the following:

Auto-isopathy (treatment with remedies made from patients own body substances)

Classical homeopathy (doctrine based on strict Hahnemannian principles)

Clinical homeopathy (non-individualised treatment based mainly on guiding symptoms; e.g. arnica for

Complex homeopathy (treatment with combination remedies)

Homotoxicology (treatment based on Reckewegs concepts of detoxification)

Isopathy (use of remedies made from the causative agent, e.g. a specific allergen for an allergy)

Pluralistic homeopathy (use of more than one remedy at once)

The list could be extended, and we could discuss the characteristics as well as the pros and cons of each
variant. But this would be rather futile and intensely boring; suffice to say that, from all we know about
Hahnemanns views and temper, he would have strongly condemned even the slightest deviation from
the strict rules of his doctrine.


So, what about the different ways in which homeopathy (whatever version we might select) is practised
by Hahnemanns disciples today? The way I see it, four different and fairly distinct types of homeopaths
currently exist.

The purist homeopath

Samuel Hahnemann himself clearly was a purist. He was adamant that his detailed instructions must be
followed to the letter. Amongst other things, this means that homeopathy must be seen as the only true
medicine; mixing homeopathy with any other type of medicine is, according to its founder, strictly
forbidden; Hahnemann was very explicit that this would weaken or even abolish its effects. Todays purist
homeopaths therefore follow these instructions religiously and employ homeopathy as the sole and only
therapeutic option for any symptom or disease.

The liberal homeopath

Purist-homeopaths still do exist today, but they seem to be in the minority. Most homeopathic doctors
mix homeopathic with conventional medicines, and most non-doctor homeopaths (they prefer the term
professional homeopaths) accept or at least acknowledge that a mixed approach might often be
necessary or preferable. In the words of Hahnemann, these homeopaths are half-homeopaths who have
betrayed his gospel. He would most certainly disown them and point out that this type of approach is
doomed to failure and cannot possibly work.

The occasional homeopath

In several countries Germany is a good example many doctors use homeopathy on just relatively rare
occasions. We might speculate why this is so; my personal impression is that this group of clinicians do
not really believe in the effectiveness of homeopathy at all. They employ it because some patients ask for
it, or because they want to use a legally defensible and harmless placebo. There can be no doubt,
Hahnemann would have not approved of this approach at all. Quite to the contrary, he would have been
furious, called them traitors or worse and insisted that this is nothing more than a placebo-therapy.

The DIY-homeopath

DIY-homeopaths is my term for patients and consumers who have no training in homeopathy but buy
homeopathic remedies over the counter and self-administer them without consulting a trained
homeopath. They might see it being recommended for a certain health problem and give it a try. If their
symptoms subsequently disappear, they are likely to misinterpret this phenomenon and become
convinced that homeopathy is effective. This group seems to be by far the largest of all types of


What would Hahnemann, if we could ask him today, make of all this? I think he would be fuming with
anger (from all we know, he was a rather short-tempered man and had no patience with traitors).

The DIY-homeopaths obviously break every rule in his book: without a long and complicated
consultation, it would not be possible to identify the correct, individualised remedy. What follows is
simple: according to Hahnemanns teachings, all these millions of people across the globe are treating
themselves with pure placebos. Ironically, this is where most scientists would agree Hahnemanns

Hahnemann would certainly direct equal scorn towards the occasional homeopaths who do not even
believe in homeopathy. To Hahnemann, belief in his doctrine was essential and the use of his remedies
as mere placebos would have been insulting, utterly unacceptable and destined to therapeutic failure.

We do know from Hahnemanns mouth what he thought of those clinicians he himself called half-
homeopaths. In his view, they were traitors who did not even deserve to be called true homeopaths.
There can be no question about the fact that he would have judged their practice as a useless and
ineffective abomination.

This leaves us with the purist-homeopath. This relatively small group of dogmatists turns out to be the
only one which Hahnemann might have actually approved of. They tend to strictly adhere to (almost)
every of the numerous therapeutic instruction he ever put to paper. Like Hahnemann, they believe that
homeopathy is the only efficacious medicine and, like Hahnemann, they use it as a true alternative to
allopathy, the derogatory term Hahnemann coined for conventional medicine.


If this analysis is correct, we are today faced with the situation where homeopathy is used by many
people worldwide but, according to the teachings of homeopathys founder, it is currently badly misused
so much so that, according to Hahnemanns most clearly and repeatedly expressed views, it cannot
possibly result in clinical benefit. Considering that most of todays homeopaths would insist that the
words of Hahnemann as pure gospel, this situation is most bizarre and ironic indeed. It becomes even
more ironic when we realise that the only group of clinicians who employ homeopathy in the correct way
is also the one which is the most serious danger to public health.


The Siddha System of Medicine (Traditional Tamil System of medicine), which has been prevalent in
the ancient Tamil land, is the foremost of all other medical systems in the world. Its origin goes back
to B.C 10,000 to B.C 4,000. As per the textual and archeological evidences which indicate the
remote antiquity of the Dravidian civilization of the erstwhile submerged land Kumarikandam, that
is the Lemuria continent situated in the Indian ocean, the Siddha System of Medicine
is contemporaneous with those of the submerged lands Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Chinese and
Grecian medicines. The uniqueness of Siddha System is evident by its continuous service to the
humanity for more than 5000 years in combating diseases and also in maintaining its physical,
mental and moral health while many of its contemporaries had become extinct long ago.

The roots of the ancient Siddha System are intertwined with the mythology and culture of the
ancient Tamil civilization that existed in the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, predating
much of recorded history.

Mythically, the origin of Siddha is attributed to Lord Siva, who is supposed to have handed it down
to his consort Parvathi (Shakthi), who in turn passed on the sacred knowledge to Nandi, from
whom it was transmitted to the first of "Siddhars". Siddha is a Tamil word derived from "siddhi" --
attaining perfection in life or heavenly bliss.

The system is said to have emerged in antiquity, from the highly evolved consciousness of the
Siddhars. The clarified intellect and heightened intuition of the Siddhars, resulting from their yogic
powers, enabled them to explore the world around them and exploit its natural resources for the
sake of humanity. Their findings on the characteristics of plants, metals, minerals and animal
products and their knowledge of the properties of drugs, its purification, processing, fixing dosage,
toxicity, antidote and clinical application, were preserved in the form of verses for the use of the

This unique legacy was bequeathed to select disciples or "chidas" by word of mouth. It is believed
that there was a line of 18 siddhars, with Agasthya being the foremost and a large portion of Siddha
lore is credited to him. With time, this oral tradition was transcribed on palm leaf manuscripts that
now serve as the major repository of the knowledge.

The contributors of Siddha system, the Siddhars, of Tamil land, were mystics, yogis, poets,
devotees, seers and medical men of various combinations and various statures. They were super
human beings who possessed supernatural powers (like Eight types of Siddhis). They were the
greatest scientists of ancient times and were the guardians of the world and they existed, and still
exist, for the benefit of the public at large. They were men of great practical knowledge and
wisdom. They had full awareness of the nature and activities of all the objects in this planet and of
all times-past, present and future. They were mainly responsible for the growth and development
not only of Tamil medicine that includes alchemy, medicine, yoga, kayakalpa (rejuvenation therapy),
philosophy, astronomy, astrology, varma, muppu, thokkanam etc., but also for many other sciences
of public utility.


According to the Siddha system, the individual is a microcosm of the universe. The human body
consists of the five primordial elements-earth, water, fire, air and space, the three humours-vatha,
pitta and kapha and seven physical constituents. Food is the basic building material of the human
body and gets processed into humours, tissues and wastes. The equilibrium of humours is
considered as health and its disturbance or imbalance leads to a diseased state; Saint Thiruvalluvar
has indicated the same view in his Thirukural,

." - 941

"Three things beginning with wind, say experts,

In excess or lacking cause disease" - Kural 941

Reflecting this theory of cosmic oneness, the five senses are said to correspond with the five
elements. Ether (Veli) is responsible for hearing; air (katru) for sense of touch; fire (thee) for sight;
water (neer) for taste; and earth (mann) for the sense of smell.

Siddha is a comprehensive system that places equal emphasis on the body, mind and spirit and
strives to restore the innate harmony of the individual. Treatment is aimed at restoring balance to
the mind-body system. Diet and lifestyle play a major role not only in maintaining health but also in
curing diseases. This concept of the Siddha medicine is termed as pathiam and apathiam, which is
essentially a list of do's and don'ts.
"Food itself is medicine and medicine itself is food"

Drugs used by the Siddhars can be classified into three groups: Thaavaram (herbal
product), Thaathu (inorganic substances), and Jangamam (animal products).

The diagnostic methodology in Siddha treatment is unique as it is made purely on the basis of the
clinical acumen of the physician. The pulse, skin, tongue, complexion, speech, eye, stools and urine
are examined. This approach is collectively known as "Eight types of examination"; and among the
eight, the examination of pulse is very important in confirming the diagnosis.


Treatment consists of three distinct categories: Deva Maruthuvam, (divine method); Maanida
Maruthuvam (rational method); and Asura Maruthuvam (surgical method). In the divine method,
medicines like parpam, chenduram, guru, kuligai prepared from mercury, sulphur and pashanams
are used. In the rational method, medicines prepared from herbs like churanam, kudineer, vadagam
are used. In surgical method, incision, excision, heat application, bloodletting, leech application etc.
are practised.

The therapeutic treatment in Siddha could be further categorized into Purgative therapy, Emetic
therapy, Fasting therapy, Steam therapy, Oleation therapy, Physical therapy, Solar therapy, Blood
letting therapy and Yoga therapy.

There is also a branch of the traditional science that deals with traumatology and accidental injuries
called Varma. This is based on the notion of more than 100 vital points that are junctions of bones,
tendons, ligaments, blood vessels and nerves called Varma points. Pranic energy is found
concentrated in these points which, upon manipulation, produce curative effect.

Siddha system has enormous pharmacopoeia containing vegetable, animal and mineral products and
treatment techniques consisting in use of 32 types of internal medicines and 32 types of external
medicines, application of heat and cold, ointments, potions and poultice, blood letting, counter
irritation, bath, suction, manipulative processes such as thokkanam, varma, yoga and concentration
on hygiene and diet (pathiam), periodical use of purgatives and emetics, use of drugs which include,
apart from herbs, preparations from metals and minerals such as copper, silver, gold, lead and
preparations from products of animal origin such as brain, liver, bones, blood, skull, horns of various
animals, tissues of reptiles and also Kayakalpa to prevent or postpone greying of hair, formation of
wrinkles and ageing, prevention or treatment of diseases, and postponement of death (to any
desired length of time). Some empirical treatment techniques under the guise of magic exorcism,
incantation, pilgrimage, peregrinations, mountaineering and similar activities have also been in
practice since ages.

