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®

Pennsylvania
Crusher
The Most Choices, The Most Experience

HANDBOOK
OF
CRUSHING
With Posimetric® Feeders
INTRODUCTION
We specialize in the manufacture of size reduction and feeding equipment and have pioneered many
basic designs. Pennsylvania® produces more types and sizes of crushers and breakers than any other firm in
the world and is known for offering, "The Most Choices, The Most Experience".

Established in 1905, our equipment is used by numerous basic industries such as power generation,
mining, cement plants, food & chemical processing, the glass industry and many others. In the U.S. in fact, a
high percentage of the coal needed to generate electric power is crushed using our equipment.

Our application expertise is second to none, and we invite you to take advantage of our help in solving
your reduction or feeding problems.

THE TECHNOLOGY OF CRUSHING


The ability to crush material is governed by the laws of physics involving mass, velocity, kinetic energy,
and gravity. However, it is impractical to reduce the process of selecting and sizing a crusher to a series of
formulas. The selection process is largely based on experience and testing: experience with actual field
applications and laboratory tests that show how a given material will be reduced by a given crusher type.

The main purpose of this handbook is to explain the principles that govern the technology of crushing
and also to impart the practical knowledge gained by Pennsylvania Crusher over the past century.

Pennsylvania ®

Crusher
The Most Choices, The Most Experience

600 Abbott Drive • Box 100 • Broomall, PA 19008-0100 U.S.A.


Phone: (610) 544-7200 • Fax: (610) 543-0190
E-Mail: buster@penncrusher.com
www.penncrusher.com

2
Table of Contents
THE TECHNOLOGY OF CRUSHING
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................. 2
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................................ 3
Glossary of Terms ........................................................................................................................................................ 4
Mechanical Reduction Methods .................................................................................................................................. 5
Crusher Selection Criteria / Development of Job Specifications ................................................................................ 7
Application Analysis Form ............................................................................................................................................ 8
Typical Screen Analysis .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Crushing Tests ............................................................................................................................................................ 10
How to Take Samples .................................................................................................................................................. 10
Measuring Crushing Resistance .................................................................................................................................. 10
Measuring Relative Abrasiveness ................................................................................................................................ 10
Index of Abrasiveness .................................................................................................................................................. 11
Definitions of Material Characteristics.......................................................................................................................... 12
Physical Characteristics of Materials .......................................................................................................................... 12
Power Requirements.................................................................................................................................................... 13
Closed Circuit Crushing .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Hammer Technology .................................................................................................................................................... 14

FACILITIES
Facilities and Organization .......................................................................................................................................... 15
Parts and Service ........................................................................................................................................................ 21

PRODUCTS Complete brochures with specifications on individual products are available upon request.

BRADFORD BREAKERS
• Roller Mounted Breakers .......................................................................................................................................... 23
• Tri-Mounted Breakers ................................................................................................................................................ 23
• Bradpactors................................................................................................................................................................ 24
CAGE MILLS .............................................................................................................................................................. 25
GRANULATORS.......................................................................................................................................................... 26
HAMMERMILLS
• Reversible Hammermills for Coal .............................................................................................................................. 27
• Reversible Hammermills for Fluid Bed Boiler Applications........................................................................................ 28
• Reversible Hammermills for Rock, Limestone, Minerals and Chemicals .................................................................. 29
• Non-Reversible Hammermills .................................................................................................................................... 29
• Non-Clog Hammermills.............................................................................................................................................. 30
IMPACTORS
• Coalpactors................................................................................................................................................................ 31
• Aluminum Dross Impactors / Metallic Slag Crushers ................................................................................................ 32
• Reversible Impactors ................................................................................................................................................ 33
• Reversible Impactors, Small ...................................................................................................................................... 34
• Twin Rotor Impactors ................................................................................................................................................ 34
JAW CRUSHERS ........................................................................................................................................................ 35
GRINDING MILLS
• Brad-Multi-Roll Crushers .......................................................................................................................................... 36
ROLL CRUSHERS
• Clinker Crushers ........................................................................................................................................................ 37
• Single Roll Crushers .................................................................................................................................................. 38
• Double Roll Crushers ................................................................................................................................................ 39
• Frozen Coal Crackers................................................................................................................................................ 40
SIZERS ........................................................................................................................................................................ 41
POSIMETRIC FEEDERS ............................................................................................................................................ 42
Trademarks of Pennsylvania Crusher Corporation
PENNSYLVANIA BRADFORD HAMMERMILL® FROZEN COAL CRACKER® PENNSYLVANIA REVERSIBLE IMPACTOR® KOAL KING®
U.S. Patent Number 4,343,438

BRADPACTOR® FBR® COALPACTOR® BMR BRAD-MULTI-ROLL®


U.S. Patent Numbers 3,931,937; 4,009,834

POSIMETRIC® FEEDER PENNTECHNIC® PENNSYLVANIA®

©Pennsylvania Crusher Corporation 2000, 2002, 2003 3


GLOSSARY
OF TERMS
Angle of Nip The angle formed between the moving Height of Drop Vertical, free fall distance from the lip of
surface of a crusher roll or jaw plate and the the feeding device to the inlet opening of an
stationary plate surface, at which point the impactor or hammermill crusher. Normally
material will be pinched. Angle varies with applies to reversible machines.
machine size and material lump size.
Hopper The area of the crusher preceding the crushing
Bond Work Index (BWI) KW hr. per short ton required to chamber. Also, an external bin that holds the feed
reduce the material to 80% passing 100 microns. material.
Breaker Block (Breaker Plate) The steel anvil surface of MOH Scale Relative hardness of material compared to
a crusher against which material is crushed by 1-Talc, 2-Gypsum, 3-Calcite, 4-Fluorite, 5-Apatite,
impact or pressure. 6-Feldspar, 7-Quartz, 8-Topaz, 9-Corundum, and
10-Diamond.
Bridging Blocking of crusher opening by large pieces of
material. Nominal Describes product size (output size), usually
denoting that at least 90% of product is smaller
Burbank Abrasion Test A standard method of comparing
than size indicated.
the relative abrasiveness of rocks, minerals and
ores. Oversize Material too large to pass through a specific size
of screen or grizzly opening.
Cage A screening device, fixed or adjustable, made of
precisely spaced bars or slotted plate, where final Plugging Restriction of material flow through a crusher.
sizing is accomplished within the crusher.
Primary Crusher The first crusher in a crushing system
Choke Feed Operating the crusher with a completely filled into which material is fed. Succeeding crushers
crushing chamber. in the system are referred to as secondary or
tertiary crushers.
Choke Point Place in the crushing chamber having the
minimum cross section. All compression type Product Output from the crusher.
crushers have choke points, but this does not
Reduction Ratio The ratio of the top size of input material
necessarily mean that choking is likely to occur.
to the top size of crusher discharge.
Choking Stoppage of the flow of material through the
Reversible Crushers Hammermills and impactors with
crusher, usually the result of wet and sticky
rotors that can be run both clockwise and
material clogging exit points.
counterclockwise.
Circulating Load The amount of oversize returned to the
ROM Run Of Mine — Material from a mine that has not
crusher from a screen in a closed-circuit system.
been crushed or screened.
Closed-Circuit Crushing A system in which oversize
ROQ Run Of Quarry — Material from a quarry that has
material is screened from the output and returned
not been crushed or screened.
for another pass through the crusher.
Rotor Rotating assembly of shaft, discs, and hammers
D50 Denotes that output size is 50% smaller than the
within a crusher which imparts the crushing forces
size indicated.
to the material.
Feed Input to the crusher.
Scalping Removing all sizes smaller than output top size
Feeder A device that regulates and distributes material from the crusher input material.
into the crusher.
Screen Bars The bars in the cage of a hammermill or
Fines Material with particle size smaller than a specified granulator, spaced to control the output size. Also
opening. called “cage bars” or “grate bars”.
Finished Product (Output) The resulting material after it Slugger Teeth The large teeth on a single roll crusher
has been processed. which first strike the material.
Friable Material that breaks easily. Sorbent Stone, usually containing calcium; used to capture
sulfur in a fluid bed boiler.
Hammers Free-swinging or fixed metal impact surfaces
attached to the rotor assembly of an impactor or Tailings Refuse or residue material from a screening
hammermill crusher. Sometimes designated as process.
“beaters”.
Top Size The largest particle size in an input or output size.
Hardgrove Index (HGI) The grindability of a coal is
Tramp Iron Bolts, shovel teeth, picks, and other uncrush-
expressed as an index showing the relative
able metal that is often present in crusher input.
hardness of that coal compared with a standard
coal of 100 grindability.

