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Anatomy & Physiology for Nursing students

Lecture 3: Structure of the Cell

I. Overview of Cell Structure

A. Plasma Membrane
B. Cytoplasm
C. Major Organelles
1. nucleus
2. ribosomes
3. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
4. Golgi complex (apparatus)
5. mitochondria
6. lysosomes
D. Cytoskeleton, Cilia, Flagella
F. Extracellular Matrix

II. The Plasma Membrane

A. Chemical Composition
1. 80% phospholipids
a. "head" region of molecule is hydrophilic
b. "tail" region of molecule is hydrophobic
2. 10% proteins - peripheral and integral (see below)
3. 10% cholesterol, glycolipids, carbohydrates

B. Structure
1. phospholipid bilayer; two layers of phospholipids with "head" regions
pointing inward and outward, while "tail" regions in the middle.
2. integral membrane proteins
float in or completely across lipid bilayer
3. Peripheral membrane proteins
lie on inner/outer surface of lipid bilayer
Function of membrane proteins;
a. act as selective channels for transport
b. act as receptor sites for hormones.

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C. Primary Functions
1. selective transport of materials in and out of cell
2. maintain cell structure and intracellular climate

III. Cytoplasm
A. Composition and Structure
1. 90% water 10% protein, carbohydrate, lipid, salts.
2. colloids - collections of organic molecules
B. Function
1. site of many enzyme controlled reactions
2. site of both synthesis and degradation reactions
3. intermediate area for cell transport

IV. Nucleus
A. Structure and Composition
1. nuclear membrane; double lipid bilayer.
2. Deoxyribose Nucleic Acids (DNA);
a. chromatin; dispersed DNA, invisible.
b. chromosomes; condensed DNA, only when dividing
3. nucleolus; site of ribosome synthesis.
B. Primary Functions
1. house and protect hereditary material (DNA)
2. copy DNA to RNA so proteins can be manufactured

V. Ribosomes
Only site of protein synthesis
- Free ribosomes - scattered throughout cytoplasm
- Attached ribosomes - found on endoplasmic reticulum

VI. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

A. Structure
1. Granular (rough) ER - have ribosomes attached
2. Agranular (smooth) ER - no ribosomes
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B. Primary Functions
1. granular ER; synthesis of proteins
4. agranular ER
a. storage area for Ca++ (muscle cells)
b. lipid synthesis inactivation

VII. Golgi Complex (Apparatus)

1. alters protein to functional form
2. transforms secretory granules for protein release
a. digestive enzymes
b. antibodies
c. secretory glands

VIII. Mitochondria
Power house of the cell (foodstuffs (glucose) broken down in cytoplasm
converted to useable energy "currency" called ATP).
Varied Distribution
1. low energy required - fewer mitochondria
2. high energy required - more mitochondria
a. muscle cells
b. liver cells
c. kidney tubule cells

IX. Lysosomes
A. Structure
single membrane enclosed spheres
B. Primary Functions
1. breakdown (digestion) of compounds and old parts
2. autophagy - "self eating" reuse old organelles
3. autolysis - "self destruction" of entire cell
4. release digestive enzymes to outside
e.g. sperm entering egg during fertilization

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X. Cytoskeleton
A. Microfilaments
1. made up of subunits called actin (myosin in muscle)
2. support and cell shape
3. movement
a. muscle contraction
b. white blood cells (phagocytes)
B. Microtubules
1. made up of subunits called tubulin
2. involved in intracellular transport
move organelles around like a highway
3. involved in amoeboid motion of cells (phagocytes)
C. Cilia and Flagella
1. flagella very large for cell locomotion (sperm)
3. cilia very small, fingerlike projections
a. epithelium of respiratory tract
b. lining of digestive tract (intestinal villi)

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Lecture 9: Anatomy of Muscle Tissue

I. Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle

A. General Features of Cells
1. multinucleate
2. striations caused by intracellular structure

B. Fascia - fibrous connective tissue surrounding muscle

1. superficial - just below the skin
a. fat storage area
b. insulation and protection
c. nerve and vessel passage
2. deep - lines body wall, binds muscles together
3. epimysium - encapsulates a single muscle
4. perimysium - around muscle fiber bundles (fasciculi)
5. endomysium - around each individual muscle fiber
6. tendon - continuation of connective tissue to bone
7. tendon sheath - synovium of a tendon (lubricated)
8. aponeurosis - broad, sheet-like connective tissue

C. Nerve and Blood Supply

1. artery& veins enter alongside the nerve
2. capillaries are within each endomysium

D. Anatomy of a Muscle Fiber (Myofiber)

1. 10-100 um diameter; up to 30 cm long
2. sarcolemma - plasma membrane of muscle cell (fiber)
3. sarcoplasm - cytoplasm of muscle cell
4. sarcoplasmic reticulum - SER with Calcium ions
a. terminal cisterns - sacs around myofibrils
b. T (transverse) tubules - perpendicular
5. myofibrils - girder-like structures in cell
a. thin myofilaments - actin
b. thick myofilaments - myosin

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6. sarcomere - a compartment housing myofibrils

a. Z line - termination of a sarcomere
b. A-band - length of thick/thin filament overlap
c. I-band - length of thin filaments ONLY
d. H-zone - length of thick filaments ONLY
e. M-zone - union of the thick filaments

E. Sliding Filament Theory

1. Components of Thin (Actin) Filaments
a. myosin binding site
b. tropomyosin
c. troponin
2. Components of Thick (Myosin) Filaments
a. golf-club like appendages
b. cross-bridges - the head that attaches to actin
i. actin binding site
ii. ATP binding site
3. Contraction through Actin-Myosin "Pulling Motion"
a. cross-bridges pull myosin along actin filaments
b. action is like "oars on a boat" pulling forward
c. ATP responsible for "ratchet" motion

F. Neuromuscular Junction
1. motor neuron - nerve cell that innervates muscle
2. motor end plate - where axon meets muscle cell
3. neuromuscular junction - entire muscle/nerve site
4. synapse - general name axon terminal junction
5. synaptic vesicles - inclusions in the axon terminal
a. neurotransmitter - chemical messenger
i. acetylcholine ACh (for muscular synapse)
6. synaptic cleft - space between axon and cell
7. motor unit - a neuron and all myofibers acted upon

G. Sequence of Events at the Neuromuscular Junction

1. action potential moves down the axon of the nerve
2. electricity causes synaptic vesicles to release ACh
3. ACh crosses synaptic cleft
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4. ACh receptors on sarcolemma transfer message inside

5. Calcium is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum
6. Calcium activates movement of myosin along actin
7. acetylcholine esterase (enzyme) breaks down Ach

II. Cardiac Muscle

A. General Features
1. involuntary muscle
2. one, centrally located nucleus
3. mitochondria larger and more numerous

B. Structure of Tissue
1. muscle fibers branch and interconnect
2. intercalated disc - thickening of sarcolemma
3. cells connected by gap junctions
a. allow passage of ions like Calcium
b. makes adjacent cells electrically linked
c. allows for rhythmic, domino-like contraction

III. Smooth Muscle

A. General Features
1. non-striated
2. 5-10 um in diameter; 30-200 um long
3. thick in middle; thinner, tapering off to the end
4. single oval centrally located nucleus
5. actin and myosin fibers not arranged as sarcomere
6. lack of organization (no bands) --> smooth muscle
7. also contain intermediate filaments

B. Difference in Contraction
1. intermediate filaments attach to dense bodies
2. as muscle cell contracts, twists like corkscrew
3. caveolae - like T tubules of skeletal muscle

C. Two Kinds of Smooth Muscle

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1. Visceral (single unit) muscle

a. small arteries and veins
b. viscera - stomach, intestines, uterus, bladder
c. continuous network with gap junctions
d. action spreads from one cell to another
2. multiunit muscle
a. each fiber (cell) has it own nerve ending
b. no gap junctions
c. large arteries, large airways, arrectorpili.