Siddha medicines may be roughly divided into three classes--- (i) Miracle medicines, (ii)
Sophisticated medicines and (iii) Common medicines. Miracle medicines are becoming rare and
should be learnt directly from the masters who, having undergone all forms of initiation and hazards
of apprenticeship, have reached perfection in all respects. Sophisticated medicines may be
scientifically prepared and used by the well trained physicians without much risk. Common
medicines are most simple and cheap ones which were in wide use till the beginning of the 20th
century and are still in use in remote rural areas of our country.


The Siddhars have evolved a special technique for attaining spiritual awakening by rousing, with
yoga techniques like aasana, praanaayaama and dhyaana (meditation), the Kundalini shakthi
(Serpent power) lying dormant at the base of the spinal column in the region of the sacral plexus.
Only by caring for his mortal inheritance, man is able to arrive at the realization of his highest
potentialities. By working in unison with theology and philosophy, Siddha medicine aids bringing to
maturity the quiescent gem of immortal divine being in his mortal body.

The Siddha system of education in ancient India was not imparted or organized on the scale of mass
education like schools and colleges, but the ideal of education was to treat it as a secret and sacred
process, for the reason that the process of an individual growth (especially the inner growth) can
only be achieved by a close and constant touch between the teacher and the taught in their
personal relationship from which the whole world was excluded.

The teaching was imparted in the form of verses, many of them in ambiguous language and handed
down to the posterity by the guru-sishya (teacher-disciple) tradition. The sacred medicines and
techniques were taught only to a close circle of disciples and this trend continued to exist till
Siddha education has turned into a mass institutional education around the middle of the 20th
Century and has been catering to the needs of the public. Developments in academic side and also
in scientific research have been coming up. A scientific research of available Siddha literature may
bring us precious truths, methods of preparation of miracle medicines of mineral, vegetable and
animal origin and this would be a valuable contribution to the medical world today. In addition to
the literature written in palm leaf manuscripts etc., there are many valuable medicines and
treatment techniques in practice. Steps are being taken by the government for collecting, screening,
analyzing and codifying the available manuscripts, printed books, traditional recipes, medical
secrets and many other things found scattered in disciplines and activities seemingly unconnected
with medicine.

There has been a resurgence of traditional medical systems the world over, based on the holistic
nature of their approach to healing. The efficacy of indigenous systems has been proved in various
contexts. They tend to use locally available, cost effective materials for treatment. Hence, the
Siddha system which also has strong cultural and historical bonds with the people of Tamil Nadu is
becoming increasingly relevant.

The basis of Ashtanga yoga is the Yoga sutras (Sanskrit Verses) of Patanjali. We will consider
the different aspects of yoga while remaining under the guiding principles of Patanjali's Yoga
(Ashtanga yoga). The Asana, Pranayama, Dharana, Dhyan & Samadhi or the Yama and Niyama
are systematically described by Patanjali in his Sanskrit Sutras (verses).

Yama (Principles)
Niyama (Personal Disciplines)
Asana (Yoga Positions or Yogic Postures)
Pranayama (Yogic Breathing)

Pratyahara (Withdrawal of Senses)

Dharana (Concentration on Object)
Dhyan (Meditation)
Samadhi (Salvation)
The term Hatha Yoga has been commonly used to describe the practice of asana (postures). The
syllable 'ha' denotes the pranic (vital) force governing the physical body and 'tha' denotes the
chitta (mental) force thus making Hatha Yoga a catalyst to an awakening of the two energies that
govern our lives. More correctly the techniques described in Hatha Yoga harmonise and purify
the body systems and focus the mind in preparation for more advanced chakra and kundalini

The Hatha Yoga system includes asana along with the six shatkarmas (physical and mental
detox techniques), mudras and bandhas (psycho-physiological energy release techniques)
and Pranayama(pranic awakening practices). Fine tuning of the human personality at increasingly
subtle levels leads to higher states of awareness and meditation.

1. Yogasana(Yoga positions)
2. Six shatkarmas(physical and mental detox techniques)
3. Mudras and Bandhas(psycho-physiological energy release techniques)
4. Pranayama


Jnana Yoga is the process of converting intellectual knowledge into practical wisdom. It is a
discovery of human dharma in relation to nature and the universe. Jnana Yoga is described by
tradition as a means to obtain the highest meditative state and inner knowledge.

Jnana literally means 'knowledge', but in the context of yoga it means the process of meditative
awareness which leads to illuminative wisdom. It is not a method by which we try to find rational
answers to eternal questions, rather it is a part of meditation leading to self -enquiry and self-

Some of the components of Jnana Yoga are :

1. Not believing but realising

2. Self-awareness leading to self-analysis
3. Experiencing knowledge
4. Realising the personal nature
5. Developing intuitive wisdom
6. Experiencing inner unity

Japa Yoga, Requirements, State of Consciousness in Matra Yoga, Methods of Chanting, Effects
of Mantra, How to Practice & Rules of Mantra Chanting)

Mantra Yoga has its origin in Vedic Sciences and also in Tantra, in fact all the verses in Vedas
are called mantras, it is said that any person who can chant or sing Vedas can achieve the
ultimate salvation or union with supreme consciousness only by chanting the mantras, which is
the aim Mantra Yoga


Bhakti is a Yoga of devotion or complete faith. This faith is generally in the God or supreme
consciousness in any of the forms. It may be Lord Rama, Krishna, Christ, Mohammed, Buddha
etc. It may be a Guru for his disciples.

Important thing is the person interested in following this path should have very strong emotional
bond with the object of faith. The flow of emotional energy is directed to this object. Mostly people
suppress their emotions and that often reflects in the form of physical and mental disorders. This
Bhakti Yoga releases those suppressed emotions and brings the purification of inner self.

Continuous meditation of God or object of faith gradually decrease the ego of the practitioner,
which further prevents new distractions, fickleness or even pain and induces strong bonds of
love. Slowly the practitioner looses the self identity and becomes one with the object of faith, this
is a state of self realization.


Japa Yoga, Requirements, State of Consciousness in Matra Yoga, Methods of Chanting, Effects
of Mantra, How to Practice & Rules of Mantra Chanting)

This system of Yoga is concerned with awakening of the psychic centers or chakras, which exists
in every individual. (Please refer to the figure) There are six main chakras in the human beings.

The mind is made up of different subtle layers. Each of these layers progressively are associated
with the higher levels of consciousness. Each of these levels are related to the different chakra or
psychic center located throughout the psychic body. There are no of other chakras apart from the
six main, which are associated with planes below the human level. In all we have chakras that
connect us to animal levels of mind, to the instinctive realms of being or to the sublime heights of

In Kundalini Yoga, higher-level chakras are awakened and also the activities associated with
these higher psychic centers.The basic method of awakening involves deep concentra tion on
these chakras and forcing their arousal. Asanas, pranayama, mudra and bandha and other forms
of Yoga such as Mantra Yoga are also used to stimulate the awakening.


Karma Yoga is a path of devotion to the work. One looses his identity while working, only selfless
work remains. This state is very difficult to achieve. Generally some rewards or incentives or
outcome follows the work and one is attached to this reward or incentive. This is not the Karma
Yoga. Non-attachment with the work and becoming the perfect instrument of the super
consciousness in this manifested universe is the ultimate aim of Karma Yoga.

In the initial stages of Karma Yoga, individual possesses strong sense of ego and consciously or
unconsciously he is attached to the fruits of his efforts or at least praise or recognition but by
continuous involvement in the work and change in mental attitude, one can surely disassociate
himself from the ego and his own personality. In this state the work becomes worship to the God,
it becomes spiritual, also the individual becomes expert, skilled and Yogi. He achieves stability of
mind in all conditions, he is not disturbed or excited or happy in any of the situations. He
becomes divine & his actions represent God's will.

The essence of Karma Yoga as extracted from 'Bhagvad Gita' says: The world confined in its own
activity except when actions are performed as worship of God. Therefore one must perform every
action sacramentally and be free of your attachments to the results.


The word kriya means 'activity' or 'movement' and refers to the activity or movement of
consciousness. Kriya also refers to a type of practical or preliminary practice leading to total
union, the final result of practice. Kriya Yoga does not curb mental fluctuations but purposely
creates activity and awakening in consciousness. In this way all faculties are harmonised and
flower into their fullest potential.

Kriya Yoga originated in antiquity and evolved over time through practise and experience. The full
form of Kriya Yoga consists of over 70 kriyas out of which only 20 or so are commonly known.

The kriya practices are inscribed in numerous tantric texts written in Sanskrit. To date only a few
of these have been translated into other languages. The most authoritative magna opus on the
subject of Kriya.

The practices of Kriya Yoga were propagated by Swami Satyananda Saraswati from secret
teachings described in the Yoga and Tantra Shastras. The kriyas, as taught by Satyananda
Yoga?, are one of only two systems of Kriya Yoga recognized the world over, the other being that
of Paramahamsa Yogananda.

Swara is Sanskrit word, meaning sound or note. It is also a continuous flow of air through one
nostril. Yoga means union, so Swara yoga is a science which is realization of cosmic
consciousness through control and manipulation of breath.

Swara Yoga is science which is a complete study, observations, control and manipulation of
breath or Swara. Pranayama is only related to control of breath in various ways. In swara yoga,
you will find association of breath in relation to activities of sun, moon, various seasons, physical
and mental conditions of individuals etc. So Swara Yoga is more comprehensive in theory and
practices related to breath.


aja Yoga usually refers to the system of yoga that is described in the Yoga Sutras of Sage
Patanjali. In this ancient text Sage Patanjali describes eight stages of yoga which are known
collectively as Raja Yoga.

Raja Yoga is a comprehensive yoga system which deals with the refinement of human behaviour
and personality through the practice of the yamas (restraint) and niyamas (disciplines);
attainment of physical health and vitality through asanas (postures) and pranayamas (pranic
breathing techniques); management of mental and emotional conflicts and development of
awareness and concentration through pratyahara (sensory withdrawal) and dharana
(concentration); and developing the creative aspect of consciousness for transcendental
awareness through dhyana (meditation) and samadhi (absorption in the universal identity).