4
THE TECHNOLOGY
OF CRUSHING
There are four basic ways to reduce a material —
MECHANICAL by impact, attrition, shear or compression —
REDUCTION and most crushers employ a combination of all
METHODS these crushing methods

Impact —when materials are too hard and abrasive for


hammermills, but where jaw crushers cannot
In crushing terminology, impact refers to the be used because of particle shape require-
sharp, instantaneous collision of one moving object ments, high moisture content or capacity
against another. Both objects may be moving, such as
a baseball bat connecting with a fast ball, or one object Dynamic impact is the crushing method used by
may be motionless, such as a rock being struck by Pennsylvania Impactors.
hammer blows.
There are two variations of impact: gravity im-
pact and dynamic impact. Coal dropped onto a hard Attrition
surface such as a steel plate is an example of gravity
Attrition is a term applied to the reduction of
impact. Gravity impact is most often used when it is
materials by scrubbing it between two hard surfaces.
necessary to separate two materials which have
Hammermills operate with close clearances between
relatively different friability. The more friable material is
the hammers and the screen bars and they reduce by
broken, while the less friable material remains
attrition combined with shear and impact reduction.
unbroken. Separation can then be done by screening.
Though attrition consumes more power and exacts
The Pennsylvania Bradford Breaker employs
heavier wear on hammers and screen bars, it is
gravity impact only. This machine revolves so slowly
practical for crushing the less abrasive materials such
that for all practical purposes, gravity is the only
as pure limestone and coal.
accelerating force on the coal.
Attrition crushing is most useful in the following
Material dropping in front of a moving hammer
circumstances:
(both objects in motion), illustrates dynamic impact.
When crushed by gravity impact, the free-falling —when material is friable or not too abrasive
material is momentarily stopped by the stationary —when a closed-circuit system is not desirable
object. But when crushed by dynamic impact, the to control top size
material is unsupported and the force of impact
accelerates movement of the reduced particles toward
breaker blocks and/or other hammers. Shear
Dynamic impact has definite advantages for the Shear consists of a trimming or cleaving action
reduction of many materials and it is specified under the rather than the rubbing action associated with attrition.
following conditions: Shear is usually combined with other methods. For
— when a cubical particle is needed example, single-roll crushers employ shear together
—when finished product must be well graded with impact and compression. Shear crushing is
and must meet intermediate sizing normally called for under these conditions:
specifications, as well as top and bottom
— when material is somewhat friable and has
specifications
a relatively low silica content
—when ores must be broken along natural
— for primary crushing with a reduction
cleavage lines in order to free and separate
undesirable inclusions (such as mica in ratio of 6 to 1
feldspars) — when a relatively coarse product is desired,
usually larger than 1 1/2" (38mm) top size

5
Compression action accentuates the wear on crushing surfaces. As a
mechanical reduction method, compression should be
As the name implies, crushing by compression used as follows:
is done between two surfaces, with the work being done —if the material is hard and tough
by one or both surfaces. Jaw crushers using this —if the material is abrasive
method of compression are suitable for reducing —if the material is not sticky
extremely hard and abrasive rock. However, some jaw —where the finished product is to be relatively
crushers employ attrition as well as compression and coarse, i.e., 1 1/2" (38mm) or larger top size
are not as suitable for abrasive rock since the rubbing —when the material will break cubically

The bottom of the Pennsylvania Reversible Impactor is


open and the sized material passes through almost When a Pennsylvania Non-Reversible Hammermill is used
instantaneously. Liberal clearance between hammers and for reduction, material is broken first by impact between
the breaker blocks eliminates attrition, and crushing is by hammers and material and then by a scrubbing action
impact only. (shear and attrition) of material against screen bars.

The Pennsylvania Jaw crushes by compression


without rubbing. Hinged overhead and on the
centerline of the crushing zone, the swinging jaw
Single Roll Crushers reduce large input by a combination meets the material firmly and squarely. There is no
of shear, impact and compression. They are noted for rubbing action to reduce capacity, to generate fines or
low headroom requirements and large capacity. to cause excessive wear of jaw plates.

6
CRUSHER
SELECTION
CRITERIA
When selecting a crusher, the following criteria must be considered:

1. Will it produce desired output size and shape at the required capacity?

2. Will it accept the largest input size expected?

3. What is its capacity?

4. Will it choke or plug?

5. Can it pass uncrushable debris without damage to the crusher?

6. How much supervision of the unit is necessary?

7. Will it meet product specifications without additional crushing stages and auxiliary equipment?

8. What is the crusher’s power demand per ton per hour of finished product?

9. How does it resist abrasive wear?

10. Does it operate economically with minimum maintenance?

11. Does it offer dependable and prolonged service life?

12. Is there ready availability of replacement parts?

13. Does it have acceptable parts replacement cost?

14. Does it have easy access to internal parts?

15. Is the crusher versatile?

16. How does the initial cost of the machine compare with its long term operating costs?

17. Is experienced factory service readily available?

DEVELOPMENT OF
JOB SPECIFICATIONS
The initial steps in selecting the proper crusher On occasion, it may also be necessary to
require the development of complete job specifica- supply actual samples of the material for test crushing
tions, including the pertinent physical characteristics of in the Pennsylvania Crusher test facilities. Refer to
the feed material. Page 8 for “How to Take Samples”.
The Application Analysis Form that appears Additional copies of the Application Analysis
here is designed to simplify the task of collecting job Form (Page 6) may be obtained by photocopying or by
specifications. In most cases, the completed form will request. If you have any questions regarding the
enable the engineering staff of Pennsylvania Crusher completion of this form, please contact Pennsylvania
to recommend the crusher best suited to meet the Crusher Corporation.
requirements.
7
Box 100
APPLICATION ANALYSIS FORM
Completion of this sheet will help our
Pennsylvania Broomall, Pennsylvania 19008-0100, U.S.A.
Telephone: 610-544-7200
engineers select the crusher best suited to
your requirements.
Crusher Fax: 610-543-0190
E-Mail: buster@penncrusher.com

COMPANY: __________________________________________ DATE: ____________________________________________

ADDRESS: __________________________________________ PROJECT: ________________________________________

CITY: ________________________________________________ PROJECT LOCATION: ______________________________

STATE:______ ZIP:_____________ COUNTRY: ______________ ______________________________________________________

NAME AND TITLE: ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________

PHONE: ______________________________________________ PROJECT REFERENCE NUMBER: ____________________

FAX: ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

E-MAIL:______________________________________________

a. Material: ________________________________________________________________________________
b. Bulk Density: _____________________________________________________________________________
c. Moisture:_______________________________%Total_______________%Surface _____________________
d. Compressive Strength (PSI) _________________________________________________________________

1. e.
f.
MOH Hardness/Hardgrove Index:_____________________________________________________________
Material Temperature:___________________Degrees F:____________________Degrees C: _____________
MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION g. Material is:
Free-Flowing ( ) Sticky ( )
Non-Abrasive ( ) Mildly Abrasive ( ) Very Abrasive ( )
h. Other Characteristics: ______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________

a. Mining Method or Process Source:____________________________________________________________


b. Feed Size (Maximum): _______________________ X________________________X___________________
c. Desired Product Size (State size and % passing): ________________________________________________

2. d. Is product size material removed from feed prior to crushing? ______________________________________


What percentage is removed? _______________________________________________________________
APPLICATION
REQUIREMENTS e. Are fines: ( ) desirable ( ) undesirable ( ) no preference
If undesirable, at what size? _________________________________________________________________
f. Can external screens be used to return oversize to crusher (closed-circuit)? ___________________________
g. Capacity desired (tons per hour): _____________________________________________________________

a. Crusher will: ( ) replace existing equipment ( ) be used in new operation


3. b. Project is: ( ) study for feasibility or budget purposes
GENERAL ( ) funded for purchase. Expected purchase date:________________________________
INFORMATION
c. Delivery is required by: _____________________________________________________________________

