.
Volume
Leo P. Kadanoff and Gordon Baym
QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS: A Lecture .
.
Note Volume  . .
 .  
A. M. Lane RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NUCLEAR THEORY:
.. .
  

A Lecture Note and Reprint Volume
.. .
Monograph
.
.
..
David Pines THE MANYBODY PROBLEM; A Lecture Note and
Reprint Volume
E. J. SqUires COMPLEX ANGULAR MOMENTA AND PARTICLE
PHYSICS: A Lecture Note and Reprint Volume
L. VanHove, N. M. Hugenholtz, and L. P. Howland
PROBLEMS IN THE QUANTUM THEORY OF MANY
PARTICLE SYSTEMS: A Reprint Volume
. .. . .. .
, , , ,
, , , ,
" , "
" " "
" " " "
"'"''
""'"''
." ,," "'' ""''''
"""'"
" "" " '"""
.....
,,
.,
.
......
. ...
, . .
,"
, ,
"
"
. " ',
, , "
, " ,,
, , , '
,.,"','
, , , ,
.... ..
........
.........
, ,.""",,
,""" . ,
.........
........ ....
............
",
, ,
"." " ,",, ,
,
,',",
,","
,.,'"
,
,',
",
MANDELSTAM THEORY
AND REGGE POLES
AN INTRODUCTION
FOR EXPERIMENTALISTS
*
,
R.OMNES
,
Institut des Huutes Etudes Scientiflques
M. FROISSART
Centre d'Etudes NucIeaires de Saclay
W. A . BENJAMIN, INC.
1963 New York Amsterdam
MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
An Introduction for Experimentalists
The final manuscript was received on July 1, 1963; this volume was published
December 15,1963
W. A. BENJAMIN, INC.
New York, New York
EDITOR'S FOREWORD
v
VI EDITOR'S FOREWORD
 .
rapid, more informal, and, it is hoped, mOre effective ways for physicists
to teach one another. The point is lost if only elegant notes qualify.
A second way to improve communication in very active fields of physics
is by the publication of collections of reprints of recent articles. Such
collections are themselves useful to people working in the field. The value'
of the reprints would, however, seem much enhanced if the collection
would be accompanied by an introduction of moderate length, which
would serve to tie the collection together and, necessarily, constitute a
brief survey of the present status of the field. Again, it is appropriate'that
such an introduction be informal, in keeping with the active character
of the field.
A third possibility for the series might be called an informal monograph,
to connote the fact that it represents an intermediate step between lecture
notes and fOllnal monographs. It would offer the author an opportunity to
present his views of a field that has developed to the point at which a
summation might prove extraordinarily fruitful, but for which a formal
monograph !night not be feasible or desirable.
Fourth, there are the contemporary classics....,.papers or lectures which
constitute a particularly valuable approach to the teaching and learning
of physics today. Here one thinks of fields that lie at the heart of much of
presentday research, but whose essentials are by now well understood,
such as quantum electrodynamics or magnetic resonance. In such fields
some of the best pedagogical material is not readily available, either be
cause it consists of papers long out of print or lectures that have never
been published.
"Frontiers in Physics" is designed to be flexible in editorial format.
Authors are encouraged to use as many of the foregoing approaches as
seem desirable for the project at hand. The publishing format for the series
is in keeping with its intentions. Photooffset printing is used throughout,
and the books are paperbound, in order to speed publication and reduce
costs. It is hoped that the books will thereby be within the financial reach
of graduate students in this country and abroad.
Finally, because the series represents something of an experiment on
the part of the editor and the publisher, suggestions from. interested
readers as to format, contributors, and contributions will be most welcome.
DAVID PINES
Urbana, Illinois
August 1961
PREFACE
The present book stems from separate lecture courses given by the
authors at Professor LeprioceRinguet's laboratory in the Ecole Poly"
technique and at Saclay. As the audience was essentially made up of
experimentalists, these courses were of a descriptive character.
The book is addressed to students who arc not acquainted with the
most recent work in the theory of strongly interacting elementary particles.
Our aim has been to extract the most important physical ideas, with
proofs frequently omitted or replaced by heuristic arguments. The level
has been kept as elementary as possible; the reader is assumed to know
only elementary qu,.'mtum mechanics. We have made no attempts at
mathematical rigor or completeness, since further developments may be
found in the book by G. F. Chew, SMatrir Tlzeory of Strong Interactions,
published in the same series.
As is customary in elementary textbooks, we have not explicitly referred
to the original authors of the work under description. We feel ju.sti.ied
in not doing so because our heuristic presentation would hardly give them
due credit. In addition, we have given only a short bibliography, intended
to provide a reading program for those who may want to acquaint them
selves further with the subject.
One of tlle authors ( R. O. t thanks Mr. L. Motchane for his hospitality
at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques. We both thank Mile
Helene Noir for her invaluable aid in preparing the manuscript.
R. DMN",
M. FROISSAnT
Pam, France
September 1963
vii
I
I
CONTENTS
Editor's Foreword v
Preface vii
Chapter 1 Nonrelativistic Scattering Theory 1
11 Formulation of the Problem 1
12 Integral Form of the Schrodinger Equation 4
13 The Born Series Expansion 10
14 Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude 11
Chapter 2 Properties of Partial Waves 15
21 Separation of the Schrodinger Equation
in Partial Waves 15
22 Study of the Radial Equation 20
23 Analytic Properties of the PartialWave
Amplitude as a Function of k2 21
24 The LeftHand Cut 22
25 The RightHand Cut 23
26 Analytic Properties of the PartialWave Amplitude 25
27 Physical Aspects of the PartialWave Formalism 26
Chapter 3 Analytic Properties in Energy and Momentum Transfer 29
31 Kinematics 29
32 Analytic Properties in Energy 30
33 Analytic Properties in Momentum Transfer 33
34 Treatment of Exchange Forces 36
35 Bound States 37
ix
,
x CONTENTS
NONRELATIVISTIC
SCATTERING THEORY
i1'i
am
=. :::  
J12
V2~(X t) (11)
at 2m '
target. At this point, we have to take into account the interaction be
tween the particle and the target (for instance, a nucleon) by intro
ducing a localized potential so that the Schrodinger equation now
reads "
a . tl
ill Tt '"  "2m V 2
cp(x, t) + V(x) cp (x, t) (1 2)
After a long time has elapsed, the probability density of the particle
inside the target has gone to zero, and cp(x,t) again satisfies the free
particle Schr5dinger equation (11), but it is split in two parts: a
first one, analogous to the initial wave packet, is a superposition of
plane waves whose momenta range around k, its total probability,
however, being less than that of the incoming packet. A second part
is made up of outgoing spherical waves whose momenta range in ab
solute values around I k I and which looks like an exploding cloud.
Their total probability is the scattering probability of the incoming
packet. As the time of the collision was more or less well defined,
the outgoing wave cloud, which was emitted at that time, will be lo
calized in space and its radius will expand with a velocity kim. As
its probability (i.e., f I cp2 cloud I d3x) will stay constant after emis
Sion, its wave function has to decrease like the inverse radius as this
radius increases.
It is possible to give a complete mathematical analysis of this be
havior of a wave packet. However, it will be Simpler, from a purely
mathematical standpoint, to replace the incoming packet by a pure
plane wave. The price to pay for such a simplification is that mo
mentum and energy are then absolutely defined, and it is no longer
possible to follow the scattering process in space and time. We must
then use the time independent Schrodinger equation which will be sat
isfied by the total wave function lJI(x):
2
(here we have used E = k /2m and, for SimpliCity, we have chosen a
system of units such that the mass of the particle is 112 and ti = 1).
For values of x corresponding to points outside the target, Le., such
that the potential is zero, 1It(x) will satisfy the freeparticle Schro
dinger equation. Moreover we have seen that the wave function, in
that exterior region, may consist of three parts:
a. A plane wave corresponding to the incoming packet.
b. Another plane wave, with the same momentum, corresponding
to the part of the incoming packet that did not suffer collision.
c. An outgoing wave corresponding to scattered particles.
The two plane waves, in a timeindependent theory, cannot be sep
arated and join to form a single, say eikx. As for the outgoing wave,
NONRE LATIVISTIC SCATTERING THEORY 3
we know that the absolute value of its momentum is k and that it de
creases like l/r; thus it has necessarily the form
e lla'
f(8,~)
r
r = 1x I
~~ = 1f(9) 12 (14)
(16)
(17)
()
111 x '" eikx 1 ( (
+ V 2 :" k 2 V x) 111 x) (18)
"
,I
Elp) (pi = 1:
p
where the summation goes over all possible values of p, and 1. rep
resents the identity operator. Then
= Lp k2 ~ p2 (p I a ) Ip) (110)
(v 2 + k2r1rpa(X)
 J~
(21T)3
_ 1 _ ipx
k2 _ p2 e
Jeipy rp a ()Y d3.
y
(111)
G( )  1
x  (2n)3 J eip x ~
k2 _ p2 ._. ) (112)
,~._
Q.o.,.." _, ,. I g ) , q '  =  ~ ~~_
We must now compute that integral. That is not a trivial task, for
it is not well defined, the integrand being infinite for p2:: k 2 How
ever, it may be remarked that, up to this point, we have only used the
SchrBdinger equation (13) without conSidering the boundary condition
(15). In fact, if we compare (18) and the condition (15) we see that
the "scattered wave function," which is obtained by suppressing the
...,.._a,___" ,.._,~ _._____ .
~' " ...w__ ! ,",_ _ '"~ !, .,_..,~. 60 ..,__ ' ' . j .. .,'L_'_ft  _ _ ........ ..,~ __ ~~~ ___ ' ___ .. _ ....
~_~__~_ ~~.. __ ~,~.~ __ ~, ~_  
G(r) =
(2n)2
,1 J eipr cos 01 p2 dp d cos
k2  p2
01, ( 113)
1 1
+
pk p+k
we get
+00 ,
1 1pr
,e dp 1 1
G(r)   2r + "
"
8n 2i pk p+k
 00
,
e 1pr dp 1 1
, , + ' '
(116)
2i pk p+k
 00
~ONRELATIVISTIC SCATTERING THEORY 7
Let us stick to the second integral. It is in fact not well defined, since
the integration path, going along the real axis, passes through the two
poles p = k of the integrand. It is, however. possible to give it a
welldefined meaning by considering it as an integral in the complex
plane of p and, in place of integrating along the real axis, integrating
along one of the four paths L 1, L 2 , L 3 , L" of Fig. 11, which differ by
~e way they pass around the two poles. In each of these cases we can
:a long the large semicircular contour C in the lower half of the com
plex p plane will tend to zero as the radius of C increases. Conse
quently we can add that integral along C to the integrals along L 1
L 2 L 3 , or L4 without changing their values. These integrals will then
be equal to  211i times the residues of the poles enclosed in the con
tours formed by C and L 1 for instance; the minus sign comes from
Ute fact that we are integrating around the contours in a clockwise
.direction. Hence we get for the last term in (116)
integrated along L 2 : 0
amp
k +k
Figure 11
,.., ...... "," ...... , ~, .. .
~ ~ ~.~ ~ ~ ~,~ ..... ., " ..
~ .., . ,._._._._._...... .
B MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
L 
integrated along S   I
Brrr
e ikr
L 
integrated along '1  l i k
e r
8rrr
As for the first integral in (116) we can also define it as per
formed along L 1, L z, La, or L 4 , but the integrand will decrease ex
ponentially only when p is given a positive imaginary part so that we
shall close the contour by a semicircle C' in the upper halfplane as
indicated in Fig_ 12 (when we have considered the case of path L 4 ).