Lecture 10: The Brain and Cranial Nerves

I. General Organization of Brain

A. Brain Stem
1. medulla oblongata
2. pons
3. midbrain (mesencephalon)
B. Diencephalon
1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
C. Cerebrum
D. Cerebellum

II. Specialized Parts of the Brain

A. Meninges
1. dura mater - outer layer, very tough
2. arachnoid - middle layer
3. pia mater - innermost layer, adheres to brain itself

B. Ventricles - Cavities in the Brain

1. lateral - (2) in each hemisphere
2. third - in slit between thalamic halves
3. fourth - between brain stem and cerebellum
i. Foramen of Monro - lateral -> 3rd
ii. cerebral aqueduct - 3rd -> 4th

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iii. median& lateral apertures - 4th -> other

C. Cerebrospinal Fluid
1. liquid of about 80-150 ml
2. flows around brain and through the ventricles
3. choroid plexuses - formation of CSF

D. Special Properties of Brain Tissue

1. brain uses 20% of oxygen (only 3 pounds!)
2. brain uses 30-35% of glucose
3. blood- brain barrier -
i. network between capillaries and neuroglia
ii. only very select molecules get in

III. Brain Stem

A. Medulla Oblongata - just above for. magnum to the pons
1. pyramids - carry motor tracts from cerebrum
2. decussation of pyramids - where tracts cross sides
3. reticular formation - arousal and sleep (Quinley)
4. cardiac center - heart rhythm
5. rhythmicity area - breathing rate
6. vasomotor area - dilation of blood vessels
7. olive - (inferior and accessory nuclei
i. projects motor fibers to cerebellum
ii. allows for coordinated motion
8. vestibular nuclear complex - from inner ear,balance

B. Pons - above medulla, anterior to cerebellum

1. middle cerebellar peduncles - connect to cerebellum
2. pneumotaxic/apneustic areas - breathing

C. Midbrain - above pons to diencephalon

1. cerebral peduncles - motor/sensory tracts (ventral)

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2. superiorcolliculi - visual stimuli -> motion

3. inferiorcolliculi - auditory stimuli -> motion
4. substantianigra - motor coordination (Parkinsons)
5. red nucleus - joining of cerebral/cerebellar tracts
6. mediallemniscus - touch, pressure, vibration tracts

IV. Diencephalon - thalamus and hypothalamus

A. Thalamus; relay station between cerebrum and midbrain
1. medial geniculate n. - auditory
2. lateral geniculate n. - visual
3. ventral posterior n. - taste & general sensation
4. ventral anterior n. - motor actions
5. ventral lateral n. - motor actions and arousal
6. anterior n. - emotion and memory
7. reticular nucleus - regulates thalamic action

B. Hypothalamus; tiny area below thalamus (sellaturcica)

1. The MASTER REGULATOR of the body (hormones)
2. supraoptic region - above optic chiasm (crossing)
3. infundibulum - carries hormones to pituitary gland
4. mammillary bodies - olfactory relay

5. Chief functions of Hypothalamus

a. regulates most organs through autonomics
b. integrates sensory information from organs
c. relay between Nervous <-> Endocrine Systems
i. antidiuretic hormone - urination
ii. oxytocin - uterine contraction/mammary
d. relays thoughts <-> emotions via autonomics
e. rage, aggression, passivity (rat studies)
f. temperature control/regulation via autonomics
g. feeding/satiety center
h. thirst center
i. sleep/arousal state with reticular formation
j. helps control body rhythms (circadian)

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V. Cerebellum - posterior to midbrain, inferior to occipital

A. Structure
1. transverse fissure - separates from occipital lobe
2. tentoriumcerebelli - dura mater around cerebellum
3. anterior/posterior lobes - subconscious motion
4. flocularnodular lobe - balance/equilibrium
5. falxcerebelli - dura mater between hemispheres
6. inf. cereb. peduncles - afferents from medulla
7. mid. cereb. peduncles - afferents from pons
8. sup. cereb. peduncles - efferents to midbrain