1. 1. Question

The use of Tantrayukti is

o Vakya yojana

o Artha Yojana

o Both

o None

2. 2. Question

Gujarat Ayurveda University is established in year

o 1956 January

o 1963 January

o 1965 January

o 1967 January

3. 3. Question

According to Tarkassangraha padarthas are________

o 5

o 6

o 7

o 8

4. 4. Question

Total number of Sanskrit commentaries on Sushrut Samhita are in number

o 27

o 19

o 36

o 17

5. 5. Question

Largest muscle in the body

o Stapedeus

o Scalenous
o Deltoid

o Sartorius

6. 6. Question

Udak vaha Dhamnis are present in

o Kloma

o Tala

o Antra

o Both a and b

7. 7. Question

Hridaya is sthana of vata

o Prana

o Udana

o Samana

o Vyana

8. 8. Question

The incomplete commentary on Astang Hridaya is

o Ayurveda Prakash

o Ayurveda Rasayana

o Ayurveda Vijnana

o None of the above

9. 9. Question

Akasha mahabhuta is derived from

o Ahamkara

o Srotrendriya

o Sabda Tanmatra

o Mahat

10. 10. Question

Malavisarjana Dhamanis are present in

o Sthulantra

o Pittashaya

o Grahani

o Adhara Guda

11. Theophylline is a

o Bronchodilator

o antitussive

o mucolytic

o None of these

12. 2. Question

Peedana is property of ____rasa

o Madhura
o Lavana

o Katu

o Kashaya

13. 3. Question

Deepan Pachana is the property of ____ rasa

o 1. Katu

o Tikta

o Lavana

o Amla

14. 4. Question

Another name of Rasa Ratnakara written by Nagarjuna is

o Rasarnava

o Rasa Hridaya Tarnta

o Rasendra Mangala

o None

15. 5. Question

Loma nashini is the synonym of

o Manashila

o Sudha

o Haritala
o Paashana

16. 6. Question

Dushi visha may cause

o Apasmara

o Bhagandar

o Dushyodara

o Chidrodara

17. 7. Question

How many vriksha are quoted for Sodhana

o 21

o 50

o 27

o 6

18. 8. Question

Main ingredient in SHadbindu tailam

o Apamarga Kshar

o Yastimadhu

o Bilwa tail

o Bhringaraj Swaras

19. 9. Question
Lead poisoning is treated by using

o B.A.L


o Atropine

o Morphine

20. 10. Question

Indriya Sthana deals with

o Upadravas

o Anupasaya

o Arishta

o Sahaja roga

21. The seat of Ojus is

o Yakrit

o Pleeha

o Hridaya

o Phuphusa

22. 2. Question

Stanya dosha is mentioned in chapter of Charak Samhita in Uttarardha

o Sarira 8th
o Chikitsa 30th

o Sarira 4th

o None

23. 3. Question

Name of second chapter of Siddhi Sthana is

o Pancha Karmiya siddhi

o Vamana Virechana siddhi

o Trimarmiya siddhi

o Basti Sidhi

24. 4. Question

Khadirarishta is indicated in

o Kushta

o Prameha

o Visha roga

o Vrana

25. 5. Question

According to Sushruta application of lepa is contraindicated during-

o Morning

o Evening

o Night
o None among them

26. 6. Question

Stein Laventhal Syndrome is characterized by

o Amenorrhoea

o Poly cystic ovaries

o Hirsutism

o All of the above

27. 7. Question

Urine smells like goat in case of

o Arsa

o Arbuda

o Ashmari

o Alaji

28. 8. Question

As per the presenting part, Mudhgarbha is of following types

o 4

o 6

o 8

o 12

29. 9. Question
Sutika roga is characterized by

o Angamarda

o Gurugatra

o Atisara

o All the above

30. 10. Question

Sukradoshas have been described as ____by Vagbhata

o Guhya rogas

o Upadamsa

o Suka doshas

o Kshudra rogas

31. Sneha that can be used with diet is known as

o Brimhana

o Shodhana

o Shamna

o Rechanna

32. 2. Question

Langhana langhanapachana and doshavasechana are the bhedas of

o Shodhana
o Shamana

o Apatarpana

o Santarpana

33. 3. Question

Snehpana is contraindicated in

o Jalodara

o Urusthambha

o Chidrodara

o All above

34. 4. Question

Achara Rasayana is first mentioned by

o (a) Vagbhata

o Patanjali

o Kasyapa

o Charaka

35. 5. Question

Agnikarma is contraindicated in ___type of Bhgandhara

o Sambukavarta

o Ushtagreeva

o Unmargi
o All of the above

36. 6. Question

Shleepada is caused by ___dosha

o Vata

o Pitta

o Kapha

o Tridosha

37. 7. Question

According to Vagbhata, Tundikeri is

o Jihwa roga

o Talu roga

o Kanta roga

o Oshta roga

38. 8. Question

Nasa roga as per Sushruta

o 31

o 28

o 37

o 25

39. 9. Question
The disease in which Pancha Karmas are contraindicated is

o Urusthambha

o Amavata

o Vatarkta

o none of the above

40. 10. Question

Dhumapanam is ___in Prameha

o Indicated

o Contraindicated

o Patheya

o All the above

41. A premier institution of research in the country, the Central Research

Institute of Unani Medicine (CRIUM), will host the celebrations of the first
National Unani Day on February 11.
42. The day marks the birth centenary of Hakim Ajmal Khan, a noted freedom
fighter, renowned Unani medical practitioner and educationist born in
1858. The celebrations will spill over to the next two days, with a national
seminar on Skin diseases & Cosmetology in Unani Medicine scheduled
on February 12 and 13. This was announced by Director-General, Central
Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM), Vaidya K.S. Dhiman
here on Wednesday. On proposals by the Union Ministry of Ayurveda,
Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), the
Government of India had recently decided to declare February 11, the
birthday of Hakim Ajmal Khan, as the National Unani Day.
43. Asked about the relevance of the theme of skin diseases chosen for the
seminar, he said for decades the facility in Hyderabad had done yeoman
research on Vitiligo, also known as leucoderma, and has the distinction of
treating the maximum number of patients from across the country with this
particular condition.
44. Vitiligo is a chronic disorder that causes depigmentation of patches of skin.
White patches can occur anywhere on the body and people usually are
affected with multiple patches. In particular, the disease left lasting
impressions on the minds of young women who felt they were scorned in
society, said Prof. Dhiman.
45. The National Unani Day celebrations would be presided over by Union
Ministers Shripad Yesso Naik (AYUSH) and B. Dattatreya (Labour),
Deputy Chief Minister of Telangana Mohd. Mahmood Ali and Health
Minister C. Laxma Reddy among others.
Imphal, October 03 2015 : International Naturopathy Organisation, Imphal Branch and Iskcon Nature Cure
Hospital and Yogic Ashram jointly observed the World Naturopathy Day on Friday at Iskcon Nature
Cure Hospital and Yogic Ashram, Iskcon Complex.

The function was attended by Ayush Directorate, Imphal Director Dr Karam Lokendro as chief guest
while Holiness Bhaktivyasatirtha Swami and Nature Cure and CMO of Yoga Research Hospital,
Porompat Dr Ksh Kala as the president and guest of honour respectively. Imphal, October 03 2015
: International Naturopathy Organisation, Imphal Branch and Iskcon Nature Cure Hospital and Yogic
Ashram jointly observed the World Naturopathy Day on Friday at Iskcon Nature Cure Hospital and
Yogic Ashram, Iskcon Complex.

October 2 be declared as International Naturopathy Day:

New Delhi, Oct 3 (UNI) The International Naturopathy Organisation has demanded that
October 2 be declared as International Naturopathy Day.
The demand was made on the sidelines of a programme organised by the INO, yesterday on
the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti.
''I myself have benefitted greatly by naturopathy, so i am genuinely interested in its
promotion,''AYUSH Ministry Secretary Ajit Mohan Sharan said.
He said the Centre was determined that science of naturopathy be made accesible to every
nook and corner of the country.
''However, for this documentation by the practitioners in the area is also absolutely
neccesary,'' he said.
BJP National vice-president Shyam Jaju, who was the chief guest of the programme, said,
''the time at present is positive for progress and development within the country.''
Surya Foundation Chairperson Jai Prakash Agrawal, who presided over the function,
said,''We must follow the principles of 'Father of the Nation' Mahatma Gandhi, who
advocated the importance of natural lifestyle on day to day basis. In this direction, the INO
has presented seven suggestions to the Centre.''
''By adopting natural methods of health treatment, a lot of budget expenditure on health
services can be significantly reduced,'' he said.

Greetings to medical and health professionals, the scientific community, patients and to the general
public spread across 7 continents a wonderful World Homeopathy Day on 10th April2017 on
account of the founder and father of Homeopathy Dr. Friedrich Samuel Hahnemanns 262nd
birthday (born 1755, Germany). Every year 10th April is celebrated all over the world as World
Homeopathy Day as a tribute to Hahnemann. Medical doctors and patients of over 42 countries are
joining together on 10th April for celebrations. The week following the birth date of Hahnemann i.e.
10th April is celebrated as World Homeopathy Awareness Week .
Samuel Hahnemann is the Father of Homeopathy, Father of Human Pharmacology , Father of Nano
Medicine and the Father of Infinite Dilution concept in Chemistry.
On Dr. Hahnemanns 80th Birthday i.e. 10th April 1835, Dr. Hering founded the Worlds First
homeopathic medical college, The North American Academy of Homeopathic Healing Art,
Allentown, USA
The first woman to practice medicine in France was a homeopath. And she was none other than
Melanie dHervilly-Gohier, the wife of Hahnemann. She was granted legal license to practice
medicine in 1872 [ ref ]. She was followed by Madeleine Brs who was awarded M.D. in 1875.
World Homeopathy Day 10th April 2017
The Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India and Central Council for Research in Homeopathy is
organising 2-day National Convention on World Homoeopathy Day from 9-10 April 2017 at Pravasi
Bharatiya Kendra, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, India. The theme is Enhancing Quality of Research in
Homeopathy Movie Just One drop Screening in England 7-10 April 2017. Get Tickets. Screening
in Mumbai, India on 9th April 2017
Biography of Samuel Hahnemann
A short biography of Samuel Hahnemann
A textbook on biography: Samuel Hahnemann: The Founder of Homeopathy by Robert Jutte 2005
The character of Samuel Hahnemann
Historical Sketch of the monument erected in Scott Circle, Washington in honour of Dr. Hahnemann,
the only physician to be honoured with a bronze statue in Washington. It was commissioned by
American Institute of Homeopathy. In 1900 President William McKinley dedicated the monument to
Dr. Samuel Hahnemann and acclaims him as the Leader of the Great Medical Reformation of the
Nineteenth Century. For details see.
Dhanwantari, the God of medicine, emerges from the ocean of milk. In his hands he carries the

mortar and pestle of the alchemist, the scriptures of classical. Ayurvedic medicine and the vase which

bears the Amrita-the Elixir of Life, with is fourth hand he extends his blessing to mankind. Around his

neck are the Herbs and spices used in healing and preserving human life.