We thus get for the first term in (116),
integrated along L 1 : a
L .  1....
integrated along z 8rrr
1
integrated along La:  8 eikr
rrr
1
integrated along L 4 :  8rrr
We see now that there is only one way of defining G(r) in order
that it behaves as a pure outgoing wave for large values of r, and
this is to write, in place of (115),
1 sin pr pdp
G(r) = 471 2 (117)
r k2  p2
L.;
G(r) will then be given by the sum of the two terms written in (116),
glVmg
am p
C'
Re p
a +k
Figure 12
:??? ,IO:NRELATIVISTIC SCATTERING THEORY 9
G(r)
,ikr (118)
Let u.s now see the physical meaning of (117) and (118). The def
inition (117) of G(r) has been derived from the notwelldefined ex
pression (115) by pushing the integration contour around the two
poles *k. We could as well have pushed the pole p ==  k below the
real axis and the pol e p = +k above the real axis, keeping that real
axis as th.c! integration path. ' That would mean taking for the poles
p:; (k + 1), Le., just adding an infinitesimal positive imaginary
part 1 to k. Then
ik IX y I
ill: 1
>1'(x) '" e . X_= e
".. V(y)>1'(y) d 3y (1 21)
411 Ix  yl
That integral equation may look at first sight more complicated than
the SchrOdinger equation, but its enormous advantage is that it takes
automatically into account the boundary conditions of the scattering
problems.
where we have written (/Ii for the incident plane wave e ik ' x. In
that relation, >1' may be replaced in the right hand member by its
expression as given by the whole equation (1 22), giving an inte
grated form of (122),
(123)
v "'rV v
Figure 14
v
corresponds to the second term in (1 23). Now, the outgoing particle
may scatter again at another position, the corresponding modification
of the wave function, interaction, and radiation being again represented
by a factor (V 2 + kl)  IV. We thus associate the third term in (123)
with the graph of Fig. 14, and so on.
The Eorn series may consequently be considered as a description
of the total scattering as a multiple scattering by the individual points
where interaction takes place. ObvIously, such a description will be
most useful when multiple scattering is smallest, i.e., when the poteo
tial is smalL In particular, the existence and properties of bound
states as well as resonances are not conveniently described by Born
serics. As COncerns resonances, this may be understOOd as follows:
A resonance in scattering may be identified with a metastable bound
state of the scattered particle and the target, as has been emphasized
in the compound nucleus model by N. Bohr. Such a metastable state
:: :: . has to live much longer than the interaction time, i.e., the interval of
time during which the particle crosses the target. But in order that
.r .
'.~: the particle be trapped such a long time, it is necessary that, durIng
the time it would need to cross the target, it suffers many individual
scatterings. A resonance corresponds, then, precisely to the condi
tions wllerc the successive terms of (123) do not decrease, and for
a bound Biate it Is, of course, even worse. From the mathematical
viewpoint, it may be shown that it is preciSely the existence of bound
states and resonances which limits the convergence of the Born series
expression. We shall examine this point in more detaU in Sec. 35.
ike
iI(x) ~ e ik x + f(9)~ (124)
The integral equation (121) for 'Ir(x) makes explicitly the separation
of the incident plane wave e lk ' x , ao that it is natural to look for
the asymptotic form of the second term of (121) in order to get an
..
, .
eik (x yl
'. . . . V(y)>lr(y) day
I X  yl
If the interaction is localized [or if V(y) decreases sufficiently rap
idly when I y I becomes large], we may consider that the domain of "
integration on y is finite, so that we can neglect y compared to x in ',.
the denominator Ix  y I. On the other hand, the phase factor eik(x  y) ,
will depend sensitively on y, no matter how large Ixl is. We shall
thus extract its main dependence on x by writing
112
= I xl
For x large enough, the last term y2/X 2 is negligible, so that
_ ~ _ 2x. Y 112 ~ _ X y
Ix y I  [x 1 1 '[ X 12  1x 1 1x I
iklxyl ikrk"y
e "" e
or
ikr
>Ir(x) "" e ik . x  1 e
41T r
J e ik' Y V(y)>Ir(y) day (125)
(126)
(1 27)
where CPf is written for the plane wave e ik" Y of an observed final
state. Then, multiplying the Born series (123) on the left by V and
taking its scalar product by CPf' we get
(128)
We have, of course, replaced the qJi and o/f by the ket vectors Ik)
and Ik') of the incoming and outgoing particles. We recall also that
..
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
 _i
..
..
..
.
.
.
...
.
.
....
.
.
.
.
..
.
....
..
,,,
.
,,
, .,
,,
, ,
....
, ,,
..
, ,,
..
,, ,
, ,, ,
..
, ,
......,
,, ,
....
....
..
.., ,
.. .
....,
,
.. ,
,
.. ,
...., ,
,,
,, ,
,
,, ,
, , ,
,
..
, ,,
.
..
,, ,
,,,
,
, ,
..
:!j ~:.l:: 2
PROPERTIES OF
I PARTIAL WAVES
1.:..:1
1.:
. : . :.
.
:.
:.:
. ..
:. .::. ..:..:::. ~1~~;:;7g~;gi~i~~Z~i~~~~h~~t~i~!;
the existence of bound states reflects itself on the scattering ampli
tude. As we have already said, it is precisely the existence of bound
states and resonances which precludes the convergence of the Born
series.
In the very general case where the potential is spherically symmet
ric,. there is much to be gained in separating the angular variables
through a spherical harmonics expansion. That will lead us actually
to a onedimensional form of the SchrBdinger equation whose solutions
have asymptotic properties for large values of r which are more
transparent than in the case of the threedimensional Schr<ldinger
equation. Since the study of those properties is precisely the subject
matter of the scattering theory, we shall thus get much more precise
information, and, in particular, we shall be able to find what is the
precise meaning of a resonance and how bound states may appear as
characteristics of a general scattering theory.
.
essentially the same smooth properties by taking
e 1l1r
VCr) = A 1 r . .
.
.
.
.
Here VCr) is a discrete sum of Yukawa potentials and of an integral .
.
..
a superposition of Yukawa potentials. We shall see in the following .. .
.
Let us now go to the separation of the angular variables in scat...:
.
tering. We assume that the reader is already familiar with the ele
.
.
mentary quantummechanical theory of the angular momentum. How
every, we recall here the main results for the sake of completeness ..
Let us choose the z axis in the direction of the incoming beam ..
..
(Chapter I). The wave function w(x) depends only upon the radial ..
..
..
..
but not upon the third polar coordinate cpo This already achieves in ..
..
..
....
....
..
w(x)
"" i
y r) .....
..
....
..
..
.. ..
..
..
....,
.... ..
... ..
....
..
Y.e.(r): .....
..
....
..
..
...
....
..
.. .
..
..
..
....
. ..
..
....
.....
..
..
.
. ..........,
....
 ".
PROPERTIES OF PARTIAL WAVES 17
(22)
The last term in the bracket is the familiar centrifugal barrier term.
The presence of a coefficient llr in the righthand side of (21) im
plies that y~(r) has to go to zero at the origin r = O. otherwise, '11 (x)
would have a singularity at x = 0, which would render its physical
interpretation impossible.
The properties of the partial wave functions Yf(r) for large values
of r may be easily deduced from (22). When r is large enough, we
can neglect the exponentially decreasing VCr) and ~(f. + 1)/r2 as com
pared with the constant k 2 , so that the radial SchrMinger equation
(2 2) takes the simple form ~ if ~ :: 0
," .. ,
,.....
,
18 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
ikz (25)
e '"
.... .
..
. ..
. .
....
 U:+ 1 iO.+ih/2 ....
GQ  (27) ..
...
..
....
...
....
..
....
..
..
....
so that, putting (27) into (24), we get a more precise form of the ....
.. .
.....
..
....
. J'  ,
~\v{ 1~i>~
" \..  .. ........
.~
~.
',,' ~
'._"
....
l
,.~ ... ,
, .. . ,'",,.
., ..
..
.,~ + .. . .,
. . ..
ikr+ih ...
.....
 e (28) ....
..
....
.:. '. , ..
..
, ,
.. ...
..
.~
.....
..
.....
...
We can now isolate the contribution of the plane wave e ikz to the ....
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
partial wave yQ(r) by writing ....
..
.. .
..
....
....
...
.. ..
 ..
 ... .,
...
....
(29) ..
....
...
....
.. .
..
......
..
....
........
so that the scattered partial wave y:~r) will just be the contribution .....
...
..
...
...
..
..
..... ,.
of the scattered wave function fee) eikr /r to the angular momen   ..
.. ..
...
..
....
tum Q. It is easy to relate it to the phase shift, since
....
 , ....
..
...
...
..
...
...
..
..
...
.., .
  ...
..
...
..
...
.....
....
....
...
 , ..
......
.....
..., 21+1 .......
...
0;; ... ....,
.. >;>'>C 2ki ... "...
.,
, ..
.
......
..
..
...
...
... .. .
.....
... .. .
..
"
r",,><10  it uQ (210):;::
......... "
...
... ...
, ,
"
...
...........
",
",
",
We check that it is purely outgoing, as it should be. It is very easy ... .. ,
.. ...
",
...
.........
",
now to compute the scattering amplitude, by summing up the series ... ,
.. ... ",
",
(21) .
... "" ""
" "
......
, . ,, " ""
""
", " ,
. "'"
...... , ""
......... "
., "
"
"
......., . . ","
, ",
"
........., ""
, ""
"
. . . . . ', """"
.. . _",."'
PARTIAL WAVES 19
Iw~ c~'): t.
~:~:~:( ,'
f(k', ;0, 8m 0, P,(co, ') (211)
I,
::::::::"
(212)
~~~~~>.
::::::::: ,
which appears in the series (211).
~~:~:} :
Another very useful formula is the inverse formula, which allows
W\ us to compute the partialwave amplitude from the scattering ampli
l~~~~~~::: tude:
~r>< +1
::::::::::.
J
a1 (k2) = j
1
Pl(cOS 8)f(k2 , cos B) d cos B (213)
which is easily checked from (2~ 11) by using the wellknown formula
(orthogonality relation of the Legendre polynomials)
1 =: m
i *" m
I
20 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES"
The second leads to infinite values of Y9..(O) and must be rejected. "As
for the first one, it depends only upon a normalization factor as ex
pressed in (23). Obviously, the definition of the phase shift 09.. does
not depend on this normalization factor. We chose it as G!!. given by
(27) when we wanted to compare the threedimensional treatment of
scattering with the onedimensional form. However, it will be more
convenient now to use another choice.
To define it we must give the value of the wave function at some
place. The easiest choice is clearly one where the wave function de
2
pends least upon the potentialanq the value of k , that is, the origin.
We define then a new normalization (which actually ensures also the
requirement of vanishing at the origin) by considering the particular
solution u9.. (k2 ,r) of (2 2) such that .
 1
The asymptotic form of up" (r) is still given by (2 4), up to a constant
factor. We shall express it in terms of incoming and outgoing waves
as
(215)
PROPERTIES OF PARTIAL WAVES 21
,
The coefficients qJ+ and cp , which are defined by (2 15), are called
Jost's functions. As uf (r) is real, '1'+ and cp are complex conjugate
of each other. By comparing with (28), for example, we can deduce
immediately:
(216)
>
so that the problem of determining the phase shifts is now replaced
by that of determining one of the Jost functions.
2
uf (k ,r)  cp(f,k2 ) e ikr + cp+(f,k2) e ikr (215)
roo
2
It is now necessary to make precise what we mean by k when k is
complex: We shan choose to define it as being the root of .Jk.'X with a,
positive imaginary part (that choice will permit a simple passage to
the physical case as suggested by the k + if: which we have found in
the definition of the Green's function in Chapter 1).
There is a case where analyticity of the wave function uf (k2,r) as
2
a function of k does not imply analyticity for the functions cp(f,k2),
because the asymptotic formula (215) does not apply. When k 2 be
comes real and n1~tive, the first exponential in (215) becomes
purely damped, e = e Ikl r, and the second one purely explosive,
eikr = e+ Ikl r/.