4. _________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
OTHER
INFORMATION
_________________________________________________________________________________________
WHICH MAY BE _________________________________________________________________________________________
OF VALUE _________________________________________________________________________________________

8
9
Measuring Crushing Resistance
CRUSHING A basic premise in equipment selection is that

TESTS the crusher be stronger than the material that it must


crush. How strong are rocks and ore? While there is no
When a new or unusual application is encoun- direct measurement of “resistance to crushing”, it is
tered, samples of the material may be crushed to possible to measure compressive strength and the
determine which crusher is most suitable. This is done elastic properties of a material.
in the Pennsylvania Crusher Test Laboratory. By crush- The graph shows a typical plot of test results for
ing samples of the material, significant facts can be different materials, and it demonstrates the relationship
learned for predicting the performance of full capacity between compressive load and resulting displacement.
machines with acceptable accuracy. The material exhibiting twice as much displacement
Laboratory tests can prove or disprove the rel- under compression will normally require twice as much
ative merits of various types of crushers. They also power to be crushed.
provide an opportunity to evaluate the effects of various A.S.T.M. Method C-170-50 is used to obtain the
crusher settings, speeds, feeding methods, height-of- highest accuracy in measuring compressive strength.
drop, and size or shape of hammers and breaker blocks. However, the Pennsylvania Crusher laboratory has
In the lab, one element at a time can be changed while developed a procedure that is more practical for crusher
all others are held constant. Under such conditions, any selection. This procedure is fully described in an article
changes in crushing results can be isolated and by Benjamin B. Burbank, entitled “Measuring the
evaluated by our application engineers. Crushing Resistance of Rocks and Ores”. Copies are
available from Pennsylvania Crusher Corporation.
Testing Procedure
The normal procedure is to test crush a repre-
sentative sample of the material and to then determine
the product size gradation. From this data, a graph is 70
9
plotted showing the cumulative percentage of material
passing each screen size. Page 7 illustrates a typical 60
screen analysis derived in this manner.
By comparing screen analyses and other
50
criteria with those associated with familiar materials, an
experienced crusher application engineer can estimate 11
1 Cement rock, NY

overall crushing performance as well as power require- 40 2 Colorado oil shale, CO


3 Feldspar, NH
ments. The engineer can also detect characteristics COMPRESSIVE LOAD 4 Cement rock, Thomaston, ME
that require special design considerations or auxiliary (x 1,000 psi)
10 5 Dolomite, NY
30
equipment. 6 Sandstone, AZ
7 Iron ore, Ozark Mts., AR
Deciding Factors 8 8 Graphic granite (feldspar), NY
20
Tests may show that two or more types of 7
9 Chert, Picher, OK
10 Granite, Winterport, ME
crushers will perform equally well on a particular 6 11 Quartzite, VT
material. But other factors must still be considered such 10 5
3 2
as headroom, desirability of fines, product shape, 4

economics of maintenance and operations, and the 0


1

adaptability of the crusher to future plant expansions. .004" .008" .012" .016" .020" .024"

DISPLACEMENT (Inches)

HOW TO Measuring Relative Abrasiveness


TAKE SAMPLES It is difficult to predict the abrasive action of
To ensure meaningful results from the rocks, minerals, and ores. Often, rocks belonging to the
Pennsylvania Crusher Test Laboratory, it is important same geological classification will vary widely in
that a truly representative sample of material be pro- abrasiveness from one locality to another. Therefore, in
vided. Care must be taken to ensure that the sample is order to select the proper crusher, we must have some
collected from a true cross section of the material and reliable measurement of the abrasiveness of the specific
that it is packed to retain its original characteristics material.
(moisture, size, shape, etc.). Abrasiveness can be determined either from
A 55-gallon steel barrel of material will usually prior experience or by testing in semi-production plants,
be an adequate amount for testing. but a simpler method has been developed by
Pennsylvania Crusher Corporation. This involves

10
testing, and it is a reliable way to establish relative This test provides the most practical index of
abrasiveness by using four 400-gram samples of the abrasiveness available today. Such test data has been
material to be crushed. collected for many years on numerous samples of rocks
Each sample of material is rotated for 15 min- and ores. Typical scales of relative abrasiveness derived
utes in a drum with a steel paddle. After the four sepa- from this testing procedure are shown in the table below.
rate batches are run, the average milligrams of weight A more complete description of the method and
loss by the paddle is measured. This will serve as a equipment for obtaining these abrasiveness indices is
relative index of abrasive action. The higher the index, contained in our publication entitled, “Measuring the
the greater the abrasiveness. Crushing Resistance of Rocks and Ores.”

INDEX OF ABRASIVENESS
MATERIAL AND SOURCE ABRASIVENESS INDEX

Highly Abrasive
Manganese Ore, Georgia ............................................................................................................................................................................ 32,946
Aluminum Oxide, New York......................................................................................................................................................................... 14,114
Sandstone, Pennsylvania ............................................................................................................................................................................ 13,121
Oxygen Furnace Slag, Ontario.................................................................................................................................................................... 10,828
Chert, Missouri ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9,829
Stone and Bauxite Clinker, Indiana ............................................................................................................................................................. 9,489
Gravel, Mississippi....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8,888
Stone, Virginia ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7,969
White Quartz, Maine.................................................................................................................................................................................... 7,000
Calcined Alumina, Louisiana ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6,879
Open Hearth Pot Slag, New York................................................................................................................................................................ 6,830
High-Silica Limestone, Pennsylvania .......................................................................................................................................................... 4,838
Granite, Puerto Rico .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4,517
Feldspar, Virginia ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3,650
Burned Brick and Tile, Pennsylvania........................................................................................................................................................... 3,491
Sintered Ore, Alabama ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3,065
Trap Rock, Pennsylvania............................................................................................................................................................................. 2,928
Feldspar, New Hampshire ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2,871
Tungsten Ore, California ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2,253
Cement Clinker, Pennsylvania..................................................................................................................................................................... 2,206

Abrasive (Wear can be minimized by design and materials of construction)


Iron Ore, Missouri ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1,992
Transvaal Chrome Ore, South Africa .......................................................................................................................................................... 1,755
Coke Breeze, Alabama................................................................................................................................................................................ 1,690
Calcined Bauxite, Missouri .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1,671
Red Limestone, Vermont ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1,452
Scoria Volcanic Cinder ................................................................................................................................................................................ 1,352
Cement Clinker, Quebec ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1,231
Grog, New Jersey........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1,052
Amorphous Silica, Illinois............................................................................................................................................................................. 978
Travertine, Australia..................................................................................................................................................................................... 838
Phosphate Nodules, Tennessee.................................................................................................................................................................. 813
Cement Clinker, Kentucky ........................................................................................................................................................................... 695
Hematite, Venezuela ................................................................................................................................................................................... 620
Barite, Arkansas .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 550
Limestone, Indiana ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 526
Dolomitic Clinker, Ohio ................................................................................................................................................................................ 494
Cement Rock, Brazil.................................................................................................................................................................................... 444
Ferro-Phosphorous, Oklahoma ................................................................................................................................................................... 443
Dolomite, West Virginia ............................................................................................................................................................................... 417

Low in Abrasion (Parts wear is not critical)


Shale, Virginia ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 345
Antimony Ore, New Jersey.......................................................................................................................................................................... 315
Oil Shale, Colorado ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 270
Chamotte, Michigan..................................................................................................................................................................................... 250
Zinc Sinter, Pennsylvania ............................................................................................................................................................................ 249
Limestone, Ohio .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 241
Extruded Zircon, New Jersey ...................................................................................................................................................................... 186
Weathered Shale, Virginia........................................................................................................................................................................... 131
Zinc Oxide, Pennsylvania ............................................................................................................................................................................ 78
Diatomaceous Shale Clinker, England ........................................................................................................................................................ 78
Dolomite, Alabama ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 62
Sandstone, California .................................................................................................................................................................................. 38
Red Flux, Australia ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Shale, Virginia ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 30
Clay, Pennsylvania ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Cement rock, Pennsylvania......................................................................................................................................................................... 13
Anhydrite, Kansas ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Limestone, Australia .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11
DEFINITIONS OF
MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS

Selection of the most appropriate crusher is greatly influenced


by the precise nature of the material to be crushed. The listings
that follow serve to illustrate how even the same basic materials
can vary widely. Such variances will definitely influence the type
of crusher that should be employed.