The ocean as the source of all life, all knowledge and the Elixir itself . According to tradition,

Dhanwantari emerged from the sea after the Gods and Demons joined together to obtain the Amrita.

At first the Demons obtained the Elixir, but the action of Vishnu, the cosmic preserver, restored the

precious fluid to the Gods and through Dhanwantari gave man the knowledge to live a peaceful and

harmonious life.

Dhanteras is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Dhanwantari. It come before three days of Dewali. The

people get their houses white washed and cleaned, they decorate them with pictures and other

healthy things. According to Ayurveda, the perfect functioning of the senses (izlUusfUnz;) happiness of

the mind(izlUu eu% and spiritual elevation (izlUukRek) to be called a Healthy Person (LoLFk

O;fDr so the person who wants to become healthy, prepared his body according to Swasthya Vritya

described in Ayurveda from this day.

The All India Ayurvedic Congress was established by Vaidya Shankar Daji Pade Shastri on 24th May,
1907 at Nasik in a meeting which was attended by good number of Vaidyas and scholars. He was a
great scholar of Ayurveda and Sanskrit. His father Pt. Daji Pade Shastri was a great scholar of

Astrology. His forefather were scholar of Ved and Raj Pandit of Peshwas. Pt. Shakar Daji Pade Shastri

was born on 30th March, 1867 in Nagpara area of Mumbai. He studied, in addition to Ayurveda Nyaya,

Vyakarana and Meemanasha also. He had good knowledge of Marathi and Hindi also. He started a

monthly magazine of Ayurveda named Rajvaidya in the year 1883 and Arya-bhishak in 1888. He

also edited a Hindi magazine Sadvaidya Kaustubh in 1904.

The then King of Baroda Maharaja Gayakwad was his great supporter & all praise for him. He started

an Ayurvedic school in 1906 named as Sayaji Rao Ayurveda Vidyapeeth. During the great conclave of

Sanskrit and oriental science All India Ayurvedic Congress was established by him in 1907 which was

presided over by Kunwar Sarayu Prasad Narayan Singh ji. A branch of Ayurvedic Congress was

established by him in Allahabad in 1908 and requested Pt. Jagannath Prasad Shukla to organize a

conference of Ayurvedic physicians of North India. The second annual session of All India Ayurvedic

Congress was held in Panwel near Mumbai in 1908. He desired to conduct third session of All India

Ayurvedic Congress at Varanasi in 1909 but died on 30th March, 1909. He donated his entire wealth of

Rs. 40,000/- in those days to All India Ayurvedic Congress for furtherance of the cause of Ayurveda as

a whole and Ayurvedic Congress in particular.

Entire Ayurvedic world is grateful to him for this great work. The Centenary Celebrations of All India

Ayurvedic Congress was held in New Delhi a few years ago in which he was remembered and praised

by thousands of delegates.

Vaidya Triguna is a recipient of Padam Shree & Padambhushan award for his contribution to

Ayurveda. He is the Visitor of the prestigious and one of the oldest University Gurukul Kangri

University, Haridwar. He is Hony. Physician to the President of India, was born in a family of

traditional Vaidyas. His father Vd. Brihaspati Dev Triguna is a renowned Nadi Vaidya in India and

abroad. Vd. Devendra has been in clinical practice for the past 32 years and gathered rich experience

in successful treatment of chronic and complicated disorders, particularly neuromuscular disorders,

leukemia & renal failure and providing free consultation to over 400-500 patients everyday. He is
honorary physician to the number of VIPs and elite. He is President of All India Ayurvedic Congress,

Ex-Member, Central Council of Indian Medicine, member of Governing Bodies of Rashtriya Ayurveda

Vidyapeeth and Central Council of Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, member, Executive Council,

Banaras Hindu University and Hon. Advisor of Ayurveda, National Capital Territory Govt. of Delhi. He is

also a member of various other committees under Govt. of India like Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia

Committee, A.S.U.T.AB. etc. He is a member of Advisory Committee in Ayurveda under Govt. of

Gujarat. He was awarded D.Lit by Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar. He was awarded D.Litt.

(Vachaspati) by Lal Bahadur Shastri, Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Deemed University, Delhi. He

visited several foreign countries on invitation and treated patients.

Vaidya Trigunaji was born in Barapind, Distt. Jalandhar (Punjab) India on 21st June, 1920 and passed

away on 1st January, 2013. His preliminary qualifications are Prayag Pariksha, Visharad in Sanskrit

from Punjab University. His Ayurvedic qualifications are Ayurved Bhushan from Jalandhar Ayurved

Vidyalaya and Vaidya Visharad from Banwari Lal Ayurved Vidyalaya, Delhi under the guidance of

famous Ayurvedic Physician Pt. Manohar Lalji.

Vaidya Brihaspati Dev Triguna is a renowned Nadi Vaidya in India and abroad. Vd. Trigunaji started
practice in 1936 in Punjab and from 1950 in Delhi. He has been in clinical practice for the last 70


Vd. Triguna ji a fellow of National Academy of Ayurveda (Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth) functioning

under the AYUSH, Deptt. of Ministry for Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India and is one of the

founder member of this academy. He made valuable contribution in guiding the affairs of this academy

as President about 15 years.

Vd. Trigunaji was head of medical team of specialists in 1979 in the encephalitis affected areas of

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The team established camp hospitals in these states and a

number of serious patients where successfully treated. The services of Trigunaji were acknowledged

by the Central and State Govts.

Vd. Trigunaji is guiding a number of organizations as President and Advisor. He was elected as

President of All India Ayurvedic Congress in 1983 and again elected in 1986. President of National
Academy of Ayurveda, Govt. of India in 1992. He was elected as President of Shri lndraprashthiya

Vaidya Sabha, Delhi, Vice President of Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Govt. of

India, Member of Ayurved Pharmacopeia Committee, Govt. of India. He served as President of

Scientific Advisory Committee, CCRAS, Govt. of India and guided various research programmes

undertaken by this council and Director of IMPCL, Govt. of India.

Vd. Trigunaji was honored of Padamavibhushana and Padmabhushana award for his contribution to

Ayurveda by His Excellency President of India. He also received many honorary felicitation, awards,

and conferred to Vaidya Trigunaji are Life Time Achievement Award (Ayurved Maharishi) by All India

Ayurvedic Congress, Dhanwantari Award by Dhanwantari Foundation, Mumbai, Ayurved Shriomani

by Rajasthan State Ayurvedic Congress, Ayurved Vishwa Gaurav by World Ayurved Congress, Pt.

Ramnarayan Shodha Puruskar, by Vaidyanath Ayurved Bhawan, Pranacharya by Shri Indraprasthiya

Vaidya Sabha, Delhi and many others.

The Govt. of Mauritius invited as expert for establishment of Ayurveda in Mauritius in 1989. He was

closely associated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogiji for propagation of Ayurveda, spiritual and

transcendental meditation all over the world. He traveled USA, Canada, Switzerland, Haland, Nepal,

Europe, Latin America, South Africa, Japan, U.S.S.R., Australia, Sri Lanka, Nerobi, Keniya and many

other countries.

Vd. Trigunaji demonstrated scientific aspects of Nadi Pariksha Pulse Diagnosis in the meeting of

World Health Organization Assembly in Geneva. He was awarded D.lit by Lal Bahadur Sanskrit

University. The world famous Trigunaji examining on an average 300 patients daily and giving free

consultation to them. He is known as Dhanwantari of present age.

1. Physician Dhanvantari was one of the 14 great jewels

that emerged upon churning of the primeval cosmic life
substance of the ocean.
He emerged with a pot of ambrosia during the saagar-manthan.

2. Physician Dhanvantari was the one who trained the

Sushruta sages, the very first surgeons in the world.
He taught them the science of Ayurveda and thus began the practice of surgeries in the Vedic age.

Sushruta, known as the father of Indian surgery, was the foremost disciple of Dhanvantari. He wrote the
famous Sushruta Samhita.
3. He is believed to have the power to prevent diseases
that could be deadly and offer relief from ailments that
have been classified as incurable.

4. He is the one who saves heavenly beings from death,

disease and old age.
He has also been called Divodasa and Kasiraja in the Mahabharata.

5. Among other things, he holds a leech in one of his four

According to an old Sanskrit work called Vishnudharmottara, he is believed to be a handsome man and in
most of his depictions, he has four hands. One of them carries a pot of amrit. The other three hold
the shankha, jalauka, and chakra; jalauka is a leech.

6. Many Hindus celebrate his birthday every year on

Dhanteras, which falls two days before Diwali.
Ayurveda practitioners celebrate his birthday with vigor and joy.

7. There are no temples of Dhanvantari in North India.
There is a single statue in the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda in New Delhi and another one in
an ashram in Haridwar.

8. However, there are temples dedicated to him in Kerala

and Tamil Nadu, where Ayurveda is still patronized and

9. The oldest shrine dedicated to Dhanvantari dates back

to the 12th century; it is in the courtyard of the Sri
Ranganathaswamy Temple.
Visitors here are offered a herbal concoction as prasaad.

10. Most of his followers believe, and it is also mentioned

in old scriptures, that he can negate the effect of all kinds
of poison and snakebites.
11. Dhanvantari incarnated as Prince of Kashi (Banaras)
to set masses free from their physical sufferings.
Besides being an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, the patron of all branches of medical science, he is also revered
as the Prince of Kashi.


12. Search for the oldest books written on Ayurveda and

you will come across Dhanvantari Nighantu a book
written by the physician of gods himself.

It is a tribute to Ayurvedic science that even the most advanced countries, frightened of the severe
reactions and side effects of the Allopathic medicines, are now inclined to adopt the Ayurvedic system
of medicine under various names like traditional medicine or herbal medicine. Ayurvedic Scholars of

the All India Ayurvedic Congress have played a significant role in introducing and

propagating Ayurveda abroad.

They are still continuing this work relentlessly under the inspiring guidance of Padma Vibhushan

Rajvaidya Brihspati Dev Triguna, who is a world renowned physician and a great exponent

of Ayurveda. As a result of all these efforts, the Government of Mauritius accorded recognition and

gave a legal status to Ayurveda in their country by enacting a law to this effect in 1990. Presently, in

as many as 20 countries of the world, research work in Ayurveda is going on with great enthusiasm

and it is likely to be boosted further in the near future.