As the Yukawatype potentials which we are considering have an
exponential character in r (of the type eMr/r), the separation of
the first term of (215) is justified if only the damped exponential
e ikr does not decrease too fast. Actually, if Ik I is bigger than M/2
for the case of a single Yukawa potential g2 eMr/r, it would be non
sense to neglect the potential term eMr when it multiplies the ex
plosive part e 1krl of uf (r) and gives terms in the eqnation propor ,
,
,
well defined for these values, and it is impossible to infer analyticity
" ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,,
, , ,
,,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
,, , ", , ,
,
", ,
", ,
,
PROPERTIES OF PARTIAL WAVES 23
 .
lefthand cuts  , 
PROPERTIES OF PARTIAL WAVES 25
= ~ ( 2iot _ 1)
ioQ
2) '" e sin oQ
at (k k 2ik e
(218)
[the second equality follows from (217)]. This equality thereby de
fines the values taken by the analytic continuation of aQ (k 2 ); let it be
aI(k2 ):
1
1  2kia I (k2) =
I 1 + 2kiat (k 2)
or
aQ{k2)
a I (k2) '" (219)
I 1 + 2kiat (k 2)
(We have used the fact that the analytiC continuation of k into the un
physical sheet is a function k I ", k.)
l>
c. .~.~.)~~. c ...... u~ tG...... "\
i. ... .
(220)
(221)
pole? Actually that can be done in a sensible way only if it lies very
close to the physical region, i.e., a point like B in Fig. 21 with a
rather small and negative imaginary part. Such a pole will affect
strongly the behavior of the partialwave amplitude at (k2) in the very
near physical points which correspond to positive real values of k 2
To see how a.e (k2) behaves in the physical region near the pole, it is
2HiQ
useful to use the function S(Q,k2) ;;; e = 1 + 2ika.e.{k2).
IT S has a pole on the unphysical sheet, at k 2 '" ~  ir /2' it means,
i by (218), that it has a zero on the first sheet at the same place. By
symmetry, as all the data of the problem are real, it also has a zero
on the physical sheet at the complex conjugate point ~ = ~ + ir /2.
In more detail, the coefficients of the Schrodinger equation being
real, the wave function uQ(k2 *,r) is the complex conjugate [uQ(k2 ,r)]*
of u.e (k 2,r): From (215) we get uQ (k 2 *,r) ~ ~(Q,k2*) eik*r +
~+(Q,k2*) eik*r. [We have changed the signs in the exponentials to
take into account the convention about Im k stated immediately after
(215), which means in fact that ..fk2* =  k* .] Taking the complex
conjugate of both Sides, we get
(2 22)
(2 23)
where OfF varies slowly. This formula is nothing but the Breit
Wigner expression for the phase shift in the neighborhood of a reso
nance of energy k~ and width r; oQP is the customary potential
phase shift, the first term being the resonant phase shift.
Consequently, a pole at k 2 = k~  iI' /2 in the unphysical sheet, if
r is not too large, will produce a resonance in scattering with energy
k~ and a width r. .
We may then summarize our findings in the following way: The
I
 ,
.~
.,,,. "f" f J .. . ' ~~_o .. ,
.. ,.,,,,"'~.'.'~ . . . . . .
~~,"""""T''" J. ,,.,
""'~''"
'.._. ~~_ ,
.. .,.,~,
_..= . , ","', , _.
",.
'.L'.
~ ..
.
' . ,." __ ,_
~+~
.~_ ' , . . ,"'.. .. _
,~
__
~.~,~~~

28 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
,
I
ill:':':'
ANALYTIC PROPERTIES
~::: : IN ENERGY AND
Wi"
e?:t} MOMENTUM TRANSFORM
E ....
Wi
f%
~~j:: Our preceding analysis of the analytic properties of the partial
;.x:~:.; wave ampUtude has lead us to rather sImple results and to an inter
@f
~y~. ~:~in:O~i~~e:~n::~~ ::a7e~e~ra~~~~~::.ti~n:e~~: ~~:s :~~!~~l~
Pii.~t to see what we have thus gal.ned in understanding the properties of
r;.::::: the full scattering amplitude f(k2 , cos 9) . Clearly, we shall be lead
fJ.:~~.:~:.: : to introduce complex values of k Moreover, It will be found con
1
m::.:.:. venient to introduce also complex values of cos 8. However, cos 0
ill::::::  is not the most useful variable and we shall rather use the squared
Wi:: momentum transfer .6.3 , which leads us first to study more precisely
t.(( the kinematics of scattering.
W
y
~l~]:
m:':':'
31 KINEMATICS
I~
Let k be the momentum of the incident particle and k' thal 01 the
outgoing one. We define 4 2 as A2 = (k  k')2, or
I
W}:::
7"~:""

The inverse relation reads
~,
lit
mt cos9=1:zkB (3 21
::;Z:"::"
:::"z.:.: It will be found convenient to visualize the scattering amplitude
wL:
%} and
f(k;2, cos 8) as a function of f(kl,42) and, when the two variables k 2
4~ are real, to use a representation of the (k 2,4 3) plane .
.$ ;: On such a plot the physical values of k' are the positive real ones,
%)
llli and as the values of cos 0 are between " I and + lone has 0 s. A' :5 4.k2 "
lltr
Wi 29
??::"":::
@]
~~ , "  
(211)
Instead of following this method, which would in fact fail, we shall give
cos e= +1
k2
sical '.
v" .
\\
(>
~.
<'0
l'JoS't
I
Figure 31
ENERGY AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER 31
1
x (p!Vjk) + (21T)6
J(k'IV!Pl ) (k+i)2_p~
d~l
dSp..
x (PljV! P2) (k+ 1)2 _ p~ (P2 IVI k) + ...
(1 29)
without worrying about whether or not that series actually converges.
We shall first consider the simple case where the potential is a
pure Yukawa potential
JJ.r
(p ! V j p') = g Jei(Pp')x _e
r
dSX
The integration over cp is trivial, and that over cos () Simple, so that
one gets
00
i\pp'lr _iIPp'lr}
(pIVjp')=21Tg J{
o
e IIp::::;'lr eJJ.r rdr
.
32 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
.
IVI p') = iI p 2n:g 1  1
(p /
".... . , .
,  p' I tL  i Ip  p' I Il+ i lpp l
.
.
=
41Tg,
(p  p')2 + 112
That result can now readily be inserted into the Born series and gives
.
.
.
,
00 ...
.
.
F(k2,.602) =  ~ Fn(k 2,.602) (33) ..
..
n=l
...
with .
.
.
.
.
.
(34a) ..
.
...
.
.
'" 2g~ dp .
..
(34b)
1T .
.
Fik2,.602) . .
=~
(34c)
and so on.
The first term is very simple; in fact, it is independent of k 2 and
therefore, for fixed .60 2 , it is analytic in k 2 .
Analytic properties of the other terms are less easy to see. The
corresponding integrals will be well defined and analytic in k 2 and A2
as long as the denominators do not vanish. This condition shows im
mediately that there is a singularity on the positive k 2 axis, since
there are denominators like k 2  p2 which will vanish for some value
of p2 since p2 varies from zero to infinity. This is the righthand cut
which we have found previously for the partialwave amplitudes.
It is also apparent that, as long as the imaginary parts of k and k'
are kept small enough, the denominators of the type (k  p)2 + tL 2
coming from the potential cannot vanish, since that would require
(with k = kl + ik2 )
p.~= 0
and the first equality requires that at least k~ be bigger than 112.
Unfortunately this limitation on k~ is not very restrictive. To find'
analytic properties in a larger region would involve more complicated'.
,
1!I ENERGY AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER 33
[jU.
z::::::>
:.::.:< :
mathematical methods which we do not want to develop here (e.g., to
ilif. ~~~~eo~~ep~~o~t~:~~~~~:~:;~~ ;~;n~:'~o~e~:l>~ex one, or to
~r< Let us simply state the simple results that can be proved in this
~.\~. j:.: .'.. way: for fixed nonne ative values of 6,2 each term of the series 33
~::::::. is an ytic in k 2 everywhere except on the right hand cut~....
J::.
z:::: .. >
::.:... . 33 ANALYTIC PROPERTIES IN MOMENTUM TRANSFER
tial (an exponential potential would, for example, yield a double pole).
:::::.. > The position of that pole is determined by the range of the potential:
~{: the longer the range, the smaller JJ. is, and the closer the pole is to
the physical region. (A limiting case is the Coulomb potential, where
the potential is air of the Yukawa type with JJ. = O. In that case the
singularity is just in the forward direction, at 6,2 = 0, i.e., at the edge
of the physical region.)
To understand the singularities of the other terms of the Born se
ries (33), it is best to recall the phYSical meaning we gave to them:
the term Fn corresponds to n successive scatterings by the poten
tial. Our treatment will actually completely lack rigor, and we give it
just to show how complex singularities may be understood in a phys
ical sense. One can view the fact that the first term F, is infinite for
6,2 = 11 2 as meaning that many particles go away with an unphysical
momentum transfer A2 = _J.l2 since the scattering amplitude appears
to be infinite in that case. It is to be expected that if they scatter
again, they will again give rise to the same momentum transfer ifJ..
This second transfer does not take place in general in the same
;.: space direction, and the pole singularity will be washed out, except
~<> at the boundary of the possible region, where the two momenta add
..
~
...
 . ...
..
..
 .
. ..
.
....
 ...
..
.
..
~
 .. .
...
  ....
.. ....
...
...
 ... ..
Let us reason as if this angle were physical. The particles scat ..
..
..
.. .
... ... .
tered once make a kind of a halo, a cone of halfangle 8 0 , around the   ..
..
.....
... .
...
.. ..
.
.....
.....
..
..
......
.....
..
..
..
...
......
....
........
..
..
..
.....
...
...
....
..
.. .
...
..
This last singularity, and the singularity at 1).2 = 4M 2 ,
are the orily ....
.....
.
2
ones for F 2' Fa has three: one at 1).2 =  9 IJ. , one at cos 38 0 , and ..
..
.......
one coming from a mixture of the two mechanisms: a combinatiqn of ......
..
.... .
..
the singularity at 1).2 =  4IJ.2 after the first two scatterings and of the ..
..
... .
....
..
....
singularity due to the third scattering, combined with the law of addi ..
tion of angles, not of momenta. F4 has five singular paints, and the ..
number of singularities of Fn increases more rapidly than any power
..
..
of n. It is possible to write down the exact location of each, and they
..
all correspond to negative real values of 1). , 1). 2 <  4 IJ. 2 ..
2 ..
..
We thus get an infinite number of singularities on curves, the
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
incident .
..
..
.
particle ....
....
..
..
..
..
..
..
.
..
.
.
Figure 32
.
.
.
.
.
.. .
.. .
AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER 35
r~~k2
physical
region
Figure 33
Thus, if the incoming wave contains only even angular momenta, it is "
possible to solve the scattering problem as for an effective potential
Y+(x) = Vex) + ye(x)
and one gets the right answer for the part of the scattering amplitude .
which is even with respect to the interchange of particles. .
If we call f+(k 2 , cos e) the complete scattering amplitude which is .
obtained from the potential Y+(x) by solving the complete SchrOdinger ..
equation, we have therefore equality between the even parts of f(k 2 ,
cos e) and r(k2 , cos 8), 1. e.,
(36)
.
. .
"
..
ENERGY AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER 37
Clearly, the amplitudes F+(k2,A2) and F(k2 ,A2) have the analytic
properties that we established in the preceding ,section; I.e., they . ,
are analytic except for singularities occurring for real positive k 2 11:
I .
or for real negative A2. It is easy to deduce from this result that
F+(k2 , 4k 2  A2) and F(k 2 , 4k 2  A2) will have the same k 2 sin
glIlarity and other singularities for negative values of k 2  A2.
For instance, a pole 1/(A2 + /L 2) in F+(k 2,A 2) will lead to a pole
II
1/(~  A2 + fJ.2) in F+(k2, 4k2  A2), which will be represented in
Fig. 33 by a straight line parallel to the backward boundary of the
physical region. In fact, this is quite natural, since the pole A2 = _/L2
was on a straight line parallel to the forward boundary of the physical
region and since exchange replaces cos 9 by cos 9. More generally,
we shall immediately get the picture of singularities in Fig. 34 by
this replacement. It is to be noted that the amplitudes f+(k 2 , cos e)
and r(k 2, cos 9), when expanded into partial waves by (213), give
the right answers al(k2) for even t and a:(k2 ) for odd t.
ities (Fig. 35). The solid lines are singularities, the dashed ones .
