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A Mini Project Report

Submitted by

G Madhusudhan Rao 158W5A0315

SK.K.Khamuruddin 158W5A0324

K Naveen Teja 148W1A0386

B Anusha 158W5A0325

In partial fulfillment of the requirements

For award of the degree of


With specialization in


Under the esteemed guidance of

Mr. N Vijay Kumar, ME

Associate Professor of ME Department







This is to certify that the mini project titled FABRICATION OF MECHANICAL SCISSOR LIFT was
prepared and presented by G Madhusudhan Rao(158W5A0315), SK.K.Khamuruddin
(158W5A0324), K Naveen Teja (148W1A0386), B Anusha(158W5A0325) of B.Tech., 7th
Semester,Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfillment of requirements for award of the
Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering under the Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University Kakinada, Kakinada during the year 2017-18




The following paper describes the information about fabrication of a simple mechanical scissor
lift. Conventionally a scissor lift or jack is used for lifting heavy loads with less effort mainly in
industries or any other fields where loads are lifted. It can be of mechanical, pneumatic or
hydraulic type. The matter described in the paper is developed keeping in mind that the lift can
be operated by mechanical means so that effort required to operate is less for lifting more
weight. Also such design can make the lift more compact and much suitable for medium scale
work. This paper also gives information on how scissor lift works with different means (ex-
mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic), basic information about worm and worm gear, rack and
pinion, types of lifts, advantages of the scissor lift, different types of gears, gear nomenclature,
threads and scissor arms



Simple machines
A simple machine uses a single applied force to do work against a single load force.
Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied
force. The machine can increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional
decrease in the distance moved by the load. The ratio of the output to the applied force is
called the mechanical advantage.

Scissor lift
A scissor lift is a type of platform which moves in vertical direction. The mechanism
incorporated to achieve this function is the use of linked, folding supports in a crisscross 'X'
pattern, known as a pantograph. The upward motion is achieved by the application of pressure
to the outside of the lowest set of supports, elongating the crossing pattern, and propelling the
work platform vertically upwards. The platform may also have an extending 'bridge' to allow
closer access to the work area (because of the inherent limits of only vertical movement). The
operation of the scissor action can be obtained by hydraulic, pneumatic or mechanical means
(via a lead screw or rack and pinion system). Depending on the power system employed on the
lift, it may require no power to enter 'descent' mode, but rather a simple release of hydraulic or
pneumatic pressure. This is the main reason that these methods of powering the lifts are
preferred, as it allows a fail-safe option of returning the platform to the ground by release of a
manual valve.

Types of Scissor lift

The scissor lifts can be classified as follows:-

1. Classification based on the type of energy used

(a) Hydraulic lifts

(b) Pneumatic lifts

(c) Mechanical lifts


Industrial lifts have traditionally been in use in manufacturing and production settings
to raise and lower people, work pieces and materials. The scissor lift, sometimes
known as a table lift, is an industrial lift that has been modified for different settings. In
basic terms, the scissor lift is platform with wheels that acts like a forklift. In a non-
industrial setting, it is useful for completing tasks which require the speed, mobility and
transporting o f people and material above ground. The first scissor lifts were built in the
1970s; although improvements in materials and safety have been made since then, the
underlying basic design is often still used. The concept was ideal for the many retail
establishments that were beginning to expand their inventory. Modern scissor lifts
maintain a presence in nearly all aspects of manufacturing and production, from
construction to assembly to vehicle repair and beyond.
LIFT is a mechanical device used to lift or apply great forces. Mechanical lift employ a worm,
worm wheel, rack, pinion for lifting heavy equipment. The most common form is a car lift,
floor lift which lifts vehicles so that maintenance can be performed mechanical lifts are
usually rated for maximum lifting capacity more powerful jacks use hydraulic power to
provide greater lift

Problem Statement
Available lifts present difficulties for the elderly people and women and are
especially disadvantageous under adverse weather conditions. Presently available lifts
further require the operator to remain in prolonged bent or squatting position to operate
the lift which is not ergonomic to human body. It will give physical problems in course
of time. Moreover, the safety features are also not enough for operator to operate the
present lift.