Ayurveda System of Medicine is recognized in addition to India in the countries of Nepal, Srilanka,

Bangladesh, Bhutan, Mauritius and also in Hungry which is a European country. Ayurveda or a similar

system like Ayurveda is also recognized in Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia, etc. In recent few decades

sort term Ayurvedic teaching and training started in the countries like Italy, U.K., Australia and even

in USA. However Ayurveda as a system of Medicine is yet be recognized in America and European

countries. Our efforts through National and International Conferences should be to spread proper

knowledge of Ayurveda to these countries , their people and also administrator so that this holistic

system of life science gains more popularity and recognition in these countries.

Ayurvedic drugs are becoming popular in European and American countries; though not recognized as

drug but as food supplement or even Health Care Aid including Herbal cosmetics. We should also

make efforts at our own level so that Ayurvedic drugs are prepared with genuine and identified

ingredients , process of preparation should be as per Ayurvedic texts and final products should also be

of pharmacopoeial standard. The Ayurveda is not for only individual and only for a group of people of

countries and only for business but it should be really for welfare of mankind and we have to move in

that direction.

List of Presidents & Secretaries of All India Ayurvedic Congress

S.No. Year Place President General Secretary

Kunwar Saryu
Prasad Narayan ji Shankardaji Shastri
1 1907 Nasik
Bahadur, State Pade
Shankardaji Shastri
2 1908 Panvel Gangadhar Bhatt,

kvj. Gannath Sen Jagannath Prasad

3 1909 Prayag
Saraswati, Kolkatta Shukla, Prayag

Kvj. Yogendra Nath Jagannath Prasad

4 1912 Kanpur
Sen, Kolkatta Shukla, Prayag

Dr. Kanhobai
Jagannath Prasad
5 1913 Mathura Ranchhoddas
Shukla, Prayag

Vd. Lakshmi Ram Jagannath Prasad

6 1914 Kolkatta
Swamy, Jaipur Shukla, Prayag

Kvj. Yaminibhushan Jagannath Prasad

7 1915 Madras
rai, Kolkatta Shukla, Prayag

Maharaja Sriram Jagannath Prasad

8 1916 Pune
Verma, Kochin Shukla, Prayag

Dr. Gopalacharyalu, Jagannath Prasad

9 1918 Lahore
Madras Shukla, Prayag

Kvj. Umacharan
Jagannath Prasad
10 1919 Delhi Bhattacharya,
Shukla, Prayag

kvj. Gannath Sen Jagannath Prasad

11 1920 Indore
Saraswati, Kolkatta Shukla, Prayag

Kvj. Haranchandra Jagannath Prasad

12 1921 Bombay
Chakravarti, Bengal Shukla, Prayag

13 1922 Rajmahendri Pt. Krishna Shastri Jagannath Prasad

Kawade, Pune Shukla, Prayag

Kvj. Yogendra Nath Jagannath Prasad

14 1923 Colombo(Lanka)
Sen, Kolkatta Shukla, Prayag

Vd. Yadavji Trikamji Vd. DuraiSwami

15 1925 Haridwar
Acharya Ayyagar

Pt. Madan Mohan

16 1926 Jaipur Dr. Prasadi Lal Jha
Malviya, Varanasi

Jagannath Prasad Vd. Rameshwar

17 1927 Patna
Shukla, Prayag Mishra

Vd. Krishna Shastri Vd. Rameshwar

18 1928 Fatehpur
Devdar, Nasik Mishra

Capt. Sriniwas Vd. Rameshwar

19 1929 Nasik
Murti, Madras Mishra

Vd. Pt. Ramprasad, Vd. Shiv Narayan

20 1930 Karachi
Patiala Mishra

kvj. Gannath Sen Pt. Krishna Shastri

21 1931 Mysore
Saraswati, Kolkatta Kawade, Pune

Vd. Yadavji Trikamji Pt. Krishna Shastri

22 1932 Gwalior
Acharya, Mombai Kawade, Pune

Vd. A. Lakshmipati , Pt. Krishna Shastri

23 1933 Bikaner
Madras Kawade, Pune

Pt. Krishna Shastri

24 1934 Sikarpur Kvj. Pratap Singh
Kawade, Pune

Vd. Goverdhan
25 1935 Ahmedabad Kvj. Pratap Singh
Sharma Chhangani
Vd. Narayan
26 1936 Banaras Shankar Dev Kvj. Pratap Singh

Vd. Gangadhar
27 1937 Nagpur Kvj. Pratap Singh
Shastri Gune

Vd. Gangadhar
28 1938 Bombai Kvj. Pratap Singh
Shastri Gune

29 1939 Jodhpur Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma dr. Ashanand

Vd. Pt. Brijbihari

30 1941 Lucknow Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma

31 1942 Lahore vd. Jivaram Kalidas Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma

Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma,

Vd. M.K.Mukharji June 1944 onward
32 1943 Rajkot
B.A. Vd. Vijaykali

Vd. M.K.Mukharji Vd. Vijaykali

33 1944 Vijayawada
B.A. Bhattachayra

Vd. M.K.Mukharji Vd. Vijaykali

34 1945 Manipal
B.A. Bhattachayra

Vd. M.K.Mukharji Vd. Gajeshdutt

35 1947 Haridwar
B.A. Saraswat

Kvj. Hariranjan
36 1949 Baroda vd. Ganesh Dutt ji

Vd. Yadavji Trikamji

37 1950 Delhi vd. Ganesh Dutt ji
Acharya, Mombai
Vd. Vaman Rao
38 1952 Indore Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma
Dinanath ji

Vd. Vaman Rao

39 1954 Kottakkal Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma
Dinanath ji

Vd. Vaman Rao

40 1955 Trivendram Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma
Dinanath ji

Vd. Y. Prathnarayan Vd. Vaman Rao

41 1956 Karnool
Pandit Dinanath ji

Vd. Anant Tripathi Vd. Vaman Rao

42 1957 Banglore
Sharma Dinanath ji

Vd. Anant Tripathi Vd. Kailash Chandra

43 1961 Delhi
Sharma Agarwal

Vd. Badrivishal
44 1965 Kanpur Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma

45 1967 Mozari Vd. Pt. Shiv Sharma Vd. Gujraj Sharma

Vd. Ram Narayan

46 1970 Patiala Vd. Sitraram Ajmera

Vd. Dharmdutt Vd. Durga Prasad

47 1972 Agra
Sharma, Barely Sharma

Vd. Lal Chandra Vd. Durga Prasad

48 1975 Pandichery
Sharma Prarthi Sharma

Vd. Shrikrishna
49 1977 Shimla Vd. Govind Prasad

Vd. Pt. Sriram

50 1981 Jaipur Vd. P.K. Warier
Shamra, Mombai
Vd. Brihaspati Dev Vd. Pt. Sriram
51 1983 Delhi
Triguna Shamra, Mombai

Vd. Brihaspati Dev Vd. Gauri Lal

52 1986 Haridwar
Triguna Chanana

Vd. Pt. Sriram Vd. Gauri Lal

53 1990 Kurukshtra
Shamra, Mombai Chanana

Vd. ShivKiaran
Vd. Devendra
54 1993 Nagpur sharma Chhangani,
Triguna, Delhi

Vd. Devendra Vd. Shiv Kumar

55 1998 Delhi
Triguna, Delhi Mishra

Vd. Shiv Kumar

56 2002 Kottakkal Vd. P.K. Warier

Vd. Devendra Vd. Ram Prasad

57 2005 Jaipur
Triguna, Delhi Mishra

Feb. 2010 onward

Vd. Satish Kumar
Sharma &

Jan. 2011 onward

Dr. Sanjeev Goyal

List of Presidents & Secretaries of All India Ayurveda Vidyapeeth

S.No. Year Place President Secretary

1 1907 Nasik Kunwar Sarya

Pt. Lakshman Rao
Narayan Singh ji
Bahadur, Allhabad Fanshikar

Pt. Lakshman Rao
2 1908 Panwel Gangadhar Bhat,

Kvj. Gannathsen Pt. Lakshman Rao

3 1909 Prayag
Saraswati, Culkatta Fanshikar

Kvj. Yogendranath Vd. Raghuwar Dayal

4 1912 Kanpur
Sen, Culkatta Bhatt

Dr. Kanhoba
Vd. Raghuwar Dayal
5 1913 Mathura Ranchhoddas

Vd. Awadh Prasad Vd. Pt. Jaggannath

6 1914 Culkatta
Prayagdutt Prasad Shukla

Vd. Kedarnath Vd. Pt. Jaggannath

7 1915 Madras
Chaube, U.P. Prasad Shukla

Vd. Kedarnath Vd. Pt. Jaggannath

8 1916 Pune
Chaube, U.P. Prasad Shukla

Vd. N. Madhav
9 1918 Lahore S.Subrahmanyam
Ayyar, Madras

Vd. D.
10 1919 Delhi Gopalacharya, Vd. Gopalacharyulu

Vd. Lakshmiram Vd. N. Madhav

11 1920 Indore
Swamy, Jaipur Shastri

12 1921 Mumbai Vd. Lakshmiram Vd. N. Madhav

Swamy, Jaipur Shastri

Vd. Lakshmiram Vd. N. Madhav

13 1922 Rapmhendri
Swamy, Jaipur Shastri

Vd. Lakshmiram Vd. N. Madhav

14 1923 Colombo(Lanka)
Swamy, Jaipur Shastri

Vd. M.
Vd. Lakshmiram
15 1925 Haridwar Subrahmanyam
Swamy, Jaipur

Vd. Lakshmiram Vd. Kishori Dutt

16 1926 Jaipur
Swamy, Jaipur Shastri

Vd. Ramnarayan Vd. Kishori Dutt

17 1927 Patna
Verma Shastri

Vd. Raghuwar
Vd. Kishori Dutt
18 1928 Fatehpur Dayalu Mishra,

Vd. Kishori Dutt Vd. Raghuwar Dayal

19 1929 Nasik
Shastri, Kanpur Bhatt

Vd. Kishori Dutt Vd. Raghuwar Dayal

20 1930 Karanchi
Shastri, Kanpur Bhatt

Vd. Yadavji Trikam ji Vd. Triyambk

21 1931 Mysore
Acharya, Mumbai Shastri Apate

Vd. Yadavji Trikam ji Vd. Triyambk

22 1932 Gwalior
Acharya, Mumbai Shastri Apate

Vd. Yadavji Trikam ji Vd. Triyambk

23 1933 Mumbai
Acharya, Mumbai Shastri Apate
Vd. Ganesh
Vd. Triyambk
24 1934 Shikarpur Triyambak Joshi,
Shastri Apate