. .
..
...
.
.
. ....
...
.
.
..
. .
..
. .
...
,
..
, ' ...
. .
..
. .....
...
.
...
.
      ' ,..>,\,. : :                
i\ physical region
,
.
.
  ,
.
/ '\
..
, ....
. .
. .
. .
,
.....
. .
. .
. ,
. ..
. ...,
..
..
. ....
, \
. .
....
.. .
..
. .
' . ,
. .
Figure 34
....
..
....
....
. .
. .
. ....
. . . .". ' ""
.." ..
.."" ..
.. ""
NERGY AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER 39
bOWld state k 2 =  B
threshold k 2 = a
Figure 35
indicate the kinematics (Fig. 31). The shading along the singularities
at k 2 = 0, A~ =  4JJ.2, and A2 =  4k 2  4JJ.2 indicates that in fact these
singularities are the start of cuts extending to infinity. We have three
cuts, which go through all the singularities. This is possible because
the singularities are all located on the following surfaces:
as an analytic function of its two arguments. They are not very use :
ful in the case of potential scattering, since it is always possible to" .
,
,
~.
~:
INTRODUCTION OF
COMPLEX ANGULAR MOMENTA
..
 . ....
 . .. .
......
 ...
..
. . .o ..
 . . . . .o
.o ..
. . . .o ..
.... . ..
. . .o
..
. . . .o ..
.....
..... ......
..
   ..
.. .o
 . . ...
. . .. .o
. . . .o ..
 . . . .o ..
.......
. . .o
. . . .o ..
 . . . . .o
.......
. ...
. . .. .o

 ...
. . .
......
. . .. .o ..

.. .... . ..
. . . .o ..
. . ....
. . .. .o
 . . . .o
. . .. .o

na1 quantum number, for three cases (Fig. 41): Coulomb, harmonic:::::::  . . . .o ..
in the last case, we would not know how to define a total quantum num>::::::
. . .....
 .. .o
ber, but that the lines corresponding to constant internal quantum::::::: ......
number are very smooth. Is it then possible to interpolate in some>::::::: ....
sense these lines in a weqdefined fashion? . .:::}~ . . . .o,
..... .o.o, ..
......
. . .o,
I
.. ... ,
. . .... ' .o .o.,
. . . .o
.... ...o...,
...
I:
.... .o.o,
,
.... .o.o,
..... .o .o,
..... ,
. . . .o"
.....o.o,
.o
...... .o .o,
....
..... ,
.. .. .o,
..
.:.
.. .o.o,
. ,
....., ....
.....
. . .o,
5 5 ......
..
 .. . ..,,
.. .o.o,
....
..
.....o.,
. . .o.,
.....o.,
.o
.o ..
...
.. .o.o
.o
.... .o.,
.o ..
4 4 .......... ,
.... . .o
. .o.,
.... . ,
.. ..o
.....
..
.o.o,
. . ... ,
.....o.,.o ..
..o ..
.....o.,.o ..
..... ,
. . .o"
3 3 "!.
.
. . .o.
.'. .o.o'
./
.o.o~.o:
. . ,
... .o.

.....
. .o",
...... .
...
....
,
..... , ..
2 2 . . .o",
......o".o,
.... .o.o,
..
....
..
. . .o"
,
. ..,
,
..
....
1 1 ....
    .. .o.
.o,
 ... .
....
...
 ....
...
... .
. .
.
 .... .

...
....
  ....
.
. .
o a
.o.
...
...
 ... . .
.
.. . ...
l
"l!"W
3
rW
5
FW
7
FW
9
FW . k2 . ... .
: . o. .
.o.
.o. .
 ... ...
 .o ..
....
 .o.o
. ..
(a) Harmonic potential (c) Squarewell potential ....


...
... ...
 . . . . .o
.o.o
....
....o.o
.o.
...
. . . ..o.o
.o.
....
 . . . . .o


.... . .
.
.o ..
...
 ....
... . ..
.o.o
.....
... .
 . . .o.
...
 .o.o
.
... .
 . . .o.

... .
.o.o
...... ...
...
 ..o.

....... .

.....
.....
 . . .o.
..o.
   . ...
.....
.o.
. . . . .o
 . .o.o
....
....
 . . . . .o
.
5 .....
...
. . .o.

. . .. .o.

.... ...
. . . . .o
...
.... .
. .
.

....
...
...
.
. .
4 
...
...
.... .
. .
.........
...


........ .
. ..,
.. ..
,
...
..... .
(b) Coulomb potential ....
3 ... .
...

....
..
..
.o ..
.. . .
....
2 .o.
....
'.o. ~
.r.
.
...
..
.... . .
1
.. ....
....
.. .
....
....
...... .
.'....
.. .
' ~
....
' .o~
l
4"
. ' .o..
. . .o.
. . .o.
..
.....
....
....
..
.. ...'
.o.
~
Figure 41
.'
... ... .
.o.
.o.
..o...
cI .. . ..
................. .
. . .o.
.o.
.
.
....
.......
.
..
....
.o"
.o ..
 _.o ....
I
m~~~::::COMPLEX
m .
ANGULAR MOMENTA 43
r:.~:; :.:
:;;L::::e:~:
The functions Q = a{k2 ) are in general called Regge pole trajec
I::
:;::::: ger angular momentum.
f) To get a more quantitative connection, we have to introduce a for
::::=s~~f,_~~)~omm"feldw.t,on formula. It is derived
I .:::. r For k 2 real and negative, the wave function u.e. (k2 ,r) is real, and,
~{: if we define K = FP, the exponentials eKr in the asymptotic form
~fe~'~,,:.~~,~r;:'::'~~n:~ ~! ':::b:~~~:ent' of these exponential,.
~~::: :
~:::: :
:::;:::
~~: . >
.. ...
, ..

"
.
....
"
"" .
 ". , ..
"" .
 .", .
  ..
" .
"" ...
" ""
"
...
" ""
"
....
44 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES ""
""
""
...
 " . ..
" ""
"
....
" ""
"
...
""
. ...
~ .
 "
""
f(k2, COS 8) = (U + 1) al {k2)Pe. (cos 8) (4~  "
 " .
.. ..
..
. ..
""
 " .
1=0 """ ...
" "" ...
. ...
"
"""
....
 "
"
" ""
We may observe that all functions of I in the righthand side may be  " .
""
.. ..
2  " .
interpolated by analytic functions of I, aI(k ) by the "partialwave  " . ..
"""
" ...
amplitude" defined by the radial equation, where I is taken as an ar ""
"
" "" , .
 ", . .......
bitrary parameter. PI (cos 8) may be defined also as an analytic "
" .. ...
function of t: it is the solution of the Legendre equation, which is
""
.......
.. ....
 ",
"" ,
" "
regular and equal to 1 at cos 8 = 1. It is not a polynomial for non ' ."
" ....
" ..
". .,
""
integer I, but a "hypergeometric function" with a branch cut going .........
."
""
from 1 to  0 0 .
.
"" .....
.....
"
.. ..
"
"
""
. ,....
it a sum over residues of poles in the following way: Consider the ""
....,,.......
"
" ....
". ,....
function "
"
""
.....
..... ...
.....
.....,....
..
" ."
(U + 1) a Q (k2 )PQ (cos 8) "
" . ....
......,.
""" ..
""
.""...
.
. ..,
  ."

."... . .,


 ....
1m f   .""...
."
.

.... ...

"...
."
.
.
"
" .

Regge  "...
"...
..
 .... .,
O! 3
poles

.".". .


."
""...
"...
. .
..
"...

"...
"...
..

 "...
" " ..
.
.". ,.


"... ..
"" ..
"
"... .
"
"
...
O! 4
O! 2
"
"
..
...
"
....
2 1
"
....
'"
."
...
.
"
        .....,.    t            Re f
.. ,
.
........
"
. ..
" '
"
."
"
1 1 2 3
'"
."
... ,
sin TIt poles
'"
.. ,,
..
'"
.. ,
Figure 42
'"
...".,,
..
.... ,,
'"
'"
'"
'"
..
.".
.".
,
, ..
'"
.".
, ..
'"
.". .
,.
'" ,,' .......
.".
'" ......
COMPLEX ANGULAR MOMENTA 45
( 42)
lInt
lIn!
 C2
t
Re Re!
C
1
1
(a) (b)
lIn! 0
/
C  0
~8
Ret
(c)
Figure 43
"
"
"
.
.
.
.
.
46 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES .
2 2
we call ai(k ) the different solutions f '" ai(k )
give the locations of Regge poles, and get
112+ 100
i 2
(2f + 1) af (k )Pf ( cos e) df
 2 ,"',,,, , ...... ~ ' .. ~ ' " .. h '
sin IIf
2
jS i {k )P a i(k2} (  cos e)
.
1
where (3.(k2) stands for the integral (2Q + 1) aQ (k 2
) dQ around the
1
pole ai.
"
{3(k2)Pa (k 2 )(  cos e)
sin IIa(k 2 )
{3(ki)Pf (cos e)
'" .... + regular function (4 4)
II ~~2 (ki Hk2  kV cos IIQ
We find again the same form for the boundstate pole as in (39) with
the identification
1m!
Ret
(a)
FIgure 44
, .,
radial equation. This is easier to see on a twodimensional model,  ..
..
. ....
,
.
  ...... .
where a complex angular momentum m gives an angular wave func

 ..
.. . ....
.. .
 .. ... ...,
tion elmrp, with m complex. Such a wave function represents the  ... . .. ..
   ...
 .. .....
, ..,
 ...
decay of the metastable state as it rotates, giving rise to the purely ..
...
...
...
 .. .......
outgoing radial wave function. In the old problem of Sommerfeld, ., ......
 ..
 ..
where he studied the propagation around the earth of radio waves, .. ... .
..
....
..
... .... .
this exponential decay beyond the horizon (tunnel effect) was the main ...
..
..........
.
.. .
... ...
.. .....
phenomenon studied, and nobody cared about what happened very far ..
. ....
.. .
...... . ..
from the antenna. The pole with the smallest imaginary part (slowest .. .
.. .
.. .
... ...
..
.
decay) gave practically the answer.
....
.....
It is of course more difficult to feel why this kind of approach
...... .
. . ..
.. .
......
should be interesting for stronginteractions physics and, indeed, the}} ...
most interesting pole will turn out to be that with the largest real part,}:
in contradistinction to Sommerfeld's case. ' :::::::
....
....
...
" ...  . ....
..
...
. . ..
. .. ....
....
.
...
.... .
44 BEHAVIOR OF REGGE TRAJEaORIES ...
. . ..
.. .. ....
... .
.... 
Let us now give an idea of the behavior of Regge poles. The least :}:
pathological of the potentials we considered in Fig. 41 is the Coulomb}~:
.....
......
. ..
.... 
potential. It is the only one among those three which has a scattering
...........
.....

....... 
amplitude. The Coulomb phase shifts, which are given in many text .......
....... 
.......
.....
. .. .
......
.. ..... . 
.... .....
....

 

.... ..
.... 
....
....... .. .
...... .

....... ..
  ........
 ....
A
  ...
....
...... ...
y =
......
  .....
.......
k ......
....
   ...... .. .
....
   ...... ......

.... .. .
 ......
.........
We take the attractive case Z l Z2 < 0, or A> O.  .
 . . .. .. .
 ....
 .  .
...
 ... . .
... .
The gamma function has poles at zero and each negative integer.   . ....... ... ..
....
This gives us for the location of the poles ..
....
.....
..
...
, ..
...
.
... . ..
 ... ..
.....
..
.e. + 1+ iy
.....
...
... ..
...

.. ..
= n n = 0, 1, ...
.....
.... ..
.... 
.... .. .
..
....
iA ....
..
.......
.....
. .. .
.. .
f.. = 1  n + '" .... ... .. ..
k ... .
 ....
........ .. .
, .....
... ... . .
.. .
....
.
..
...
...
...... .
....
.....
.
 .
.... ..