The purpose of this project is to overcome these problems. An electric car lift which has a
frame type of design by using electricity from the car will be developed. Operator
frame type of design by using electricity from the car will be developed. Operator only
needs to press the button from the controller without working in a bent or squatting
position for a long period of time to change the tire.

1. To fabricate mechanical scissor lift which is safe and reliable to raise and lower the load
2. Use of worm, worm wheel, rack and pinion to lift the loads


Noted just by several artists, a fabulous telescopic handler; or possibly tele handler and
also extendible grasp fork lift is mostly a model popular for farming and additionally
enterprise. It's always matching in look and additionally feature towards forklift still is
normally a great deal more a fabulous crane compared to a an ancient, along with the
heightened all-around from the one-time scissor lift which might open up ahead and
additionally upwards from used car. Relating to the terminate for the scissor lift all the
operator may well compliment one of the devices, possibly ocean, end skip out on, avenue
painting brush. Besides suppleness is normally an alternative good thing about all the
telehandler. A lot of varieties a few operator the capability to modify software fairly
quickly, ultimately causing an overall enhancement for return in the exact location. We also
have improved suppleness by having a result of the power to space the strain lacking the
need to push the machine, merit to these sort of qualities like swivel and additionally
team proceed carriages. Still, the luxury of all the telehandler is as well the country's
leading constraint: for the scissor lift stretches or possibly also increases at the same time
showing a lot, the software antics in the form of lever and additionally can cause the
vehicle to start to be very erratic, in the face of counterweights on the backed. Which
indicate that all the pushing efficiency fairly quickly cuts down for the doing business
radius accelerates. To make sure you tackle this approach, the entire operator gives you
a lot record in which helps to the dog verify when the mission is workable, using extra
fat, and scissor lift incline and additionally distance off the ground. As an illustration, it is
possible, with this instrument, to distinguish if you have a used car by having a 5,
000lb efficiency along with the scissor lift rolled away will probably sole be prepared to
risk-free exercise with 400lb in it well fully extended during a poor scissor lift incline,
still will probably, along with the scissor lift exalted to make sure you be prepared to sustain

even though 10,000lb. Crashing this approach, a large number of telehandlers start
using a laptop computer in which applies devices to make sure you display the vehicle, all
of which launch a serious all the operator and/or not available farther manipulate effort if
for example the bounds for the used car really are realized. A lot of makers are likewise
prepared by facade outriggers and that can come to be generally known as wireless cranes,
in which open up all the pushing convenience of the gear at the same time writing

Various Developments in lifting devices

1. Levers

2. Gears

Use of lever gives the operator much greater lifting force than that available to a person
who tried to lift with only the strength of his or her own body. Types of levers are first,

Gear is a machine element which transmits energy from one shaft to another shaft

Types of gears

1. Spur Gear
2. Helical Gear
3. Herringbone Gear
4. Bevel Gear
5. Worm Gear
6. Rack and Pinion

Necessity of lifts
In the repair and maintenance of automobiles (car), it is often necessary to raise an
automobile to change a tire or access the underside of the automobile. Accordingly, a
variety of car lifts have been developed for lifting an automobile from a ground
surface. Available car lifts, however, are typically manually operated and therefore
require substantial laborious physical effort on the part of the user. Such lifts present
difficulties for the elderly and h a n d i c a p p e d and a r e e s p e c i a l l y disadvantageous
under adverse weather conditions. Furthermore, a v a i l a b l e lifts are typically large,
heavy and also difficult to store, transport, carry, or more in to the proper position
under an automobile. In addition, to the difficulties in assembling and setting up lifts,
such lifts are generally not adapted to be readily disassembled and stored after
automobile repairs have been completed. Car lifts must be easy to use for women or
whoever had problem with the tire in the middle of nowhere. In light of such inherent
disadvantages, commercial automobile repair and service stations are commonly
equipped with large and hi-tech car lift, wherein such lifts are raised and lowered via
electrically-powered systems. However, due to their size and high costs of purchasing
a n d maintaining e l e c t r i c a l l y -powered car lifts, such lifts are not available to the
average car owner. Engineering is about making things simpler or improving and
effective. Such electrical powered portable lifts not only remove the arduous task of
lifting an automobile via manually operated lifts, but further d e c r e a se the time needed
to repair the automobile. Such a feature can be especially advantageous when it is
necessary to repair an automobile on the side of a road way or under other hazardous