CLASS
Low abrasiveness..................................................................................................................................... 1
ABRASIVENESS Mildly abrasive.......................................................................................................................................... 2
Very abrasive............................................................................................................................................ 3

Very free flowing - angle of repose up to 30°........................................................................................... 4


FLOWABILITY Free flowing - angle of repose 30°-45° .................................................................................................... 5
Sluggish - angle of repose 45° and up..................................................................................................... 6

Hygroscopic .............................................................................................................................................. A
Highly corrosive ........................................................................................................................................ B
Mildly corrosive......................................................................................................................................... C
SPECIAL Degradable when exposed to air ............................................................................................................. D
CHARACTERISTICS Very friable................................................................................................................................................ E
Mildly friable.............................................................................................................................................. F
Tough - resists reduction .......................................................................................................................... G
Plastic or sticky......................................................................................................................................... H

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS


Average Weight in Lbs. Average Weight in Lbs.
Material Class* Per Cubic Foot Material Class* Per Cubic Foot
Alumina 3-5-G 60 Lignite - Texas (ROM) 1-5-D-E 45-50
Aluminum Oxide 3-G 70-120 Lignite - Dakota (ROM) 1-6-D-F 45-50
Bagasse 1-6-C 7-8 Lime - Pebble 1-5-E 53-56
Barite 3-5 140-180 Limestone - broken 2-5-F 90-100
Bark (wood refuse) 2-6-G 10-20 Manganese Ore 3-5-G 125-140
Basalt (broken) 3-G 10-20 Marble - broken 2-5-F 90-100
Bauxite (crushed) 3-5-F 75-85 Marl - raw & wet 2-6-E-H 130-140
Bentonite 2-5 40-50 Middlings - Coal 2-5-G-F —
Brick 3-F 100-125 Phosphate – Rock - Ore 2-5 —
Carbon Electrodes (baked) 2-G — Potash Ore 1-E —
Carbon Electrodes (unbaked) 1-F — Potash Ore Compactor Flake 1-E —
Cement Clinker 3-5-F 75-95 Quartz - broken 3-5-E 85-95
Cement Rock 2-5-F 100-110 Refuse - household 2-G 45-50
Charcoal 2-5-D-F 18-25 Sand - dry bank 3-5 90-110
Clay (dry) 3-5 60-75 Sand - foundry 3-5 90-110
Calcined Clay 3-F 80-100 Sandstone - broken 3-F 85-90
Coal - Anthracite 1-4-D-E 55-60 Shale - broken 2-5-F 90-100
Coal - Bituminous 1-5-C-D-E 45-55 Shells - Oyster 2-5-E 70-80
Coal - Sub-bituminous 1-5-C-D-E 45-55 Diacalcium Phosphate 2-5-E-H 43
Coke - Petroleum 2-5 35-42 Dolomite 2-5-F 90-100
Cryolite 1-5-F 110 Slag - Open Hearth 3-G 160-180
Cullet - Glass 3-5-E 80-120 Slag - Blast Furnace 3-4-F-E 80-90
Diatomaceous Earth 2 11-14 Slate 2-E 85-95
Dross - Aluminum 3-F-C — Soapstone (talc) 1-F 40-50
Fluorspar 2-5-F 90-100 Superphosphate 2-6-F-H 50-55
Fullers Earth - raw 2-5 35-40 Traprock - broken 3-5 105-110
Granite - broken 3-5-G-H 90-100 Triple Superphosphate 2-6-F-H 50-55
Gravel 3-5-F 90-100 Trona Ore 2-5-F 90-100
Gypsum Rock 2-5-F 90-100 Tungsten Carbide 3-4-G —

*Refer to table above for class description

12
POWER
REQUIREMENTS

In crushing, the useful or meaningful work is The Pennsylvania Jaw Crusher requires
that expended to reduce the material to a given size. A approximately 1/3 or less HP per TPH, depending upon
number of theories have been expressed to define the the reduction ratio desired.
relationship between work input and size reduction. Bradford Breakers and Bradford Hammermills
Kick’s Law states that work done is proportional to the require approximately 1/4 or less HP per TPH.
reduction in volume of particles, a theory which applies
Motor Selection
to the crushing of large particles. However, finer
The foregoing figures are averages, and each
product sizes conform more closely to Rittinger’s
crushing problem should be carefully studied before
Theory which concludes that work required is
selecting motors. We urge all prospective customers to
proportional to the new surface area formed, and
consult us prior to selecting motors, since so many
inversely proportional to the product diameter.
factors will affect power demand. Our experience with
In any case, reduction ratio is not the only factor
such diverse types of crushers will serve as a guide for
in determining power requirements. Nearly all crushing
proper motor selection.
projects differ from one another in one or more aspects,
and no hard and fast rule can be applied with regard to
power consumption. However, through extensive
experience in the field of mechanical reduction, some
CLOSED-CIRCUIT CRUSHING
average values have been compiled regarding the Closed-circuit crushing is a means of controlling
power requirements of different types of crushers. product top size by screening the product and then
returning oversize material to the feed end of the
Typical Horsepower Requirements crusher for another pass through the machine. While it
It has been determined that a primary single roll may be possible to obtain a specified top size from
crusher, reducing run of quarry medium-hard limestone crushers without using a closed-circuit system, it is not
to a 6" (150mm) product will require approximately 1/2 always desirable. To control top size from a single
horsepower per ton per hour (HP per TPH). However, crusher operating in an open circuit, material must
when crushing medium-hard bituminous coal to the remain in the crushing chamber until it is reduced. This
same specifications, the power demand is only 1/12 HP results in overgrinding a percentage of the product, with
per TPH. Even on the hardest materials, single rolls do a corresponding increase in fines and a loss of
not require more than one full HP per TPH and may efficiency.
demand as little as 1/25 HP per TPH. In a typical multiple-stage crushing plant with
Coalpactors for preparing coking coal for coke the last stage operated in closed-circuit, the primary
ovens are fed with 3" (75mm) and under bituminous crusher operates at a setting which produces a
coal. The product usually desired is 80-85% minus 1/8" satisfactory feed size for the secondary crusher, so that
(3mm). For this service, 11/2 to 2 HP per TPH is nor- a balance exists for the work done by each crusher.
mally required.
In cement plants, where hammermills or
impactors are used for secondary crushing of cement
rock, the feed is approximately 6-10" (150 - 250mm) and
the product is a nominal 1/2 " (12mm). This reduction
needs 11/3 to 11/2 HP per net TPH.
Impactors generally require approximately 1 HP
per TPH (gross load) to drive them. This may be slightly
increased if an extremely fast rotor speed is required.
Granulators (ring hammermills) are most often
used in the coal handling facilities of power stations
where they reduce run of mine coal to a nominal 3/4"
(19mm) product. This typically requires 1/2 HP per TPH.

13
CRUSHER
HAMMER
TECHNOLOGY

Hammer design plays a significant role in Edge configuration of the hammer head
crusher efficiency, because in most types of crushers,
The edges of each Pennsylvania hammer face
the hammers do most of the work. Early hammer
are shaped to a special geometry in order to produce
designs were only concerned with mass and general
maximum hammer life with the lowest amount of friction.
shape of the hammer. Today the technology of
Pennsylvania hammers is highly developed, and we
give careful consideration to a great many factors: Heat treating
Hammer hardness is the most essential factor
Location of the hammer’s center of gravity in determining hammer life, for while the hammer head
must be extremely hard and resistant to wear, the shank
The center of gravity determines the focus of
must be more ductile in order to absorb shock. To
impact, which in turn helps to control the amount of
produce this on certain designs, Pennsylvania uses a
impact and the general shape of the shattered particle.
special method of heat treating that creates a gradually
The center of gravity must be controlled to utilize the full
varying hardness between the shank and the tip,
mass of the hammer against the feed.
without any abrupt changes. However, in cross section,
the hardness extends for the full depth instead of merely
Air paths created by hammer rotation the surface. Hammer hardness is normally gauged
according to the Brinnel method.
The air paths created by the hammer sweep
As a result of continued improvements,
usually contain a certain amount of fines and other small
Pennsylvania hammer design plays a major role in
particles which must be directed away from the hammer
producing high efficiency and in reducing maintenance
shanks and rotor discs; otherwise premature wear would
problems. As the company introduces refinements to
occur. Pennsylvania hammers are designed so that the
the hammers, users are provided with the latest designs
resulting air paths are directed toward open areas of the
as part of their normal resupply orders.
crushing chamber, away from vital parts.

