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1. Liver disease Inc Inc Inc Inc Inc

2. the longest cardiac enzyme elevated ------- troponin 10 to 14 days

myoglobin - 1st enzyme to elevate for 24 hours

LD - elevated for 5 days
Question is presented in graph , choose the right graph.

3.OGTT - when is the patient considered diabetes know the normal value
after 30 mins, 1 hr, 2 hr, 3 hr.
3. know the picture of protein electrophoresis:
Nephrotic Syndrome
Hepatic Cirrhosis
4. Differential Diagnosis for Jaundice:
Billiary Obstruction -------- Total Bilirubin Direct ( conjugated) Indirect (unconjugated) Urine
Inc Inc NL
Study other cases they might change the question.
Billiary obstruction is considered post- hepatic
5.Cortisol ------ inc in Cushing syndrome
dec in Addison's dse.
6. Acid base balance
remember the tne NV and you can easily answer the question. IF Respiratory acidosis, resp. alkalosis, metabolic
acidosis, metabolic alkalosis
ph = 7.35 - 7.45
p CO2 = 35 - 45
HCO3 = 22-26

How many ml of 95% alcohol are needed to prepare 100 ml of 70 % alcohol? answer = 73.7 ml use the
formula VI C1 = V2 C2
8. reason for synovial fluid turbidity: I don't know the answer
a) crystal
b) protein
c) immunoglobin
9.Breast CA tumor marker: For advanced CA : They may pick one from this marker, remember this.
CA 15-3
CA 27-27
Truquqnt R/A
For Primary Breast CA, Recurrent or metastatic:
Estrogen and progesterone receptors
HER -2 - Neu
10) Alpha HCG marker of malignancy:
a) choriocarcinoma ------- B
b) testicular CA ------- alpha & B
c) pancreatic CA -------- alpha
d) non seminomatous

C is the correct answer

11) If protein elevation from BI B2 and gamma are to be merge together what immunoglobulin will it indicate?
a) IgM , b) IgA, c) IgD, d) Ig E Sorry I don't know the answer
12) Which one of the following would change if remove out the buffy coat in lipemia? sorry i don't know the answer.I
guessed triglycerides.
13) What is the true calcium? ionized calcium
14) What is located between beta and gamma fraction? CRP
15) Impaired Glucose Tolerance is defined as: try to read on GTT lecture ( diabetes) the abnormal value
16.How does ISE measure CO2? gas sensing electrode
17) What is osmolality? a measure of what look for the answer
18) Hypothyroidism ---- know the result of T4 dec , T3 dec, TSH inc.
19) Transferrin - glycoproteins that binds with iron.
What is the result of transferrin in Hemolytic anemia? INCREASE
Remember this decrease in iron deficiency and chronic illnesses
20) Haptoglobin - proteins that binds with free HGB
What is the result of haptoglobin in hemolytic anemias? INCREASE
21) know how to compute LDL
22Emphysema ------- alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
23) pheochromocytoma-------- inc in ACTH
24) effect of blood sample exposure to air
25) Effect of refrigeration to blood glucose

1)What is the biosafety level and biologic safety cabinet used for poxvirus?
answer: Biosafety level III and Safety cabinet II
Read more page 124 -125 in the flash card, they might change the question.