We may plot in Fig. 45 the real and imaginary parts of .e. as a func
tion of k 2 : the teal part is pictured in solid lines and the imaginary

...

.
 .....
... .. .
....

.
... ....
. ....
.. . .. .
part in dashed ones. We find of course the whole pattern of Fig. 41b. . .. .

. .... ....
...
..... .
......
....

......
..
....
.....
......
......
....
..
..
.. ...
.. ......
.....
_.. .
...
..
.
.
....
... ...
. .....
.
..... . ~.
COMPLEX ANGULAR MOMENTA 49
~
Inti
:1 Re1.
1\
I \
: \\
\
" ..,,
n=O
n= 1
Figure 45
....
.....
..
..
 ... ... ..
..
.. .
..
..
.. .
 . . .
   .....
 ...
.... ..
 ...
 .. ...
 . ...
.. ..
..
.
.
 ..
........
....
 ... . ..
....
..
..
.... ..
.....
..
 ...
... ..
......
+>,.2 +'K
..
 ...
.....
........
. .....
..
.... ...
.. .
. ..
. ....,
...
..
... . .
.
........,
(a) n = 0 (b) n = 1 , ..
...
..
..
. .
...
.
.
.
..
... . . .,
...
.. .. ,,
Figure 46
.....,
,
.
.. . ..
.
..
. ..
...
........
. ..
negative scattering length, in spite of the presence of the bound state.
.
..
..
The potential is simply too strong and the bound state too far from ..
..
,
zero energy for the usual pattern to hold.
The third pole has a behavior quite similar to that of the first two,
.. .. ..
  ......
 .. .
  ....
 . . ..
. ..
but is too far away on the left to have any chance to show up in any ..
   ...
. ...
...
.....
physical connection. The behavior of the fourth pole, however, is   ..
 ...
.
. .....
.
 ...
 ...
strikingly different from that of the first three, and advises us to be
  ....
. ..
...
 ...
cautious about generalizing too fast and guessing what a Regge pole   ......
.
 ...
 ...
behavior could be in a more general case. Of course, these trajec
  .....
. ..
.
.
.. ..
.
  ....

..
...
 ...
be complete, analyze the values taken by the function a(k2 ) for all  ...
  .... ..
values of k 2 , real or complex, and on all sheets of the Riemann
.
 ....
. ..
 ....
surface.
 ....
. ..
  ... .
 . . .. .. .
 ... .
 ... . ... .
 .. ..
 .
 ......
.. ..
..
  ....
 . . ..
. ..
4 5 EXCHANGE FORCESSIGNA11JRE ....
  ..
 ... .
 ...
.
.
.......
.. ..
 . ...
We mention briefly the case where there are exchange forces pres ::::::::
1mQ
+10
+100 10
(a) ~_4++_~._Re f
1 +1
1m!
+1
+100
(b)
10
Re Q
2 1 0
ImI
+10
+100 +0.1
(c) 100 10
Re .f
3 1 0
1m f
1
+10
(d) o
_~4_'3~~.r
_+t~~0Re f
+0. 01
l
I;
i
i
Figure 47
I
II
II
 . . .
" "
..
  .,
..
..
..
.
52 MANDELSTAM
THEORY AND REGGE POLES
1I2+100
2.Q. + 1
f(~ cos e)
=<
sin II!
1/2 100
PC{i(k2)(COS e) + Pai(k2}(COS e) . . .,
"
"
"
.
..
sin II! vanishes, but P! ( cos e) + P! (cos II) vanishes also, and the "
"
.
.
contribution of this pole is perfectly regular; the same phenomenon "
"
" ,
.
.
. ..
is true of the cC going through an even integer value. . "" ..
"
. ..
"
" .
. ..
.. ....
"
We may thus consider that the physical region for the O!+ is the " . ,
" " ,
" ,
"" .
.
even values only, and that for cC the odd ones. We shall call signa " " .
" " ..
" .
ture the superscript , which makes a distinction between the two "
"
"
"
" .
" .
" .
kinds of poles. "
"
"
"
"" " .
"
""
"
"" .
46 ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR IN TRANSFER
"
"
.
""
"
A very peculiar feature of (43) and (45) is that they immediately "
" .
give the asymptotic behavior of f (k2 , cos II) for large (unphysical) "
values of cos e or, what is the same, of F(k2,.6. 2 ) for large val\les of
2 2
.6. for fixed k This is due to the asymptotic behavior of Pi (cos II),
..
" .
which is, for large cos e, essentially proportional to (cos e)Q. "
"
"
.
.
For complex !, I (cos II)Q I = I cos II IRe Q eArg (cos II) 1m Q
"
""
"
"
.
""
..  "" ,
. Arg (COS II) denotes the phase of the complex number cos II (Arg x:; .
.
""
""
"
"
tially depends upon I cos eiRe Q. The dominant term will be that with \
the largest Re Q. Each Pe. in the integral of (43) has a Re Q < 0, .\
and therefore the contribution 00 the integral goes to zero for large}.
..
cos e. The main term will come from the Regge pole contribution
"
. ... 
"
"
"
"
"'
,
... ""
with the largest Re O!. It corresponds to the Regge pole outmost on . ...
"
""
"
,
"
the right of Fig. 43, and finally we get an asymptotic behavior of .... ""
""
. .. ""
"
,
" . .. .,
"
".
... .. ,,
.
...
...
.. .. .,
...
... . .,
"... ...
. .....
. ..
..
.
COMPLEX ANGULAR MOMENTA 53
First, it is very strange that, although for negative and large .6o '
there are so many singularities of the amplitude, as mentioned in
Sec. 33, they should add up to such a smooth asymptotic behavior
as given by (47).
Second, this result is not lnteresting in any way as long as poten
tial scattering only is concerned. It will take on Us lull meaning and
physical impllcations only when we treat the relativistic Smatrix
problem . This iB due to the lact that large ValUt:!5 of .60 2 arc fax away
from the physical region in potential scattering, and we shall see in
Chapter 5 that this Is In some sense not the case in the relativistic
theory.
....., ..
.......,,

  . ....
 ...
.... ,,
..
 _ '.J
.. ,
  .. . ..
. ,
  ....
  .. .
.
. .
..
.
..
,
,
 ...
,
.. ..
   ...
..
,
,
,
  ...
..
,
..
,
 . . ...
  .........
 ..
. ,
.
.. ,
, ..
  ... ..
,
 . . .
. .,
  ...
 .
 .
.
. .
 . .....
..
  .. ,
 .
. .
...

...
5

. .. .
...

.
. ...
,
.... ...,
,
,
...
,
KINEMATICS OF ....
...
.
I ....,
..
..
..
.. ,
..
,
..
,
......
..
..
,
,
....,
,
,
.. ...
,
 . .
CROSSING . ...
. . ...,, ......
....
,
,
. .. ....
. ...,,
. .. ..
.. ......,
..
,
....... .
. . ..., .... ,
......
. ...,,
....
.....
. ..., ,
. ....,,
,
........,,
,
....
,
. ,,
..,
...
...
..,
..
.,
.,
,
,
...... ...,,
......
,
..
.... , ,
. . ,
.. ,,
. . ...
.... ,
,
... . ,,
..
,
 ...
... ...,
which we shall suppose to be spinless, so that, as we have seen, thE;!   ......
. .,
...
  .....,
  . . ...
reaction will be completely described by a scattering amplitude which   ....
.. .. ,
 .....
  ..
..
depends only on the kinetic energy and the scattering angle, as de  ...
  ...
..
..
 ...
,
scribed in Chapter l.   ..
....
.. ....
We shall call Pl,P2 ,p~,p; the fourmomenta of these particles. As  ...
 ..
.....,...
a result of energymomentum conservation, these fourvectors satisfy:::::; .....
..... ,
... .,  ...
 .... ............,,
.....
(51) .
. .. ..
  ....

.....,
..
  .... . ....
  .....
..
 ...
Some such systems which are frequently used are the laboratory
....
 . ............
system, where a 1 (or a 2) is at rest, or the centerofmass system.'
....
.. ,
 . . .
..
....
However, the values of the kinetic energy and the scattering angle will . ..
,
....
,
,
. .,
depend on the choice of the reference system. To make a complete . . ...,
. . ,, ....
,
....
,
. . ,
use of relativistic invariance, it will thus be useful to replace the sys .. ,, ..
,
.....
,
. ,,
,
..
,
Let us see how we can define invariant variables. We shall first . . ...
. ... ...,,
.....
,
.....
,
remark that there are only three independent fourvectors among . ..,, ...... ,
. ,, ,
last vector, p~, being determined by the conservation relation (51). ... . .
..
. .......,
..
,
,
.. ....
,
. . ,
,
,
. . ...,
. ...
. ........ ... . ,
,
54 ....,,
..., .. '
. .
..... .... ,
..,, ....
,
.....
...
....
. . .
, ..
... ..
. ,
,
, .. ...
,
,
.......
'
""""" " ELA TIVISTIC seA TTERING KINEMA TICS 55
p~ "" m~
and
should be kept on the same footing as t. As there are only six inde
pendent invariant quantities, u bas to be a function of s, t, m~ , m~,
m'j1, and m;2
c c
p, / /
/ /
/ /
(V /
B / p; D'// '
,
,.[( /
/ /
X. ,, /.JS
p,
/
/
/
,, /
/
/
/
/ /
/ D V
p',
A A
(.) (b)
F1gu.re 51
...."  ~
 '.'''...
...... ' .. ..'"
.."

  ......,... ........
 ..
.. ....,..,,'.
  ........
...
..... J'
. :.:::=:
. .
....... ....
... : . ...
56 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE PQLES:::::~
 ..... ..... . ..
... .
 .... .......
...
'
..... ..
...
....
....
.... .....
   .
.... . ...
. .. .
It follows easily from the conservation relation (51) that ,  .. . .
....
...
.... ... .
... .

  ..........

........ . ....
 .. ..
... ... . .
s + t + u = m 21 + m 22 + m'2
1 + m'2
2 (5 2)   ............. ..... ...
...

........ ....
.. ... ........ .. ..
These variables may be given a simple physical interpretation: in the ::::::::
. . ..
centerofmass system the threedimensional momenta Pl anq P2 .>~::
are oppOSite, so that s reduces to the square of the total energy):::
.....
(p~ + p~)2. When the masses m l and m~, m 2 and m~ are equal, as::::::
they are in elastic scattering, then the energies p~ and p~o, p~ and :}~:
2
p~o are equal, so that t reduces to .6. , the square of the momentum,)ji
transfer, since :::::::
... . ....... .
...... .. .
.. .....
..... .
.......... ...
.... .. ..
 ........
...... .. ..
. .... ...
...
........ ... ..
......
...........
Furthermore, when m l and m 2 are also equal, as is the case, for ...... .. .
..... ...... . ..
instance, for neutronproton scattering, u may also be interpreted ......... .. ..
...
....... ... .
..
as minus the square of neutronproton (chargeexchange) momentum
. . ....
.. . . ..
. ....
... . .. ..
transfer, while t is minus the square of protonproton (elastic) mo ... ..
....,,
,
.
.
...
mentum transfer. In the general case where masses are different, . ,, ....,
....
,
t and u keep their meaning as the invariant squares of fourdimen . . ...,, ..
. ..,,..
sional momentum transfers.
.. ,
....,,
..,,,
. .
.
We shall now stick for a while to neutronproton scattering as an
....
....
.. ,
example. We shall neglect the small neutronproton mass difference
....
and the spins of the nucleons, treating them as spinless particles. . . ..
. .. ..
,
The modifications introduced by the spins will be indicated later on. . ..
..
...
. ...
.
. ..
Let us call k the centerofmass momentum and e the scattering
...
..o
...
.....
..o
,
angle. From the preceding interpretation of s,t,u, the relations be ..
.
.
..
,
, ,
..
tween the two sets of variables read .
.
,
. ,..
, ..
.
. .
,
..o
..
,
...
..,
..
...
. ,
,
..
,
..,
..o
,
..o
......,.
..o
.
.
.. ,, .
u =  2k2( 1 + cos e)
.. ...
,
..o
..