BASIC HAMMER TYPES

BAR HAMMER RING-TYPE HAMMER (plain)

T-HEAD HAMMER RING-TYPE HAMMER (toothed)

14
FACILITIES
AND
ORGANIZATION

Pennsylvania Crusher
Manufacturing Plant (top)
in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio,
and Headquarters in
Broomall, Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania Crusher possesses the most modern facilities in the world devoted
to the design and manufacture of crushers. Still, our company’s most valuable assets
reside in the talents of the skilled professionals who staff our many departments.
Design engineering, application engineering, field service, parts, production,
finance, marketing, research and development — all work together to provide equipment
that will perform best in your application, with full factory support throughout the
operational life of your crusher.
For an evaluation of your needs, please contact us at any time. We believe you
will be impressed with the experience, the proficiency and the helpful attitude you find at
every level within Pennsylvania Crusher.

15
Our manufacturing facility is located in
Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, near Akron, and is adjacent
to major rail and highway arteries. This facility
contains every type of manufacturing equipment
needed to produce the numerous types and sizes of
crushers and feeders sold by Pennsylvania Crusher.

An exceptionally high percentage of our manufacturing specialists are


qualified journeymen, with a minimum of 8,000 hours of on-the-job
training, coupled with years of formal schooling.

In terms of hands-on experience, fully half of us have


served under the same roof for over ten years, and many
have over twenty and thirty years to our credit.

16
We also handle the repair and remanufacture of Pennsylvania crushers, including
rotor and cage assemblies and other components. This enables the customer to
upgrade to a new design, in order to achieve current operating efficiencies, along
with a new parts warranty.

Analyses of materials, equipment and parts by our


testing laboratory constitute the basic data from
which recommendations will be made for selection
and sizing of crushers.

We operate a Crushing Test Laboratory, fully equipped with


various models of crushers. Test crushing your material in
advance of purchase enables us to determine which model and
size of crusher will be the most suitable. It also enables us to
determine wear rates, height-of-drop data and other valuable
information.

17
All operations of Pennsylvania Crusher
are linked by an integrated, state-of-the-art
management program that embraces advance
planning, accounting, engineering, order entry,
scheduling, manufacturing, shop floor reporting,
and shipping.
This has enhanced our ability to provide
you with timely information regarding the status
of your order, and to expedite manufacture to
suit your schedule.

Our extensive use of computer-aided design (CAD) helps


to speed the completion of new equipment designs.

Design Engineering. This group is the source of numerous innovations in crusher design . . . including
some basic crushing methods that have been adopted by the entire industry.

18
Communications Center. This group is
responsible for our company’s contact with all
points on the globe. The innovative equipment
used here helps to enhance the speed and
accuracy of communications.

Management Information Systems. Computer-based procedures have


enhanced Pennsylvania’s customer service and order acknowledgment
systems. They also help the company to achieve more accurate levels
Field Service. We can supply trained personnel to of inventory to meet changing customer needs.
supervise the installation of Pennsylvania Crushers.
Their practical and extensive experience helps to
achieve significant cost savings.

19
Sales and Applications Engineering. These groups possess unparalleled skill and experience with material reduction projects
worldwide. To complement the high professional expertise of each member, the application department maintains one of the most
extensive data bases of information about materials, equipment, and test results on tens of thousands of mineral samples from every
continent.

Accounting and Finance


Group. The significant
financial strength of our
company is enhanced by
the efficiency and
smooth operation of this
department. This section
is staffed by professionals
who clearly understand
the special requirements
of the markets we serve.

20
The Pennsylvania Crusher Parts and Service Group has forged a reputation for responsiveness, experience and versatility.

Parts & Service Group. This group goes far modifications, service records and all other pertinent
beyond the usual concept of simply supplying data. Complete drawings are kept on modifications as
replacement parts. They operate under a philosophy of far back as ninety years, for there are numerous
service completely oriented to the continuing instances where such Pennsylvania equipment is still in
needs of the customer, regardless of whether the productive service.
customer is working with new Pennsylvania equipment The Parts Department operates almost as an
or with equipment that was placed in service over ninety extension of the customer’s maintenance department,
years ago. since the objectives are similar, i.e., to keep the
As part of this practice, there are three equipment operating effectively and economically.
important areas in which this department is of practical Parts and Service sales representatives are available
service to customers: for consultation with the customer on questions
regarding parts, service, or modification work.
1. Basic supply requirements.
Electronic Data Interchange
2. Refinements to older design equipment for Our on-line system for electronic data
improved performance.
interchange (EDI) speeds the flow of acknowledgments,
3. Major modifications to equipment either for RFQs, POs and invoices, using a standard, ready-to-
improved performance or for different applications process form.
than that for which it was originally designed. If you already have such a system, please
contact us about establishing a link directly to your
For maximum effectiveness, the Pennsylvania company or to your consulting service.
parts staff maintains thoroughly detailed records on
all machines shipped, including details of past

21
PENNSYLVANIA
CRUSHER
PRODUCTS
BRADFORD BREAKERS
These machines are used for crushing, sizing, Often a Pennsylvania Bradford Breaker is used
and cleaning of run-of-mine coal and other friable merely to clean debris from coal that has already been
materials. They are used to produce a product that is sized. This gives some indication of the economy of
relatively coarse, with minimum fines, and that is 100% operation and versatility of this machine.
to size. Breaker cylinders rotate at slow speeds of 12 to
Bradford Breakers crush by gravity impact only. 14 RPM depending upon cylinder diameter. Compared
A large cylinder made of perforated screen plates is with most other crushers, Bradford Breakers are
fitted with internal shelves. As the cylinder rotates, the extremely long lived. Screen plates, for example,
shelves lift the feed and, in turn, the feed slides off the frequently last ten years or more, crushing millions of
shelves and drops onto the screen plates below, where tons of coal, and there are numerous examples of
it shatters along natural cleavage lines. Pennsylvania Bradford Breakers in continuous service
The size of the screen plate perforations for upwards of forty years.
determines the product size. Sized product falls Pennsylvania has also designed the screen
through these perforations but oversized pieces will plates in the breakers to be interchangeable, so that the
again be lifted and dropped by the shelves until they too screen plates from the feed end, where wear is
pass through the screen plates. greatest, can be switched with screen plates from other
Tramp iron, lumber, or other uncrushable debris areas of the cylinder where there is less wear.
that enters the breaker along with the feed is The profile of the perforations in the screen
transported to the discharge end of the cylinder. There, plates has been scientifically designed to obtain a
these uncrushables are scooped out continuously by a maximum self-cleaning effect, without product bridging
refuse plow which channels this debris out of the across the perforation itself.
cylinder and into a disposal bin.

22
ROLLER MOUNTED
BRADFORD BREAKERS

The roller mounted Bradford Breaker is suited


for coal mines where the feed often includes unusually
large pieces of coal. This model will readily accept
these larger pieces of coal without blocking the entry.

Roller Mounted

TRI-MOUNTED BRADFORD
BREAKERS
(Not illustrated)
Many prefer this model because its three screen plates, adjustable feed plows, and roller chain
support points provide a stable yet forgiving platform, drive.
minimizing the attention to wheel alignment needed with Longitudinal beams are bolted to the end cones
the roller mounted arrangement to compensate for — never welded — so that replacement can easily be
shifting foundations. accomplished at your job site. These, plus numerous
This model also features the design standards other features, make this an extremely low maintenance
found on our other Bradford Breakers such as lapped breaker.

23
PENNSYLVANIA BRADPACTORS

The Bradpactor is a highly


successful innovation based on the
Bradford Breaker design. In the Brad-
pactor, the breaker cylinder is
equipped with a rotor that is mounted
with a series of paddle hammers. The
rotor runs the entire length of the
cylinder and the speed of the rotor can
be varied.
This gives operators the ability
to “tune” the Bradpactor to the type of
friable material that is to be crushed.
The paddles impact against the
oversize material dropped into their
path by the rotating cylinder. The
paddles drive the material against the
cylinder walls until the product is sized
and screened out through the screen
plate holes.
By varying the rotor speed,
impact force as well as fines can be
controlled. Compared with a breaker,
a Bradpactor gives greater capacity
while occupying far less space than a
conventional breaker.