Vd. Pt. Mastram Vd. Triyambk

25 1935 Ahmedabad
Shastri, Rawalpindi Shastri Apate

Vd. Pt. Mastram Vd. Pt. Durgadutt

26 1936 Banaras
Shastri, Rawalpindi Shastri, Varanasi

Vd. Yadavji Trikam ji Vd. Pt. Durgadutt

27 1937 Nagpur
Acharya, Mumbai Shastri, Varanasi

Vd. Pt. Gangadhar

Vd. Pt. Durgadutt
28 1938 Mumbai Shastri Gune,
Shastri, Varanasi

Kvj. Ganendra Nath Vd. Haridutt Shastri,

29 1939 Jodhpur
Sen, Haridwar Lahore

Vd. Kishori Dutt Vd. Haridutt Shastri,

30 1941 Lucknow
Shastri, Kanpur Lahore

Vd. Pt.
31 1942 Lahore Vd. Haridutt Shastri Nanakchandra

Vd. Pt.
Vd. Jyotish Chandra
32 1943 Rajkot Nanakchandra
Saraswati, Culkatta

Vd. Jyotish Chandra

33 1944 Vijayawada Vd. Pt. Upendra Das
Saraswati, Culkatta

Vd. Purushottam
34 1945 Manipal Vd. Pt. Upendra Das
Sakharam Hirlekar
Vd. M.K.Mukharjee,
35 1947 Haridwar Vd. Pt. Upendra Das

Vd. Durgadas
36 1949 Baroda Vd. Pt. Upendra Das
Shastri, Varanasi

Vd. Maniram Vd. Ramgopal

37 1950 Delhi
Sharma, Ratangarh Shastri

38 1952 Indore Vd. Haridutt Shastri Vd. Sridutt Sharma

Vd. Nandkishore
39 1954 Kottakal Vd. Sridutt Sharma

Vd. B.V.Degvekar,
40 1955 Trivendram Vd. Sridutt Sharma

Vd. B.V.Degvekar, Vd. Nanak Chandra

41 1956 Karnool
Jabalpur Shastri

Vd. V.B.Natraj
42 1957 Bangalore Shastri, Vd. Sitaram Mishra

Vd. Upendranath
43 1961 Delhi Vd. Sitaram Mishra
Das, Delhi

Acharya Babu Ram

44 1965 Kanpur Vd. Sitaram Mishra
Mishra, Hapur

Acharya Babu Ram

45 1967 Mozari Vd. Sitaram Mishra
Mishra, Hapur

Vd. Dharmdutt Vd. Dayaram

46 1970 Patiala
Sharma, Bareily Awasthi

47 1972 Agra Vd. Ramgopal Vd. Pt. Sriram

Sharma Sharma

Vd. Brahmswaroop
Vd. Ramraksh
48 1975 Pandichery , 1976
onward Vd. Krishna

Vd. Dharmdutt Vd. Dayaram

49 1977 Shimla
Sharma, Bareily Awasthi, Lucknow

Vd. Nanak Chandra

50 1981 Jaipur Vd. P.T.K. Nambisan

Vd. Nanak Chandra

51 1983 Delhi Vd. Vasudev Lala

Vd. Madanmohan Vd. Pt. Sriram

52 1986 Haridwar
Pathak Sharma

Vd. Sitaram Mishra Vd. Shivkaran

53 1990 Kurukshetra (Expired), Vd. Sharma
Vasudev Shartri Chhangani,Napur

Vd. Gauri Lal Vd. Brijbihari

54 1993 Nagpur
Chanana, Delhi Mishra, Lucknow

Vdi Dayaram Vd. Tarachand

55 1998 New Delhi
Awasthi Sharma

Vd. Mahesh Dutt Vd. Harikrishna

56 2002 Kottakal
Shastri Chhangani

Vd. Shiv Kumar Vd. Niranjan Singh

57 2005 Jaipur
Mishra Tyagi
KIMMA changes name to Federation of Indian Ayush to bring in Siddha, Unani &
Homoeopathy under its fold
Nandita Vijay, Bengaluru October 01 , 2014

The Karnataka Indian Medicine Manufacturers Association (KIMMA) has changed its name to
Federation of Indian Ayush (FIA) industry and is outlining its scope and strategies to gain national
recognition as it would now scout for members across the country representing Ayurveda, Siddha,
Unani and Homoeopathy industry.

The key objective for a change of name is to broaden the scope of service to the industry. We have
an uphill task before us but our effort is to build a strong team of young, energetic, industry members
and put in place mechanisms for its effective implementation, said JSD Pani, president, KIMMA.

The decision was taken at KIMMAs recently concluded annual general body meeting where its
members mandated need for a name change in an effort to expand its involvement with Siddha,
Unani and Homoeopathy, he added.

The Ayush sector has been gaining a status in the healthcare sector because of the nature of its
offerings which are holistic in nature. Ayush and allopathy or modern system of medicine could
complement each other in treatment and therapies. Further, Ayurveda is also credited to be the core
of Indian systems of medicine. This led us to take up the cause of related specialties covering
Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. As the Federation of Indian Ayush, we intent to strengthen the
sector to meet challenges ahead, pointed out Pani.

At the general body meeting of KIMMA, its executive committee of 11 members were elected,
besides re-electing JSD Pani as its president. For fiscal 2014- 2015, NB Ramgopal would be the
vice president, Shylesh Pattavardhan general secretary, and MRE Naidu secretary and Anandkumar
as treasurer.

Once the registration process is completed, the Federation of Ayush will take up events across the
country and also request the existing associations of Ayush industry to apply for membership to this
new body.

For over a decade, the union government too had changed its department from Indian System of
Medicine to Ayush. Therefore, to be in sync with national developments, the state association too
saw that a change of name was critical for its recognition at a time when the union government is
giving impetus to this industry, said Pani.

Patanjali Ayurved
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Patanjali Ayurved Limited


Type Private[1]
Industry Consumer goods

Founded 2006

Founder Ramdev
Acharya Balkrishna

Headquarters Haridwar, India

Area served South Asia and Middle East[2]


Products Foods, beverages, cleaning agents, personal care

products, Ayurvedic medicine

Revenue 10,561 crore(US$1.6 billion) (2016-17[3])

Number of 200,000 (201112)[4]



Patanjali Ayurved Limited is an Indian FMCG company. Manufacturing units and headquarters are
located in the industrial area of Haridwar while the registered office is located at Delhi.[5] The
company manufactures mineral and herbal products. It also has manufacturing units in Nepal under
the trademark Nepal Gramudhyog[6] and imports majority of herbs
in India from Himalayas of Nepal.[7][8] According to CLSA and HSBC, Patanjali is the fastest growing
FMCG company in India. It is valued at 30 billion(US$470 million) and some predict revenues
of 5,000 crore (US$780 million) for the fiscal 201516.[9][10][11] Patanjali declared its annual turnover
of the year 2016-17 to be estimated 10,216 crore (US$1.6 billion).[12] Ramdev baba has stated in his
interview with CNN-News18 that profit from Patanjali Products goes to charity.[13]

Baba Ramdev established the Patanjali Ayurved Limited in 2006 along with Acharya Balkrishna with
the objective of establishing science of Ayurveda in accordance and coordination with the latest
technology and ancient wisdom.[14][15][16]

(In Rs Crore)

2009-10 163

2010-11 317

2011-12 446

2012-13 850

2013-14 1200

2014-15 2006

2015-16 5000

2016- 17 10561[3]

Future Group which has tied up with Patanjali sells about 30 crore (US$4.7 million) worth of
Patanjali products every month.[17][18][19]

Patanjali Food and Herbal Park at Haridwar is the main production facility operated by Patanjali
Ayurved.[20] The company has a production capacity of 350 billion (US$5.5 billion) and is in the
process of expanding to a capacity of 600 billion (US$9.4 billion) through its new production units at
several places, including Noida, Nagpur, and Indore.[3] The company plans to establish further units
in India and in Nepal.[21][22]
In 2016, the Patanjali Food and Herbal Park was given a full-time security cover of 35 armed Central
Industrial Security Force (CISF) commandos.[23][24][25] The park will be the eighth private institute in
India to be guarded by CISF paramilitary forces.[25] Baba Ramdev is himself a "Z" category protectee
of central paramilitary forces[25]


Toothpaste by Patanjali Ayurved

Patanjali Ayurved[26] produces products in the categories of personal care and food.[27][28] The
company manufactures more than 900 products including 45 types of cosmetic products and 30
types of food products. According to Patanjali, all the products manufactured by Patanjali are made
from Ayurveda and natural components[29][30][31][32][33] Patanjali has also launched beauty and baby
products.[34]Patanjali Ayurvedic manufacturing division has over 300 medicines for treating a range of
ailments and body conditions, from common cold to chronic paralysis.[35][36][37]
Patanjali launched instant noodles on 15 November 2015.[38][39][40] Food Safety and Standards
Authority of India slapped a notice on the company as neither Patanjali nor Aayush, which are the
two brand names under which Patanjali got licenses, have got any approval for manufacturing
instant noodles.[41][42][43][44]
In 2016, Patanjali has announced to enter the textile manufacturing centre. The company is reported
to manufacture not only traditional clothes such as Kurta Payjama but also popular western clothes
such as jeans.[45]
On 5 November 2016, Patanjali announced that it will set up a new manufacturing plant Patanjali
Herbal and Mega Food Park in Balipara, Assam by investing 1,200 crore(US$190 million) with the
manufacturing capacity of 1,000,000 tonnes (2.2109 lb) of goods per year. The new plant will be the
largest facility of Patanjali in India and will be operational by March 2017. Patanjali already has
around 50 manufacturing units across India.[46]

Sales and distribution[edit]

Patanjali Ayurved sells through nearly 4,700 retail outlets as of May 2016.[31][47] Patanjali also sells its
products online and is planning to open outlets at railway stations and airports.[48] Patanjali Ayurveda
has tied up with Pittie Group and Kishore Biyani's Future Group on 9 October 2015.[31] As per the tie-
up with Future Group, all the consumer products of Patanjali will be available for the direct sale
in Future Group outlets.[49][50][51] Patanjali Ayurveda products are also available in modern trade stores
including Reliance retail, Hyper city and Star Bazaar apart from online channels.[31][52][53][54][55] Patanjali
Ayurved, co-founded by yoga guru Ramdev, is targeting Rs 10,000-crore revenue in 2016-17, after
sales grew 150 per cent in the previous financial year to Rs 5,000 crore.[56]
Patanjali Ayurved has also started its FMCG expansion in form of dealership and distributorship
channels across the country and expects wider growth in Overseas distribution as well.[57]