Types of Lifts
Bottle (or) cylinder lift

Bottles screws may be operated by either rotating the screw when the nut is fixed or by
rotating the nut and preventing rotation of the screw. Bottle lift mainly consists of a
screw, a nut, thrust bearings, and a body. A stationary platform is attached to the top of
the screw. This platform acts as a support for the load and also assists it in lifting or
lowering of the load. These lifts are sturdier than the scissor lifts and can lift heavier loads.
In a bottle lift the piston is vertical and directly supports a bearing pad that cont acts the
object being lifted. With a single action piston the lift is somewhat less than twice the
collapsed height of the lift, making it suitable only for vehicles with a relatively high

Hydraulic Lifts

Hydraulic lifts are typically used for shop work, rather than as an emergency lift to be
carried with the vehicle. Use of lifts not design for a specific vehicle requires more than the
usual care in selecting ground conditions, the lifting point on the vehicle, and to ensure
stability when the lift is extended. A Hydraulic lift uses a fluid, which is in compressible. Oil
is used since it is self-lubricating and stable. When the plunger pulls back, it draws oil out
of the reservoir through a suction check valve in to the pump chamber. When the
plunger moves forward, it pushes the oil through a discharge check valve in to the
cylinder. The suction valve ball is within the chamber and opens with each draw of the
plunger. At this point the suction ball with in the chamber is forced to shut and oil
pressure builds in the cylinder.


A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a
screw) meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to spur gear). The two
elements are also called the worm screw and worm wheel. The terminology is often
confused by imprecise use of the term worm gear to refer to the worm, the worm gear, or
the worm drive as a unit. Like other gear arrangements, a worm drive can reduce
rotational speed or transmit higher torque. The image shows a section of a gear box with a
worm gear driven by a worm. A worm is an example of a screw, one of the six simple
Worm gears are used to transmit power at 90 and where high reductions are
required. The axes of worm gears shafts cross in space. The shafts of worm gears lie in
parallel planes and may be skewed at any angle between zero and a right angle. In worm
gears, one gear has screw threads. Due to this, worm gears are quiet, vibration free and
give a smooth output.

Forms of Threads
There are three popular types of threads used for worms viz. Square,
Trapezoidal, and Acme threads.

Square Threads

The square thread form is a common screw thread form, used in high applications such as
lead screws and lift screws. It gets its name from the square cross-section of the thread. It
is the lowest friction and most efficient thread form. The efficiency of square threads is
more than that of trapezoidal threads

Trapezoidal Threads

Trapezoidal threads forms are screw thread profiles with trapezoidal outlines. They are
the most common forms used for lead screws. They offer high strength and ease of
manufacture. It is used in lead screw of lathe to compensate wear at periodic levels by
ACME Threads

Trapezoidal and acme threads are identical in all respects except the thread angle. In acme
thread, the thread angle is 29 instead of 30. The relative advantages and disadvantages of
acme threads are same as those of trapezoidal threads. There is another type of thread
called Buttress thread and it is used where heavy axial force acts along the screw axis in one
direction only.

Terminology of Worm Thread

1. Pitch: The pitch is defined as the distance, measured parallel to the axis of the screw,
from a point on one thread t o the corresponding p o i n t on the adjacent thread. It is
denoted by the letter P.

2. Lead: The lead is defined as the distance, measured parallel to the axis of the screw
that the nut will advance in one revolution of the screw. It is denoted by the letter L. For
a single- threaded screw, the lead is same as the pitch, for a double- threaded screw; the
lead is twice that of the pitch, and so on.

