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You are on page 1of 61

3 credit hour

http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/mmrazzaque/lecturenotes.html

Course teacher

Dr M

Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque

Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

BUET

1

Fluid statics

motion between fluid particles.

stress that exists is a normal stress, the pressure. So, it is the pressure

that is of primary interest in fluid statics.

the pressure variation is due only to the weight. For a known fluid in

a given gravity field, the pressure may easily be calculated by

integration.

which has been spinning

p g for a longg time,, the ppressure can be easilyy

calculated, because the fluid is free of shear stress.

2

Fluidstatics

i l d (a)

include ( ) fluids

fl id att rest,

t such

h as liquid

li id in

i a reservoir,

i (b) fluids

fl id

contained in devices that undergo linear acceleration, and (c)

fluids contained in rotating cylinders.

instruments called manometers and investigate the forces of

buoyancy and the stability of floating bodies.

3

PRESSUREATAPOINT

p

compressive force divided byy the infinitesimal area over which

it acts. Now does the pressure, at a given point, vary as the

normal to the area changes direction?

To show that this is not the case, even for fluids in motion,

consider the wedge

wedge-shaped

shaped element of unit depth (in the zz-

direction) shown in Fig. 2.2.

4

Assume that a pressure p acts on the hypotenuse and that a

different pressure acts on each of the other areas,

areas as shown.

shown

Since the forces on the two end faces are in the z-direction,

we have not included them on the element.

both the x- and y-directions:

5

Where we have used The pressures shown are due

to the surrounding fluid and are the average pressure on the areas.

Substituting

Eqs 2.2.1

Eqs. 2 2 1 take the form

point x 0 and y 0.

As the element shrinks to a point, 0 Hence

the right-hand sides in the equations above go to zero, even for

fluids in motion, providing with the result that, at a point,

Thus we conclude that the pressure in a fluid is constant at a point.

That is, pressure is a scalar function. It acts equally in all directions

at a given point for both a static fluid and a fluid that is in motion.

6

Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body

To determine the pressure variation in fluids at rest or fluids

undergoing an acceleration while the relative position of fluid

elements to one another remains the same,, consider the

infinitesimal element displayed in Fig.2.4, where the z-axis is

in the vertical direction.

7

Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body

the ppressures at anyy other ppoint can be expressed

p byy usingg a

first-order Taylor series expansion with p(x, y, z):

see that

h the

h pressure is

i

shown in Fig.

Fig 2.4.

24

8

Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body

is written in vector

form for a constant-

mass system as

9

Pressure Variation in a Fluid Body

10

Fluids at Rest

2.3.6 reduces to

or

y directions, that is, in the horizontal plane. The pressure varies in

the

h z direction

d only.

l

decreases as we move up and increases as we move down,

11

Fluids at Rest

water and therefore have identical pressures.

Points A, B, and C are also at equal depths in water and have identical

pressures higher than a, b, c, and d.

connected to them by a water Path.

12

Pressures in Liquids at Rest

liquids), Eq.2.4.2 may be integrated to yield

upwardd direction.

di i Th quantity

The ( / + z)) is

i (p/ i often

f referred

f d to as the

h

piezometric head.

If the

h point off interest were a distance

d h below

b l a free

f surface

f E

Eq.

2.4.3 would result in

in converting pressure to an

equivalent

q height

g of liquid.

q

13

Gage Pressure and Vacuum Pressure

gage pressure ( pressure relative to the local ambient atmosphere).

dffirential type and record, not an absolute magnitude, but the

diff

difference b t

between th fluid

the fl id pressure and

d the

th atmosphere.

t h

14

Linearly Accelerating Containers

accelerating with a horizontal component ax and a vertical component

az. Then Eq. 2.3.6 simplifies to

15

Linearly Accelerating Containers

Note that density or viscosity does not appear in the above equation.