2) Columbia colistin- nalidixic acid agar is a----------- selective type

read page 135 of flush card
3) Enrichment medium for isolation of Legionella ----------- Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar
some of the choices Regan lowe, tindale agar , Loeffler medium ,read what is this for they might change the question
to this.
4)Ampicillins are beta - lactam that act on:
cell wall
read page 203
5) quality test for autoclave----------- spore test weekly with B . stearothermo
page 211
6) read page 212 QC ; i've got 2 questions there
7) Schuffner dots , where do you see this?
8)Vi antigen ------Salmonella typhi
9) Epstein - Barr Virus
- Infectious mononucleosis
10) Cytomegalovirus ( CMV)
- disease of immunocompromised hosts
11) Berkholderia cepacia ------------- associated wt pneumonia in CYSTIC FIBROSIS pts.
12) Borrelia burgdorferi -------------- causes Lyme disease
13) Ricketsia ------------------------ Weil Felix Reaction
14) Cryptococcus neoformans ------ India ink
15Virion ------ complete virus particle
16) what is interferon?
17) What is the meaning of beta and gamma zone merge?
hemolysis, complete rupture of RBC
18) specific test for E. Coli----------- Indole test
19) read what organism seen in CSF as to age of the patient . this is a case which you will identify the organism .
read this in the flash card
20) picture of sporothrix schenckii
21) memorize the page in flush card regarding the different test in the ID of enterobacteria, this will give u hint what
the organism is.if they give u a case.
22) need to memorize specific test + for that organism: Example bacitracin + Grp A Strep, Optochin + Streptococcus
pneumonia, etc
make a summary for Gm + cooci ID test.. they give me a case of a pt with meningitis.
1) auer rods seen in -----------------AML (acute myelocytic leukemia)
know the picture of this
2. Identify the picture and know the disease ass wl it:
hypersegmented neutrophil
Dohle bodie
sickle cell
tear drop cells
pseudo pelger huet picture
Basophilic stippling picture and ass disease

Smudge cells ------- seen in what kind of leukemia (CLL)

different kinds of leukemia
3) HgB electrophoresis
4) ALL ( acute lymphocytic leukemia) ----------most common in children
5) Acute leukemia --------- many blast cells
6) ESR inc ----- tilted tube
read more on page 299 flush card
7) manual white blood cell count-------- acetic acid is used as diluent
8) osmotic fragility------ inc in hereditary spherocytosis
9) Prothrombin time ----- detects deficiencies in extrinxic and common pathways; use to monitor coumadin theraphy
10) Anti thrombin III ------- heparin co factor; deficiencies ass. wl thrombosis
11) Inc LAP ----------- seen in polycythemia vera and leukemoid reaction ------- dec in CML
Know how to compute LAP --------just add all the numbers
12) What is Bernard - Soulier Syndrome
13) What is Von Willebrand disease

BLOOD Banking:
1) Know how to detect antibodies in BLOOD Panel: I got 1 question only
2) Formula how to give Rhogam
3) 1 vial of Rhogam = 30 IU of fetal blood
1 vial of Rhogam = 15 IU of whole blood

to covert ug to IU ------------- ug x 5 = IU
Ex: 6 ug x 5 = 30 IU
4) Antigens destroyed wl the use of enzymes :::: M N Ss Duffy
Antigens enhanced ------------------------------- RH Kidd Lewis P
5) phenotyping of Rh antigens
6) Know the cold antibodies and warm antibodies
7) Leukocyte reduced RBC's ------------ given in pt wl history of febrile reaction
Read other blood components
8) Read changes in stored blood what happen?
9)Read blood donor requirement?


1) Auto - antibodies :
anti smooth muscle -------- auto immune heaptitis
anti -ds DNA ---------------- SLE
anti -Mitochondrial -------- billiary cirrhosis

2) Interferons
3) Prozone
4) Ouchterlony Technique
5) nephelometry
6) Non treponemal test for SY
7) Indirect Flourescent Antibody -------- T. pallidum
8) Heterophile Antibodies ------ test for infectious mononucleosis
9) Anti HBs ---------- recovery and immunity
10) Wester blot ------------ confirmatory test for HIV
11) Know serial dilution :: 1:2 @ 6th test tube
12) What is anamnestic?
13) Croprecipitate ------ know expiry date , a case study to answer when to give when pooled.
14) what is hh?
15) what causes false + to HIV?


1) Read about Clinitest

2) Case study:
how to know the dx as ----pyelonephritis, cystitis, glumerulonephritis,
3) crystal in acidic and alkaline urine: picture
4) What causes alkalinity of urine?

In my test , I find it hard to answer questions regarding lab operations, my test scores here really very low.