3. Nominal diameter: It is the largest diameter of the screw. It is also called as major
diameter. It is denoted by the letter d

4. Core diameter: It is the smallest diameter of the screw thread. It is also called as minor

5. Helix angle It is defined as the angle made by the helix of the thread with a plane
perpendicular to the axis of the screw. Helix angle is related to the lead and the mean
diameter of the screw. Ii is also called as Lead angle.

A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with
another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and
direction of a power source. Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating
a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, and thus may be considered a simple
machine. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing
gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a transmission. A gear can mesh with a
linear toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation.

Types of Gears
1. Spur Gear
Parallel and co-planer shafts connected by gears are called spur gears. The
arrangement is called spur gearing.
Spur gears have straight teeth and are parallel to the axis of the wheel. Spur gears
are the most common type of gears. The advantages of spur gears are their simplicity in
design, economy of manufacture a n d maintenance, and absence of end thrust. They
impose only radial loads on the bearings.
Spur gears are known as slow speed gears. If noise is not a serious design problem,
spur gears can be used at almost any speed.

2. Helical Gear
Helical gears have their teeth inclined to the axis of the shafts in the form of a helix,
hence the name helical gears. These gears are usually thought of as high speed gears.
Helical gears can take higher loads than similarly sized spur gears. The motion of
helical gears is smoother and quieter than the motionof spur gears.
Single helical gears impose both radial loads and thrust loads on their bearings and so
require the use of thrust bearings

3. Herringbone Gear
Herringbone gears resemble two helical gears that have been placed side by side.
They a r e often referred to as "double helical". In the double helical gears
arrangement, the thrusts are counter-balanced. In such double helical gears there
is no thrust loading on the bearings.

4. Bevel Gear
Intersecting b u t coplanar s h a f t s connected by gears are called bevel gears. This
arrangement is known as bevel gearing. Straight bevel gears can be used on shafts at
any angle, but right angle is the most common. Bevel Gears have conical blanks. The
teeth of straight bevel gears are tapered in both thickness and tooth height.
(a)Spiral Bevel Gears
In these Spiral Bevel gears, the teeth are oblique. Spiral Bevel gears are quieter and
can take up more load as compared to straight bevel gears.

(b)Zero Bevel Gears

Zero Bevel gears are similar to straight bevel gears, but their teeth are curved
lengthwise. These curved teeth of zero bevel gears are arranged in a manner that the
effective spiral angle is zero.

5. Worm Gear
Worm gears are used to transmit power at 90 and where high reductions are
required. The axes of worm gears shafts cross in space. The shafts of worm gears lie in
parallel planes and may be skewed at any angle between zero and a right angle. In worm
gears, one gear has screw threads. Due to this, worm gears are quiet, vibration free and
give a smooth output.

Rack Pinion
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which
convert rotational m o t i o n into linear m o t i o n . A circular gear called "the pinion"
engages teeth on a linear "gear" bar called "the rack"; rotational motion applied to the
pinion causes the rack to move relative to the pinion, thereby translating the
rotational motion of the pinion into linear motion.
For example, in a rack railway, the rotation of a pinion mounted on a locomotive or a
railcar engages a rack between the rails and forces a train up a steep slope.
For every pair of conjugate involute profile, there is a basic rack. A generating rack is a
rack outline used to indicate tooth details and dimensions for the design of a
generating tool, such as a hob or a gear shaper cutter.

Terminology Used In Gears

Root diameter: It is the diameter of the circle that contains the roots or bottoms of the
tooth spaces..
Pitch point: It is the intersection between the axis of the line of centers and the line of
Pitch circle: It is the circle through the pitch point having its center at the gear axis
Pitch: It is the distance between similar, equally-spaced tooth surfaces in a given direction
along a given curve or line.
Helix angle: It is the angle that a helical gear tooth makes with the gear axis at the pitch
circle, unless specified otherwise.
Dedendum: It is the radial or perpendicular distance between the pitch circle and the
bottom of the tooth space.
Clearance: it is the radial distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of a mating
tooth space.
Addendum: It is the radial or perpendicular distance between the pitch circle and the top
of the tooth.