16

Linearly Accelerating Containers

mug is 10 cm deep and 6 cm in diameter and contains coffee 7

cm deep at rest

rest. (a) Assuming rigid body acceleration of the

coffee, determine whether it will spill out of the mug,(b)

Calculate the gage pressure in the corner at point A if the density

of coffee is 1010 kg/m3.

shape of the mug, the

free surface tilts at an

g ggiven byy

angle

as az = 0.

17

Linearly Accelerating Containers

If the mug is symmetric about its

central axis, the volume of coffee is

conserved if the tilted face intersects

the original rest surface exactly at the

centerline, as shown.

the mug is z = (3 cm)(tan ) = 2.14 cm.

This is less than the 3-cm

3 cm clearance

available, so the coffee will not spill.

(b) When at rest,

rest the gage pressure at point A is given by

pA = g(zsur - zA) = (1010 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)(0.07 m) = 694 Pa.

During acceleration, the pressure at A becomes

pA = g(zsur - zA) = (1010 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)(0.0914 m) = 906 Pa,

which is 31% higher than the pressure at rest.

18

Manometers

Manometers are instruments that use columns of liquids to measure

pressures.

The figure

g shows a simple

p openp manometer for measuringg pA in a

closed chamber relative to atmospheric pressure, pa.

fluid (1) to isolate the chamber fluid from the environment and to

suitably scale the length of the open tube. 19

Manometers

down to z1, jump across fluid 2 to the same pressure p1, and then

use the basic hydrostatic formula up to level z2.

continuous length of the same fluid connects these two equal

elevations.

of the same static fluid will be at the same pressure.

20

First get the specific weights from

Tables.

Now proceed

N d from

f A tot B

B,

calculating the pressure change in

each fluid and adding:

21

22

Solution

1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 as shown in the

figure. For simplicity, neglect

th weight

the i ht off the

th air

i andd assume

the pressure at point 3 is equal

to the pressure at point 4.

23

Forces on Submerged Planes

flow barriers, ships, and holding tanks, it is necessary to

calculate the magnitudes and locations of forces that act on

their surfaces, both plane and curved.

Here, we consider

only plane surfaces,

such as tthee pplane

suc a e

surface of general

shape shown in the

Fig Note that a side

Fig.

view is given as

well as a view

showing the shape

of the plane.

24

Forces on Submerged Planes

integrating the pressure over the area, that is,

i the

in h plane

l off the

h plane

l

surface, as shown. Assuming

p = 0 at h = 0,, we know that

h h is

where i measuredd vertically

ti ll

down from the free surface to the

elemental area dA and y is

measured from point 0 on the free

surface.

25

Forces on Submerged Planes

The distance

Th di t to

t a

centroid is defined as

force then becomes

26

Forces on Submerged Planes

distance from the free

surface to the centroid

of the area and pc is the

pressure at the centroid.

is the ppressure at the centroid multiplied

p byy the area.

Forces on Submerged Planes

The force does not, in

general, act at the

centroid The location

centroid.

of the resultant force is

found by taking the

sum of the moments of

all the infinitesimal

pressure forces actingg

p

on the area equal to the

moment of the resultant

force.

force

Let the force F act at the point (xp,yp), the center of pressure

(c p )

(c.p.).

28

Forces on Submerged Planes

obtained

bt i d by

b equating

ti

moments about the x-

axis:

29

Forces on Submerged Planes

30

Forces on Submerged Planes

31

Forces on Submerged Planes

32

Forces on Submerged Planes

33

Forces on Submerged Planes

34

Forces on Submerged Planes

35

Forces on Submerged Planes

gate shown.

shown

Sol hints:

F= = 9810*(5sin40o/2)*(5x3) N

3 * 53 12

= 2.5 + m

(5x 3) * 2.5

: 7*Psin40o = (5 - yp)*F

36

Forces on Curved Surfaces

37

Forces on Curved Surfaces

38

Forces on Curved Surfaces

39

Forces on Curved Surfaces

40

Forces on Curved Surfaces

41

Forces on Curved Surfaces

42

Forces on Curved Surfaces

43

Forces on Curved Surfaces

44

Buoyancy

Two laws of buoyancy discovered by Archimedes in the third

century B.C.:

1. A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force

equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

2. A floating body displaces its own weight in the fluid in which it

floats.

floats

These two laws are easily derived by referring to the Fig. The body

lies between an upper curved surface 1 and a lower curved surface 2.