..
,
,
..
..
,
.. ...
,
,
..
......
. .,,
...
. .,
....,...
In Chapter 3 it was found convenient to visualize the properties of
... ....
,
the scattering amplitude as a function of k 2 and .6. 2 by drawing the ..
... ..
..... , ,
...
region of physical k 2 and .6. 2 on a twodimensional plot. Here, in ...
.
... ..
...., ...,,
place of these variables, we may use sand t. For a physical situa ..
....
.
. ..
...
..
tion k is real and cos e lies between 1 and +1, Le., s is larger . ...,
...
..... ,
...
than 4m2 and 0 > t >  4k 2 This physical regipn is shown as the ..... .
.
...
,
,
.. .. .
.. ..
.
..
shaded area in Fig. 52.
...
.. ,.
.
0
In such a plot, a line u = constant will make a 45 angle with the ...
...
. .,
... .,.
... .
...
two axes. To keep the symmetry between t and u it is convenient to ..
..
... .
.
use triangular coordinates. Such a coordinate system is obtained by
..
..
...
...
.. . ,
.., ...
..
.
.
..
..
..
...... ....
.
..
..
....
, ., .
..
.. ..
. ,
.... . ..
...
...
....
. ,
.., .
.
LATIVISTIC SCATTERING KINE
t" 4m 2  s
u"O
Figure 52
drawing three axes making equal (120) angles (Fig. 53) and repre
senting s, t, and u as the respective (oriented) distances of a point
to these axes. The relation (52) will thus be automatically satisfied
if the units are conveniently chosen.
This cOQrdinate system is shown in Fig. 5 3 together with the
physical region of p  n scattering, bounded by the two lines cos e " 1,
cos e = 1, I.e., t = 0, u" O.
Any point of the plane defines values of k 2 and cos () through (53).
However, if this point is not in the shaded area, it will give either
negative values of k 2 or values of cos e which do not lie between 1
and + 1, or both. These values of k 2 and cos () clearly correspond to
complex values of the c.m. momentum k.
=.....t = 0
Figure 53
.. ....
 .... ..
 ......
. .,
, _.." ...
..
  ....
...
. ..,..
.. .

  ...., .
....",
  ....
.
.....",
..
 ... ,
58 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES , .. ,.".
 ...
  .....

.. . ..
.  ...., .
..
..
 ..
... .
.
. ...
 .. .
.. ...
 .. .
5 2 CROSSING  .... ."
  ......
... ....
 ..
Scattering amplitudes have a certain symmetry with respect to the :/: ...
.. .
interchange of particles and antiparticles, which is known as crossing::: ...
symmetry. We shall introduce it by recalling first how antiparticles::::
It is well known that the metallic atoms, when assembled in a. f::::::: ...
crystal, lose some of their peripheral electrons. The crystal is thus <:::::
...
formed by a regular array of ions while the electrons which have been ::;:: . ..
pulled out from the atoms are submitted to the electrostatic potential I <} .. 
of these ions. This potential has the same periodic properties as the>::;: .. .
...
..,
...
.....
....
. ..
. ,
,
, ....
...
... . .. ,
....
......
...... ,,
,
. .. ....,
....
...
... . ,
., ...... ... .
..,.
...
,
....
...
... . .. ,
... ...... . .
,
,
. .... ... ,
..... ,,
...
...
... ,
...
,
....
. . ..
Figure 54 ..
...
... . ,
... ..
...
.... . ..,,
,
.
. ....
....
...
..
..,
.......,
...
,
... ... . ..
,
,
... ...
...
.... . ..,,
,
.... ... . . ,
... ...
...
,,
,
..
...
.",'
.. ,
LATIVISTIC SCATTERING KINEMATICS 59
a

k' Eo
u
Figure 55
principle, no more than two electrons can have the same momentum,
so that, at low temperatures, the electrons will fill up the lowest en
ergy levels from the groundstate energy  U up to some maximum
energy Eo' These energy levels lie in the shaded region on Fig. 55
and they constitute the so called" Fermi sea."
The complete Fermi sea has a total charge Q, a total energy 8,
but a zero total momentum and zero total current, as the momenta
and currents of the electrons balance each other in pairs. Electric
or thermal conductivity is due to the excitation of the electrons from
the Fermi sea: an excited electron jumps from its initial momentum
k and initial energy E ;;; (k2 /2m)  U < Eo to a level higher than
"Fermi sea level" Eo, with a momentum k' and an energy E' =
(k'~12m)  U > Eo. The remaining electrons now have a total charge
Q  e, a total energy 8  E, and a total momentum k. We may
consider that, instead of pulling an electron out of the Fermi sea,
the excitation has pushed in a "hole" with charge  e, energy  E ;;;
(k2 /2m) + U, and momentum k. Both the excited electrons and the
holes can carry net charge or energy, that is, are responsible for
transfers of electricity or heat.
Analogous considerations have been applied to the quasifilled
shells of atomic electrons. Here again, one may conSider a shell
where an electron is lacking as a complete shell plus a positive hole.
A very important application of this notion of "hole" has been
made by Dirac in his theory of the positron. As is well known, the
Dirac equation for the free electron allows negative as well as posi
tive eigenvalues of the energy, so that an electron with momentum k
can have an energy E = .,fk2 + m 2 The possible values of E thus
range either from  co to  m or from + m to + co, as shown in
Fig. 56.
Clearly, the negative energy solutions have no direct physical
meaning, but Dirac gave them one in the following way: suppose that
... .... ..
 ..
..
.........
 ... ...... .,
, ... .....
..... ....
.. ......
 .. .......
.... ....
...
60 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POL:ES' .... .......
 .. .........
.. ......
..
..
.... ...
 .. ... ......
..... .. ..
E ..
..
..
.. ..
....
.. ..
..
.... .
..
..... ......
....
.. ..
..
......
.....
....
.. .
....
..
.
...
....
m ..
....
.
.. ..
,  ..
 ..
   .....
..
...
...
.
..
......
. ...
..
o .. ... ....
..
..
..
.. .
.
..
m .. ...
... .
.. ... .......
..,.' ...
... ..
...... ..
.. . ..
<\., E,Ie. ..
..
..
..
..
.. .....
...
.. ...
..
.......,
.. .. ..
~\
...
.. .. ........
I'P ... Figure 5 6 . ...
.......
/ ' */' .. ...........
. p ~\. ... ...
.. .. . ....
%:)'1 y) kr ..
..
......
....
vat I ,~
.... .
all negative energy states are filled up by electrons, thus making an .....
;>,.pl ",<" equal to zero. We identify this state with the vacuum. The possibl.e ..... "'
......
. . "'
...."' .
)"~}J 1 ~V'o energy of any supernumerary electron will be positive, since Pauli's ..
... . . ..
... .
.. .
 J'i )\1 principle forbids it to occupy an already filled state with negative en
. . ....
......
. .......
< ,k'> ergy and so all observable electrons will have positive energies.
...
...... ..
'.;' rf' If an electron with negative energy is eXCited, it will necessarily ...
..
.........
....
.. .."'"'
.
,r!' J;./'
';;J~"
get a positive energy, since all the states of the Fermi sea are for
.. .
..
.. ....
... ...
"'
...........
,. t' bidden by the Pauli principle. A hole will thus be created in the sea.
....
...."' .
....
"'
First, the hole may again be considered as an object of minus the . ..."'.
"' "'
.
.. .
...
...
..
charge of the electron, since the total charge of the Fermi sea has ...... . ..
......"'..
.. "'
.. .
.... ..
Second, the hole has a positive energy. Indeed, let us suppose that .
...
.. ... .."'...
......
"'
the negative energy electron has been excited from the top 9f the . ......."'...
...... ..... .
Fermi sea, energy  m, to the groundstate positive energy +m; it
........
"'
is then necessary to furnish it the gap energy 2m. But, as the elec
....
.. ...."'.. "'
tron itself has finally the energy m, the hole must be considered also
... .
........
"' "'
..". ."' .
...
"'
to have the positive energy m. In the same way a hole created at any ... ....
..
... .. "
....
energy level E may be considered as having an energy +E. ...
.. . ..
... .."'."' .
Finally, the hole has momentum k, if it has been created by sup .<.z
. . "
energy  E of the electron, Le., V = k/E. As the hole has positive en ......"'.."'.
ergy, opposite charge, and must give the same current, its momentum ... ..
...
..
..
..."' "'.
....
is k. . "' . ..
.. ...
L
......"'.."'
..."' . ...
..
..... "'."'
..."'"'.
...
...
... .. "'"'
..
". "' .
.
.."'.."'"' .
..."'".
RE LA TIYIS TIC SCA TTERING KINEMA TICS 61
p t np + n
PI p; p~ P2
which must be closely related to reaction (5 4). We thus have a simple
rule expressing the fact that in a reaction it is possible to replace a
p p
p, p;
Figure 0'1
...
"" .
"
  ". .
"" .
"
"
"
  ". .
"
"" '
"
"" .
"
"" .
"" .
"
62 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES:. ""
""
""
""
""
"
"
particle on one side of a reaction by its antiparticle with opposite:: "

"

"
"
"
p + n p + n
. ",
""
, (55) " "
"
" " q~
""
""
, ""
"
""
"
" .
.
then
""
"
""
. "" ..
""
""
(56) . ".
" "
"
. " " ..
"
""
"
""" .
. "" .
""
"
""
. 5  3 CROSSED REAalONS
""
"
..
knOw::
"
plot, it seems natural, in view of (5 6), to put the phy~
for crossed reactions on the same plot.
~ same way as
,
and eu the corresponding scattering angle; then in thl
",
"
. .
for reaction (54),
,
"
" ,
q~)2 2~(1
.
s '" (Pl + P2)2 = (ql  =  + cos eu)
p~)2= 2~(1
,
(57) .
.
t ::: (Pl  (ql  q;)2 :::  cos eu)
.
,
,
.
.
,
u = (PI  p;)2 = (ql + q2)2 = 4(~ + m 2)
.
""
.
.
,
the domain
The physical region for reaction (55) corresponds to
.
"
.
"
~ > 0 1 1
" .
..
"
"
1. e.,
"
"
"
.
"
I'J
u> < <
 ""
" . 4m 2
t 0 }J 0
" .
.
"
Figure 58
We have also plotted the physical region for the other crossed re
action
p+pn+n
(58)
r~ r'1
which satisfies
(59)
If we call kt; the c.m. momentum for reaction (58) and Bt tHe scat
tering angle, then writing PI = r Il p~:: r 2 , Pa = r~, p~ = r~, one
has
S = (Pl + P2) = (r I r~)2 :: 2k~(1  cos 9t)

so that the physical region (58) is defined by t > 4m2, s < 0, u < O.
We list here the complete set of reactions which may be derived
from p  n scattering by repeated crossing:
p+np+n p+np+n
p+np+n p+p n+n
p+np+n n+n  p +p
 .......
 .. .. .
 ,
  ..
. ... .
 ,

  .. . .
.. ..
.
  ......

..
  .. ..
 ......
. . ,
64 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
...

 ..
,
..
,
In general, one may link the amplitudes for twelve different reac:::
lions by crossing symmetry and timereversal invariance. Remember::
that the latter just expresses that the amplitudes for two inverse r e  }
, .:>:
A+K1f+p . ...
.
.
...
. ,
just differ by kinematical and spin factors. In that example, we can ...
.
.. .. ,
.. ..
  ..
..
. .,
..
...... .
,
. .
. .

. ....
. . ....
....,
. ..
   . .
. ...,
. .
.. ,
..
. .
..
....
. .
,
..
are all related by crossing or time reversaI. ..
Inverse reactions as well as chargeconjugate reactions have the ..
same physical regions, but this is well known and we shall not. insist:
on them any more. .>
reactions (54), (55), and (58). We shall see later on what one has
..
Consider a general reaction
.
.
(511) .
.
. ..
.
...
. .
are ingoing (see Fig. 59), so that we shall call Pl,P2' Ps' P4 t h e :
.. .
. .
...
..
..
...
.',.
.
.
.. .
..
....