On 21 June 2017, The Nepal Department of Drug Administration asked Patanjali Ayurved in a public
notice to immediately recall six medical products as they were found to be of substandard quality.
All medicines mentioned in the notice six out of seven from Patanjali had failed the microbial
tests used to detect bacteria, mold and other toxins. [58]
In 2015 a Muslim organisation - Tamil Nadu Thowheed Jamat (TNTJ) - had issued a 'fatwa' against
Ramdev's Patanjali products made by using cow urine, saying their use was considered 'haram'
(forbidden) in Islam.TNTJ said cow's urine was being used as a 'key ingredient' in cosmetics,
medicines and food products of Patanjali that are available in open markets as well as online. [59] In
response Acharya Balkrishna said "We make more than 800 products, out of which only 5 contain
cow urine and it's mentioned," [59]
In 2015, the Maharashtra government announced plans to sell excessive material from its Van Dhan
Jan Dhan scheme to Patanjali. The government set up this scheme to sell medicinal and herbal
products, derived from the forests of Maharashtra, to the consumer in government-established
shops.[60] Forest Minister Sudhir Mungantiwar stated that its plan to sell wholesale to Patanjali is an
effort to increase production from the Van Dhan Jan Dhan scheme. Members of the opposition party
have stated that the forest products are a national asset, and plans to sell them to Patanjali is a form
of favoritism.[61]
Patanjalis Amla juice had also been suspended by the armed forces Canteen Stores Department
(CSD) in April after it failed the quality test at a Public Health Laboratory in Kolkata.[62]
Products like Patanjali Noodles and Patanjali Pasta were banned when the food department
authorities found them selling these products without licenses. Later Patanjali Ayurveda also failed
the food quality test which was organized by the District Food Safety Department.[63]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baba Ramdev

Baba Ramdev

Religion Hinduism

Founder of Patanjali Ayurved

Patanjali Yogpeeth

Bharat Swabhiman Trust


Nationality Indian

Ram Krishna Yadav

Born 25 December 1965 (age 51)
Mahendragarh, Punjab, India

(now Haryana, India) Balkrishna

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born 25 July 1972 (age 45)

Haridwar, India [1][2]

Citizenship Indian[3]

Occupation CEO of Patanjali Ayurved

Net worth US$3.6 Billion(consolidated) (March 2017)[4]

Parent(s) Jay Vallabh (father)

Sumitra Devi (mother)


Acharya Balkrishna is the managing director and primary

stakeholder of Patanjali Ayurved, an
Indian FMCG company.[5] He is a close aide of yoga
guru, Baba Ramdev,[3] with whom he founded the company
in 2006.[6]
In September 2016, he has been ranked as 46th richest
man in India by Forbes.[7] Hurun India Rich List 2016
ranked him at 25th position among 399 Indians present in
the list.[8]
Balkrishna is also a scholar of Ayurveda, Sanskrit and
the Vedas and hence often referred as Acharya Balkrishna.
The Patanjali group claimed that he rediscovered
Sanjeevani Booti, a herb which is believed to have the
power to cure any malady and was believed to save the life
of Lakshmana in the epic Ramayana.[9][10]

Parents Ram Niwas Yadav (father)

Gulabo Devi (mother)

Honors Honorary Doctorate by Kalinga Institute of Industrial

Technology, Bhubaneswar
Sri Sri Ayurveda (SSA), now known as Sri Sri Tattva, is a GMP
certified Ayurvedic medicine manufacturing company started by Sri Sri Ravishankar.[1] It is part of
the Art of Living Foundation group of organizations.[2] Sri Sri Ayurveda trust, was established in
January 2003, near the Art of Living International Centre, Bengaluru.
The Pharmaceutical Unit is operating a production unit, R & D division, quality control unit and
marketing department.[3]
The facility has the GMP and HACCP certification (GMP: Good Manufacturing Practice, HACCP:
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) and manufactures classical Ayurvedic medicines,
proprietary medicines, cosmetics & food products.[4]
It is expanding its product base into FMCG sector as well. Meditation is a part of the daily routine to
all the staff which makes the products holistic.[5]
It is currently selling products through 1700 franchised stores, but plans to open 2,500 outlets in
India by 2017. Besides, SSA already has an online presence and sells products through its

The Himalaya Drug Company

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Himalaya Drug Company

Type Private

Founded 1930

Headquarters Bangalore, India

Area served Global (92 Countries)

Key people Kirankumar K M(Founder), Philipe Haydon (CEO)

Products Herbal medicine


The Himalaya Drug Company is a company established by K M Kirankumar in 1930 and based
in Bangalore, India. It produces health care products under the name Himalaya Herbal
Healthcare whose products include ayurvedic ingredients. It is spread across locations in India, the
United States, the Middle East, Asia and Europe.,[1] while its products are sold in 92 countries across
the world.[2]
The company has more than 290 researchers that utilize ayurvedic herbs and
minerals.[3] An Hepatic drug, named Liv.52, is its flagship product, first introduced in 1955. Liv.52 to
date has now over 215 clinical trials backing it.[2][4]
Himalaya Global Holdings Ltd. (HGH), is the parent of The Himalaya Drug Company worldwide. It
is also the global headquarters of all Himalaya subsidiaries.

Rauwolfia Serpentina

Founded by M Manal, the Himalaya Drug Company's history began in 1930. Manal, while in the
forests of Burma, became interested in the root, "Rauwolfia serpentina", which helped pacify
elephants.[5] Becoming engrossed in the intriguing effects surrounding the root, Manal went on to
studying various herbs, and producing tablets. According to Himalaya Wellness, Manal's motivation
and "vision was to bring the traditional science of Ayurveda to society in a contemporary
form."[5] Nonetheless, in 1934, Serpina, derived from Rauwolfia serpentina, became "the world's first
natural antihypertensive drug".[5] Another product soon became the Himalaya drug company's best
selling medicine, Liv. 52. This product, created in 1955, is "a liver formulation that ensures optimum
liver function.".[5]In addition, the Himalaya Drug company soon introduced several other products,
such as Cystone, Bonnisan and Rumalaya forte.[5] In the 1930s, the company was based in
Dehradun, but subsequently it advanced to Mumbai and extended across India. Then, in 1975, it
established a factory.[5] in Makali, Bangalore. Finally, in 1991, the company moved its research and
development facility to Bangalore. Today, the company has offices across the globe, including India,
USA, South Africa and other countries in Europe, the middle east, and Asia.
Global markets[edit]
As of 2015, the company sold its products in 91 countries with about 50% of its revenue from outside

Himalaya Herbal Healthcare has a very wide range of products, which include "pharmaceuticals,
personal care, baby care, well-being, and animal health products."[5] The Neem Face Wash is one of
their most popular and well known products.[7]
and internationally and looking for suitable partners who can fulfill following criteria

Type Homeomart Retail Homeopathy Store

Location Anywhere in India or Internationally

Space (Area) Investment

For Metro cities 200 Sq Ft 500 Sq Ft 10 Lacs 25 Lacs

For Tier 1 Cities 200 Sq Ft 750 Sq Ft 2.5 Lacs 7.5 Lacs

For other Towns/Cities 250 Sq Ft 1000 Sq Ft 1 Lac 5 Lacs

Qualification any degree

If you meet the basic criteria, get in touch with us for more details

Indian Homeopathic Brands



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Homeopathy Brand Name Allens

Manufacturer Allen Healthcare Co.Ltd since 1969, is ISO 9001:2008 certified, founded by
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Homeopathy Brand Name BBP (of Soundarya Cream fame)

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Address MEDILIFE IMPEX PVT LTD Plot No M-30, MIDC Industrial Area, Near
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Homeopathy Brand Name Homoeo

Manufacturer Homoeo Laboratories

Address Homoeo Laboratories 8 to 11 G. B. Complex, Survey No. 129/ 2/1 Warje,

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Manufacturer Agom Sukshma Ayurved Ketan Pvt Ltd

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Homeopathy Brand Name Medisynth, among the Top 5 brands in India

Manufacturer Medisynth Ch. Pvt. Ltd

Address MEDISYNTH CHEMICALS PVT. LTD. D-282, M.I.D.C,Turbhe, Navi

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Telephone (022) 27681116 / (022) 27613119


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Manufacturer Baksons Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd

Address Baksons drugs and Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd G.M.P & ISO 9001:2008
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Indo German


Homeopathy Brand Name Indo German

Manufacturer I.G HOMOEO REMEDIES Pvt.Ltd

Address IG Homoeo Remedies Pvt. Ltd. 316, Patparganj Industrial Area, Delhi-


Telephone 65902800,65902900, 325627000, 11-22162600


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Homeopathy Brand Name Ralsons

Manufacturer Ralsons Remedies Pvt. Ltd

Address J-38, Udyog Nagar, Rohtak Road, Udyog Nagar, New Delhi, Delhi 110041


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Homeopathy Brand Name Hapdco

Manufacturer Hahnemann Pure Drug Co. Pvt. Ltd.

Address Hahnemann Pure Drug Co. Pvt. Ltd. D-13, Sector-63, Noida-201 307 (U.P.)


Telephone 120-4345595, 7042120336


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Allen Hyderabad

Homeopathy Brand Name Allen

Manufacturer Allen Homoeo and Herbal Products Ltd., Hyderabad

Address M/s. Allen Homoeo & Herbal Products ltd. Unit-II, Survey No. 1356,
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Address No. : 84/1, 2nd Cross, 2nd Main Road, Ramachandrapuram, Bangalore-
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Homeopathy Brand Name Doliosis

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Address S. No. 1073/6, Pirangut, Tal-Mulshi, Dist- Pune Maharashtra, India


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Homeopathy Brand Name Wheezal

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Address Wheezal Group of Companies, 157/2, Rajpur Road, Dehradun 248001

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Homeopathy Brand Name Savi

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Homeopathy Brand Name Rohan Herbals

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018 (GUJ.)