24
CAGE MILLS

This crusher is employed for size reduction of


friable, dry bulk substances such as chemicals, grain,
fertilizer, coal, slag, glass, soap and many others. It’s
also used for beneficiation of materials that vary in
hardness.
In this model, material is reduced in size purely
by impact. Feed enters the innermost cage where it is
initially struck by the first row of sleeves. They scatter
the shattered material toward the next row which rotates
in the opposite direction.
Further reduction occurs in that and each
successive row until the material exits the final row, to
be thrown against impact plates that line the crushing
chamber. The sized material then discharges through
the open bottom of the mill.
For production of fine, medium or coarse sizes,
the spacing between sleeves on each row can be
selected. Product size can also be changed by varying
the speed of the cages.
We have improved the cage mill design in
several ways. For example, the two motors used to
drive the cages are on the same side, away from the
feed area, so as not to interfere with access to the
crushing chamber for maintenance. This arrangement
also produces a smaller footprint than ordinary cage
mills, thereby allowing use of a smaller, less costly
foundation. Additionally, total access to the whole
interior is provided by the hinged hopper door. It swings
wide open, completely out of the way, and an integral
cage hoist can be installed at our factory or added later.
We normally recommend that your material be
test crushed in the full-scale cage mill at our Crushing
Test Facility in Broomall.

25
GRANULATORS

Pennsylvania Granulators use rows of ring This series includes the Koal King® Granulator, a
hammers which crush with a slow, positive rolling action. machine that crushes fuel for both pulverized coal boilers
This produces a granular product with minimum fines. and fluid bed boilers.
Offered in three models and nearly fifty sizes, The Koal King Granulator will handle virtually
Granulators are used for crushing coals, particularly for any type of coal, including low quality coals that are wet,
power plants. They are also used for gypsum, salt, frozen, high in fines, or high in ash content, with virtually
chemicals and moderately hard materials. no clogging problems.
Granulators crush by a combination of impact It has a number of important servicing advan-
and rolling compression, producing high reduction ratios tages. It opens like a clamshell to expose the inside of
at high capacities. Product size is determined by screen the machine for inspection or maintenance, without
openings, and is adjusted by changing the clearance disturbing the feed system.
between the cage and the path of the ring hammers. The rotor can be removed through the opening
All Pennsylvania Granulators possess an quickly and easily, and rigging to open the rear quadrant
external adjustment for the cage assembly which is is totally unnecessary when the optional hydraulic door
operable while the crusher is operating. Granulators opener is specified.
also have a tramp iron pocket for continuous removal of The Koal King Granulator accepts feed sizes up
uncrushables from the crushing zone. to 12" (300mm). Product sizes of 100% minus 1/2" (12
mm) can be maintained when necessary.

26
HAMMERMILLS

Hammermills are among the oldest, yet still the system. Hammermill crushing produces a cubical
most widely used crusher designs. Although recent product with a minimum of flats and slivers, and is
years have witnessed the introduction of new types of recommended when the material to be crushed is not
crushers, many are a refinement of the basic hammermill unusually abrasive. In a Hammermill, large particles
design to serve more specialized purposes. cannot escape the cage bars until sized, resulting in
Pennsylvania Hammermills crush material in great product uniformity with a minimum of oversize.
two stages: First, the material is reduced by dynamic Hammermills have high reduction ratios and will
impact; crushing then occurs by attrition and shear in produce high capacities whether used for primary,
the second zone, where small clearances exist between secondary or tertiary crushing. Cages can be adjusted
hammers and screen bars. This second zone is the to regulate product size, and a tramp iron pocket is
final sizing zone for the product. standard on all models.
One of the advantages of Pennsylvania
Hammermills is their ability to produce the specified top
size without the need for a closed-circuit crushing

REVERSIBLE HAMMERMILLS
Pennsylvania Reversible Hammermills are In addition to more effective use of the
symmetrically designed crushers with a rotor that can hammers, reversal also brings the opposing set of
be run clockwise or counter-clockwise. Reversal of the breaker blocks and screen bars into use. The user of a
rotor permits the operator to utilize the opposite face of Reversible Hammermill virtually has two crushers in one
the hammer daily for maximum hammer sharpness. machine, reversal being done with a simple motor
This ability to reverse totally eliminates the requirement switch.
of manual hammer reversal.

REVERSIBLE
HAMMERMILLS FOR COAL
Pennsylvania builds this Reversible Hammer-
mill specifically for the reduction of pulverizer coals,
cyclone fuel and other finely crushed coal.
To produce the smaller product sizes required,
this model has more rows of hammers than are found in
the Reversible Hammermills used for stone or rock.
The internal configurations of the coal and rock
models differ, though the crushing actions are similar.

27
REVERSIBLE HAMMERMILLS
FOR FLUID BED BOILER APPLICATIONS

These units are specifically designed to reduce Both sides of these units open fully for complete
both fuels and sorbents in fluid bed boiler applications. access to the crushing chamber. Product sizing and
They meet the needs of utility and cogeneration plants wear compensation are accomplished by adjusting the
for crushers that perform effectively and efficiently. cage, and a tramp iron pocket is included for protection
They are also suitable for similar reduction of the rotor. Options include air sweeping and drying.
problems in other industries. As plant needs change in future years, this
Low investment cost and low power con- design readily allows for modifications that can be
sumption have enabled these units to enjoy rapid performed whenever needed without compromising the
acceptance. While they constitute the state-of-the-art of original investment in this equipment.
this technology, their design is based upon our Our extensive experience with fluid bed
company’s many decades of experience with reversible applications will allow us to determine the configuration
hammermills of many types. and size that match the needs of your plant. We also
Pennsylvania’s exclusive high performance, provide peripheral equipment and systems as needed
forged steel hammers are supplied for most applica- to ensure a fully integrated operation.
tions. Alloy steel is used for breaker plates, scrubber
and screen sections.

28
REVERSIBLE HAMMERMILLS
FOR ROCK, LIMESTONE,
MINERALS AND CHEMICALS
In these machines, the breaker blocks and the cage
bars are more massive than those used for crushing coal or
other relatively friable materials.
This type of Reversible Hammermill has fewer rows
of hammers than the coal version, and the hammers
themselves are of a different type and size.

NON-REVERSIBLE HAMMERMILLS
These are used for primary or secondary reduction of
dry, friable, low abrasive rocks, ores and chemicals,
particularly when uniform product gradation is important.
This type of crusher is often used for primary
crushing of quarry-run feed to the final product size in a single
pass. It is also used for secondary crushing when oversize
must be controlled, but where a closed-circuit crushing
system is not practical.
Size reduction starts by impact when the hammer
strikes the material as it enters the crushing zone. Shattered
fragments are swept down into the final crushing zone for
further reduction at the pinch points between the hammers
and screen bars. Oversize material remains in the machine
until it is reduced sufficiently to fit through the screen bar
openings.
Some of these models are available with adjustable
cages, a feature that permits the user to make changes in the
product size and compensate for wear. The tighter the
clearance between the screen bars and hammers, the
smaller the particle size of the crushed product. However,
major product size changes are controlled by changing the
individual screen bar openings.
When the machine has no adjustable cage, hammer
wear is compensated for by resetting the hammer suspension
bars closer to the outside edges of the rotor discs, and by
moving the breaker plate closer to the hammer circle. Large
access doors provide entry for these adjustments. These
crushers accept feed sizes up to 30" (750mm).