B. Functions
1. maintains equilibrium and posture
2. fine tunes voluntary movement ordered by cerebrum

VI. Cerebrum - two hemispheres containing 5 different lobes

A. General Features
1. cerebral cortex - (gray matter) surface, cell bodies
2. cerebral tracts - (white matter) beneath, axons
3. gyri/convolutions - ridges of cortex
4. fissures - deep grooves/valleys between gyri
5. sulci - shallow grooves/valleys between gyri
6. longitudinal fissure - divide right/left hemispheres
7. corpus callosum - tracts connecting right/left
8. falxcerebri - dura mater in long. fissure

B. The Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

1. frontal lobe - under frontal bone
a. central sulcus - frontal <-> parietal
i. precentralgyrus - anterior, motor area
ii. postcentralgyrus - post., sensory area
b. lateral sulcus - frontal <-> temporal
2. parietal lobe - under parietal bone
a. parieto-occipital sulcus

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3. temporal lobe - under the temporal bone

4. occipital lobe - under occipital bone (vision)
5. insula buried deep within the lateral sulcus
6. Fiber Tracts - White Matter
a. association fibers - within same hemisphere
b. commissural fibers - between hemispheres
i. corpus callosum
ii. ant./post. commissures
c. projection fibers - to lower brain & spinal

C. Basal Ganglia - communication cerebrum <-> thalamus

D. Limbic System - learning, memory, and emotions
E. Functional Areas of Cortex
1. Sensory Areas
a. primary vision - occipital cortex
b. primary auditory - temporal cortex
c. somatosensory - postcentralgyrus (homunculus)
2. Motor Areas - precentralgyrus
3. Association Areas - connect motor and sensory

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Lecture 11: Spinal Cord & Nerves, Autonomics

I. General Structure of Spinal Cord
A. Principal Parts
1. 42-45 cm in length; 2.5 cm wide
2. cervical enlargement - C4:T1 supply upper limbs
3. lumbar enlargement - T9:T12 supply lower limbs
4. conusmedullaris - tapers off to end at L1-L2
5. filumterminale - pia mater anchors cord to coccyx
6. caudaequina - (horse tail) nerves below L2

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B. Things to Note
1. Cord itself ends at L1-L2 vertebrae
2. Lower nerves dangle down in the caudaequina
3. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves
4. spinal segment - gives rise to one spinal nerve
5. C1-C7 spinal nerves project ABOVE C1-C7 vertebrae
6. C8 spinal nerve projects below C7 vertebra
7. T1-S5 spinal nerves project BELOW T1-S5 vertebrae

II. Spinal Cord Structure - Cross Section

A. Grey vs. White Matter
1. grey matter - nerve cell bodies motor & interneurons
2. white matter - myelinated axons of motor & sensory
B. Regions in the Grey Matter - H shaped center
1. grey commissure - cross bar of the H
2. central canal - hole in the center
3. anterior (ventral) horns
4. posterior (dorsal) horns
5. lateral (intermediate) horns (T, L, S

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C. Regions in the White Matter - fiber tracts

1. anterior (ventral) column
2. posterior (dorsal) column
3. lateral (intermediate) column
4. fasciculi/tracts - axon bundles w/ common function
a. ascending tracts - sensory to the brain
b. descending tracts - brain->motor neurons

III. The Ascending/Descending Tracts of the Cord


Tract Function
anterior (ventral) spinothalamic touch and pressure to thalamus
lateral spinothalamic tract pain & temperature to thalamus
fasciculus gracilis touch, 2-pt. discrimination, fasciculus conscious
cuneatus proprioception, stereognosis, weight
discrimination, vibration
posterior spinocerebellar subconscious proprioception
anterior spinocerebellar

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lateral corticospinal motor output from cortex to anterior
corticospinal motor cells of ant. horn
Rubrospinal motor from midbrain to ant.
horn for precise movement
Tectospinal motor from midbrain to ant.
horn; movements in response to
audiovisual/cutaneous stimuli
Vestibulospinal motor from medulla to ant.
horn; coordination/balance
lateral reticulospinal motor from medulla to ant.
horn; inhibit ext. reflexes
Medial reticulospinal motor from pons to ant. horn;
facilitate ext. reflexes

*NOTE: These descending tracts terminate on the motor cells of the ANTERIOR
GREY HORN. It is here that the cell bodies of the motor neurons to the skeletal
muscles reside. The efferent skeletal motor fibers (axons) originate in the ANTERIOR
HORN !!!!!!!!!! These motor fibers get to the muscles via the 31 pairs of spinal
nerves. This is how all motion is controlled.