RELATIVISTIC SCATTERING KINEMAT
Figure 59
p~ = m~
(512)
s + t + u = m~ + m~ + m~ + m! (513)
All these are tangent to (C) and do not cross it, unless they coincide,
in which case they pass only through a double point, at which (C)
crosses itself (all m '" 0). Through each double point there are three
pairs of coincident lines.
3. Now it should be fairly easy to have an idea of the shape of the
curve, which has three infinite branches and a central blob. One can
show that the branch with the lowest threshold cuts each of its asymp
totes, the branch with the highest one, and the third branch one. These
three points are on a straight line. .
, '
,
,".."
,,
,,
,., .
,
,,
,
.. ,........ ."
"
"
,, , .. .
,
,, .. ......
,,
,, . ..
.. ..
, .. ..
,,
,,
,,
. 66 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
,,
,
, ,"
,
, ,"
,,
,
, 4. If there are two double pOints, (C) decomposes into a hyperbola
:~ and a straight line. l
:~
:~ 5. If there are three double pOints, (C) decomposes into three
,
"~
"
, straight lines (Fig. 58).
.
"l
,
" ,"
,
''';
"
6. Check: No straightline cuts (C) including the center blob in
"
"
c'.,(
"
more than three points.
,'.i
,'."
.......
....
;''''
,
.,i!..
5 6 SECOND EXAMPLE: PIONNUClEON SCATIERING
~:~'f According to the rules, we draw a triangle of height 2m2 + 2Jl2
u
.,
:
..,',,
.,
(Fig. 510) whose sides are the axes s = 0, t = 0, u = O
'".
'0',.
We choose to call the nucleons particles 1 and 3 and the pions
.
"
,'. 2 and 4. ,
.,
" ,'<
~~
, The tangents parallel to s = 0 are s = (m JlF twice. We have
,
",
v,
"
The curve decomposes into the line t '" 0 itself, and a hyperbola
",
, ,,
.
,
with the remaining asymptotes s:;; 0 and u '" 0, passing through the
,.,.
"
The center blob is formed by the arc ADB and the segment AB.
,...
r
"
"r
,
,
,
.. 57 EXAMPLE: KfJ.3 DECAY AND DAUTZ PLOT
,,.
",
.
Let us now consider the threebody decay of the K meson, ,
, ..
c
,cc'
K7T+Jl+V (514)
..
"
"
.,. "
Pl P3 P4 P2
.,.
r"
,"
r
"
~...
,.,,".
..,.
"
I
.. .....
and we shall denote the masses by the same symbols as the particle,s,
except for the neutrino, which has zero mass. ~
The physical region is now a true cubic curve with the tangents
t
IV . .
======:::..:: J.t
~
:"'= =:':'=''':..:::' 2
II III
o
..
u
..
FIgure 511
..
. : :.
..
..
..
..
...
..
...
..
.....
....
RELATIVISTIC SCATTERING KINEMATICS 69
K 1T+1T+1T
However, it should be stressed that the loop has the meaning of a de
cay physical region only when one of the particles can decay into the
three others. In general, there is always such a loop in any (s,t,u)
plot, for instance the central triangle in Fig. 58 or the loop ABD in
Fig. 510. Another example is shown in Sec. 58.
Figure 512
...
.... .,
......,
  ..
....
...
... ..
 .. ..
  .....
..
...
..
...
..
....
...
..
...
..
... .,
  ..
70 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES ..
...
..
...
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
...
..
.
,
.
.
t
.
.
.
.
.
  '          (A + p)2
. .
.
.
.
..
..
  ...
..... ,
  ...,
..
...
..
...
..
...
..
.....
..
...
..
...
.
...
.
..
.
..
..
....
...
..
.
.
...
.
..
...
...
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (K + IT)2 ..
..
...
..
..
..
...
..
...
.. ..
(A  p)2 ..
...
..
.
...
...
..
...
.
.
...
..
...
.
...
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.... .
.
.
(P+7T)2 (A+1T)2
.
.
(p + K)2 .
(A + K)2 .
u ..
.
Scale: .
.
.
.
2
1 GeV ..
..
I .... , ' ...
.
..
Figure 513
...
..
...
..
.
.
58 A CASE: ASSOCIATED PRODUOION
...
.. .
.
..
..
together with its crossed reactions .
.
..
... . . :.
....
.
...
.
..
..
...
... .
RELATIVISTIC
\
SCATTERING KINEMATICS 71
p+KA+1J (519)
p+A1J+K (520)
where all masses are different and different from zero (Fig. 513).
,
RELATIVISTIC
SCATTERING THEORY
....
"A LA MANDELSTAM"
II
Figure 61
.
.
.
nqtbes:s. cOl1.."iistenLwith.the.firsLie:w:orJiers oLo'irturbatioIL theory, .
We shall now try to see what are, just from the physical viewpoint,
the most natural analyticity hypotheses for the scattering amplitudes,
.
.
.
.
meaning of that question is the following: we have already introduced
.
a scattering amplitude for reaction I, fl(k 2 , cos 8), which we shall
.
write fl(S, t,u) such that
.
.
.
,
.
.
In the same way, there exists another amplitude flI(S, t, u) for the
crossed reaction II.


p+np+n energy ,fU
with (62)
.
But, in place of fl, one could as well use another amplitude, propor
tional to the first one, such as, for instance,
.
 .1
'
da
21T dt
l~OW, it is impossible to have together the crossing relations
,
_ ...... ""~ ,' I
,,.
.
 .
~
~..  '
.
').. ~~~~., ', . Jo.'.
~
, , ' '.
","". .~ (;~ ~ ..... t 
. , , ,
 '. .. \
r ............. T'
MANDELSTAM SCATTERING THEORY 75
and
gl(S,t,U) = gll(u,t,s)
(64)
which contradicts the second one, and, generally, there are few forms
of the amplitude for which crossing has the simple form (63). The
fieldtheoretical invariant amplitude (which is obtained by taking
Smatrix elements between states with Lorentzinvariant normali
zation) turns out to satisfy these requirements, and is
(65)
,
76 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
<Xl
V{r) '"
a
That class of potentials is in fact very large, and the experimentally
determined V(r) can indeed be given that form. .
All properties of the scattering amplitude which have been estab
lished from the SchrOdinger equation must then be satisfied by the full
scattering amplitude as long as the nonrelativistic approximation is
correct, Le., as long as the momenta are small compared with the
nucleon mass m. This means that the square of the C.m. momentum
k 2 is small as compared to m 2 and the momentum transfer t is also
much smaller than m 2
As one has s '" 4{k + m and t'"  a , we
2 2
)
2
know thus that for a region of the (s,t,u) plot broadly indicated by a
Circle in Fig. 61, A(s,t,u) is an analytic function of s and t (Le.,
of s, t, and u) and that it has only the singularities which we have
determined, I.e.:
1. A(s,t,u) has a pole in s corresponding to the exiStence of the
deuteron Which is a protonneutron bound state. In Chapter 3 we have
shown that this pole occurs at k 2 '"  B, where B is the deuteron
binding energy. However, we had chosen a system of units where the
reduced mass of the p  n system was taken as t. This reduced .
mass is in fact mp mn/(mp + m n ) = m/2, i.e., the pole occurs at
k 2 = mB or at s'" 4(k2 + m2) '" 4m(m  B). If we neglect B/m, as
is indeed allowed in a nonrelativistic limit, 4m(m  B) "" (2m  B)2
and 2m  B is nothing but the deuteron mass M, so that the pole
occurs very near M2.
However, it was shown in Chapter 2 that the deuteron pole appeared
because the deuteron was a bound state of the p  n system (Fig. 62).
This simple physical property must certainly be preserved in a rela
tivistic theory, so that we shall now consider that the pole occurs
when the total C.m. mass of the protonneutron system .fS is equal
to the deuteron mass, i. e., exactly for s = M2.
2 2
2. A(s, t,u) has a cut starting from k = 0, Le., s'" 4m This cut
appears when energy is large enough for scattering to become pos
sible. It will certainly also remain in the relativistic theory.
3. A(s,t,u) has a cut for t real positive. In fact, it may even have
a pole and a cut if, in the dlTect potential Vl(r), there is an isolated
, Yukawa potential of range r 0' so that
d 
n
Figure 62
'I
V1(r)
e r / ro
= Vo    +
foo elJ.r
  a'(fJ.) dlJ.
r ' b r
if b > r~l, A(s,t,u) has a pole at t = r~2 and a cut starting from
t = b2 As we have already shown, the position of these poles or cuts
are related to the range of the direct potential.
4. In the same way, A(s,t,u) has a cut for u real positive and per
haps a pole. These singularities are introduced by the exchange po
tential Vir) and their position is related to the range of that potential
(remember that u is the square of the p  n momentum transfer).
It results from the analysis that the poles and cuts in s have po
sitions which are completely defined by the masses of particles en
tering in the p  n processes while the position of the t and u poles
and cuts are determined by ranges. We shall stick for a moment to
the energy cuts. This will in fact allow us, after using crossing sym
metry, to redetermine the momentumtransfer cuts together with a
more precise determination of their position.
direct cut
exchange
t:.. 2 cut
Figure 63 Figure 64
Relativistic kinematics. Nonrelativistic kinematics.

I
 n + n + rr+
 p + p + rr
They will take place as soon as the total c.m. energy rs of the p  n
system is larger than the mass of the final states 2m + J.L. (Here, we
again call J.L the pion mass, neglecting the small mass difference be
tween neutral and charged pions.) One may wonder if this new process
will affect the analytic properties of A{s,t,u).
A simple argument shows that this must indeed be the case: there
exist certain relations (unitarity relations), which we need not write
here, and which express the fact that, below the inelastic threshold,
all incoming particles are found in the final state, either scattered
or transmitted without scattering. These relations are true for all
real values of s between 4mz and {2m + /l)2, If the amplitude was
analytic, as a function of s, beyond s = (2m + J.L)Z, these relationS"
wmub'nMuaIsu'aeyorru I \.'Ztll' T" "!l:J , a:duwc:wu.1iVKlWw"\:a.t.~li\.}o.UN:2.i'"
tic process can take place, as no incident particle would be available
for it. A singularity must therefore exist at s = {2m + J.L)2, and iUs
linked with the opening of the 2N + rr channel.
An analogous argument would lead us to assume the existence of a
singularity of the amplitude at each value of the energy corresponding
to a new channel, that is, at each threshold.
We can explain by an extension of this rule the appearance of the
deuteron pole: it corresponds to a "virtual reaction" of two nucle
ons giving a deuteron, and hence gives a "threshold" singularity at
the corresponding energy.
We are led in this way to generalize the above rule to all thresh
olds, real or Virtual, that is, with an energy larger or smaller than
the sum of the masses of the particles under consideration. Each
threshold will be considered as the location of a singularity in the
energy variable. A particular case of this rule is the appearance
of a singularity at the ordinary elastic threshold (s = 4m 2 in the nu
cleonnucleon case), which we met already in the case of potential
scattering.
does not have a real meaning for u ~ (2Sl)2. However, there will still
be a singularity at u '" (2JJ.)2, and a cut extending from 4JJ.2 to + "".
Then there will be a singularity, on the cut, at u = (3JJ.)2, where
the threepion channel opens and another at (4JJ.)2 for fourpion chan
nels, and so on. . .. There will also be singularities corresponding to
the opening of the K  K, K  K  1T channels ... , and so on and so
forth until one arrives at u '" (2m)2, where the p  n channel will en
ter into play and give rise to a new singularity, which we shall call
the "elastic" Singularity. Afterward we shall have singularities for
N  N 1T, NNw,
These singularities (or at least the most important, i.e., the 1T pole,
the 21T cut, and the NN cut) are shown in Fig. 65. The orientation
of the physical region has been chosen here as in Fig. 61. The anal
ogous plot for the pp  nil reaction is given in Fig. 66. Here there
is also a pole given by the 1T o , then a 21T cut, and so on.
(PIi)
F1iUre 65
, .. .......
~ ,.,~
=
/ /
/
 nn
(pP)(riil) (2m)2
2n (2fL)2
nO _____________________________________ fL2
o ,
Figure 66
1,\, \.