29
NON-CLOG HAMMERMILLS

This type of hammermill will crush material that additional traveling rear element which is self-cleaning.
might build up within other kinds of hammermills. This Both the traveling breaker plate and the
would apply to any product that is very sticky or muddy, traveling rear element have a torque release mechanism
or that is simply too wet to be effectively crushed in other that allows the V-belts to go slack and the motor to shut
mills. off in case of a jammed breaker plate.
In place of the fixed breaker plate, a traveling Because this type of hammermill is usually
breaker plate revolves continuously and carries the operated under extremely difficult conditions, the motor
incoming feed into the path of the hammers. This drives for the traveling breaker plate and for the rear
virtually eliminates any chance for feed to build up element are mounted on the mill itself, above the
outside of the hammer sweep area. The combined working level. This arrangement is very compact and
forces of crushed particle velocity and gravity are requires minimum floor space.
normally sufficient to clear the product through the Non-Clog Hammermills accept feed sizes up to 36"
machine. However, if the feed is so sticky that it may (900mm).
accumulate, this machine can be equipped with an

30
COALPACTORS

Coalpactors were originated by Pennsylvania The Coalpactor rotor may be run either
Crusher to crush coking coals and to produce an clockwise or counter-clockwise to provide for equal
optimum percentage of product below 1/8” (3mm), but wear on both hammer faces. This helps to extend
with a minimum amount of fines (100 mesh or smaller). hammer life and to reduce maintenance problems. To
Coalpactors are also used for crushing coal and facilitate servicing, all internal parts of the machine are
petroleum coke for fluid bed boilers which have similar readily accessible.
output size requirements. Pennsylvania Coalpactors have largely
This crusher permits coke plant operators to replaced other types of crushers for crushing coking
obtain high stability coke from various grades of coal. coals because the Coalpactor will maintain rated
When coke is produced from a blend of petrographically capacity even when the coal is wet, and it is not affected
differing coals, the coke strength is improved by control by uncrushables.
of the minus 1/8” (3mm) pulverization. When used to crush fuel for fluid bed boilers,
A Pennsylvania Coalpactor is similar to an the FB-design Coalpactors use an extended crushing
impactor. It has breaker plates that are fully adjustable path to further improve output size control.
from outside of the frame to enable operators to vary
the degree of pulverization. This allows maintenance of
a uniform product size throughout the life of hammers
and breaker plates.

31
ALUMINUM DROSS IMPACTORS

This is a special type of Impactor that takes large


pieces of aluminum dross or slag and reduces the oxide, by
impact, to approximately 8" (200mm) and under. The impact
frees the more friable slag from the harder, uncrushable metal.
Thus, the machine not only reduces the dross, but also
beneficiates the aluminum.
As dross enters the feed hopper, it slides down into the
path of heavy rotating hammers. Upon impact with these
hammers, the dross is driven up against the breaker bars.
Additional reduction also takes place as material ricochets
between the hammers and the breaker bars, until it is finally
swept from the crushing chamber. This machine also
incorporates a protective device for uncrushables.

METALLIC SLAG CRUSHERS


In addition to the Aluminum Dross Impactor, Pennsylvania
Crusher also offers other crushers which are used for crushing dross or
slag.
The Reversible Impactor (CF 9-50) was developed for reduction of
open hearth, B.O.F. and blast furnace slag. This crusher takes 10" - 12" (250-
300mm) slag and reduces it to a minus 2" - 3" (50-75mm) product size in one
pass. In this crusher, the impact breaks the more friable oxides from the
metallic particles. The metallic particles are then separated magnetically and
the oxide or slag body is used for aggregate.
Pennsylvania Jaw Crushers are used to crush residue material
from the zinc smelting process. The crushed material then goes back into CF 9-50 Reversible Impactor
the system for reclamation of usable zinc.
Pennsylvania Jaw Crushers are also used to crush salt
cake, which is a furnace slag containing a high amount of sodium
chloride. To retrieve particles of aluminum, the Pennsylvania
Jaw Crusher reduces the salt cake to minus 5" - 6" (125 -
150mm).

Jaw Crusher

32
REVERSIBLE
IMPACTORS

Reversible Impactors are used for secondary therefore, impact and some shear are the methods of
and tertiary crushing, and occasionally for primary reduction. The bottom of the crusher is entirely open
crushing. They are used for reduction of cement rock, and the sized material passes out freely.
gypsum, fertilizer, chemicals, lime and agricultural When the product must be held to a specific top
limestone, lightweight aggregate, ceramics and other size, the machines should be operated in a closed-
materials. circuit system. When operating in closed-circuit, the mill
Reversible Impactors are normally recom- discharge is carried to external screens or classifiers for
mended when certain requirements exist: high reduction separation, with the oversized particles being returned
ratio (35:1 or greater), high capacity, cubically shaped, to the impactor for further reduction.
well-graded product, and minimum fines. The size of the feed may vary up to sizes
These crushers can be easily adjusted to produced by primary crushers. In some instances,
produce a wide variety of product sizes. For coarser these crushers will handle material directly from
output sizes, Impactors are operated at lower speeds. quarries or other sources.
When finer output sizes are required, higher speeds are Pennsylvania Crusher originated the Reversible
used. It is also possible to change product size by Impactor in order to eliminate manual turning of
making adjustments to the breaker block assemblies. hammers. The Reversible Impactor is symmetrical in
Material drops through the centrally located design, and by simply pushing the reversing button, the
feed chute directly into the rotor, where it is struck by the operator can change the direction of the rotor,
rotating hammers. The material then impacts against presenting a fresh hammer face to the feed.
the breaker blocks and rebounds into the path of the
hammers. There are no cage bars or screens,

33
SMALL REVERSIBLE IMPACTORS
These smaller impactors have been designed The upper breaker
for specialized crushing requirements at relatively low blocks are made of cast
capacities. alloy steel and are both
Typical applications for these units include: reversible and interchange-
“green” brick, mill scale, foundry sand, gypsum, able. The lower breaker
phosphate rock, flake frit, graphite ore, glass tubing, salt blocks are supplied in fixed
cake, brass skimmings and tungsten carbide chips. or adjustable configuration.
For servicing, the frame section on both ends of These impactors
the machine may be removed to expose the breaker are offered in several sizes.
blocks, liners and rotor. The liners are made of carbon-
manganese steel and are renewable.

TWIN ROTOR IMPACTORS


The Pennsylvania Twin Rotor Impactor handles demands relatively little power and it facilitates crushing
wet, sticky materials that would clog most other of wet, sticky materials.
crushers. It produces a maximum of fines and is widely The Twin Rotor Impactor has an inner lining,
used in brick and clay plants as a secondary crusher. It separated from the outer shell by a chamber or
can also be used as a primary tailings crusher. “plenum”. Hot waste gas can be directed into the
The crushing action in Pennsylvania Twin Rotor plenum, heating the lining. This helps to prevent a major
Impactors is accomplished solely by impact of the feed accumulation of material.
against two counter-rotating sets of manganese steel Twin Rotor Impactors are available in three sizes;
hammers. There are no impact blocks, screen bars or the largest can accept feed sizes up to 14" (350mm).
other stationary impact areas, and the product path is Normally these units are operated in closed-circuit. Each
directly through the center of the crusher. This design rotor is driven by a separate motor.

SMALL REVERSIBLE IMPACTOR TWIN ROTOR IMPACTOR

34
JAW CRUSHERS

For crushing of hard, abrasive materials, Jaw Behind the stationary jaw are shims, used to
Crushers are often preferred, since this type of machine compensate for plate wear and to adjust the closed side
will crush virtually any mineral. setting. For protection from uncrushables, there is also
Jaw Crushers differ substantially from other an automatic drive disengagement feature that acts
types of crushers. There is no rotary motion in the instantaneously on the moveable jaw assembly.
crushing cycle, and all crushing is done by compression Pennsylvania Jaw Crushers accept feed sizes
of the feed material between two massive jaws, which in up to 48" (1200mm) and produce a nominal product size
effect are a type of breaker plate. Jaw plates can be as small as 3/4" (19mm). Product size is determined by
either smooth or corrugated. the distance between the lower end of the jaws. This
While one jaw is fixed, the other jaw pivots about gap dimension may be adjusted by shims behind the
a top hinge. This moving jaw is shaped to move firmly stationary jaw assembly. These crushers may be choke-
and squarely against the material, at 250 to 400 strokes fed from hoppers or conveyors.
per minute. There is no rubbing or grinding, only
compression, which produces a generally cubical product Jaw Crushers for Glass Cullet
with minimum fines.
The basic Jaw Crusher design is modified for
The moving jaw is so balanced that fully 95% of
glass crushing by changing to special corrugated
the drive motor power is used for crushing, while only
plates, called “cullet plates”, on both jaws. These cullet
5% of the power is needed to move the jaw itself. As a
plates meet and intermesh to provide complete
result of this high mechanical efficiency, smaller motors
crushing of the glass. The product is designated as
may be used, keeping power costs down.
glass “cullet”.