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IV. Anatomy of a Reflex

A. Structures Involved
1. dorsal (posterior,sensory) root
a. all afferent (sensory) fibers from periphery
2. dorsal (sensory) root ganglion
a. contains sensory nerve cell bodies (bipolar)
3. ventral (anterior,motor) root
a. motor nerve AXONS only
i. skeletal motor neurons (ant. horn)
ii. smooth/cardiac/gland neurons (lat. horn)

B. The Simple Reflex Arc

1. A special type of conduction pathway
2. Receptor - responds to internal/external stimulus
3. Sensory Neuron - passes impulse to CNS
a. impulse sent along nerve from that organ
b. eventually reaches DORSAL ramus of spinal nerve
c. synapses on neuron somewhere in grey matter
4. Center - point in the CNS where message is accepted
a. sometimes directly to the effector motor neuron
b. most times on an INTERNEURON of dorsal horn
c. passes message to motor neuron in VENTRAL HORN
d. or passes message to brain via specific tract
5. Motor neuron - sends signal to appropriate effector
a. resides in anterior horn - skeletal muscle
b. resides in lateral horn - smooth/cardiac/gland
6. Effector Organ - organ effected by motor neuron
a. simple reflexes and motion - skeletal muscle
b. general physiological - other organs

C. Different Reflexes
1. Spinal reflexes - spinal cord controlled (posture)
2. Somatic reflexes - skeletal muscles
3. Cranial reflexes - brain and cranial nerves

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4. Visceral (autonomic) r. - smooth/cardiac/glands

5. stretch reflex - monosynaptic

a. muscle spindle organ (sense stretch)
b. sensory neuron -> motor neuron
c. ipsilateral (same side) reflex arc
d. patellar tendon reflex
e. reciprocal innervation - excitatory/inhibitory

6. tendon reflex - polysynaptic

a. Golgi tendon organs (sense tension)
b. sensory neuron -> interneuron -> motor neuron
c. ipsilateral reflex arc
d. also reciprocal innervation

7. flexor (withdrawal) reflex polysynaptic

a. pain receptors
b. sensory -> interneurons -> many motor neurons
c. intersegmental reflex arc
i. many spinal segments involved in response
ii. complex movement is coordinated
d. crossed-extensor reflex
i. sensory message crosses to opposite side
ii. allowscontralateral muscle response
iii. maintain body balance during reflex

D. Major Clinical Reflexes

1. patellar reflex (knee jerk)
2. Achilles reflex (ankle jerk)
3. Babinski sign - positive (under 1 1/2 years old)
negative (after 1 1/2 years old)
4. abdominal reflex

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V. The Spinal Nerves

A. Named - according to vertebral level (as above)
B. Coverings
1. endoneurium - around individual axon (myel. or not)
2. perineurium - around axon bundles (fascicles)
3. epineurium - around the entire nerve
4. meninges of cord fuse with epineurium on exit
C. Branches of a Spinal Nerve
1. dorsal ramus - deep muscles and skin of back
2. ventral ramus - extremities, ventrolateral trunk
3. meningeal branch - back into the spinal column
4. ramicommunicantes - for autonomic nerve fibers
D. The Four Nerve Plexuses
1. cervical plexus - ventral rami of C1-C4 with some C5
a. muscles/skin of head, neck, some shoulder
b. phrenic nerve - diaphragm muscle (breathing)
2. brachial plexus - ventral rami of C5-C8 and T1
a. nervous supply to entire arm and shoulder

The Brachial Plexus

Roots Trunks Divisions CordsNerve muscles
C5-T1 Superior trunk, Inferior trunk Anterior division lateral cord, medial
cord median nerve flexors of forearm

3. lumbar plexus - ventral rami of L1-L4

a. abdominal wall, genitals, part of lower limb
b. femoral nerve
4. sacral plexus - ventral rami of L4-L5 and S1-S4
a. buttocks, perineum, part of lower limb
b. sciatic nerve - largest nerve of body

VI. Dermatomes
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A. Dermatome - skin innervated by dorsal root of a spinal n.

