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Hardware-in-the-Loop Driving Simulator for

Steering Control Development

Nicholas Choi, Yang Gao, Junfan Lin, Eric Po, Anthony Thai
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Steven Velinsky
Sponsor: Dr. Zachary Sabato, Hyundai Center of Excellence

Introduction Passive and Active Elements Testbed

A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator was built to research automotive Active and passive elements are used to simulate roadway forces that
steering feedback and control development, specifically, in the domain of are translated from the tires to the steering wheel.
on-center handling conditions. On-center handling highlights the
non-linear (and in many cases non-ideal) friction present in the steering
hardware, the effect of which steering feel has not been adequately
studied. With this HIL system, we are able to investigate both mechanical
design considerations and control strategies to promote wide-band
communication of road conditions to the driver via handwheel torque
Figure 4: Simulation data used to size Figure 5: Linear actuator implemented
System Modeling linear actuator. to inject large amplitude forces at low
frequencies, resembling roadway
SF I: m I : Jy Steering Side inputs.
.. v r
1 MT F 1 1
.. l
Frack Ff r
Figure 10: Driver preferences obtained from subject testing.
TF : a 0 TF 1 R

TF: b
Ca bwd
.. ..
T F : rp
Steering System
0 0 TF 1 R
Fyr Fyf R : bL
R R I : Jwd 0 1

MT F ..gG C : k1
.. Figure 6: Simulation data used to Figure 7: Coil spring is used to apply a
Tf g
R 1 TF 1 GY SF size coil spring. restoring torque to the steering wheel.
Steering Rack
R : bU
I : Jm
1 0

C : k1U

Vehicle Side Jsw

.. 1 SE

Figure 1: Bond graph method is used to model the steering system

and dynamics of a vehicle. Equations derived from this bond graph
are used to create computer simulations.

Simulation Power Steering System

Figure 11: Steering system will be tuned based on user preference
Figure 8: Coil spring setup.
Steering feedback and control development is studied with this HIL setup.
Different driving environments will be tested using integrated active and
passive elements to conduct investigations on steering topics including
Figure 2: Block diagram used to Figure 3: General lanekeeping opera- friction estimation, robust compensation and generation of model refer-
create simulations. tion. Figure 9: Linear actuator setup.
ence targets.

Acknowledgments References
We would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr. Zachary Sabato, Jonathan Loyola, Tyler Chilson, Ehsan Arasteh, Sun (1) Karnopp, D. (2013). Vehicle dynamics, stability, and control. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press.
Mok Lee, researchers at the HCE, and the EFL staff for their assistance throughout the course of this project. (2) Ravanbod-Shirazi, L., & Besancon-Voda, A. (2003). Friction identification using the Karnopp model, applied to an electropneu-
matic actuator. Proceedings of the I MECH E Part I Journal of Systems & Control Engineering, 217(2), 123-138.