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BRAD-MULTI-ROLL CRUSHERS

The Brad-Multi-Roll Crusher was introduced to simply be added. This greatly simplifies maintenance,
produce material with output smaller than 1/4" (6mm) and provides a machine with exceptionally high
while producing a minimum of extreme fines. availability.
This produces a product having a very steep For some closed-circuit applications, integral
gradation curve, making it ideally suited for preparation screening can be accomplished. The great compact-
of fuel and sorbents for fluid bed boilers and for other ness of this design means that a smaller building is
applications that require such a gradation. required, while minimizing the need for peripheral
This machine is capable of handling moist equipment. Optional sound housings can be provided
materials when operated in open circuit. Drying is usually to control noise emissions.
recommended when closed-circuit operation is needed to When compared with other machines that
meet a specific gradation curve. require air classification to achieve specified product
The Brad-Multi-Roll Crusher is well suited to sizes, users of the Brad-Multi-Roll Crusher will enjoy
abrasive materials. To compensate for any reduction in significant and continuing savings in power costs.
charge level resulting from wear, additional charge can

36
CLINKER CRUSHERS

The Clinker Crusher is used for handling of bot-


tom ash, though it can readily be configured to handle
other materials.
It is now widely employed as a direct replace-
ment for the most common makes and sizes of clinker
grinders. Its efficient design improves maintainability
and increases component life, thereby reducing both
operation and maintenance costs.
For example, the cast, high chrome roll
segments are reversible to maximize their wear life.
These segments can also be changed out with the unit
in place by means of a large door in the rear of the
frame.
For retrofit, no changes to foundations are
needed under normal circumstances.

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SINGLE ROLL CRUSHERS

Single Roll Crushers are typically used as primary The clearance between the breaker plate and
crushers. A single roll crusher has a roll assembly the roll determines the product size. This clearance is
consisting of a roll shaft and a fabricated roll shell with adjustable from outside the machine by a shim
integral fixed teeth. arrangement. Adding or removing shims causes the
In the single roll crusher, three different methods plate to pivot about its top hinge, moving it into or away
of reduction occur: impact, shear and compression. from the roll.
Entering the crusher through the feed hopper, For protection against uncrushable debris, the
the feed material is struck by the teeth of the revolving breaker plate assembly is secured with an automatic
roll. While some breakage occurs here by impact, the release device. As pressure from the uncrushable is
rotation of the roll carries the material into the crushing exerted against the plate, the device allows the entire
chamber formed between the breaker plate and the roll breaker plate assembly to move away from the roll
itself. As the turning roll compresses the material against instantly. The uncrushable drops clear of the machine by
the stationary breaker plate, the teeth on the roll shear gravity, and the breaker plate assembly immediately
the material. returns to its normal crushing position.
Sized material falls directly out through the Pennsylvania Crusher Corporation builds
discharge end of the crusher which is completely open. several types of Single Roll Crushers in a great number
There are no screen bars, and consequently there is no of sizes and capacities, with product sizes ranging from
recrushing of the sized materials, a factor that helps to 3" (75mm) to 12" (300mm) depending on machine size.
reduce power demand while minimizing product fines. Applications include petroleum coke, coal with
rock, coal, aggregate, limestone, chemicals, phosphate
rock, shale and many other materials.

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DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHERS

These are typically used in situations in which


fines are to be minimized. They are widely employed on
friable materials such as coal, lime, limestone, petroleum
coke, and chemicals.
As the two rolls rotate toward each other, the
material is pulled down into the crushing zone where it is
grabbed and compressed by the rolls.
Product size is determined by the size of the gap
between the rolls, and this gap can be changed to vary
product size or to compensate for wear.
Since both rolls rotate at the same speed, there
is no relative motion between the two roll surfaces, and
crushing is primarily accomplished by compression.
Compression crushing is extremely efficient, as
energy is only used to crush those particles larger than
the gap between the rolls. Fines are reduced because Protection from uncrushables is provided by
already sized material passes freely through the crusher means of a retractable roll assembly. It retracts instantly
with no further reduction. when an uncrushable is encountered, then reverts to its
Usual feed sizes are up to 6" (150mm), though original position once the uncrushable has cleared the
larger feed can be effectively handled in certain crushing chamber with no stoppage of the crusher.
applications. Reduction ratios normally do not exceed 4 Pennsylvania offers Double Roll Crushers in a
to 1. number of sizes and roll tooth patterns.

ROLL TOOTH PATTERNS

TRAPEZOID SLUGGER TRAPEZOID SMOOTH


Other tooth patterns also available.

39
FROZEN COAL
CRACKERS

This type of machine is basically a single roll handling systems. The machine is often installed directly
crusher. It differs from our other single roll crushers in below the railcar delivery hoppers or at the outdoor
the drive mechanism. stockpile.
Though it utilizes the basic single roll design and The breaker plate may be backed off during
crushing actions, this particular machine has an warmer weather to permit coal to flow directly through the
extremely wide feed opening which permits the use of unit unhindered. If desired, the entire roll assembly can
open-throated hoppers to choke feed large lumps of coal be removed for warm weather operation without
into the machine. It will reduce coal to a nominal 6" to 8" disturbing the feed system in the Model FCC. The FCCR
(150 to 200mm) product size. Model allows easier removal of the roll by a screw
Freezing of the coal can occur in railcars and mechanism. The roll assembly is then stored on the
stockpiles, causing stoppages in handling or conveying. frame, fully aligned and ready to be re-inserted when
These frozen coal lumps will often fall from conveyors or freezing conditions recur.
become wedged in hopper throats.
For this reason, Pennsylvania Frozen Coal
Crackers have a low profile, so as to fit into existing

Model FCC

Model FCCR

40
MOUNTAINEER™ SIZERS

The Mountaineer Sizer crushes a wide variety of


materials. It incorporates all of the features needed to
do a better job than ordinary sizers, for primary or Wheels not shown
secondary sizing.
For example, it sizes very accurately, produces
extremely low fines and operates at low speed. Such
low speed also helps to extend component life. It also
uses relatively low horsepower, resulting in reduced
equipment wear and energy costs as well as low noise
levels. Made in U.S.A., its construction is modular and
employs standard components, meaning that
maintenance can be performed more quickly and at less
cost than others. Low headroom, as low as 40 inches,
enables it to fit most plant layouts.
An extremely rugged, high capacity machine,
its crushing chamber is lined with heavy duty liners, and
all side liners are reversible. The sizing rolls are offered
in a variety of tooth patterns to suit the application.
The Mountaineer Sizer is offered in various
lengths, with capacity dependent on many factors, the
most important of which is the output size. The sizers
are direct driven through a gearbox, and a fluid coupling
is provided for tramp iron protection.

41
POSIMETRIC FEEDERS

This unique feeder handles materials having an


extraordinary range of characteristics, including wet, dry,
lumpy, sticky, abrasive or granular. Virtually immune to
jams, it will feed dry, light particles at 1,200 pounds per
hour, or heavy sticky materials at 120,000 cubic feet per turn this duct, only a small motor, usually under 10 hp.,
hour, with absolute consistency never before achieved in is required to drive it. Those factors result in very low
ordinary feeders. stress and exceptionally low maintenance. In addition,
wear is negligible because there is almost no abrasive
It delivers material with unvarying accuracy of up action of material against the working parts. Some units
to 99.5 percent, with no need to recalibrate, unless the have been in service for up to ten years, without
material changes. Regardless of moisture content, it needing a single replacement part.
delivers a constant rate of bulk solid material; each
rotation delivers a fixed volume that cannot vary,
meaning that it feeds at the desired rate, with no surges
and no partial feeding.

This feeder contains only a single moving part –


the rotating duct. Because the feed material helps to

42
®
Pennsylvania
Crusher
The Most Choices, The Most Experience

Click on link below to obtain contact information for our company staff
and for our sales representatives around the world. Application
engineering assistance is available upon request.

Requests for individual brochures on each of our crushers or feeders


may be sent to our e-mail address or by writing
or faxing to the address shown.

600 Abbott Drive • Box 100 • Broomall, PA 19008-0100 U.S.A.


Phone: (610) 544-7200 • Fax: (610) 543-0190
E-Mail: buster@penncrusher.com

www.penncrusher.com

Printed in U.S.A. Bulletin 4050-D 00-3-03R-1M

43

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