VII. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
A. General Functions
1. efferent control of everything except skeletal m.
2. pupil size, accommodation for near/far vision
3. dilation/constriction of blood vasculature
4. rate and force of heart contractions
5. gastrointestinal movements
6. secretion of most glands

B. General Differences from Somatic Nervous System

1. all fibers are efferent (motor)
2. two different types of efferent fibers
i. two neurotransmitters (ACh and Norepinephrine)
3. must synapse on ganglion before effecting target
4. has two primary divisions
a. sympathetic
b. parasympathetic
5. can act in both inhibitory and excitatory fashion

VIII. Structure of Autonomic Pathway

A. preganglionic neurons - spinal cord -> ganglion
1. sympathetic (thoracolumbar)
a. lateral grey horn of T1-L3
2. parasympathetic
a. lateral grey horn of S2-S4
b. nuclei of cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X

B. autonomic ganglia - house cell bodies of effector n.

1. sympathetic
a. vertebral ganglia - along the spine
b. prevertebral ganglia - near arteries
2. parasympathetic
a. terminal ganglion - near effected organ

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C. postganglionic neurons - motor to effected organ

IX. The Autonomic Ganglia

A. Sympathetic System
1. superior cervical ganglion
a. sweat glands, eye, face vessels and glands
2. middle cervical ganglion
a. heart
3. inferior cervical ganglion
a. heart
4. thoracic ganglia
a. heart, lungs, bronchi, thoracic viscera
5. lumbar and sacral ganglia
a. viscera of abdominopelvic cavity

B. Parasympathetic Ganglia
1. ciliary ganglion
a. smooth muscle of the eye
2. pterygopalantine ganglion
a. nasal mucosa, palate, pharynx, lacrimal gland
3. submandibular and otic ganglia
a. salivary glands
4. cardiac and pulmonary plexuses
a. to the heart and lungs

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Lecture 12: Sensory Receptors and Special Senses

I. General Terms
A. sensation - awareness of external/internal conditions
B. perception - conscious registration of conditions
C. stimulus - change that can initiate nerve impulse
D. receptor (sense organ) - converts stimulus to impulse
E. transduction - changing stimulus signal into nerve signal
F. generator potential - electrical impulse in receptor
G. receptor potential - receptor releases neurotransmitter
H. adaptation - decreased sensitivity with repeat stimuli
a. rapidly adapting - pressure, touch, smell
b. slowly adapting - pain, position, blood chemicals
I. afterimage - sensation even after stimulus is gone
J. modality - distinct property of each sensation

II. General Classification of Receptors

A. Location
1. exteroreceptors - respond to external environment
2. enteroreceptors - respond to internal environment
3. proprioreceptors - respond to body position/motion

B. Type of Stimulus Detected

1. mechanoreceptors - any mechanical deviation
a. touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception etc.
2. thermoreceptors - changes in temperature
3. nocireceptors - pain; physical or chemical damage
4. photoreceptors - light; rods & cones of the eye
5. chemoreceptors - shapes of different molecules
a. taste, smell, chemicals of blood

C. Simplicity or Complexity of the Receptor Structure

1. simple receptors - associated with general senses
a. touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, pain
2. complex receptors - associated with SPECIAL senses

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a. smell, taste, sight, hearing, equilibrium.