;::;:::;::;::;::;::;=:;i~======~~~::;:;::;":::;;t.:;::::;:::;:;::::;:;::;:1 0 lt
deuteron
pole
Figure 67
A(s,t,u) = ~t
J.!.
2 + regular part.
~
I
i!;l
:1
I!

n p p
n n n
Figure 68
Flgure 69 .
,,
1
,,
,
MANDELSTAM SCATTERING THEORY 83
P p
n
1 I n
Figure 610
1
A(s,t) = 2"i
J A(s,t') dt'
t'  t (66)
C
1m t
Ret
Figure 611
.  _.
1m t
Re t
Figure 612
00
"
11 t'  t
4iJ.2
The lefthand cut may be treated in the same way, just replacing
,
,
"
"
t by u, so that
,
,"
,"
,"
""
"
:~
~:: : >
~~~~~~/
~::::: : .
~~:~:>.
I A(s,t,u) =~+~
t  p.2 U  p.2
00 00
f f
At(s ,t') dt' Au(s,u') du'
1 1
+  +  (68)
11 t'  t 11 u'  u
II 4p.2 4J.L2
Here we find again the contributions to the amplitude from the poles,
analogous to the first Born approximation of a Yukawa potential. The
I
important new point is that we see that the contributions from the cuts
are proportional to the discontinuities At, Au and will be largest for
the smallest values of t', u'.
It is possible to give explicit expressions for the discontinuity ~
in terms of A(s,t,u) and of the pionpion scattering amplitude. How
ever, we shall not enter into these developments, which are given in
the book by G. F. Chew (see the Bibliography).
I
An interesting application of (68) is that we can see how the ex
change of an unstable particle like the p meson will contribute to the
the nucleonnucleon amplitude. Let us recall that the p meson is in
fact a twopion resonance of mass 5.5 p.. If it were a stable particle,
it could then be exchanged by the nucleons just like the 11 meson (Fig.
613), giving a pole to A(s,t,u) and a contribution
(69)
I p
n
I
I
I
rp
r
p
Figure 613
.
.
. .
86 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
5.5 IJ.
Figure 614
I p p
I , , , , ,
, "TT'
" /
"TT
1,
, /
71"
< , , i!
n n
i
,
... Figure 615
,
.,
,
.
I
..
. .
,. , ,\
MANDELSTAM SCATTERING THEORY 87
In the u variable
As the crossed reaction is identical with the direct one, the singu
larities on sand u are the same.
In the t variable
The crossed reaction is NN  1T1T.
There is no oneparticle intermediate state. In fact, the only such
possible particle would be a pion. However the coupling (Fig; 618) is
u"'O
u = m2
u = (m + /L)2
Figure 616
(We have grossly exaggerated the mass /L of the pion
with respect to the mass m of the nucleon.)
' "_ _ _ m "
N 1T
.
1+ IS aJ1. (s) < 1 (612;
, ' ,
' (
<"',r
~
.,", ..
,
,I
MANDELSTAM SCATTERING THEORY
do I
~ = ~ IA{s,t)l2 (6")
(6 14)
1 
11 + '..fSik at(s) I'
The normalization factor is more delicate to find, but we refer the
reader to any textbook on the matter and gel
(tine} =Alr L;
~
(21 + 1)
lll+7s af r (615)
4k3 ", ()..01~ '
1=0
 ......
" .
 . . .
  ......
 .. .
  " ..
 , .". .
" ,
, "
 .". .
, " ,
, "
 .". .
, " ,
, "
 .". .
" ,
  ..
..." ,
..
(Bobr Peierls Placzek (618) ..."
"
, "
,
""
relation) ""
, , ""
",
""
" ,
, ""
",
, ""
With our invariant amplitude, it reads "
",
"
",
,
" ,",
",
"
... "
....
" ,
For most elementaryparticleproton scatterings, such as proton ...
",
"
,
....
proton, protonantiproton, pionproton, K mesonproton, one has ,, ,
..
" ,
...
....
fairly good measurements of the total cross section O"t and the differ ",
...
..",
ential elastic cross section. A comparison between these two quanti ..",
, .
,
..,",
ties makes it possible to determine both the imaginary part and the ...'"
..,
..,
,
real part of f(s,O). The imaginary part is actually given by the total ..
'"
'" ,
,
cross section through the optical theorem (619), while the real pad '" ,
'"
,
.
.., ,
.
may be derived from the knowledge of 1m f(s,O) and of the forward ..,,,
,
, ,
elastic cross section through (111), I.e., ,
,
,
.
,
,
dO" 1
,
dO ,
..
0 (620)
This relation suggests strongly that the real part of each a~ (s) tends
to zero as compared with the imaginary parts, i.e., that A(s,t} may
in fact be considered as purely imaginary.
C This property of the amplitude may be understood in terms of the
socalled optical model, which we shall consider in a definite ex
ample, that of pionnucleon scattering. Let us suppose that the nu
cleon has a finite extension R and that a pion hits it with its momen
tum p directed in the z direction (Fig. 619). When p is very large,
one can allow uncertainties apx and APy of the components of p pe'r'
pendicular to z small with respect to p without affecting the defini
tion of the incoming momentum, i.e., one can define the coordinates 
x and y with such uncertainties that
ax R 6.y R
1
as long as p R (We recall that fi = 1 in our units.) In fact, this
,
,
,

,,
,
,
,
MANDELSTAM SCATTERING THEORY 91
p
..
1v"~':7"IZ
Figure 619
When the pion actually hits the target, i.e., b < R, several possi
bilities are open. As there will be inelastic collisions at these high
energies, the coefficients at will satisfy inequality {6lf}. An ex
treme case is attained when 1 + (2ik/,IS) at is zero, for the inelastic
cross section (615) then attains its maximum value. One says that
in that case the nucleon is "black," using the language of optics: it
is the definition of a black body that it should absorb all photons which
hit it. When, on the contrary, 11 + (2ik/,IS) all = 1, one says that the
nucleon is "transparent." In the intermediate cases, the nucleon is
said to be "gray." For a black nucleon one has
Note that the total cross section is twice the inelastic, i.e., that the
,
92 MANDELSTAM THEORY AND REGGE POLES
c
elastic and inelastic cross sections are equal. This result is in fact
well known from optics: when a black sphere, whose radius is much
larger than the wavelength, absorbs light, it scatters by diffraction
ranges are smaller than (2Jl)l. The potential which could be deter
mined by that condition would generally be complex and would depend
upon energy, but its essential property of a finite range will remain,
even at very high energy.
In place of the whole superposition of Yukawa potentials, let us for
simplicity consider a single potential V;;;; g(eKr/r), where g is a
complex function of s while K, which may itself vary with energy, is
bounded from below by K2. > 4Jl2.
At high energy the impact parameter b may be considered as c
do
dn
7f e
Figure 6~20
c'
MANDELSTAM SCATTERING THEORY 93
meaningful. Calling p the pion momentum and E its energy, one may
neglect the pion,mass and write p:; E  V, As V is complex, the
wave function e 1PX will show absorption, the total absorption being
defined quantitatively by the total potential "seen" by the pion, i.e.,
+00
U(b) '" J V(r) dz
00
i.e., R = i log Ig I
and the total cross section will be of the order 7T R2
To determine the possible values of the total cross section it is
necessary to know something about the possible behavior of g, Le.,
of the discontinuity't of the scattering amplitude on the momentum
transfer cuts when s is large. It is commonly assumed that the total
amplitude A(s,t,u) together with all its discontinuities cannot increase
for large values of s more rapidly than a fixed power of s: suo This
hypothesis is necessary, as we shall see in Sec. 612, in order to be
able to write dispersion relations. Therefore, log I g I is at most of
the order of n log s and the total cross section will be at most of tt.e
order
This proof has been put into a rigorous form, with the same hypoth
eses.
Actually, the condition (624) leads to severe consistency require
ments for the theory. Suppose, for instance, that there exists a bound
state with angular momentum f larger than 1, say, f = 2, in the
cos 9t = 1 + ,.?::.:s=:."..
2
t  4/.1
or, as P 2(x) = i(3x2  1), for large enough values of s, the pole term
will be
(625)
1ms
.a
y' y
'P.h..,
Figure 621
1
27fi
f 5' 
g2
m2 Sf 
ds'
(J
y
(627)
1 ,( g2 ds'
 27fi j u'  m 2 5'  {f
y'
(counterclockwise)
]?:::.
~t/
0.:;0.0.
, , " , , " , " . _ " _ _ _ _ _ " ' _ _ _ n __ ~~ _ _ _ _ .. ________ m ___ n __
"
where we can replace s'  u by (u'  U) and ds' by du' so: that
we shall get
The integral on the contour enclosing the righthand cut will give
1
"" [A(s' +",,~E;, t)  A(s'  iE, t)] ds'
(629)
s'  (J
where, in the right hand side, we have written the physical amplitude.
The expression (629) takes the form
In the same way, the contour enclosing the lefthand cut would give
B' 00
1
  Im A(u'"t) ds' 1 ImA(u' ! t} du~.
=  " (631)
11 S'  {J 1T u' U
00 (m + fl)2
00
1
+
1m A( u,'"t) du'
(632)
11 u' U
1
11'
f 00
2
1m A(s' ,t) ds'
S'  S  ie;
(633)
(m+lJ.)
He~
(m+/L)2
f 1m A(s' ,t) ds'
s'  s  i~
It 1
1f
(m+/J.)2
All other terms are real. The limit as
denoted by
Joo s' 
1m A(s', t) (8' _ S)2 + e;2 d8'
~
S
(634)
I. lim
e;o 11'
1
J
()2
m+/J.
00
5 8
s
1m A(s' ,t) ( ,_ )2 + 2
e;
8' 
ds'
1 ds'
==  (P J
00
1m A(5',t)
5'  5
(635)
11' (m+J.l.)2
~~~~?~~ :
f
00
I,.:.~.:. s~l~~gE~~~fe?~~~~~~~g~)
*= is the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude for the
@~t: crossed reaction, which is 11'+ p scattering, so that it is equal to
m:.~.~..: . q ru
ot)(u)/411', where at is the total 11'+ p cross section and q is
~?: the 11'+ p c.m. momentum.
~~f
I
.. ""
1 1
'"  (Re A(s 0)2 +  (Im A(s 02
8",0 S ' S '
,
so that (636) relates only measurable quantities:
u  m2 1T s'  S
(m+ J.I.)2
00
q' YU' a + (u') du'
+ 1 _",_.__~t~._____._. (637)
1T 2 u'  u
(m + J.I.)
Re A(s,O)  Re A(so,O)
 g2 (s 0  .!') + ;...Jg....z,.,.,{..:::;u""o.,...:_..=u:t..)__:::;
(s  m 2){so  m 2) (u  m2)(u o  m2)
00
s  So
k' R (J
t
(s') ds'
+ CF' "0 E '" "
The integrals in this equation are more likely to converge than those,'
in (637), This procedure is known as the subtraction method.
The dispersion relation (6 38) corrected for the spin of the proton ,'
[or ... ~ ~ '1i'o:fS' 076'1m'l.."S'.';>4.wi!h ~met:iqlentand the agreement is quite good. ,.
The general dispersion relation (636) is more difficult to use
a value of t different from zero. In that case, 1m A(s', t) must be
,
,
,
,,
,
, measured by a determination of the scattering amplitude and this
,
: I, .,
, .'
MANDELSTAM SCATTERING THEORY 99
...
.
.
..
.
7
.
.
.
.
.
RELATIVISTIC .
.
.
.
.
.
.
REGGE POLES .
.
.
....
.
.
XES ..
....
.
...
We have seen in Chapter 6 an important point about the apparent .
.
. ...
conflict between different asymptotic behaviors of the relativistic am ..
. ....
.
plitude. We summarize our findings in the following way: The asymp
...
.
totic behavior of the amplitude in the forward direction t == a in the . .
. .
..
channel where s is the energy squared was shown not to exceed the
limiting behavior s log2 s (623). On the other hand, we saw that if