Gear Manufacturing
Gear manufacturing refers to the making of gears. Gears can be manufactured by a variety
of processes, including casting, forging, extrusion, powder metallurgy, and blanking. As a
general rule, however, machining is applied to achieve the final dimensions, shape and
surface finish in the gear.

Selection of Gears
The gear material should have the following properties:

High tensile strength to prevent failure against static loads

High endurance strength to withstand dynamic loads
Low coefficient of friction
Good manufacturability

Gear Manufacturing Process

(a) Gear Forming
In gear form cutting, the cutting edge of the cutting tool has a shape identical with the
shape of the space between the gear teeth. Two machining
operations, milling and broaching can be employed to form cut gear teeth
(b) Form Milling
In form milling, the cutter called a form cutter travels axially along the length of the
gear tooth at the appropriate depth to produce the gear tooth. After each tooth is cut,
the cutter is withdrawn, the gear blank is rotated, and the cutter proceeds to cut
another tooth. The process continues until all teeth are cut
(c) Broaching
Broaching can also be used to produce gear teeth and is particularly applicable to
internal teeth. The process is rapid and produces fine surface finish with high
dimensional accuracy. However, because broaches are expensive and a separate
broach is required for each size of gear, this method is suitable mainly for high-quality

(d) Gear Generation
In gear generating, the tooth flanks are obtained as an outline of the subsequent
positions of the cutter, which resembles in shape the mating gear in the gear pair.
There are two machining processes employed shaping and milling. There are several
modifications of these processes for different cutting tool used
(e) Gear Hobbing
Gear hobbing is a machining process in which gear teeth are progressively generated by
a series of cuts with a helical cutting tool. All motions in hobbing are rotary, and the
hob and gear blank rotate continuously as in two gears meshing until all teeth are cut.

Thread Manufacturing
The various methods, which are more or less widely employed for producing screw threads

1. Only a few threads over short length
2. Less accuracy and poor finish
3. Example-threads at the mouth of glass bottles, spun cast iron pipes etc.

Forming (Rolling)
1. Blanks of strong ductile metals like steel are rolled between threaded dies
2. Large threads are hot rolled followed by finishing and smaller threads are
straight cold rolled to desired finish
3. Cold rolling attributes more strength and toughness to the threaded parts
4. Widely used for mass production of fasteners like bolts, screws etc.

Removal Process (Machining process)
1. Accomplished by various cutting tools in different machine tools like lathes, milling
machine, drilling machines (with tapping attachment) etc.
2. Widely used for high accuracy & finish.
3. Employed for wide ranges of threads and volume of production; from piece to mass
Finishing (Grinding)
1. Usually done for finishing (accuracy & surface) after performing low machine
(or) hot rolling but are often employed for direct threading on rods
2. Precision threads on hard (or) surface hardened components are finished (or)
directly produced by grinding only

Non-Conventional process (EDM, ECM)

1. When conventional methods are not feasible.
2. High precision and micro threads are needed.
3. Material is as such difficult to process.


Worm and worm gear

Rack & Pinion

Scissor Arms

Mechanical Scissor Lift

In this project a scissor lift which can be operated manually by the use of a worm and worm
wheel and rack and pinion mechanism has been studied with required parts and making of each
parts with available process. The salient features of the present fabrication are elimination of
use of heavy cost equipment through a simple worm & worm wheel and rack and pinion
mechanisms. To facilitate convenient operation without heavy operating cost. . Another
feature of the unit is provision of worm and worm wheel provides a free movement of lift and it
provides a self-locking system. The parts are available and can replace In less time and In easy

The future work deals with the fabrication of the scissor lift with available process which
consists of manufacturing of each part precisely and assemble them without any errors in

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[2] RS Khurmi, A text book of Machine Design, Eurasia publishing house

[3]http://scholarsresearchlibrary .oomIEJAESR -voll-i"'4IEJAE.~R-2012-1-4-167- In. pdf


[5] Design and fabrication of motorized automated object tiftingjack; IOSRJEN.ISSN (e):225O-