III. Classification of General Senses
A. Cutaneous (Skin) Senses
1. tactile (touch)
a. light touch - location not perceived
b. discriminative touch - location perceived
c. Merkel's discs - discriminative touch
d. Meissner's corpuscle - discriminative touch
e. organs of Ruffini - deep, continuous touch

2. pressure
a. felt over a large area than touch, deeper
b. Pacinian corpuscle - lower layer of dermis

3. vibration
a. detect high and low frequency vibrations

4. thermosensation
a. respond to hot/cold; may be free nerve endings

5. pain (nociception)
a. acute pain - very quick, not felt in deep areas
b. chronic pain - longer lasting, gradual increase
c. somatic pain - skin, muscles, joints
i. superficial -skin
ii. deep - muscle, joint, tendon, fascia
d. visceral pain - from receptors in organs
e. referred pain - projected to skin above organ

B. Proprioceptive (kinesthetic) Sense

1. function - position of limbs/body and equilibrium
2. muscle spindles
a. intrafusal fibers - inner muscle fibers
i. type Ia sensory fiber - in center
ii. type II sensory fiber - at ends
iii. gamma motor neurons - from ventral horn
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b. extrafusal fibers - outer muscle fibers

i. alpha motor neurons - form ventral horn
3. Golgi (tendon) organs
a. at junction of tendon and muscle
4. Joint Kinesthetic receptors
a. within/around synovial joints

IV. Classification of Special Senses

A. Olfaction (smell)
1. olfactory cells - bipolar neurons in epithelium
2. olfactory glands - secrete mucus to clean epithelium
3. olfactory nerve (I) - axons of olfactory cells
4. olfactory bulbs - brain region where (I) synapses
5. olfactory tract - axons from bulbs to cortex

B. Gustation (taste)
1. gustatory cells - neuron with hairlike extension
2. taste buds - location of gustatory cells
3. facial nerve (VII) - anterior 2/3 of tongue
4. glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) - posterior 1/3
5. vagus nerve (X) - throat and epiglottis
6. ->medulla -> thalamus -> cortex

C. Vision
1. Accessory Structures of the Eye
a. eyebrows
b. eyelids (palpebrae)
i. levatorpalpebraesuperioris muscle
ii. palpebral fissure
iii. lateral commissure
iv. medial commissure
v. lacrimal caruncle (lacrimal gland) crying
c. tarsal plate - inner wall of eyelid
d. tarsal glands - secrete oil
e. conjunctiva - mucous membrane of eyelid
f. eyelashes
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g. lacrimal gland - for tear secretion

i. lacrimal ducts
ii. lacrimalpuncta
iii. lacrimal sac
iv. nasolacrimal duct

2. The Structure of the Eyeball

a. fibrous tunic - outer coat of the eyeball
i. sclera - posterior portion
ii. cornea - anterior portion
b. vascular tunic (uvea) - middle layer
i. choroid - posterior, pigment/vasculature
ii. ciliary body - muscle shapes lens
iii. iris - colored part, with pupil (hole)
c. nervous tunic (retina) - posterior surface
i. photoreceptors (rods & cones)
ii. bipolar cells
iii. ganglion cells
d. lens - just behind pupil and iris

3. Pathway of Light to the Brain

a. photoreceptors pick up the light
b. ganglion cells converge signals -> optic nerve
c. optic nerve -> lateral geniculate of thalamus
d. lateral geniculate -> occipital cortex

D. Hearing & Equilibrium

1. external ear
a. pinna (auricle) - Ross Perot
b. helix - rim of the pinna
c. lobule - your mate's favorite part
d. external auditory canal
e. ceruminous glands - love that earwax!
f. tympanic membrane (eardrum)

2. middle ear
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a. tympanic antrum - chamber to air cells

b. auditory (Eustachian) tube - to nasopharynx
c. auditory ossicles - bones of middle ear
i. malleus - attached to tympanic membrane
ii. incus - intermediate bone
iii. stapes - stirrup
d. tensor tympani muscles - to malleus (protect)
e. stapedius muscle - to stapes (protect)
f. oval and round windows - to inner ear

3. inner ear (labyrinth)

a. bony labyrinth - has fluid called perilymph
i. vestibule
ii. cochlea
iii. semicircular canals
b. membranous labyrinth - has endolymph
c. vestibule - oval central portion body labyr.
i. utricle &saccule - two sacs
d. cochlea - sound organ, sounds are sensed here
e. semicircular canals - equilibrium in 3-D

4. Neural Pathway for Sound/Equilibrium Sensation

a. cochlea/vestibular ->vestibulocochlear (VIII)