The body experiences a net upward force

45

Buoyancy

g the immersed bodyy as shown in the Fig.:

slices through g

This result is

identical to the

previous one and

equivalent to law I

above.

H

Here, it is

i assumedd

that the fluid has

uniform specific

weight.

46

Buoyancy

centroid of the displaced liquid volume only if it has uniform

density.

buoyancy.

to the actual center of mass of the body's own material, which

mayy have variable density.

y

47

Buoyancy

about 60 lbf/ft3. If the weight of a person is 180 lbf, the

3 0 ft3.

person's total volume will be 3.0

the air surrounding the person. At standard conditions, the

specific weight of air is 0.0763 lbf/ft3; hence the buoyant force

is approximately 0.23 lbf. If measured in vacuo, the person

would weigh about 0.23 lbf more.

For balloons,

balloons the buoyant force of air, air instead of being

negligible, is the controlling factor in the design.

48

Buoyancy of Floating Bodies

submerged,

b d with

ith the

th remainder

i d pokingki up outt off the

th free

f

surface. This is illustrated in the Fig. From a static force

balance, it may be derived that

49

Buoyancy of Floating Bodies

Not only does the buoyant force equal the body weight but also

they are collinear since there can be no net moments for static

equilibrium. The above equation is the mathematical

equivalent of Archimedes' law 2.2

volume for its ratio to equal the specific weight of the fluid. If

so, the body will be neutrally buoyant and remain at rest at

any point where it is immersed in the fluid. Small neutrally

buoyant particles are sometime used for flow visualization.

positive neutral,

neutral or negative

buoyancy by pumping water in or out of its ballast

50

Stability of Floating Bodies

distance the buoyant

force decreases and the object's weight returns the object to

its original position.

buoyant

y force increases and the larger g buoyant

y force

returns the object to its original position.

departure from equilibrium results in a restoring force.

51

Rotational Stability of Submerged Bodies

stabilityy of a submerged

g body.

y

is above the centroid C (also referred

to as the center of buoyancy) of the

displaced volume and a small angular

rotation

i results

l ini a moment that

h will

ill

continue to increase the rotation; the

bodyy is unstable and overturningg

would result.

floating instability.

52

Rotational Stability of Submerged Bodies

centroid C,C a small angular rotation

provides a restoring moment and the body

is stable.

centroid coincide, the body is said

to be neutrally stable, a situation

that is encountered whenever the

density is constant throughout the

floating body.

53

Stability of Floating Bodies

always

w ys sstable,

b e, ass w

with sub

submerged

e ged bod

bodies.

es.

above the centroid,

centroid as sketched.

sketched

54

Stability of Floating Bodies

of the volume of displaced liquid

moves to the new location C'. If the

centroid C' moves sufficiently far, a

restoring moment develops

de elops and the

body is stable.

Metacentre M is the point of intersection of the buoyant force

before

be o e rotation

otat o wwith

t tthee buoya

buoyantt force

o ce aafter

te rotation.

otat o .

negative (M lies below G),

G) the body is unstable.

unstable

55

Stability of Floating Bodies

consider the sketch, which shows the uniform cross section of

the floating body in rotated condition.

condition

56

Stability of Floating Bodies

coordinate of the centroid of

the displaced volume can be

found by considering the

volume to be the original

volume plus the added

wedge with cross-sectional

area DOE minus the subtracted wedge with cross-sectional

area AOB.

moments as follows:

57

Stability of Floating Bodies

58

Stability of Floating Bodies

59

Stability of Floating Bodies

60

Stability of Floating Bodies

61

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