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German Homeopathic Brands/Distributors



Homeopathy Brand Name Dr.Reckeweg is among the Top 3 brands in India, its products are sold in 41
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Schwabe Germany


Homeopathy Brand Name Schwabe Germany

Manufacturer Dr.Willmar Schwabe Germany

Distributor Address (India Distributor) Dr. Willmar Schwabe India Pvt. Ltd. A-36, Sector 60,
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Telephone 120-4016500


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Homeopathy Brand Name Adel, German Homeopathy brand

Manufacturer Adelmar Pharma GmbH


Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, Delhi 110002, India

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Homeopathy Brand Name Hevert, German homeopathy brand

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Address (India Distributor) M.Bhattacharyya & Co. (P) Ltd. 73, Netaji Subhash
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Switzerland Homeopathic Brands



Homeopathy Brand Name Blooume, Swiss Homeopathy Brand

Manufacturer Holistic Remedies Pvt. Ltd

Address Bioforce Enclave, New Srishti Complex, Mira Bhayandar (E), Thane
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United Kingdom (UK) Homeopathic Brand



Homeopathy Brand Name Homeovitality,

Manufacturer Genscript USA

Address Head Office. Homeovitality Company Limited Trident Business Centre 89

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US (American)Homeopathic Brands


Homeopathy Brand Name Isotropin

Manufacturer Newton-Everett Biotech

Address Newton-Everett PO Box 27793 Scottsdale, AZ 85255


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Go to:

Traditional bone setting is quite popular in India. Traditional bone setters (TBS) are one of the
largest specialist groups practicing traditional medicine in our country.[1] It is believed that there
are about 70,000 traditional healers and bonesetters in India and they treat 60% of trauma.[2]
Among them, 3000 TBS Vaidyas are in various districts of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Kerala and
Karnataka. There are also many well-known places for bone setting in Orissa like Kalupada,
Kuleila, Athagoda, etc. But Puttur Kattu is famous in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,
Maharahstra, Kerala and other northern states. Many Puttur Kattu clinics are found in big cities
like Chennai, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Visakapatnam, Bangalore, Pune, Mumbai, etc. Puttur
Kattu, the art of setting of fractures and dislocations, is being practiced hereditarily in
Rachapalem village near Puttur in the state of Andhra Pradesh since 1881. It attracts a minimum
of 200300 patients per day with various fractures and dislocations. Education is not a barrier to
patronize this traditional treatment for their fracture and dislocation of bones. TBS offer cheaper
treatment and are believed to use faster healing methods. Fear of heavy plaster of Paris bandage,
prolonged period of immobilization and amputation influence people to visit TBS.[3,4]
Specialized orthopedic operations require a up-to-date infrastructure and costly implants which
are practically out of reach for the common people. In rural India, the condition is even worse as
primary health centers practically lack any orthopedic services. Therefore, reorganization of TBS
with proper training is necessary to utilize their services.
Although this is a long traditional practice, with detailed literature in Ayurveda, institutionally
qualified Ayurvedic doctors are not able to practice bone setting management, perhaps due to
lack of practical training during their undergraduate course. The Ayurvedic institutes or hospitals
have no separate bone setting clinic or unit, except Government Ayurveda College, Trivandrum,
Kerala. There is no postgraduate degree or diploma to support this century-old practice. This
study is an attempt to reintroduce this traditional practice to Ayurvedic institutes.
Many studies are conducted outside our country to know the strength and weakness of TBS.[5
7] The integration of traditional practice in bone setting started in China.[8,9] Some studies have
reported about the science and tradition of bone setting.[10,11] Foundation for revitalization of
local health tradition has taken some initiatives to study the TBS.[12] But no special study for
Puttur TBS was undertaken. Therefore, this prospective observational study was undertaken to
analyze the techniques in diagnosis, way of management, medicine preparation, plants used and
way of applications by Traditional Bone Setting, with special reference to Puttur. We also tried
to understand the reasons which make lots of people go to Puttur for getting treatment, means of
contact for treatment, pathology of fracture and outcome of some treated cases.
Go to:


Study area
The present study was carried out at Puttur town and Rachapalem/Eswarapuram village in
Chittur district of Andhra Pradesh state. It is nearly 125 km from Chennai and 25 km from
Tirupati on the ChennaiTirupati National Highway (No. 205).
This prospective observational study was conducted by the Department of Kayachikitsa with the
help of internees of Sri Jayendra Swaraswatee Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Chennai, between July
2005 and August 2008. Patients who came for treatment to Puttur out-patient clinic were
recruited for the study. Puttur bone setting clinic was frequently visited for a period 3 years. An
informed consent was obtained from the Puttur bone setters and their treated patients. After
familiarizing with the practice of Puttur bone setters, preliminary information about the bone
setting were obtained by watching their routine bone setting. Information about the legacy of the
tradition, patient strength, hospital facilities, fees, diagnostic method, and way of management
was collected with the help of questionnaire, from TBS. Information about the patients biodata,
reasons for patronizing TBS and result of treatment at bone center was obtained and filled into
prepared proforma. The data obtained were recorded and analyzed on Microsoft Excel.
The herb used in the paste was collected tactfully, since the villagers were not willing to reveal
it's identity. The herb is preserved and identified by taxonomist of Madras University. The
information was recorded, ascertaining further by repeated visits and interviews.
Go to:

There are three bone setting clinics in Puttur city, run by the TBS Vaidya of Rachapalem village.
The village Rachapalem/Eswarapuram is about 2 km away from Puttur town and has 170 houses
of Kshyatriyacommunity, but the bone setting practice is limited to people of only one caste with
surname Raju and their close relatives of Kshatriya community. There are two bone setting
hospitals with both out- and in-patient facilities in the Rachapalem village. The small hospital is
managed by Kadallam Subramnu Raju and the big one by Suprapanaju Krishnanan Raju of the
Raju community. The big hospital has 50 beds of its own, and the Tirupati Devasthanam Trust
has donated an additional 25-bedded building.
The big hospital has a big hall for bone setting, computerized registration counter, waiting hall
with TV and a pharmacy. There are 10 tables for bandage and plaster. They have 7 experts, 25
attendants and 4 office staff. They collect only 15.00 from the patients for registration, and the
patients have to buy cloth, cotton and eggs from the pharmacy for another 10.00 to 30.00.
The consultation charge is free for poor people, but they are collecting a nominal fee ranging
from 50.00 to 100.00 at the end of the treatment from all patients. The hospital is open on
all seven days of the week from 7.30 AM to 6.30 PM with 1-hour lunch break from 1.30 PM to
2.30 PM. Like orthopedicians, they do not use expensive hospital equipments and medicine.
They have no X-ray unit in their campus. Patients bring their X-rays, but X-rays are given less
importance. Only the blood sugar levels of the patients are sometimes asked for.
A total of 146 patients were interviewed by our research team and 52 patients were followed up
to the end stage of treatment. Most of the patients (65%) were in the age group of 020 years and
there was a dominance of male patients (55.48%) in this study [Table 1]. Most of the patients [52
out of 146 (53%)] were from Tamil Nadu, 20% from Andhra Pradesh, 11% from Karnataka,
10% from Maharashtra and the rest 6% from other parts of India [Table 2]. Nearly 51% patients
were educated above matric and 55% patients expressed that old treated patients were the means
of contact of this center [Tables [Tables33 and and4].4]. Fresh cases were 80 out of 146 (55%)
which was dominant in this study and fracture of radius/ulna was found to be more in this study
[Tables [Tables55 and and6].6]. Maximum patients responded that traditional skill is the only
way to patronize this treatment [Table 7]. Maximum patients [i.e. 37 out of 52 (71%)] were
satisfied with this treatment, and loss of joint movement was observed in only one case (2%)
followed by malunion, nonunion and delayed union. No case complained about gangrene and
Volkmann's ischemic contracture [

Hakim Syed Khaleefathullah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hakim Syed Khaleefathullah

Born 1938

Chennai, India

Occupation Indian physician

Children Dr. Syed M. M. Ameen

Awards Padma Shri

Hakim Syed Khaleefathullah is an Indian physician and the founder of Niamath Science
Academy,[1] known for his scholarship[2] and expertise in the alternative medicine system
of Unani.[3] He was honoured by the Government of India, in 2014, with the Padma Shri, the fourth
highest Indian civilian award, for his contribution to the field of medicine.[4]

3Awards and recognitions
4See also
6Further reading
7External links

As the technical advancement in the field of medicine is often not affordable to the poor, cost-effective herbal
medicinal systems have a great future in India and other countries says Hakim Syed Khaleefathullah[5]

Syed Khaleefathullah was born in 1938, in Chennai, the capital city of the south Indian state of Tamil
Nadu. He studied Unani in the traditional way, and started his medical practice in Chennai.[6] In 1985,
he founded Niamath Science Academy,[7] an NGO in memory of the renowned Unani physician, Dr.
Hakim Syed Niamathullah,[1] for promoting the Unani medicine system.[3][8]
Syed has published several books on Unani medicine. He has also attended many conferences and
seminars in India and abroad, the International Conference on Eastern and Western Approaches to
Healing, conducted at San Francisco, USA in 1985, The Second International Conference on
Elements in Health and Diseases, held in Karachi, Pakistan in 1987, International Workshop on
Health and Illness in Venice, Italy in 1988 and Parliament of World Religions at Chicago, USA in
1993 being some of them.[1]
Khaleefathullah lives in Chennai.[9] His son, Dr. Syed M. M. Ameen, follows the foot steps of his
father and is a locally known Unani physician.[1]

Hakim Khaleefathullah was the Honorary Physician to President of India from 1987 to 1991.[3] He
serves as the Member of the Governing Body of the Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine,
New Delhi and is also the Chairman of its Clinical Research subcommittee. He was a Member of the
Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani Drugs Technical Advisory Board, Government of India and holds many
other positions.[1]

Professor - Government Unani Medical College, Chennai[3]

President, Central Council of Indian Medicine (1984-1995)[3]
Vice President - Unani Committee of the Central Council of Indian Medicine[10]
Member, Governing Body, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore (1986-1997)
Founder member and Chairman, Executive Board, Central Council for Research in Unani
Medicine - Government of India(1996-1999)[3]
Member of the Central Council for Health and Family Welfare (1999-2001)
Chairman, Unani Pharmacopoeia Committee, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
Government of India (1998-2002)
Founder Director - Central Council of Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) -

Awards and recognitions[edit]

The Government of India honoured Hakim Syed Khaleefathullah with the Padma Shri award, in
2014, in recognition of his services to the society.[4] The Tamil Nadu Dr. M. G. R. Medical
University has instituted a gold medal, in his honour, awarded to the best outgoing student in the
discipline of the Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (BUMS).[11] The other awards and honours
received by Dr. Khaleefathullah are:

Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) - Tamil Nadu Dr. M. G. R. Medical University - 1998[1]
Baba-e-Tibb - 1989[1]
Hakim-e-Millath - 1990[1]
Physician of the year Gold Medal and Citation - 1990[1]
Bharat Bishaq Ratna - 1995[1]
Hakim Ahmed Ashraf Memorial Global Award - 2009, awarded by Hakim Ahmed Ashraf
Memorial Society, Hyderabad